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City Development Plan Puri Final 02.01.2006 ASCI Hyd Re

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City Development Plan Puri Final 02.01.2006 ASCI Hyd Re Powered By Docstoc
					Puri Municipality                             Puri City Development Plan




                            P       U             R                     I
                           City Development Plan
                                          2006




                                      Puri Municipality




                                        Housing & Urban
                                    Development Department

                                                      City
                                          C   M
                                                      Managers’
                                                      CMAO
                                          A   O       Association
                                                      Orissa

                                        City Managers’
                                        Association Orissa


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                - 1-
 Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan




                               On 30.08.2006ePuri
                             Municipality adopted City
                          Development Plan VISION Puri
                          as a vibrant sustainable city
                          with unique heritage and rich
  Puri Municipality                  legacy.                       Govt. of Orissa



Shri Jagannath Temple       Public Health Engineering
 Administration Puri               Organisation            Archaeological Survey of India




  State Archaeology        Indian National Trust for Art    Orissa Tourism Development
                              and Cultural Heritage                 Corporation




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                            - 1-
Puri Municipality                                                                           Puri City Development Plan



                                                Table of Contents
City Development Plan Foreword
Acknowledgement
Executive Summary



1. City Development Plan Framework......................................................................... 1

  1.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1

  1.2. Urbanization in India................................................................................................. 1

     1.2.1. Urban Governance in India a Steps towards Decentralization......................................1

  1.3. Urbanisation in Orissa .............................................................................................. 2

     1.3.1. Level of Urbanisation .......................................................................................................2
     1.3.2. Urban Governance............................................................................................................3

  1.4. Need for Development of the Urban Sector. ................................................................ 3

  1.5. City Development Plan (CDP) ..................................................................................... 5

     1.5.1. The Guiding Principles .....................................................................................................5
     1.5.2. Objectives of City Development Plan ...............................................................................7
     1.5.3. City Development Planning Process ................................................................................7

2. Puri City Profile................................................................................................... 10

  2.1. City Introduction ..................................................................................................... 10

  2.2. Evolution of Puri Town ............................................................................................ 11

  2.3. Structure of the Town.............................................................................................. 13

  2.4. Topography of Puri Town ......................................................................................... 14

  2.5. Climate ................................................................................................................... 14

  2.6. Location & Linkages ................................................................................................ 15

  2.7. Area and Population ................................................................................................ 15

     2.7.1. Socio-Economic Characteristics .....................................................................................16

  2.8. Tourism .................................................................................................................. 17

  2.9. Development Plan Development Plan & Land use ..................................................... 17

  2.10. City Growth Direction............................................................................................ 18

  2.11. Administrative Boundaries and Areas .................................................................... 18

  2.12. Land Use of Puri Town – A General Picture............................................................. 19

     2.12.1. Trends of Development (1968 - 2004) .........................................................................20
     2.12.2. Statutory Provisions Made For Master Plans/ Development Plans...........................21
     2.12.3. Emerging Issues ...........................................................................................................22

  2.13. Puri Today............................................................................................................. 23

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                            - 0-
Puri Municipality                                                                                Puri City Development Plan



3. Temple Of Lord Jagannath ................................................................................... 24

  3.1. Evolution of Jagannath Temple Complex ................................................................. 24

     3.1.1. The Architecture of the abode of Lord Jagannath ........................................................24

  3.2. The Daily Rituals in the Temple ............................................................................... 25

  3.3. Revenue Generation and Expenditure of Jagannath Temple ..................................... 27

     3.3.1. The Shri Jagannath Temple Fund .................................................................................27
     3.3.2. The Temple Economy .....................................................................................................28

  3.4. The Administration of Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri ................................................. 28

  3.5. Temple as a main Source of City Income .................................................................. 30

4. Rath Yatra & the City Life.................................................................................... 31

  4.1. Rath Yatra – The Grand Car Festival........................................................................ 31

  4.2. Activities Associated With Chariot Construction before Rath Yatra ........................... 32

     4.2.1. Collection of wood for Rath building .............................................................................32
     4.2.2. Construction of Chariots ................................................................................................32
     4.2.3. Activities associated:......................................................................................................33

  4.3. Description of the Three Raths................................................................................. 33

  4.4. Chronology of Rituals Associated With Rath Yatra.................................................... 34

     4.4.1. Snana Purnima...............................................................................................................34
     4.4.2. Anavasara Festival ........................................................................................................35
     4.4.3. Nibhrita Festival .............................................................................................................35
     4.4.4. Anga-Raga or Nava Yavana Festival ............................................................................35
     4.4.5. Netrotsava.......................................................................................................................35
     4.4.6. Rath Yatra.......................................................................................................................36
     4.4.7. Bahuda Yatra (The Return Of Rath) ..............................................................................36
     4.4.8. Suna Vesha.....................................................................................................................37

  4.5. Special Infrastructural Provisions during Rath Yatra................................................ 38

     4.5.1. Social Infrastructure .......................................................................................................38
     4.5.2. Health..............................................................................................................................38
     4.5.3. Security ...........................................................................................................................39
     4.5.4. Public facilities and Arrangements during for Rath Yatra ...........................................40

  4.6. Physical Infrastructure ............................................................................................ 40

     4.6.1. Solid Waste Management ..............................................................................................40
     4.6.2. Electricity ........................................................................................................................41
     4.6.3. Water Supply ..................................................................................................................41

  4.7. Significance of Rath Yatra in City Development Plan ................................................ 41

5. Puri- The Heritage city......................................................................................... 42

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                                   - 1-
Puri Municipality                                                                             Puri City Development Plan



  5.1. Regional Setting of Puri as Coastal Cultural Landscape ............................................ 42

  5.2. Legal Framework of Heritage Development ............................................................... 43

  5.3. Institutional Framework .......................................................................................... 44

  5.4. Identification and Categorization of Heritage Components ........................................ 44

  5.5. The Heritage Area.................................................................................................... 46

    5.5.1. Criteria for delineation ...................................................................................................46
    5.5.2. The Historic Delineation .................................................................................................47
    5.5.3. The Ritualistic Delineation .............................................................................................48

  5.6. Five Holy Tanks....................................................................................................... 49

    5.6.1. The Sahi structure ........................................................................................................50
    5.6.2. Mathas and Ashramas ..................................................................................................50
    5.6.3. The Four Ashrams ..........................................................................................................53

  5.7. Cultural Heritage .................................................................................................... 56

    5.7.1. Dola Yatra.......................................................................................................................56
    5.7.2. Chandan Yatra ...............................................................................................................56
    5.7.3. Snana Yatra....................................................................................................................56
    5.7.4. The Chariots ...................................................................................................................57
    5.7.5. Ratha Yatra (Chariot Festival) .......................................................................................58
    5.7.6. Navakalevara .................................................................................................................59

  5.8. Fairs and Festivals .................................................................................................. 60

  5.9. New Heritage Facilities ............................................................................................ 62

    5.9.1. Puri’s Heritage Gateway................................................................................................62

  5.10. Issues and Problems of Heritage in Puri ............................................................. 63

6. City Management and Governance ....................................................................... 64

  6.1. Institutions ............................................................................................................. 64

  6.2. Legal Framework ..................................................................................................... 64

  6.3. Local Governments Framework................................................................................ 64

  6.4. City Management .................................................................................................... 65

  6.5. About Puri Municipality........................................................................................... 66

    6.5.1. Organisational Structure................................................................................................66

  6.6. Organisastion Structure .......................................................................................... 72

    6.6.1. Puri Municipality.............................................................................................................72
    6.6.2. WSS Institutional framework (Orissa) ...........................................................................73

  6.7. Key Issues............................................................................................................... 73

7. Urban Environment Infrastructure Services .......................................................... 75

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                               - 2-
Puri Municipality                                                                                Puri City Development Plan



  7.1. Urban Environment ................................................................................................. 75

  7.2. Solid Waste Management......................................................................................... 75

     7.2.1. Solid Waste Management System practice in Puri Municipality..................................75
     7.2.2. Quantity and Composition of Wastes............................................................................78
     7.2.3. Problems with the Existing Solid Waste Management System....................................79
     7.2.4. Performance Indicators ..................................................................................................79
     7.2.5. Issues:.............................................................................................................................80

  7.3. Preservation of Water Bodies ................................................................................... 80

     7.3.1. Issues:.............................................................................................................................81

  7.4. Beach Development ................................................................................................. 81

     7.4.1. Issues:.............................................................................................................................82

  7.5. City Beautification- Parks and Green Spaces ........................................................... 82

     7.5.1. Issues:.............................................................................................................................83

  7.6. Public Toilets .......................................................................................................... 83

     7.6.1. Issues:.............................................................................................................................84

  7.7. Environmental quality ............................................................................................. 84

     7.7.1. Air Quality.......................................................................................................................84
     7.7.2. Water pollution ...............................................................................................................85
     7.7.3. Environment in Festive Seasons....................................................................................85
     7.7.4. Issues of Concern ...........................................................................................................86

  7.8. Diasaster Management ............................................................................................ 86

     7.8.1. Issues of Concern ...........................................................................................................87

8. Urban Infrastructure Services............................................................................... 88

  8.1. Infrastructure services............................................................................................. 88

  8.2. Water Supply .......................................................................................................... 88

     8.2.1. Existing Infrastructure ...................................................................................................88
     8.2.2. Analysis of Current Situation ........................................................................................90
     8.2.3. Source .............................................................................................................................90
     8.2.4. Demand & Supply ..........................................................................................................91
     8.2.5. Revenue collection & Augmentation ..............................................................................93
     8.2.6. Performance Indicators ..................................................................................................94
     8.2.7. Issues and Problems ......................................................................................................94

