RFID Radio Frequency Identification

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					RFID: Radio Frequency

         Mike Tiland
      Jackie Humphrey
         Carrie Fox
       Nichole Griffin

     BA 378 Section 002
    What is Radio Frequency

 It is an automatic identification
 Works by having a small RFID tag,
  which identifies an object or person,
  through a transponder.

  What is Radio Frequency
Information is stored in a transponder
(tag). A radio transmitter has an antenna
that emits radio waves. When a tag
comes within the range of the
transmitter, the tag is turned on and
begins sending its stored data via the
radio waves. The reader captures the
data, decodes it and sends it back over a
network to a host processor.

                     Types of RFID:
   Three types: Passive, Semi-Active, Active
    •   Passive
         • Very small RFID Tags
         • No internal power supply
         • Do not require batteries, and have unlimited life span
    •   Semi-Active
         • Similar to passive tags
         • Small battery
         • The addition of the small battery allows for faster
         •   Stronger readings from farther distances

           Types of RFID:

• Active
  • Posses their own internal power source
  • Longer range
  • Ability to store more information

               Size of RFID Tags
   Passive:
    •    Smallest devices are invisible to the naked
    •   Thinner than a sheet of paper
   Semi-Active:
    • Many around the size of dime, yet thinner
   Active:
    • The smallest ones are the size of a penny
          Current Uses for RFID
1. Merchandise tracking, identification, and
 •   Wal-mart in the US
     •   Improves supply chain management by
         lowering the amount of inventory on hand,
         only order the exact amount in demand.
 •   Prada of Italy
     •   Carry information about the garment’s
         style, size, color, and price.
                    Current Uses
2. Tracking Assets
  •   Identify animal property: Cattle or Sheep tags.
      •   The smart tag, which is fastened to an animals ear,
          can hold information about the animal like their
          bloodlines, shot history, date of birth, and their herd
      •   Canadian Cattle Identification Agency: the tags can
          identify a bovine’s origin and is used for trace-back
          when a packing plant condemns a carcass.
  •   Library books
      •   Security gates beside the exits can detect whether or
          not a book has been properly checked out of the
                  Current Uses
   Tracking Assets, cont.
    • Airline baggage tracking
    • Pallet tracking for moving goods in a warehouse.
    • Tire-Tracking
       • In compliance with the the Transportation,
        Recall, Enhancement, Accountability, and
        Documentation Act, Michelin tires has begun
        offering RFID-enabled tires to car

                  Current Uses
3. Authorize Payments
  • Automatic toll collections
     • As a car drives through a toll booth, the tag information
      from the car is used to debit the toll from a prepaid
      account. This system helps to speed traffic through the
      booths while it records the date, time, and billing data
      for the vehicle’s RFID tag.

                       RFID tag used for automatic toll
                        Current Uses
   Authorized payments, cont.
    •   Smart Cards
         • These cards are embedded with RFID chips and
           used as electronic cash. They can be used to pay
           fares in mass transit systems in Washington DC or
         • Exxon Mobil Corp.'s has a SpeedPass. A gas-
           pump-based reader examines the SpeedPass
           when the customer waves it in front of the pump,
           obtains its identifier, passes that on via a network
           to a system for credit approval and then turns on
           the pump—all in seconds.
                         Current Uses
4. Other uses:
   •   Smart Start
        • Toyota has begun offering a Smart Key/Smart Start option on
          various models (Prius, Lexus GS, and Avalon). The new car key
          uses an active RFID circuit allowing the car to acknowledge the
          key’s presence within a few feet of the sensor. You can open the
          doors and start the car with the key still in your pocket.
   •   Tracking prisoners
        • Inmates wear wristbands with transmitters that can detect if
          prisoners have been trying to remove them and send an alert to
          the prison computer system. As well as, locate a particular inmate
          at any time and record the location in the system.

