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Biomedical Engineering

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					  NSF Directorate for Engineering | Division of
  Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBET)
  Bioengineering and Engineering Healthcare Cluster

  Biomedical Engineering
  Program Director - Semahat Demir, Ph.D. - sdemir@nsf.gov



 Mission
 Focus
 Theme Areas
 Project Emphasis
 Interagency Collaborations
 Awards / Funding
 Research Examples
                                                                          1
     BME Program Mission


 to provide opportunities to develop novel
  ideas into discovery-level and transformative
  projects that integrate engineering and life
  science principles in solving biomedical
  problems that serve humanity in the long-term

 to advance both engineering and life sciences
  with biomedical engineering projects that are
  at the interface of engineering and biomedical
  sciences.


                                                   2
     BME Program Focus

 Biomedical Engineering Program supports
  research that applies engineering principles to
  problems in biology and medicine while
  advancing the engineering knowledge base.

 Integration of engineering expertise with life
  science principles is an essential requirement
  for advances in this field.

  FAQ: The projects can be with diagnosis or
  treatment-related goals. The BME program
  does not support clinical studies.
                                                    3
  Currently, BME Supports Projects
  in the Following Theme Areas:
 Neural engineering
   Brain science
   Computational neuroscience
   Brain-computer interface
   Neurotech
   Cognitive engineering

 Cellular biomechanics
   Motion, deformation, and forces in biological systems
   How mechanical forces alter cell growth, differentiation,
    movement, signal transduction, transport, cell adhesion,
    cell cytoskeleton dynamics, cell-cell and
    cell-ECM interactions
   Genetically engineered stem cell differentiation with
    long-term impact in tissue repair and regenerative medicine
                                                                  4
   BME Unsolicited Projects Should Emphasize:

 High impact transforming technologies
 New methods, models and tools of understanding and
  controlling living systems
 Fundamental improvements in deriving information from
  cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
 New approaches to the design of structures and materials
  for eventual medical use
 New methods of reducing health care costs through
  new technologies
 Initial evaluation of discovery-level research in a
  clinical setting but not supporting clinical trials
 Multi-disciplinary nature, integrating engineering and the
  life sciences
 Balanced theory, mathematical modeling, and experiment
  NOTE: Projects submitted to the BME Program must advance
  both engineering and medical life sciences.                  5
  Interagency Programs in which
  BME Currently Participates

 Collaborative Research in Computational
  Neuroscience (NSF/NIH)

 Transforming Biomedicine at the Interface
  of the Life and Physical Sciences (R01)
  Program Announcement (PA) Number:
  PAR-10-141 (NIH/NSF)

 New Biomedical Frontiers at the Interface
  of the Life and Physical Sciences (R01)
  Program Announcement (PA) Number:
  PAR-10-142 (NIH/NSF)

                                              6
         Budget FY 2010 - Approximately $10.8 Million

Description                 # of Awards   Total Dollars

Total Proposals Received       410             ---
Unsolicited Awards              12         $3,944,034
CAREER (70 Proposals)           10         $4,499,788

Workshop/Conferences/
     and Symposiums             18           $254,256

Supplements                     23           $298,353

Continuing Grant Increments     20         $1,669,652

Panels                         ---           $166,385
                                                          7
ITR: High-Resolution Cortical Imaging
of Brain Electrical Activity
Bin He - University of Minnesota


Functional Neuroimaging of Information Flows
within the Brain: Mechanisms of cognitive processes
and brain functions




                                                      8
Neuromuscular Biomechanics
CAREER PI: Francisco Valero-Cuevas - Cornell University

Analysis of dexterous manipulation; characterization of muscle
and brain activity; and computational modeling of dexterity




                                                                 9
         Multi-scale modeling of the mouse heart:
         from genotype to phenotype
         Andrew D. McCulloch - University of California San Diego




A computational model (right) of signaling mechanisms in cardiac muscle
cells reproduced experimental measurements of protein kinase A activity
gradients (left) in living myocytes and elucidated the role of cAMP diffusion
in compartmentation of myocyte signal transduction.
                                                                 BES-0506252
                                                                                10
Colloidal micelles as multifunctional vaccines
CAREER PI: Darrell J. Irvine - Massachusetts Institute of Technology


                              Chemoattracting microspheres:
                               Chemoattractants released from
                                hydrogel „carrier‟ microspheres draw
                                immune cells (dendritic cells) to
                                nanoparticles for delivery of multiple
                                drug signals
                               Nanoparticles containing drug are
                                sequestered inside carrier microsphere
                                until phagocytosed by attracted
                                dendritic cells




 CBET 0348259
                                                                         11
         Aging, Tooth Fracture and the
         Success of Restorative Dentistry
         Dwayne D. Arola - University of Maryland Baltimore County




Young dentin (age≤30)




Old dentin (age≥55)

The specific aims were to:
1) Identify the influence of aging on the mechanics of crack growth in dentin, and
2) Quantify energy dissipation in dentin using a hybrid approach.
The results showed that changes in the microstructure of dentin with age cause a
significant reduction in the resistance to both crack initiation and steady-state growth
(i.e. toughness). This work is addressing the need for age-specific restorative practices
in dentistry.                                                              CBET-BES-023823
                                                                                             12
            NSF/FDA SIR: Fiber-Optic Common-Path Endoscopic Optical
            Coherence Tomography for Non-Invasive Optical Biopsy
            Jin U. Kang - Johns Hopkins University




                                                                           Rat Brain Tumor




                                                                           Frog Retina

Aim: The aim of this work is to investigate a novel method of achieving ultrahigh-resolution,
high speed, in-vivo cancer imaging based on common-path endoscopic optical coherence
tomography (CP-OCT)

Result: The Kang Research Team has fully investigated, experimentally and theoretically, the
signal-to-noise issues with both time domain CP-OCT and Fourier-domain CP-OCT.
Based on that the Team has optimized the CP-OCT and obtained in-vivo images of rat brain
tumors, retina and other tissues.
                                                                              CBET-0716515
                                                                                                13
            ITR: High-Resolution Cortical Imaging
            of Brain Electrical Activity

            Bin He - University of Minnesota

Aim: Develop and evaluate functional
neuroimaging techniques integrating
functional MRI and EEG source imaging.