  8.3. Sewerage System..................................................................................................... 95

     8.3.1. Existing Situation ...........................................................................................................95
     8.3.2. Performance Indicators ..................................................................................................97

  8.4. Storm water Drainage.............................................................................................. 97

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                                   - 3-
Puri Municipality                                                                                Puri City Development Plan



     8.4.1. Analysis of the Current Situation ..................................................................................97
     8.4.2. Performance Indicators ..................................................................................................98
     8.4.3. Issues and Problems of Storm water Drainage ............................................................98

  8.5. Street Lighting......................................................................................................... 99

     8.5.1. Performance Indicators ..................................................................................................99
     8.5.2. Issues:.............................................................................................................................99

  8.6. Roads & Transport ................................................................................................ 100

     8.6.1. Grand Road ................................................................................................................. 101
     8.6.2. Performance Indicators ............................................................................................... 103
     8.6.3. Issues ........................................................................................................................... 103

  8.7. Cost Recovery on Infrastructure Services ............................................................... 103

     8.7.1. Water & Sanitation Sector........................................................................................... 104
     8.7.2. The challenge in WSS sector....................................................................................... 104
     8.7.3. Some of the steps undertaken on Water Sector Reform are: .................................... 105
     8.7.4. Some of the steps in proposal for Management improvements initiation include:... 105

  8.8. Waste Management ............................................................................................... 106

9. Urban Poverty and Slum Development .................................................................107

  9.1. Institutional Framework on Poverty Allevation ....................................................... 107

  9.2. Existing Situation.................................................................................................. 107

     9.2.1. Growth Trends in Slums ............................................................................................. 108
     9.2.2. Socio-Economic Characteristics .................................................................................. 109
     9.2.3. Current Status of Services in Slums ........................................................................... 109

  9.3. Growth Analysis & Information Gaps ..................................................................... 109

  9.4. Slum Improvement Programmes ............................................................................ 110

     9.4.1. National Slum Development Programme (NSDP)........................................................ 111
     9.4.2. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY).............................................................. 111
     9.4.3. Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna (SJSRY)........................................................... 112
     9.4.4. 6.2.4 Development of Women and Children In Urban Areas (DWCUA).................... 112
     9.4.5. Issues:.......................................................................................................................... 113

10. Municipal Finance ............................................................................................114

  10.1. Legal Framework ................................................................................................. 114

  10.2. Financial Status at a Glance................................................................................ 114

     10.2.1. Revenue Account ....................................................................................................... 115
     10.2.2. Revenue Income ........................................................................................................ 116
     10.2.3. Own Sources.............................................................................................................. 116

  10.3. Revenue Expenditure .......................................................................................... 117


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                                   - 4-
Puri Municipality                                                                               Puri City Development Plan



  10.4. Credit Worthiness................................................................................................ 118

     10.4.1. Issues......................................................................................................................... 119

11. Stakeholders Consultation ................................................................................120

  11.1. The Process ......................................................................................................... 120

     11.1.1. Participation Techniques Used ................................................................................. 120

  11.2. Stakeholder Discussions...................................................................................... 123

  11.3. Results................................................................................................................ 126

  11.4. Key outcomes ...................................................................................................... 127

12. Vision and Strategic Direction...........................................................................128

  12.1. The Process ......................................................................................................... 128

  12.2. VISION 2030 ....................................................................................................... 128

     12.2.1. Strategic directions for the City ................................................................................ 129

  12.3. Connected and Accessible City............................................................................. 131

     12.3.1. Strategic direction 1.1 ............................................................................................... 132
     12.3.2. Strategic direction 1.2 ............................................................................................... 134
     12.3.3. Strategic Direction 1.3............................................................................................... 135
     12.3.4. Strategic direction 1.4 ............................................................................................... 136
     12.3.5. Strategic direction 1.5 ............................................................................................... 137
     12.3.6. Strategic direction 1.6 ............................................................................................... 138
     12.3.7. Indicators for a Connected and Accessible City ...................................................... 139

  12.4. Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City .......................................................... 140

     12.4.1. Strategic direction 2.1 ............................................................................................... 141
     12.4.2. Strategic direction 2.2 ............................................................................................... 142
     12.4.3. Strategic direction 2.3 ............................................................................................... 143
     12.4.4. Strategic direction 2.4 ............................................................................................... 144
     12.4.5. Indicators for Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City ..................................... 145

  12.5. Inclusive and Engaging City................................................................................. 146

     12.5.1. Strategic direction 3.1 ............................................................................................... 147
     12.5.2. Strategic Direction 3.2............................................................................................... 148
     12.5.3. Strategic direction 3.3 ............................................................................................... 149
     12.5.4. Strategic direction 3.4 ............................................................................................... 150
     12.5.5. Strategic direction 3.5 ............................................................................................... 151
     12.5.6. Strategic direction 3.6 ............................................................................................... 152
     12.5.7. Strategic direction 3.7 ............................................................................................... 153
     12.5.8. Strategic direction 3.8 ............................................................................................... 154
     12.5.9. Strategic direction 3.9 ............................................................................................... 155
     12.5.10. Indicators for an Inclusive and Engaging City ...................................................... 156

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                                 - 5-
Puri Municipality                                                                               Puri City Development Plan



  12.6. Environmentally Responsive City ......................................................................... 157

     12.6.1. Strategic direction 4.1 ............................................................................................... 158
     12.6.2. Strategic direction 4.2 ............................................................................................... 159
     12.6.3. Strategic direction 4.3 ............................................................................................... 160
     12.6.4. Strategic direction 4.4 ............................................................................................... 161
     12.6.5. Strategic direction 4.5 ............................................................................................... 162
     12.6.6. Indicators for an Environmentally Responsible City ............................................... 163

13. Projects Identification ......................................................................................164

  13.1. The Project Development ..................................................................................... 164

  13.2. Population Projection........................................................................................... 164

  13.3. Project Identification & Prioritisation.................................................................... 165

     13.3.1. Preservation of heritage Project ................................................................................ 168
     13.3.2. Projects for Heritage Promotional Infrastructure ..................................................... 171
     13.3.3. Heritage-related City Level infrastructure Project ................................................... 175
     13.3.4. Heritage-development including Basic Services to Urban Poor Project .................. 179
     13.3.5. Tourism Infrastructure Project .................................................................................. 180
     13.3.6. Projects for Environment Infrastructure ................................................................... 182
     13.3.7. Projects for Strengthening Urban Governance......................................................... 183

14. Financial Plan: Investment Estimate .................................................................186

  14.1. The Process ......................................................................................................... 186

  14.2. Capital Investment Plan....................................................................................... 186

     14.2.1. Process ....................................................................................................................... 187

  14.3. Project Identification............................................................................................ 187

  14.4. Strategies ............................................................................................................ 187

     14.4.1. Strategic Capital Investment .................................................................................... 187
     14.4.2. Facility Siting ............................................................................................................. 188
     14.4.3. Decision Making ........................................................................................................ 188
     14.4.4. Plan Funding ............................................................................................................. 188
     14.4.5. Agencies..................................................................................................................... 188

  14.5. Project Estimates................................................................................................. 190

     14.5.1. Sector Wise Estimates............................................................................................... 192
     14.5.2. Institution wise Investment Estimates ..................................................................... 195

  14.6. Strategy for Project Funding ................................................................................ 197

     14.6.1. Broad Reforms Measure ........................................................................................... 197
     14.6.2. Holding Tax (Property Tax) ....................................................................................... 197
     14.6.3. Accounting and Auditing........................................................................................... 198
     14.6.4. Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement................................................. 198

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                                 - 6-
Puri Municipality                                                                          Puri City Development Plan



     14.6.5. Streamlining and Strengthening of Revenue Base of the Puri Municipality .......... 198
     14.6.6. UNDP-Government of India Project on “Capacity Building for Decentralised Urban
     Governance” (2005-2007)...................................................................................................... 198
     14.6.7. Municipal Services Performance Measurement Programme ................................... 199
     14.6.8. Urban Environment Management............................................................................. 200
     14.6.9. Access of Urban Services to the Poor ....................................................................... 200

15. Reform Agenda and Timeline ............................................................................202

  15.1. Agenda for Reform ............................................................................................... 202

  15.2. Agenda for Reform ............................................................................................... 202

     15.2.1. Mandatory Urban Reforms ....................................................................................... 203
     15.2.2. Reforms at ULB Level................................................................................................ 204

  15.3. Issues placed for Approval of Govt. of Orissa ........................................................ 205

  15.4. State Preparedness.............................................................................................. 206

     15.4.1. Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement................................................. 207
     15.4.2. Municipal Services Performance Measurement Programme ................................... 210
     15.4.3. New Municipal Law................................................................................................... 211
     15.4.4. City Managers’ Association Orissa .......................................................................... 211
     15.4.5. Annual Awards ......................................................................................................... 211
     15.4.6. Municipal Accounting ................................................................................................ 211
     15.4.7. Reform Agenda.......................................................................................................... 211

16. Implementation Framework ..............................................................................216

  16.1. Govt. of Orissa Reform Agenda............................................................................. 216

  16.2. Heritage Cell ....................................................................................................... 217

  16.3. Puri City Development Council ............................................................................ 217

  16.4. Centre for Excellence........................................................................................... 218

  16.5. Project Formulation & Management ..................................................................... 218

  16.6. State Water Sector Reform ................................................................................... 219

  16.7. Poverty Alleviation and Community Development Programmess............................ 220

  16.8. Solid Waste Management..................................................................................... 220

  16.9. Local Government HIV/AIDS Programme ............................................................. 221

  16.10. City Level Disaster Management Plan................................................................. 221

  16.11. Participation in Clean Development Mechanism ................................................. 222

  16.12. Networking ........................................................................................................ 222

  16.13. Achieving the vision........................................................................................... 223

  16.14. Triple bottom line accountability along with MDG .............................................. 223


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                          - 7-
Puri Municipality                                                                      Puri City Development Plan



  16.15. The Way Forward .............................................................................................. 224

17. Overview of City Development Plan & Vision 2030.............................................225

  17.1. Quality of Life...................................................................................................... 225

  17.2. The Landscape .................................................................................................... 226

  17.3. Our Communities................................................................................................ 226

  17.4. Getting Around.................................................................................................... 227

  17.5. Livelihood............................................................................................................ 227

  17.6. Cooperation......................................................................................................... 227




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                                    - 8-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



                                     City Development Plan Foreword
I am very proud to present Puri City Development Plan. This is a very exciting, visionary
document, which sets the agenda for the Council and the City for the next 20 years. We have
identified our vision Puri as a vibrant sustainable city with unique heritage and rich
legacy after several rounds of consultation with citizens, elected representatives, officials,
tourists, and media etc.