                Potential Uses
   RFID has been proposed to replace the
    cashier when checking out at a store. It can
    use an automatic system that doesn’t need
    to scan barcodes.
   Patient identification: Tiny RFID tags may be
    implanted under a person’s skin that will
    contain and individual’s health records for
    easy access by a doctor in an emergency.
   The U.S. government is developing
    electronic passports equipped with RFID.
              RFID Controversy
   Passports
    • Pros
      • Can hold more information than a simple machine-
        readable character font.
      • Information is quickly and easily read.
      • The government says ―it will make us safer.‖
    • Cons
      • RFID tags can be read by any reader, not just the ones
        at passport control.
      • American’s can be picked out of a crowd.
      • Identity thieves can get the information with a reader
        that costs only $500.

               RFID Controversy
   Library Books
    • Pros
       • It speeds up the check out process.
       • It makes inventory tracking much easier.
       • State of the art technology.
       • Long tag life. They last longer than barcodes.
    • Cons
       • Breach of privacy – can be read by other readers once
         you have them at home or at work.
       • Very expensive (Approx. $650,000 to install a system).
       • Puts people out of jobs.
       • Exposed tags can be easily removed.
                 RFID Controversy
   Humans
    • Pros
       •   Quick to install, approximately 5 minutes.
       •   Small in size, similar to a grain of rice, and they can’t be felt.
       •   No risk of allergic reaction, encased in a non-reactive, medical-
           grade glass coating.
       •   Quick identification & access to medical records.
    • Cons
       •   Chips can be cloned.
       •   Security issues – they can be removed & still work.
       •   Breach of privacy and right to confidentiality.
       •   Mark of the beast.

                          Keep RFID Simple, Frank Hayes, COMPUTERWORLD
                  RFID Controversy
   Texas – Replace Identification stickers with RFID tags.
    •   Pros
         • Drive-by enforcement of insurance requirements.
         • Cars can be scanned on the fly – can’t do that with a
             license plate.
         •   The data could be encrypted, so the scanner would
             have to be attached to a computer.
    •   Cons
         • Expose car owners’ personal information.
         • Because chips hold a lot of data, people will feel the
             need to fill them up.
         •   Hackers are pretty good at matching customized gear.

   Walmart and US Dept. of Defense -
    published requirements that vendors
    need to start placing RFID tags on all
    shipments to improve supply chain
   Since January 2005, Walmart has
    required its top 100 suppliers to apply
    RFID tags to all shipments

     Regulations and Standards
   No global RFID standard has been set
   No global public body governs RFID
   Every country sets its own rules


   USA: FCC (Federal Communications
   Canada: DOC (Department of
   Japan: MPHPT (Ministry of Public
    Management, Home Affairs, Post and

   Europe: ERO, CEPT, ETSI, and national
    •   The national administrations must ratify the usage of a
        specific frequency before it can be used in Europe
   China: Ministry of Information Industry
   Australia: Australian Communication
   New Zealand: Ministry of Economic

  Characteristics of RFID Tags
RFID Tag Types      Frequency          License
Low-frequency     125 – 148.5 kHz           No
High-frequency      13.56 MHz               No
Ultra-high-       868 – 928 MHz             Yes
frequency (UHF)

          Ultra-High Frequency
Location   Any Regulations?     Restrictions?
           If so range?
North      Yes, greater than    Transmission
America    928 MHz needs a      Power
Europe     Yes, greater than    Transmission
           869.65 MHz needs a   Power
China      No

    Ultra-High Frequency, cont.
Location    Any Regulations?    Restrictions?
            If so range?
Japan       No
Australia   Yes, greater than   Transmission
            926 MHz needs a     Power
New         Yes, greater than   Transmission
Zealand     926 MHz needs a     Power
Some standards that have been made
regarding RFID technology:
 ISO 11784 & 11785: regulate RFID of
 ISO 14223/1: describes the air interface
  between transciever and transponder
 EPCglobal: proposed standardized
  framework, most likely undergo
  Internationally Standardization

How does This Affects Accounting?

   Helps with managing supply chain.

   Lessens throughput time.

   More of an automated inventory system

   Tracks Items
   Keep RFID Simple, Frank Hayes, COMPUTERWORLD

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