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RFID Radio Frequency Identification

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					RFID: Radio Frequency
    Identification

         Mike Tiland
      Jackie Humphrey
         Carrie Fox
       Nichole Griffin

     BA 378 Section 002
    What is Radio Frequency
        Identification?

 It is an automatic identification
  method.
 Works by having a small RFID tag,
  which identifies an object or person,
  through a transponder.



                             http://en.wikipedia.org
  What is Radio Frequency
      Identification?
Information is stored in a transponder
(tag). A radio transmitter has an antenna
that emits radio waves. When a tag
comes within the range of the
transmitter, the tag is turned on and
begins sending its stored data via the
radio waves. The reader captures the
data, decodes it and sends it back over a
network to a host processor.

                        http://www.computerworld.com
                     Types of RFID:
   Three types: Passive, Semi-Active, Active
    •   Passive
         • Very small RFID Tags
         • No internal power supply
         • Do not require batteries, and have unlimited life span
    •   Semi-Active
         • Similar to passive tags
         • Small battery
         • The addition of the small battery allows for faster
             response
         •   Stronger readings from farther distances

                                                    http://en.wikipedia.org
           Types of RFID:

• Active
  • Posses their own internal power source
  • Longer range
  • Ability to store more information




                                      http://en.wikipedia.org
               Size of RFID Tags
   Passive:
    •    Smallest devices are invisible to the naked
        eye
    •   Thinner than a sheet of paper
   Semi-Active:
    • Many around the size of dime, yet thinner
   Active:
    • The smallest ones are the size of a penny
                                         http://en.wikipedia.org
          Current Uses for RFID
1. Merchandise tracking, identification, and
  management
 •   Wal-mart in the US
     •   Improves supply chain management by
         lowering the amount of inventory on hand,
         only order the exact amount in demand.
 •   Prada of Italy
     •   Carry information about the garment’s
         style, size, color, and price.
               http://www.computerworld.com and http://en.wikipedia.org
                    Current Uses
2. Tracking Assets
  •   Identify animal property: Cattle or Sheep tags.
      •   The smart tag, which is fastened to an animals ear,
          can hold information about the animal like their
          bloodlines, shot history, date of birth, and their herd
          origin.
      •   Canadian Cattle Identification Agency: the tags can
          identify a bovine’s origin and is used for trace-back
          when a packing plant condemns a carcass.
  •   Library books
      •   Security gates beside the exits can detect whether or
          not a book has been properly checked out of the
          library.
                 http://www.computerworld.com and http://en.wikipedia.org
                  Current Uses
   Tracking Assets, cont.
    • Airline baggage tracking
    • Pallet tracking for moving goods in a warehouse.
    • Tire-Tracking
       • In compliance with the the Transportation,
        Recall, Enhancement, Accountability, and
        Documentation Act, Michelin tires has begun
        offering RFID-enabled tires to car
        manufacturers.


                                         http://en.wikipedia.org
                  Current Uses
3. Authorize Payments
  • Automatic toll collections
     • As a car drives through a toll booth, the tag information
      from the car is used to debit the toll from a prepaid
      account. This system helps to speed traffic through the
      booths while it records the date, time, and billing data
      for the vehicle’s RFID tag.



                       RFID tag used for automatic toll
                       collections
                                            http://en.wikipedia.org
                        Current Uses
   Authorized payments, cont.
    •   Smart Cards
         • These cards are embedded with RFID chips and
           used as electronic cash. They can be used to pay
           fares in mass transit systems in Washington DC or
         • Exxon Mobil Corp.'s has a SpeedPass. A gas-
           pump-based reader examines the SpeedPass
           when the customer waves it in front of the pump,
           obtains its identifier, passes that on via a network
           to a system for credit approval and then turns on
           the pump—all in seconds.
                      http://www.computerworld.com and http://en.wikipedia.org
                         Current Uses
4. Other uses:
   •   Smart Start
        • Toyota has begun offering a Smart Key/Smart Start option on
          various models (Prius, Lexus GS, and Avalon). The new car key
          uses an active RFID circuit allowing the car to acknowledge the
          key’s presence within a few feet of the sensor. You can open the
          doors and start the car with the key still in your pocket.
   •   Tracking prisoners
        • Inmates wear wristbands with transmitters that can detect if
          prisoners have been trying to remove them and send an alert to
          the prison computer system. As well as, locate a particular inmate
          at any time and record the location in the system.