This CDP was prepared after extensive consultation with community and is the Puri
Municipality’s most important strategic document, outlining key issues and objectives for the
city as a whole.

City Development Plan ensures that its objectives and strategic directions are appropriate to
achieve the vision of our City’s position to address emerging issues and future challenges.

We have many positive attributes and enduring assets which provide us with one of the most
liveable city environments in India. These assets include a vibrant and diverse recreational,
cultural and arts environment; world-class heritage site and sea beaches and our built
heritage.

By 2030 the City is anticipated to grow significantly with the development works under the
JnNURM programmes. This is an exciting opportunity for the City to build on its proven
record as a great place for Heritage, Culture and Tourism.

Puri Municipality is committed to working towards the vision outlined in this document
during its next few years.



I dedicated this document to the people of Puri.




                                       Jai Jagannath




                                     Gourahari Pradhan

                                         Chairman,

                                      Puri Municipality




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 0-
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan




                                                                          A   cknowledgement
The City Development Plan of Puri is the outcome of the effort of Government of Orissa, Puri
Municipality and City Managers’ Association Orissa. During this period several rounds of
consultation, discussion and public forum were conducted to reach this stage. While giving
final touch to this report we have been supported by citizens, elected representatives, officials
and media etc.
First, we express our thanks to all those who supported and contributed to the preparation of
the Puri CDP.We acknowledge the support of Government of Orissa, City Managers’
Association Orissa, Directorate of Tourism, Shri Jagannath Temple Administration Puri, Puri
Konark Development Authority and State Archaeology etc.
We also acknowledge the valuable contributions we received from Shri. N.C Vasudevan, IAS,
Principal Secretary, Dr. Arun Kumar Panda, IAS Special Secretary and Asim Kumar Mohanty,
OAS, Housing & Urban Development Department.
The City Development Plan would not have been possible without the efforts from a wide
array of people, which includes Shri. Suresh Chandra Mohapatra, IAS, Chief Administrator,
Shri Jagannath Temple Puri Cum Revenue Divisional Commissioner, Shri. Santosh Kumar
Sarangi, IAS, Director Tourism, Shri. Aswini Kumar Das – Collector Puri cum Vice Chairman
- Puri Konark Development Authority, Shri Gangadhar Panda former Executive Officer – Puri
Municipality, Shri B.K.Rath, Director - State Archaeology, Shri P.K. Pattanaik, Secretary cum
Planning Member – Puri Konark Development Authority.
We would like to record our gratitude to Dr. Subas Pani, IAS, Chief Secretary – Govt. of
Orissa, concerned Department Secretaries of Govt. of Orissa and Chief Engineers of various
departments for their timely views & suggestion in streamlining the CDP.
We are grateful for the valuable strategic guidance of Honourable Chief Minister of Orissa
Shri. Naveen Patnaik, Honourable Speaker of Orissa Legislative Assembly Shri Maheswar
Mohanty and MLA – Puri, Shri. Kanak Vardhan Singhdeo – Honourable Minister Urban
Development & PE, Shri. Debi Prasad Mishra - Honourable Minister Tourism, Shri. Braja
Kishore Tripathy – Honourable MP – Puri.
We extend our special acknowledgement to Dr. Arun Kumar Panda, IAS President, City
Managers’ Association Orissa cum Vice Chairman Bhubaneswar Development Authority,
Special Secretary to Govt. in H&UD Department and Mission Director Jawaharlal Nehru
National Urban Renewal Mission – Orissa for providing guidance, strategic support and
leadership at all levels of CDP preparation.
We also extend our thanks to Shri Piyush Ranjan Rout, Executive Director, City Managers’
Association Orissa for his pivotal contribution in the preparation of the CDP.
Finally this report won’t be complete without acknowledging the contribution of the Citizens
of Puri & Tourists for their timely participation and seeking the blessings of Lord Jagannath.

                                                                              Executive Officer
                                                                             Puri Municipality


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 0-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


                                                  Executive Summary
Introduction
The world’s urban population has been growing rapidly. According to UN estimates; over 60
percent of the world's population will live in cities by 2030. India’s urban population is 285.3
million in the year 2001 which is 27.8 percentage of the total population. India hast 35
million plus cities. Among these there are 7 mega cities of which 3 with population above 10
million and 3 with population above 5 million. By the year 2021, it is expected that India will
have the greatest concentration of mega cities in the Asian region.


Urban Governance in India: step towards Decentralization
Municipal Governance in India exists since 1687 with the formation of Madras Municipal
Corporation and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726. In early part of
the nineteenth century, almost all towns in India witnessed some form of municipal
Governance. In the year 1882 Lord Ripon’s resolution of local self-government laid the
foundation of democratic forms of municipal governance in India. In 1919 Government of
India Act incorporated the need of the resolution and the powers of democratically elected
government were formulated. In 1935 Government of India Act brought local government
under the purview of the state or provincial government and specific powers were given.

In 1992, again a major step towards the decentralization and empowerment of local
governments in India took place with the enactment of 74th Constitutional Amendment Act.
The Amendment calls for greater responsibilities and authorities for local governments by
recognizing it as a third tier government. Some of the important aspects include:

     • Planning for economic and social development and role of municipal government in
       implementation of urban poverty alleviation projects

     • Increased responsibility for urban planning at the district and metropolitan levels

     • Greater authority to mobilize and use resources.


Urbanisation in Orissa
In Orissa out of the total population of 36,706,920 as on 1st March, 2001, 31,210,602 live in
rural area and 5,496,318 in urban area. The net addition of population in rural areas during
1991-2001 has been to the tune of 3685399 while in urban area it is 1261785. The
percentage wise decadal growth of population in rural and urban area during the decade is
13.8 and 29.78 percent respectively.

The percentage of urban population to the total population of the states stands at 14.97. The
percentage of urban population to total population in the 1991 Census was 13.33 percent.
Thus, there has been an increase of 1.64 percentage points in the proportion of urban
population in the state during 1991 – 2001.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 0-
Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan

Urban Governance in Orissa
The Housing and Urban Development Department is the apex institution of Government of
Orissa responsible for urban sector development in Orissa. The department has three
directorates i.e. Municipal Administration, Public Health Engineering and Town Planning.
The Urban Local Bodies (ULB’s) are functioning under the Orissa Municipal Corporation Act
2003 and Orissa Municipal Act 1950. Similarly Development Authorities are functioning
under the Orissa Development Authority Act.

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jn NURM)

Considering that state of cities is incompatible with the country’s socio-economic objectives
and India’s growing role in the world economy, the Government of India launched,
Jawaharlal    Nehru   National   Urban   Renewal    Mission     (JnNURM).    Aimed   at   creating
economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities, the Urban Renewal
Mission focuses on (i) improving and augmenting the economic and social infrastructure of
cities; (ii) ensuring basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable
prices; (iii) initiating wide-ranging urban sector reforms whose primary aim is to eliminate
legal, institutional and financial constraints that have impeded investment in urban
infrastructure and services; and (iv) strengthening municipal governments and their
functioning   in accordance      with the   provisions   of   the   Constitution (seventy-fourth)
Amendment Act, 1992. It provides for public disclosure of local spending decisions together
with earmarking of budgetary allocations for basic services to the poor.

The mission covers two Urban Local Bodies of Orissa namely Bhubaneswar and Puri. As
formulation of City Development Plan (CDP) is a mandatory requirement for accessing Jn
NURM funds, the Housing & Urban Development Department (H&UD) of Govt. of Orissa, as
part of its agenda to address cities development challenges faced by Orissa cities, have
initiated formulation of Puri CDP. In this context, the H&UD Department and Puri
Municipality involved City Managers’ Association Orissa (CMAO) to prepare the CDP for Puri.

Evolution of Puri Town
Located on the East Coast of India overlooking Bay of Bengal, Puri is located on a 67 km
stretch of sandy beach that extends from the Chilika Lake to the south of Puri town. The
Sun Temple of Konark is located on this beach at a distance of 35km north of Purl.

The town consists of the Temple of Lord Jagannath in its centre with eight quarters (Sahis)
radiating from it. The town colonies were called 'Sahis'. The population of the town composed
mostly priests and people attached to the various activities of the temple. Besides, there are
large numbers of mathas which chiefly cluster round the temple. As the rituals of the temple
and Ratha Yatra became more elaborate, more people started living in Puri. Ordinary people
who have no contribution to rituals have also started living.