Results: fMRI and EEG during visual
stimulation were acquired simultaneously
and integrated together.
(a) outside of MRI scanner;
(b) inside MRI scanner without fMRI;
(c) simultaneous fMRI-EEG recordings.

Multimodal neuroimaging shows
enhanced spatial resolution compared to
source imaging using EEG alone.
Image from Im et al., J. Neurosci. Meth, 157(1): 118-123, 2006.
                                                                  NSF BES-0411898
                                                                                    14
               ADVANCE Fellows Award: The Development of a
               Tissue-Engineered Vascular Graft from
               Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells
               Laura Suggs - University of Minnesota / University of Texas

  A


                                                                         Expression of angiogenic
  B                                                                      genes in hMSCs cultures in
                                                                         PEGylated fibrin at days 3, 7
                                                                         and 14.
                                                                         Results normalized to actin
                                                                         levels and again to
Immunohistochemical staining against                                     expression of hMSCs in
CD31(A) and vwf (B) of hMSCs                                             fibrin only.
embedded in BTC-PEG fibrin.
Nuclear counterstain with DAPI.(20x)


  Goal: To fabricate a tissue-engineered vascular graft that can be fabricated from a treated
 protein matrix and seeded with bone marrow-derived cells. The differentiated phenotype of
 the cells comprising the graft can be controlled by the matrix

 Result: A novel matrix was developed based on PEGylated fibrin. The Suggs Team
 determined that this matrix has the unique ability to promote the transdifferentiation
 of MSCs towards an endothelial cell phenotype
                                                                                                       15
            Biomimetic Engineering of
            Responsive Biomaterials
            Chun Wang - University of Minnesota




                                                                          Ca2+



Spasmoneme contractile fiber
[from Science 2000, 288, 95]                       Calcium-responsive spasmin hydrogel

                               A model structure
 Aims:                            of spasmin

1. Investigate the nature and consequence of spasmin conformational
change in response to calcium.
2. Formulate design criteria for calcium-responsive contractile materials
mimicking spasmoneme and test the validity of the design through
constructing synthetic polymer hydrogels.                       BES 0547613
                                                                                         16
CAREER: Hydrogels for Matrix-Tethered Gene Delivery

                           Tatiana Segura
                           University of California Los Angeles
                           The Segura Research Team is interested in
                           the design and synthesis of hydrogel
                           materials that can deliver DNA to
                           infiltrating cells. The aim of these results
                           was to synthesize an enzymatically
                           degradable hydrogel scaffold that
                           contained DNA nanoparticles that could
                           transfect cells. The Research Team found
                           that cells seeded in this scaffold were able
                           to infiltrate the scaffold, internalize DNA
                           nanoparticles and express the transgene
                           for the 21-days of incubation.
                                                          120




                          % Cummulative Gene Expression
                                                                    no DNA
                                                          100       pEGFP
                                                                    pSEAP
                                                          80        pSEAP
                                                                    pSEAP
                                                          60

                                                          40

                                                          20

                                                           0

                                                                4    8      12       16      20
                                                                         Time (day)
                                                                                    CBET- 0747539 17
         CAREER: Biomechanics of
         Polymerization Motors and Cell Motility

         Daniel A Fletcher - University of California-Berkeley




The cytoskeleton of cells changes dynamically in response to mechanical forces.
In order to study reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the direction of an
applied force, the Research Team developed a “side view” Atomic Force
Microscope.                                                           CBET-0348758

                                                                                     18
          NIRT: Active Nanostructure Enabled On-Chip
          Spectroscopy System for Cancer Detection

          Won Park - University of Colorado




Ultimate goal: On-chip spectroscopy system for cancer detection
(1) Tunable nanostructure for focusing and frequency selection: Fabricated
   tunable photonic crystal structure for focusing and spectroscopy (Fig. 1). Also
   fabricated mechanical actuators (Fig. 2) for mechanical tuning. Currently working
   on optimizing mechanical flexibility for stable operation.
(2) New nanostructure design based on nanoclusters: Demonstrated high-quality
   periodic array of nanoclusters by template-directed self-assembly (Fig. 3). The new
   design provides strong magnetic response at optical frequencies.
(3) Nanoprobes for biomarker detection: Demonstrated synthesis of nanoprobes
   and DNA conjugation, Demonstrated detection of point mutation both in solution
   and in cells, Achieved enhanced sensitivity by scattering measurements.
                                                                                         19
           Multi-Scale Modeling of the Heart:
           From Genotype to Phenotype
           Andrew D. McCulloch - University of California San Diego


  New multi-scale
  models of cardiac
 electromechanical
     interactions,
    that integrate
   from molecular
  to organ system
     scales, have
    provided new
mechanistic insights
 into the molecular
   mechanisms of
       inherited
     arrhythmias
(in this case LQT3).

    BES-0506252

                                                                      20

				
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posted:8/14/2011
language:English
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