                            http://en.wikipedia.org and http://www.ncsconline.org
                Potential Uses
   RFID has been proposed to replace the
    cashier when checking out at a store. It can
    use an automatic system that doesn’t need
    to scan barcodes.
   Patient identification: Tiny RFID tags may be
    implanted under a person’s skin that will
    contain and individual’s health records for
    easy access by a doctor in an emergency.
   The U.S. government is developing
    electronic passports equipped with RFID.
                  http://en.wikipedia.org and http://www.ncsconline.org
              RFID Controversy
   Passports
    • Pros
      • Can hold more information than a simple machine-
        readable character font.
      • Information is quickly and easily read.
      • The government says ―it will make us safer.‖
    • Cons
      • RFID tags can be read by any reader, not just the ones
        at passport control.
      • American’s can be picked out of a crowd.
      • Identity thieves can get the information with a reader
        that costs only $500.



       http://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2004/10/rfid_passports.html
               RFID Controversy
   Library Books
    • Pros
       • It speeds up the check out process.
       • It makes inventory tracking much easier.
       • State of the art technology.
       • Long tag life. They last longer than barcodes.
    • Cons
       • Breach of privacy – can be read by other readers once
         you have them at home or at work.
       • Very expensive (Approx. $650,000 to install a system).
       • Puts people out of jobs.
       • Exposed tags can be easily removed.

    http://www.mindfully.org/Technology/2005/RFID-Berkeley-Library4mar05.htm
                 RFID Controversy
   Humans
    • Pros
       •   Quick to install, approximately 5 minutes.
       •   Small in size, similar to a grain of rice, and they can’t be felt.
       •   No risk of allergic reaction, encased in a non-reactive, medical-
           grade glass coating.
       •   Quick identification & access to medical records.
    • Cons
       •   Chips can be cloned.
       •   Security issues – they can be removed & still work.
       •   Breach of privacy and right to confidentiality.
       •   Mark of the beast.



                          Keep RFID Simple, Frank Hayes, COMPUTERWORLD
                  RFID Controversy
   Texas – Replace Identification stickers with RFID tags.
    •   Pros
         • Drive-by enforcement of insurance requirements.
         • Cars can be scanned on the fly – can’t do that with a
             license plate.
         •   The data could be encrypted, so the scanner would
             have to be attached to a computer.
    •   Cons
         • Expose car owners’ personal information.
         • Because chips hold a lot of data, people will feel the
             need to fill them up.
         •   Hackers are pretty good at matching customized gear.


                   http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,1540,1871833,00.asp
                 Mandates
   Walmart and US Dept. of Defense -
    published requirements that vendors
    need to start placing RFID tags on all
    shipments to improve supply chain
    management
   Since January 2005, Walmart has
    required its top 100 suppliers to apply
    RFID tags to all shipments

                                   http://en.wikipedia.org
     Regulations and Standards
   No global RFID standard has been set
    yet
   No global public body governs RFID
    frequencies
   Every country sets its own rules




                           http://www.tutorial-reports.com
               Regulations

   USA: FCC (Federal Communications
    Commission)
   Canada: DOC (Department of
    Communication)
   Japan: MPHPT (Ministry of Public
    Management, Home Affairs, Post and
    Telecommunication)


                                 http://en.wikipedia.org
                     Regulations
   Europe: ERO, CEPT, ETSI, and national
    administrations
    •   The national administrations must ratify the usage of a
        specific frequency before it can be used in Europe
   China: Ministry of Information Industry
   Australia: Australian Communication
    Authority.
   New Zealand: Ministry of Economic
    Development

                                               http://en.wikipedia.org
  Characteristics of RFID Tags
RFID Tag Types      Frequency          License
                                      Required?
Low-frequency     125 – 148.5 kHz           No
(LF)
High-frequency      13.56 MHz               No
(HF)
Ultra-high-       868 – 928 MHz             Yes
frequency (UHF)

                                    http://en.wikipedia.org
          Ultra-High Frequency
Location   Any Regulations?     Restrictions?
           If so range?
North      Yes, greater than    Transmission
America    928 MHz needs a      Power
           license
Europe     Yes, greater than    Transmission
           869.65 MHz needs a   Power
           license
China      No

                                http://en.wikipedia.org
    Ultra-High Frequency, cont.
Location    Any Regulations?    Restrictions?
            If so range?
Japan       No
Australia   Yes, greater than   Transmission
            926 MHz needs a     Power
            license
New         Yes, greater than   Transmission
Zealand     926 MHz needs a     Power
            license
                                http://en.wikipedia.org
                Standards
Some standards that have been made
regarding RFID technology:
 ISO 11784 & 11785: regulate RFID of
  animals
 ISO 14223/1: describes the air interface
  between transciever and transponder
 EPCglobal: proposed standardized
  framework, most likely undergo
  Internationally Standardization

                                   http://en.wikipedia.org
How does This Affects Accounting?

   Helps with managing supply chain.

   Lessens throughput time.

   More of an automated inventory system

   Tracks Items
Questions?
                       Sources
   http://en.wikipedia.org
   http://www.ncsconline.org
   http://www.computerworld.com
   http://www.tutorial-reports.com
   http://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2004/10/rfid_pass
    ports.html
   http://www.mindfully.org/Technology/2005/RFID-
    Berkeley-Library4mar05.htm
   http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,1540,1871833,00.asp
   Keep RFID Simple, Frank Hayes, COMPUTERWORLD

				
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