The town was originally built on sandy track which began from north and west towards
Cuttack and Ganjam road where the Madhupur or Matia stream is lined with the largest
tanks, Narendra, Mitiani, Markandeya and Siva Ganga. As the tributary of the river Matiani
draining into the sea dried up, it paved the way for the new direction of development of the
town in the southeast.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         - 1-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan

Location & Linkages
The town of Puri is located almost at the geographic centre of the District, and is bounded by
sea on South east. Mauza Sipaurubilla on West, Mauza Gopinathpur on the North and
Mauza Balukhand on the east surround it. Geographically Puri is located on 19 degree 18
minutes North latitude and 85 degree 51 minutes East longitude.

The Town is directly connected by broad gauge railway line with Khurda, a prominent
Railway junction in S.E. railway. It is about 499 kms. from Calcutta and 468 kms from
Vishakhapatnam. N.H.-203 connects the Town with the Capital city Bhubaneswar which is
about 60 kms. Moreover, this town is also well connected with Satapada via Brahmagiri
through N.H.-203 B and Konark through Marine drive road which comes under N.H.203 A.
The nearest Airport is at Bhubaneswar, which is approx. 60 Kms from the town of Puri.

Area and Population
The administrative jurisdiction of Puri Municipal area spreads over 16.3268 sq kms and
stretches along the sea-shore measuring about 5.00 kms. The entire municipal area is
divided in to 30 wards. As per 2001 census the population of Puri Town was 1,57,610 with a
growth rate of 26% during the period of 1991-2001. The growth rate of the town is less than
that of the state (urban) which is 30.28 % for the period 1991-2001.

Puri Today
Puri today is the forerunner of the Jagannath culture in Orissa, which saw the flowering of
several temples dedicated to Jagannath all over the world. It attracts millions of devotees
through out the year on different occasion.

Puri represents one of the four peethas established by Adi Sankaracharya, the other three
being Sringeri in south India, Dwarka in Saurashtra, and Badrinath in the Himalayas.
Chaitanya in 15th - 16th century popularized the worship of lord Jagannath.

The temple dominates the town in every sphere – physical, social, cultural and
economic. The town of Puri has evolved around it so that an intricate web of relationship
exists between the temple and the town dwellers. There are many ancient settlements around
the temple precinct that are engaged in the temple activities and are responsible for providing
different materials for management of temple. Elaborate worship services are carried out
throughout the day here.

Puri as a town is more than thousand years old and being a religious town, the town is
based on Vaastu Purusha Mandala and many meta-physical aspects have been interwoven
in planning of the town. There are as many as 24 festivals each year, the most important
being the Rath Yatra or the Car festival in the month June - July.

Puri, known all around the world for its ‘Rath Yatra’ the cumulating point of all the festivals,
is celebrated in all pomp and grandeur. The annual ‘Rath Yatra’ of Lord Jagannath is an
event only of its kind, which attracts more than 1 million people. The grand festival is
arranged with combined effort of Orissa Government and Temple Management committee.

Today tourism provides livelihood for almost 80% people of the town. The total economy
of town is depended on the inflow of tourist population. Rath Yatra being the most important

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 2-
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan

festival is also the one, which has a strong environmental, social, cultural, economic and
spatial impact on the town. The preparation for Rath Yatra starts months before the actual
festival.

The City Development Plan can never be complete without taking into consideration all the
ritualistic aspects of the Grand Festival and without giving a complete profile of all activities
and arrangement that are parts of Rath Yatra

The Architecture of the abode of Lord Jagannath
The temple of Jagannath built on an elevated ground about twenty feet above the level of the
surrounding area, presents an imposing sight and can be seen from miles away. The height
of the main temple or Vimana above the road level is 214’. It is a fine specimen of
“Pancharatha” style of Orissian temple architecture.

The whole temple complex comprises of an area of 10.7 acres. The temple has four gates at
the eastern, southern, western and northern mid-points of the outer wall, known as
‘SINGHADWARA’(Lions Gate), ‘ASHWA DWARA’( Horse Gate),’VYAGHRA DWARA’(Tigers Gate)
and ‘HATHI GATE’(Elephants Gate) .they are said to represent Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya and
Aishwarya. In front of the Singhadwara is installed the ARUNA STAMBHA made of single
solid chlorite stone and upon it beautiful Arun Squats in obeisance.

The Daily Rituals in the Temple
The word 'Jagannath' literary means the Lord of the universe. He is also 'Devadhideva' (Lord
of Lords) and ‘Rajadhiraj’ (King of Kings) He is Purusottama the Supreme Purusa. The daily
and periodical rituals observed and performed in His service and worship since time
immemorial; bear the dignity and grandeur, which a supreme person is entitled to. The
details of rituals have been specified in certain texts in Sanskrit and Oriya. Neeti or ritual
signifies a particular type of religious rite.

Temple as a main Source of City Income
The whole region around Puri is influenced by the temple in various aspects as if the temple
is the most important employer of the town. It is the main market for agricultural products of
the whole region. For the preparation of mahaprasada the temple requires an immense
quantity of agricultural products like rice, ghee, vegetables etc. Several settlements produce
goods mainly for the temple and its pilgrims (pots, paintings etc).

Rath Yatra – The Grand Car Festival and City life
The precise time when the Grand festival of Rath Yatra started as part of Jagannath Culture
is not known. It is believed that during the reign of Ananga Bhima dev, when the temple was
renovated and the town was restructured, the concept of Rath Yatra was propagated. The
entire Rath Yatra is a symbolic humanisation of God. All rituals associated with the festival
demonstrate an attempt to bring the God down from His pedestal of glory to a more human
level. This annual festival has now acquired a grand scale and has become the identity
of the Town of Puri.

The Festival is celebrated in the June-July on the second day of the bright fortnight of the
month of Ashadha. People from all across Orissa and from various parts of India come to take



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 3-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

part in this auspicious occasion. Orissa witnesses the inflow of about 7 to 10 lakhs of
pilgrims during this Car Festival.

Significance of Rath Yatra in City Development Plan
The grand festival of Rath Yatra is important not only for the people of Orissa but also a
world famous event. It is a very important festival from the point of any development
programme as almost all levels of Govt. are involved in this event. Attracting more than one
million pilgrims & tourist on the festival and on an average of 5-6 Lakhs people during 10
days of Rath Yatra puts a tremendous pressure on the resources of the town.

City Management and Governance
The responsibility of providing citizens of Puri with basic urban services like water supply,
sewerage, waste management, street lighting, roads etc. are vested with various institutions
such as Puri Municipality, Puri Konark Development Authority, Public Health Engineering
Organisastion, Orissa Water Supply Sewerage Board etc.

The Puri Municipality was established in 1864 as Puri Improvement Trust. Further in the
year 1881 Puri Improvement Trust transformed into Puri Municipality. Post independence
period after the enactment of Orissa Municipal Act- 1950 the City administration is vested
with Puri Municipality and it is represented by Chairperson and councilors elected by the
people. The election is being conducted by the State Election Commission. Puri Municipality
has an elected council comprising elected representatives (Councilors) of 30 wards within the
Municipal area. The council is headed by Chairperson who is elected by the councilors. The
council meeting of Municipality takes place every month to decide on issues and Governance.
Duties entrusted to the Puri Municipality were to maintain cleanliness, arrangement for
street light and maintenance of roads etc

Infrastructure services
Development of Infrastructure is an indispensable part of any settlement. Traditional
settlement infrastructure consisted of water sources and storage, waste disposal, road
network, security etc., decentralized to a large extent creating self-sufficient communities.
Modern day urban areas are, on the other hand, heavily dependent on various networks of
infrastructure, a failure or lack of which severely deteriorates the quality of life of the people.
The high densities of the urban area require extensive, adequate infrastructure networks for
the smooth functioning of the city. A lack of adequate road network, wastewater treatment or
solid waste disposal system affects the natural environment through contamination of air,
water and land – the basic building blocks of life.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        - 4-
Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan

Water Supply System Performance Indicators
Sl    Parameter / Component    Service Level         Benchmark           Commitment            /
No                                                                       Remarks
1     Water Supply / Source    127 lpcd              150 lpcd (+15%      Low
                                                     losses)
2     Treatment Capacity            100% ground      100 percent         Less
                                    water source
                                    utilized
3     Storage                       15 % of daily    33 percent          Low
                                    water demand
4     Distribution System           55 percent       85 percent          Low
      Coverage
5     Non-Revenue Water             33 percent       15 percent          High.
                                                                         Uneconomical
6     Cost Recovery                 30 percent    85-90 percent          Significantly low
                                                  nominal
Underground Sewerage Scheme Performance Indicators
1     Collection System          10 percent       75 percent            Very Low
      Coverage
2     STP – Functionality        Stabilization    Activated             Inadequate           and
      characteristics of Cities  Pond of 5 MLD Sludge Process           Conventional
                                 Capacity
3     Revenue / O&M cost ratio                    > 95 percent          Uneconomical
Storm Water Drains Performance Indicators
1     Major Drains – Catchments    30 percent      100 percent           Inadequate
      Area
2     Minor Drains – Coverage      40 percent      90 percent            Inadequate
      (Drain Length / Road
      Length)
3     Hydraulic Conveying          Analysis    not 100-year              Inundation prone
      Capacity of Major drains     made available  return flood, 2-      areas.     Master
                                                   hrs rainfall, 4-      plan required
                                                   hrs flow
Streetlight Performance Indicators
1     Spacing between Lamp posts    80 m             <30 M                Very           high
                                                                          spacing
2     Proportion of Florescent Tube 20 percent          70-80 percent     Less
      Lights
3     Proportion of Sodium Vapor 5 percent              20-30 percent     Less
      Lamps
Roads, Traffic and Transportation
1     Fully Paved (Flexible & Rigid) 50 percent       95 percent           Not
      Road     Length      –   Puri                                        Satisfactory
      Municipality Roads
2     Average Road Density           4.6 km/sq. km    10-15 km/sq.km       Not Adequate
3     Per Capita Road Length         1.7 m            1.5 – 2.0 m          Not Adequate
4     Vehicular Increase per Year    5%               5 percent            Moderate
Solid Waste Management: Performance Indicators
1     Per-Capita Generation          200 grams        250 grams             Moderate
2     Collection Performance         70 percent       100 percent           Needs
                                                                            Improvement
3     Spacing of Collection Bins     1000 meters      500 meters            Inadequate
4     No. of Sanitary Workers per    2.7              1.80                  Almost
      1,000 population                                                      adequate
5     Sanitary Workers per           65               25                    Grossly
      Supervisor                                                            Inadequate


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 5-
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan

Preservation of Water Bodies
The holy city of Puri has six important sacred tanks which is historically and spiritually
important. Many tourists visit the sacred tank and take a dip during festivals and other
occasions.

