Final Exam Worldviews and Faith Spring 2010 Dr. Maltsberger Instructions Attached you will find two sets of texts, Thomas Jefferson’s The Virginia Act For Establishing Religious Freedom (1786) and the Taliban proclamation Amr Bil Ma‟ruf (Command the Good): A Proclamation of General Presidency (1996). Thomas Jefferson considered himself a Deist, and was the author of not only the US Declaration of Independence, but also served as the third President of the United States. The Taliban are a Shiite sect of Islam that is currently fighting for control of Afghanistan. Read both texts thoroughly. You may also wish to do some additional background reading on either of the authors or their cultural or religious backgrounds. In a paper of approximately four pages (approx. 4 pages), compare and contrast the worldviews that created both documents. Consider how the role of religion is stated to function within the worldview. What forces shaped that perspective?. Be sure to take into account the six-fold description of worldviews as delineated by Ninian Smart in the textbook and other information shared in class. Consider how such worldviews are similar, how they differ, how their backgrounds and believes affect their expressions in religion, politics, culture, etc. NOTE: Please do not “preach” in your paper. The Instructor is already very familiar with the evangelical worldview and has previously chosen to follow it—witnessing is not required. However, in a separate paragraph, you may compare worldviews presented in the question to your own unique worldview and identify similarities and differences. Finally, you should discuss how the study of multiple worldviews can assist you in the attainment of your own goals of work and service to the community and world. Please use a coversheet with your name and class information on it, and staple all pages. The Exam must be submitted in English. THIS FINAL EXAM IS DUE IN THE OFFICE OF THE INSTRUCTOR NO LATER THAN MAY 5TH AT 2:45 pm NO LATE PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED. From the Bible “For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; only do not use your freedom as an opportunity to indulge your flesh, but through love.” Galatians 5:13 “Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except by God‟s appointment, and the authorities that exist have been instituted by God.” Romans 13:1 The Virginia Act For Establishing Religious Freedom Thomas Jefferson, 1786 Well aware that Almighty God hath created the mind free; that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion, who being Lord both of body and mind, yet chose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in his Almighty power to do; that the impious presumption of legislators and rulers, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men, have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world, and through all time; that to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves, is sinful and tyrannical; that even the forcing him to support this or that teacher of his own religious persuasion, is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions to the particular pastor whose morals he would make his pattern, and whose powers he feels most persuasive to righteousness, and is withdrawing from the ministry those temporal rewards, which proceeding from an approbation of their personal conduct, are an additional incitement to earnest and unremitting labors for the instruction of mankind; that our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions, more than our opinions in physics or geometry; that, therefore, the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to the offices of trust and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religious opinion, is depriving him injuriously of those privileges and advantages to which in common with his fellow citizens he has a natural right; that it tends also to corrupt the principles of that very religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing, with a monopoly of worldly honors and emoluments, those who will externally profess and conform to it; that though indeed these are criminal who do not withstand such temptation, yet neither are those innocent who lay the bait in their way; that to suffer the civil magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles, on the supposition of their ill tendency, is a dangerous fallacy, which at once destroys all religious liberty, because he being of course judge of that tendency, will make his opinions the rule of judgment, and approve or condemn the sentiments of others only as they shall square with or differ from his own; that it is time enough for the rightful purposes of civil government, for its officers to interfere when principles break out into overt acts against peace and good order; and finally, that truth is great and will prevail if left to herself, that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist to error, and has nothing to fear from the conflict, unless by human interposition disarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and debate, errors ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted freely to contradict them. Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in nowise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities. And though we well know this Assembly, elected by the people for the ordinary purposes of legislation only, have no powers equal to our own and that therefore to declare this act irrevocable would be of no effect in law, yet we are free to declare, and do declare, that the rights hereby asserted are of the natural rights of mankind, and that if any act shall be hereafter passed to repeal the present or to narrow its operation, such act will be an infringement of natural right. From the Qu’ran “True believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, and when they hear His revelation, find their faith strengthened, and put all their trust in their Lord” (Al-Anfal, 2) “He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the faith of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this Revelation.” (Al-Hajj, 78) “Who speaks better than one who calls men to Allah, does what is right, and says, „I am of those who bow in Islam?‟” (Fussilat, 33) A Proclamation of General Presidency of Amr Bil Maruf. Kabul December 1996 [translated from Dari to English by the Taliban.] 1. To prevent sedition and female uncovers (Be Hejabi). No drivers are allowed to pick up women who are using Iranian burqa. In case of violation the driver will be imprisoned. If such kind of female are observed in the street their house will be found and their husband punished. If the women use stimulating and attractive cloth and there is no accompany of close male relative with the, the drivers should not pick them up. 2. To prevent music. To be broadcasted by the public information resources. In shops, hotels, vehicles and rickshaws cassettes and music are prohibited. This matter should be monitored within five days. If any music cassette found in a shop, the shopkeeper should be imprisoned and the shop locked. If five people guarantee the shop should be opened the criminal released later. If cassette found in the vehicle, the vehicle and the driver will be imprisoned. If five people guarantee the vehicle will be released and the criminal released later. 3. To prevent beard shaving and its cutting. After one and a half months if anyone observed who has shaved and/or cut his beard, they should be arrested and imprisoned until their beard gets bushy. 4. To prevent keeping pigeons and playing with birds. Within ten days this habit/hobby should stop. After ten days this should be monitored and the pigeons and any other playing birds should be killed. 5. To prevent kite-flying. The kite shops in the city should be abolished. 6. To prevent idolatry. In vehicles, shops, hotels, room and any other place pictures/portraits should be abolished. The monitors should tear up all pictures in the above places. 7. To prevent gambling. In collaboration with the security police the main centers should be found and the gamblers imprisoned for one month. 8. To eradicate the use of addiction. Addicts should be imprisoned and investigation made to find the supplier and the shop. The shop should be locked and the owner and user should be imprisoned and punished. 9. To prevent the British and American hairstyles. People with long hair should be arrested and taken to the Religious Police department to shave their hair. The criminal has to pay the barber. 10. To prevent interest on loans, charge on changing small denomination notes and charge on money orders. All money exchangers should be informed that the above three types of exchanging the money should be prohibited. In case of violation criminals will be imprisoned for a long time. 11. To prevent washing cloth by young ladies along with water streams in the city. Violator ladies should be picked up with respectful Islamic manner, taken to their houses and their husbands severely punished. 12. To prevent music and dances in wedding parties. In the case of violation the head of the family will be arrested and punished. 13. To prevent the playing of music drum. The prohibition of this should be announced. If anybody does this then the religious elders can decide about it. 14. To prevent sewing ladies cloth and taking female body measures by tailor. If women or fashion magazines are seen in the shop the tailor should be imprisoned. 15. To prevent sorcery. All the related books should be burnt and the magicians should be imprisoned until his repentance. 16. To prevent not praying and order gathering pray at the bazaar. Prayer should be done on their due times in all districts. Transportation should be strictly prohibited and all people are obliged to go to the mosque. If young people are seen in the shops they will be immediately imprisoned.