 1.      Narendra tank
 2.      Indradradumna tank
 3.      Markandaya tank
 4.      Swetaganga tank
 5.      Parbati sagar tank
 6.      Chudanga tank.
Besides the above there are as many as sixty two ponds which have got an affiliation to the
community place (Akhadas and Jagaghar). These ponds are used by the locality for their day
to day needs. Musa river passes through Puri town and is in a very bad condition. The ponds,
tanks and the rivers needs restoration and conservation, as their improvement shall lead to
significant improvement of the environment quality.

Beach Development
Puri town has about 5 kms of natural sea beach. The magnificent sea beach at present
attracts considerable number of tourists round the year. Puri sea beach is home to world
famous Sand Art & Sculpture.

The city of Puri is bestowed with river mouth of River Mangala in its South & Nua Nai in its
North. These rivers and sea beach need protection, conservation & development to maintain
their uniqueness as well as to attract tourists for economic growth of the city.

Slums
Most of the slum dwellers of Puri belong to fisherman communities located at Penthakata,
Balinolia Sahi, Baliapanda. There are altogether 46 slum pockets in Puri with a total
population of 47,770. This constitutes almost 25% of the total population. Many of the slum
pockets are inhabited by migrant population who came to Puri in search of employment.

Basic character of the slum pockets are temporary houses, dilapidated structure, poor
ventilation, over crowding, inadequate lighting, absence of sanitation facility and lack of basic
physical and social services.

For improvement of slum condition Puri Municipality has been striving hard to provide basis
amenities. Various poverty alleviation programmes such as NSDP, SJSRY along with old age
pension, Orissa Disability Pension, BPL, Annapurna Aantodaya Anna Yojana and Balika
Samrdhi Yojana are implemented by Puri Municipality. Efforts have also been made by Puri
Municipality to organize the urban poor in to several self help groups to improve their
economic condition.

Regional Setting of Puri as Coastal Cultural Landscape
Considered to be one of the four holy 'Dhams' of India, the historic town of Puri is located on
the Bay of Bengal coast, along a distinctive 67 km stretch of sandy beaches which extends
from the Chilika lake to the south of Puri town to the delta of the Prachi river to the north.
This stretch of sandy beach is interspersed with a number of ridges, some of which enclose
saltwater lagoons, & the World Heritage Site of Konark is also located along it towards the
north.
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 6-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

Legal Framework of Heritage Development
The heritage component of the Puri city includes monuments, religious places and sacred
sites, buildings of architectural significance or traditional values; history, any other. Various
institutions identified heritage components of the city. The culture department of Govt. of
Orissa has identified 387 Matha’s, 4 Ashram’s, 10 Dharmasala’s and 200 temples. Similarly
in 19986-88, INTACH identified 147 temples, mathas, civic buildings, etc. The District
Gazetteer list’s 130 Mathas or Monastic establishments, some believed to date from the
century AD as well as information related to the sacred tank complexes & temple complexes;
the list of 133 Mathas, 22 Jagaghars, 12 Dharamashala, 75 Lodging houses, traditional
Libraries. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) about 157 unprotected, 2
state protected and 2 ASI protected monuments are located within the city. The heritage
components of the city are owned by both public and private sector.

              Public heritages are being owned by Shri Jaganath Temple Administration and
              Commissioner of Endowment Govt. of Orissa
              Private ownership belongs to Sahis, Aakhada and Jagagharas, etc.
              Moveable Heritage i.e Palm Tree Pothis, Yatri Records of Pandas covering
              undivided India & Nepal,
              Natural Heritage Natural Sea Beach, Rivers, water bodies
Legal Framework

         Ancient Monument and Preservation Act, 1904
         Ancient Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958
         The Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956
Institutional Framework
The maintenance of Heritage monuments are done by the ASI, State Archeology and Temple
Trust’s. Where as waste cleaning, street lighting, water supply and other infrastructure to the
heritage sites are being maintained by the Puri Municipality and PHEO. Similarly Orissa
Tourism Development Corporation, Department of Tourism and Culture of Govt. of Orissa are
the agencies responsible for the promotion and publicity of the Heritage Monuments.
Although the Puri Municipality has no direct role in preservation of heritage but it along with
Puri Konark Development Authority are responsible to restrict un-authorized encroachments,
safety of the building and protection of heritage area.

Five Holy Tanks
There are 5 important tanks in the town; in addition there are a number of smaller ponds
strewn along the periphery of the town. The main tanks are
     •   Narendra tank
     •   Markandeya tank
     •   Shwetaganga tank
     •   Indradyumna tank
     •   Parvatisagar tank


These tanks are fed by rainwater as well as groundwater and are therefore perennial sources
of water. The waters are used for bathing, washing, various household requirements in
addition to religious ceremonies and rites. They are an intrinsic part of the life of the town


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       - 7-
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


The Sahi structure
The 'Sahis' of Puri; are characterized by a distinctive settlement pattern & cohesive
communities, open spaces, water harvesting & storage elements, a concentration of
heritage buildings & complexes, streetscapes & street network with 'chhakas' or chowk
intersections & two types of mainly residential narrow streets & mixed use Sahis with
wider streets. These 'Sahls' are Harachandi Sahi & Basel! Sahi on the west; Goudabada
Sahi on the south-west; Bali Sahi and Manikarnika Sahi on the south; Matimandapa
Sahi with Kalaikadevi Sahi on the south-east; Dolamandapa Sahi on the east;
Markandeswar Sahi & Chudang Sahi on the north.


Mathas and Ashramas
Centering round the great temple of Lord Jagannath, many a Matha (Monasteries) grew up
gradually in course of time in this holy town. In the past, many Saints and Sadhus had come
to Puri to have darshan of Lord Jagannath. They came in contact with and influenced the
Gajapati Kings through their philosophical doctrines. The saints and sadhus established
their monasteries on the lands donated to them by the kings and wealthy persons. The Maths
continued preaching their respective doctrines and also performed certain ritual services in
the Jagannath Temple. With endowed properties and lands, the heads of the Maths were able
to maintain their institutions. Lands were donated to the Maths for `Amritmanohi'- the
proceeds thereof were spent in offering `Bhoga' to Lord Jagannath and the `Mahaprasad' thus
obtained, were distributed among the pilgrims, pupils, ascetics, and beggars.

The Four Ashrams
Connected with certain rituals of the temple of Jagannath, there are four Ashrams
(hermitages) in Puri town. These are Angira Ashram, Pandu Ashram, Markandeya Ashram
and Parasara (Ugrasena) Ashram.


Fairs and Festivals
It is popularly said Puri City celebrates thirteen important festivals in twelve months.
However, in reality the city has various festivals all across the year. Importantly all these
festivals are not only linked with the culture and heritage of Orissa but also of India. These
activities are directly and indirectly linked with the cities employment and economic
development potential. It is estimated that around 80% of cities income is linked with
heritage related activities.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 8-
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan

Major Fair and Festival
Sl.No.   Major Festivals      Oriya Month           Month           Days     Visitors
1         Devasnan            Jyestha Purnima       June            1        100000
          Purnima
2         Shree Gundicha      Asadha       Sukla    June       &    1        1200000
          (Car Festivals)     Dwitiya to Dasami     July
2i        Shree Gundicha      Asadha       Sukla    June       &    8        1600000
          (Car Festivals)     Dwitiya to Dasami     July
3         Bahuda              Asadha      Sukla     July            1        800000
                              Dasami
4         Suna Vesa           Asadha      Sukla     July            1        1500000
                              Ekadasi
5         Dakshinayan         Karkata Sankranti     July-Aug        1        80000
          Yatra
6         Parsva              Bahadrab    Sukla     August          1        200000
          Parivartan Yatra    Ekadasi
7         Debothapan          Kartika     Sukla     Oct.            1        60000
          Yatra               Ekadasi
8         Odhan Sasthi        Margasira   Sukla     Nov.            1        50000
                              Sasthi
9         Pusyabhisekh        Pausa Purnima         Dec.            1        100000
10        Uttarayan Yatra     Makar Sankranti       Jan.            1        200000
11        Dolo Yatra          Falguna      Sukla    March           5        500000
                              Dasami to Purnima
12        Damanak Yatra       Chaitra      Sukla    April           1        50000
                              Chaturdasi
13        Chandan Yatra       Akshay      Tritiya   May             21       1200000
                              Baisakha     Sukla
                              Trutiya
Municipal Finance

For the purpose of financial assessment, financial data pertaining to the last five years (2000-
01 to 2004-05) were analysed. The Puri Municipality maintains & approves its budget as per
the rules laid down in Orissa Municipal Act 1950. The current accounting system is on a
cash basis and income and expenditure heads are also maintained on a cash basis. All the
expenses towards regular maintenance are treated as revenue expenditure, and all income as
Revenue Receipt.

Financial Status at a Glance
The finances of Puri Municipality have been reviewed for the five-year period ending in FY
2004-05. The items of both receipts and expenditure are classified under revenue income and
expenditure as per their sources and uses. In 2004-05, the revenue income of Puri
Municipality was Rs. 4, 89, 37,777. In absolute terms the revenue expenditure in 2004-05
was Rs. 4, 50, 44,724 and the revenue account surplus in 2004-05 was Rs. 38, 93,053




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       - 9-
Puri Municipality                                                           Puri City Development Plan

Performance of Key Financial Indicators
Indicators                  2000-   2001-    2002-   2003-    2004-   Average   Benchmark        Remarks
                            1       2        3       4        5


Operating Ratio             99.94   100.80   99.40   102.14   92.04   98.86     Less    than     Satisfactory
                                                                                1

Share of Own Sources to     15.58   14.87    16.43   24.20    22.76   18.77     More than        Not
Total Income                                                                    30-40            Satisfactory
                                                                                percent

Establishment               46.81   40.3     45.01   45.28    49.79   45.44     Less             Not
Expenditure as compare                                                          than30-40        Satisfactory
to total revenue income                                                         percent

Establishment               53.89   46.01    40.72   45.06    45.28   46.19     Less             Not
Expenditure as compare                                                          than40       -   Satisfactory
to     total      revenue                                                       45 percent
expenditure

Holding Tax Collection      45%     50%      55%     55%      60%     53%       More than        Not
Performance                                                                     85 percent       Satisfactory


Outstanding     Loan   to   -       -        -       -        -       -         Less    than
revenue income                                                                  25 percent


Vision and Strategic Direction
Puri City Development Plan envisages conservation and preservation of its glorious Heritage
with a vision for future reflecting the aspirations of the city and its stakeholders to present a
new story through interaction and debate in deciding

                   what we want,

                   what we’ve done,

                   and what we have to do to create the sustainable future we want.

Objectives of City Development Plan
The main objective of the CDP is to have a planned growth of the city in the desired direction
and to project Puri as a Global Tourism Business City of Eastern India, guided by a shared
vision for city’s development. The CDP makes basic policy choices and provides a flexible
framework for adapting to real conditions over time. The objective includes:

         Preserve & Conserve Heritage & Culture

         Improve urban services to facilitate development of Heritage and promote tourism

         Improve Environmental Conditions

         Improve Conditions of Urban Poor

         Image Building of the city

         Strengthen Preparedness for City’s Disaster Management

The City Development Plan has included: (1) an identification of needs based on a review of
existing plans and policies, interviews with local citizens, business owners and other

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                      - 10-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

stakeholders, and an analysis of existing conditions, including field reconnaissance surveys
of the community’s physical fabric; (2) the preparation of potential alternatives for
consideration; and (3) the development of broad directives and specific recommendations.
Community input has been central to the planning process. Each phase of the process has
been organized around a public meeting to ensure the Plan is well-informed with public
sentiment and opinion.

    o Situation Analysis
    o Stakeholder Consultations
    o Public Forum
    o Vision Identification
    o Formulation of Goals & Strategies
    o City Finance Plan
    o Reform Agenda
    o Approval by the Council along with Draft MoA
Community input has been central to the planning process. Each phase of the process has
been organized around a public meeting to ensure the Plan is well-informed with public
sentiment and opinion. The meetings included a kick of meeting and four subsequent
workshops with the public. Simeltounsly consultations were held at the policy, legislative and
state levels.

City Development Plan 2030 is Puri City’s primary planning strategy. It sets out what we
believe must happen over the years to achieve our vision for the City of Puri in 2030. Our
vision for the City of Puri to be Puri as a vibrant sustainable city with unique heritage
and rich legacy.

Strategic directions for the City
The strategic directions for the City are outlined under four inter-related themes. Each
strategic direction has a set of objectives to achieve it. These strategic directions are also the
basis of the City’s Corporate Plan, known as City Development Plan, which guides Council’s
operations and activities. Issues may be addressed under more than one theme. For example,
transport is addressed under the Connected and Accessible City, Inclusive and Engagement
and Environmentally Responsible City themes. These directions are organized around four
themes:

Theme 1 Connected and accessibility

Theme 2 Environmentally Responsive City

Theme 3 Inclusive and Engaging City

Theme 4 Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City

Achieving the vision
Puri Municipal Council understands that realising the vision will require the cooperation of
all those who have a stake in the City of Puri’s future. Puri Municipal Council will develop
and maintain strong relationships with Government of Orissa, the business and wider
community, and other key stakeholders to take opportunities to achieve our vision. Puri
Municipal Council will contribute by providing:

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 11-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

     o Strong municipal governance;

     o Leadership, support and education;

     o Delivery of a range of key city services;

     o Maintenance of city infrastructure and assets (for example, its heritage, parks,
        gardens, roads, and social infrastructure);

     o An efficient and effective integrated regulatory environment;

     o Marketing of the city’s culture, characteristics, advantages and abilities;

     o Innovative and integrated strategic and corporate planning;

     o Advocacy on the needs of the residential and business communities;

     o Networks of businesses, agencies and community groups;

     o Partnerships, agreements and alliances with key stakeholders; and

     o Sponsorship of events, businesses, festivals and other initiatives.

The Project Development
Puri Municipality and its stakeholders identified Cities vision Puri as a vibrant sustainable
city with unique heritage and rich legacy with healthy, sustainable future and celebrate
its strengths as a vibrant, diverse City of natural beauty nestled around Lord Jagannath
Temple and Seashore of Bay of Bengal and able to achieve our full potential through access
to clean air, safe water and food, shelter, education, satisfying employment, spirituality and
culturally by weigh of social, health, economic and environmental costs, benefits and risks
equally when making decisions. Puri Municipal Council will work with all who have a stake in
the City of Puri’s future to realize this vision and will simultaneously pursue:

     • Preservation of Heritage
     • Improvement of Environmental quality
     • Economic prosperity
     • Social equity.
Project Identification & Prioritisation
The projects identification has been done based on the VISION identified by the Municipal
Council through various detailed stakeholders consultation and discussion with various
levels of Govt. Utmost concern is given Puri as Heritage city and all its projects must linked
the development heritage and must benefit poorest of the Poor in the city.

The stakeholders of the city combined its all projects for the Mission to ensure that city come
up as an international Heritage city as desired in its vision. All stakeholders are committed to
implement respective projects in a combined effort. The projects were shared by various
stakeholders including Puri Municipality, Shri Jagannath Temple Trust, Orissa Tourism
Development Corporation, Department of Tourism / Culture / Handicrafts, District
Administration, National Highway Authority and Works Department etc. Similarly, like a
share vision stakeholders have taken responsibility of various projects to overcome financial
and institutional issues of the city. Some of the activities and institution includes:

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        - 12-
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan

Institutional Activities in Puri CDP
Areas                                            Institutions
Heritage Preservation and Promotion              Shri   Jagannath      Temple    Administration,
                                                 Archaeological    Survey     of  India,    State
                                                 Archaeology
Heritage Promotional Infrastructure              Puri Municipality
Awareness Campaign                               Shri Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri
                                                 Municipality
City Level Infrastructure                        Puri Municipality, PHED, Works Department
                                                 etc
Slum Development                                 Puri Municipality
Tourism Infrastructure                           Orissa Tourism Development Corporation /
                                                 Department of Tourism
Disaster Management                              Puri Municipality, District Administration
Promotion of Handicrafts                         Department of Industries
Project Estimates
The total estimated investment required for providing efficient services to the present
population and future population of Puri city by the year 2031 is about Rs. 1828 Crores at
present prices. The table below presents the identified and the reason that led to
prioritisation of the projects. About 54.65 percent of the total investment has been worked
out for programmes like inner city revitalisation, preservation & conservation of heritage
structures etc. They account for Rs. 999.00 Crores. However the detailed estimates of all
projects would be finalised only after preapration of Detailed Project Rport (DPR’s) of each
projects during the mission period.

Summary of sector wise Invest estimate

  Sl.No   Sec                         Projects                        Total Funding( In       %
          tor                                                               Crore)
 A        Heritage Preservation
 1             Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas /                  100.00
               Monasteries and other Built Heritage                                         5.47
 2             Preservation of ancient and sacred Water                    30.00
               Bodies                                                                       1.64
 3             Preservation     of   Community        Owned                18.00
               Jagaghara,    sacred   water    bodies   and
               immovable heritage                                                           0.98
 4             Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha                        5.00
               temple                                                                       0.27
 5             Upgradation & Development of the Heritage                   10.00
               Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannatha Temple
               at Jagannatha Balav Matha                                                    0.55
 6             Development of Parikrama around Shri                        0.50
               Jaganath Temple and Shri Gundicha Temple
               complexes                                                                    0.03
 7             Development of Parikrama around Shri                        0.50
               Gundicha Temple complexes                                                    0.03
 8             Landscaping around Heritage area                            3.00             0.16
 9             Development of Swargadwar                                   2.00             0.11
 10            Heritage Awareness IEC                                      1.00             0.05
 11            Sea and River front Development                            100.00            5.47
 B        Heritage Promotional Infrastructure
 1                                                                         4.00
                Security Measures in Shri Jagannath Temple
                and Heritage Places                                                         0.22
 2              Viewing Tower for Foreign Tourists                         5.00             0.27

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         - 13-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

  Sl.No   Sec                       Projects                        Total Funding( In       %
          tor                                                             Crore)
3               Development of Bicycle Lanes and Pedestrian              7.00
                Network                                                                   0.38
4               Development of Heritage Circuits                          1.00            0.05
5               Divine Discourse Convention Centre                       10.00            0.55
6               Construction of Night Shelters (for 10000                20.00
                Pilgrims)                                                                 1.09
7               Urban Hatt & Amphitheater                                10.00            0.55
8               Heritage Gateway & Interpretation Centre                 2.00             0.11
9               Street Furniture, City Beautification (signage,          1.00
                traffic lights, landscaping, etc)                                         0.05
10              Provision of Public Toilets near Heritage Sites          3.00             0.16
11              Water Supply                                            450.00           24.62
12             Major Roads / Bridges / Flyovers                         156.00            8.53
13             Inner City Revitalization                                 60.00            3.28
C         City Level Infrastructure
1              Street lighting                                           10.00            0.55
2               Municipal Roads                                          50.00
                                                                                          2.74
3               Subways                                                  40.00            2.19
4               Sewerage                                                 45.00            2.46
5               Development of Storm Water Drain System                  90.00            4.92
6               Social Infrastructure                                   100.00            5.47
7               Animal Protection                                        8.00             0.44
8               Slaughterhouse & Ghosala                                 2.00             0.11
9               Upgradation of Town Hall                                 2.00             0.11
D         Basic Services to Urban Poor                                    0.00            0.00
1              Housing & Infrastructure                                  90.00            4.92
2              Livelihood Support Programme                              40.00            2.19
3              Economic Opportunity Complex                              10.00            0.55
4              Social Amenities (Community Toilets, Halls                25.00
               etc)                                                                       1.37
E         Environment Infrastructure
1              Green Infrastructure                                       5.00            0.27
2              Environment Monitoring Infrastructure                     10.00            0.55
3              Solid Waste Management                                    35.00
                                                                                          1.91
F         Tourism Infrastructure                                          0.00            0.00
1              Dev. of Bus & Truck Terminus                              25.00            1.37
2              Development of Parking Lots                               20.00            1.09
3              Development of Heritage (Urban) Villages                  22.00            1.20
4              Beach Cleaning Mechanism                                   5.00            0.27
5              Tourism Information Centre                                15.00            0.82
6              Eco Friendly Tourist Vehicle                               8.00            0.44
7              Capacity    Building   &    Database Dev.                 2.00
               Information System                                                         0.11
8              Water Sports & Maritime Aquarium &                       120.00
               Museum                                                                     6.56
9              International Convention Centre                           30.00            1.64
G         Urban Governance                                                0.00            0.00
1              e-Governance                                               3.00            0.16
2               Capacity Building                                        3.00             0.16
3               Disaster Management Mechanism                             4.00            0.22
4               Research & Development                                   10.00            0.55

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       - 14-
Puri Municipality                                                              Puri City Development Plan

  Sl.No     Sec                               Projects                            Total Funding( In         %
            tor                                                                         Crore)
                   Total                                                             1828.00            100.00
Sector Wise Estimates
59.88% of the total identified investment is proposed in the Heritage Promotional
Infrastructure sector. Some of the projects includes towards up-gradation, Inner City
Revitalization, new construction, widening and strengthening works, bridges, flyovers, traffic
management systems and junction improvements. Among the total investments 14.97%
accounts for Heritage Preservation. Some of the projects includes in this category are
Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas / Monasteries and other Built Heritage, Preservation
of ancient and sacred Water Bodies, Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha temple,
Upgradation & Development of the Heritage Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannath Temple at
Jagannath Balav Matha, Development of Parikrama around Shri Jaganath Temple
complexes,       Development       of     Parikrama        around     Shri    Gundicha       Temple   complexes,
Landscaping around Heritage area, Development of Swargadwar, Heritage Awareness IEC
and Sea and River front Development.

Sector wise Investments
 Code     Sector                                                               Sector Total            %
    A     Heritage Preservation                                                       270.00           14.77
    B     Heritage Promotional Infrastructure                                         729.00           39.88
    C     City Level Infrastructure                                                    347.00          18.98
    D        Basic Serices to Urban Poor                                               165.00           9.03
    E        Environment Infrastructure                                                 50.00           2.74
    F        Tourism Infrastructure                                                    247.00          13.51
    G        Urban Governance                                                           20.00           1.09
  (A-G)      Total                                                                    1828.00         100.00
Similalry               18.98%                                Tourism            Urban                  Heritage
                                          Environment
investments accounts for                                   Infrastructure,     Governance,            Preservation,
                                         Infrastructure,
                                                                13.51             1.09                    14.77
City level infrastructure.                     2.74

9.03%       of    the      total
investment is proposed for
Basic Services for Urban
Poor, involving urban poor
and         the          slums           Basic Serices                                              Heritage
                                        to Urban Poor,        City Level                          Promotional
development.         Tourism                                Infrastructure,
                                             9.03                                                Infrastructure,
Infrastructes     counts    for                                  18.98                                39.88
13.51% and Environemnt
Infrastructure for 2.74%.

Institution wise Investment Estimates
The total estimated investment required for providing efficient services to the present
population and future population of Puri city by the year 2031 is about Rs. 1828 Crores at
present prices. The table below presents the identified Institution wise Investment Estimates
of the projects. Of the total invest JnNURM share is 80%, Govt. of Orissa 8.33%, Puri
Municipality 2.63%, Jagannath Temple Administration 1.09%, OTDC / Dept. Tourism /
Culture 0.71%, PHEO 2.71%, National Highway 0.22%, Works Dept. 0.91%, Industries Dept.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                      - 15-
Puri Municipality                                                              Puri City Development Plan

0.05% and Peoples Public Private Patnership (PPPP-P4) will have share of 3.35%. P4 will
basically substitute the stae Govt and certain institions investments in total share i.e Water
Sports & Maritime Aquarium & Museum, International Convention Centre etc.

Institution wise Investments
 Funding Source                                                     Investment in
                                                                        Crore                       %
 JNNURM                                                                1462.40                    80.00
 GOO                                                                    152.20                     8.33
 Puri Municipality                                                       48.10                     2.63
 Jagannath Temple Trust                                                  20.00                     1.09
 OTDC / Dept. Tourism / Culture                                           13.00                   0.71
 PHED                                                                     49.50                   2.71
 National Highway                                                          4.00                   0.22
 Works Dept.                                                              16.60                   0.91
 Industries Dept.                                                          1.00                   0.05
 PPPP                                                                     61.20                   3.35
 Total Funding                                                           1828.00                 100.00
Agency wise Capital Investment Plan 2006-2013
  Agency            06-07       07-08         08-09        09-10         10-11       11-12     12-13      Total
 Puri
 Municipality            9.5           97.4    114.9          92.9           84.1      62.35    19.85           481
 Jagannath
 Temple Trust            5.5           39.5          55            36        22.5        26       15.5          200
 OTDC / Dept.
 Tourism /
 Culture                    0          18.5          27       31.7           28.2       12.3      12.3          130
 PHED                       6            60          60        110            110        104        45          495
 National
 Highway                    0           10           10            10         10          0         0            40
 Works Dept.                5           30           20            31         30         30        20           166
 Industries
 Dept.                      0           1.5       2.5              2.5        2.5          1         0           10
 PPPP                     0.5          53.5      68.5             60.5         60         39        24          306
 Total                    26      256.9        289.4         314.1          287.3     235.65   112.65          1828
The    Capital    Investment
                                                      Year wise capital utilisastion
Plan      (CIP)   has    been
                                       400                                   374.6
prepared for a period of 7                                          357.9
                                                                                       347.3
years (FY 2006-07 to FY                350
                                                          310.4
2012-13). The phasing has              300                                                     274.65
been worked out based on               250
                                 Fns




the priorities assigned by
                                  ud




                                       200
the    stakeholders      and
                                       150                                                               136.65
preparedness       of     the
                                       100
service providing agencies
to prepare the DPR and                  50    26.5

initiate implementation of               0
                                              2006-       2007-     2008-     2009-    2010-   2011-     2012-
the proposals. The chart                       07          08        09        10       11      12        13
besides       provides     an                                                 Ye ar

insight into the year-wise utilization of the capital during the Plan period.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                      - 16-
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan

State Preparedness
Govt. of Orissa is very much keen on reforming the functioning urban governance in Orissa.
Before and after the launching of JNNURM, Govt. of Orissa have taken various steps to
improve resource mobilisastion, performance measurement, project management unit,
association of city managers, committee to draft Municipal Law etc. The below are some of
the major areas of urban reforms in Orissa.

   •    Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement Action Plan
   •    Municipal Services Performance Measurement Programme
   •    New Municipal Law
   •    City Managers’ Association Orissa
   •    Annual Awards
   •    Municipal Accounting

It is worthwhile to mention that adherence to the above reform agenda and efficient
performance, especially, the city level reforms, would go long way in improving the credibility
of the Puri Municipality and enhancing the sustainability level for the proposed investments.
Based on the above, a suggestive timeline for the reform agenda has been evolved in close
consultation with the Housing & Urban Development Department of the GoO and the Puri
Municipality and is furnished below:

Sl No    State Level Reforms                   2006-   2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012-13
                                               07      08    09    10    11    12
   1     Implementation of Seventy Fourth
         Constitution Amendment Act
   2     Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and
         Regulation Act                                           Repealed
   3     Reform of Rent Control Laws
         balancing       the interests of                        Not Enacted
         landlords and tenants
   4     Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to
         bring it down to no more than 5%
         within next five years

   5     Enactment of public disclosure
         law
   6     Enactment        of     community
         participation law
   7     Assigning or associating elected
         ULBs      with    “city   planning
         function”.
         Puri Municipality Level Reforms 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009 2010- 2011- 2012-13
                                               07      08   09      -10   11   12


   1     Accrual-based     double      entry
         system of accounting
   2     e-governance

   3     Property Tax: MIS & GIS based `
         mapping (collection efficiency to
         reach at least 85%)
   4     Levy of user charges for full O&M
         cost recovery

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       - 17-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan

Sl No    State Level Reforms                  2006-   2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012-13
                                              07      08    09    10    11    12
    5    Provision of basic services to the
         urban poor with security of                        All ready in place
         tenure, housing, w/s & sanitation
Overview of City Development Plan
Puri supports a population that allows us to maintain our environmental integrity together
with our social quality and economic prosperity. People live in a city made up of compact
urban core areas, surrounded by a rural landscape that includes productive family farms,
hamlets and a continuous network of natural areas.

We are an economically, socially and culturally diverse community that encourages
opportunities for individuals, reduces inequities and ensures full participation for all in
community life.

We are a caring community that gives opportunity and support to all its citizens, including
children, the aged, people with disabilities, immigrants and refugees and the disadvantaged.
People live longer in good health.

We are an environmentally conscious community where the existence of all living things is
cherished and where all can breathe fresh air, swim in clean sea and rivers & ponds and
have ample opportunity to observe and experience the wonders of the natural world.

Finally, we are a vibrant community, which builds on existing strengths and attracts
businesses that work in partnership with government and the community to create a diverse,
sustainable economy. Economic growth incorporates businesses in new and existing sectors
that are leaders in creating a competitive advantage through environmental and social
responsibility. Business, government, labour and the community have great capacity for
innovation in response to local and global change.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 18-
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan




                     1.City Development Plan Framework

1.1.Introduction

 The world’s urban population has been growing rapidly. According to UN estimates; over 60
 percent of the world's population will live in cities by 2030. The World Resource Institute
 defined the pace of urbanization today reflects the tremors of Chicago and New York or
 London hundred years a go. In just five years between 1990 and 1995 the cities of developing
 country grew by 263 million people, which is equivalent to another Los Angels or Shanghai
 forming in every three months. Based on the United Nation Centre for Human Settlement
 (UNCHS) published ‘The State Of The World's Cities Report 2001’, three billion people - nearly
 every other person on earth already live in cities. Today the planet hosts 19 cities with 10
 million or more people; 22 cities with 5 to 10 million people; 370 cities with 1 to 5 million
 people; and 433 cities with 0.5 to 1 million people.

1.2.Urbanization in India

 India’s urban population is 285.3 million in the year 2001 which is 27.8 percentage of the
 total population. India hosts total 35 cities with a population more than million each. Among
 these there are 7 mega cities of which 3 with population over 10 million and 3 with
 Population above 5 million in the country but by the year 2021, it is expected that India will
 have the greatest concentration of mega cities in the Asian region. The biggest threat is
 population growth because it is mostly taking place in urban areas than rural areas while
 population growth in rural areas will remain steady and it will channeled to urban areas.
 Urbanisation will lead to growth of bigger cities such as cities with more than 10 million
 populations. The size class distribution of urban settlements is expected to skew further and
 number of class-I towns would increase from 300 in 1991 to about 500 by 2011 accounting
 for almost 70% of total urban population.

 1.2.1.Urban Governance in India a Steps towards Decentralization

 Municipal Governance in India exists since 1687 with the formation of Madras Municipal
 Corporation and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726. In early part of
 the nineteenth century almost all towns in India witnessed some form of municipal
 Governance. In the year 1882 Lord Ripens resolution of local self-government laid the
 foundation of democratic forms of municipal governance in India. In 1919 Government of
 India Act incorporated the need of the resolution and the powers of democratically elected
 government were formulated. In 1935 Government of India Act brought local government
 under the purview of the state or provincial government and specific powers were given.

 In 1992, a major step towards the decentralization and empowerment of local governments in
 India took place with the enactment of 74th Constitutional Amendment Act. The Amendment



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 1-
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



 calls for greater responsibilities and authorities for local governments by recognizing it as a
 third tier government. Some of the important aspects include:

      • Planning for economic and social development and role of municipal government in
        implementation of urban poverty alleviation projects

      • Increased responsibility for urban planning at the district and metropolitan levels

      • Greater authority to mobilize and use of resources.

1.3.Urbanisation in Orissa

 In Orissa out of the total population of 36,706,920 as on 1st March, 2001, 31,210,602 live in
 rural areas and 5,496,318 in urban area. The net addition of population in rural area during
 1991-2001 has been to the tune of 3685399 while in urban area it is 1261785. The
 percentage decadal growth of population in rural and urban area during the decade is 13.8
 and 29.78 percent respectively.

 The percentage of urban population to the total population of the states stands at 14.97. The
 percentage of urban population to total population in the 1991 Census was 13.33 percent.
 Thus, there has been an increase on 1.64 percentage points in the proportion of urban
 population in the state during 1991 – 2001.

 Prior to 1951 there were only 39 urban centres in Orissa, which has grown up to 138 in
 2001. In other words the urban population of the state share has increased from 3% in 1941
 to 14.97% in 2001. Among these urban centres Government of Orissa defined 103 as urban
 local bodies. These urban local bodies were further sub divided into three categories such as
 Municipal Corporation, Municipalities and Notified Area Council. Presently there were 2
 Municipal Corporations, 35 Municipalities and 66 Notified Area Councils.

 1.3.1.Level of Urbanisation

 Among all the districts of Orissa, the Khordha district is most urbanized with 42.93 percent
 urban population followed by Jharsuguda (36.40 percent) and Sundargarh (34.38 percent).
 The proportion of urban population is the lowest in Nayagarh with 4.29% followed by Jajpur
 with 4.49 percent, Boudh (4.82 percent) and Nuapada (5.66 percent).

 Among the major Towns Bhubaneswar is the biggest with 647302 population followed by
 Cuttack (535139 population) and Berhampur (289724 population). In terms of share of cities
 population with total urban population of the state Bhubaneswar shares 13.28 percent
 followed by Cuttack 10.98 percent and Berhampur 5.94 percent. Similarly the Municipal
 Corporations share is 24.96, Municipalities 50.55 percent and Notified Area Councils 25.18
 percent.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 2-
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



 Table 1:      Share of towns in total urban population in Orissa
 Top Towns         Population        Percent

                   2387119           48.98
 10

                   2753474           56.50
 15

                   3276856           67.24
 25

 50                4086457           83.85

                   4873634
 103                                 100

 Source: Various Census Publications

 Among all towns around 48.98 percent population are living within top ten towns which
 includes two Municipal Corporation and eight Municipalities. It is observed that more than
 fifty percent of the states urban populations are living within top fifteen cities sharing
 56.50percent. Similarly 83.85 percent populations are living within top fifty towns of Orissa.

 1.3.2.Urban Governance

 The Housing and Urban Development Department is the apex institution of Government of
 Orissa responsible for urban sector development in Orissa. The department has three
 directorates i.e. Municipal Administration, Public Health Engineering and Town Planning.
 The Urban Local Bodies (ULB’s) are functioning under the Orissa Municipal Corporation Act
 2003 and Orissa Municipal Act 1950. Similarly Development Authorities are functioning
 under the Orissa Development Authority Act.

1.4.Need for Development of the Urban Sector.

 Cities and towns have a vital role in India’s socio-economic transformation and change. Apart
 from their contribution to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) which is currently
 placed at about 50-55 per cent, and their growing role in the global markets, cities in India
 are the centre-point of innovations and hub of many activities. At the same time, most cities
 and towns are severely stressed in terms of infrastructure and service availability. In 2001,
 50.3 per cent of urban households had no piped water within premises, and 44 per cent of
 them were devoid of sanitation facilities. Even with a relatively high economic growth
 registered during the 1990s, 23.6 per cent of the country’s urban population continued to be
 below the poverty line. According to the Census of India 2001, 14.12 per cent of urban
 population lives in slums, with a significant proportion of it without access to even the most
 basic services. The inner areas of cities face widespread dereliction, decadence, and neglect,
 with significant negative economic consequences.

 Municipal governments and other institutions responsible for service provision are facing
 acute shortage of capacity and resources, notwithstanding the Constitution (seventy-fourth)

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 3-
Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan



Amendment Act, 1992 on Municipalities. Most municipalities are starved of resources on
account of their inability to effectively use their revenue raising powers, in particular, relating
to property. The inter-governmental fiscal relations have changed, but at best, marginally, to
make any noticeable impact on their finances. The existing municipal accounting systems do
not permit accurate assessment of the financial position of municipalities, nor is it possible to
ascertain from them the levels of spending on different services and recoveries.

Considering that state of cities is incompatible with the country’s socio-economic objectives
and India’s growing role in the world economy, the Government of India launched, the
Jawaharlal         Nehru   National Urban           Renewal    Mission   (JNNURM).   Aimed   at   creating
economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities, the Urban Renewal
Mission focuses on (i) improving and augmenting the economic and social infrastructure of
cities; (ii) ensuring basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable
prices;   (iii)    initiating    wide-ranging
urban sector reforms whose primary                   Box 1: Investment Requirements in the Urban
aim is to eliminate legal, institutional                       Sector
and financial constraints that have
                                                     It is estimated that over a seven-year period, the
impeded           investment      in        urban
                                                     Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)1 would require a total
infrastructure and services; and (iv)
                                                     investments of Rs. 1,20,536 crores. This includes
strengthening municipal governments
                                                     investment in basic infrastructure and services,
and their functioning in accordance
                                                     that is, annual funding requirement of Rs.
with      the        provisions        of     the
                                                     17,219 crores. It is well recognised that in order
Constitution                (seventy-fourth)
                                                     to fructify these investments, a national level
Amendment Act, 1992. It provides for
                                                     initiative is required that would bring together
public disclosure of local spending
                                                     the State Governments and enable ULBs catalyse
decisions together with earmarking of
                                                     investment flows in the urban infrastructure
budgetary          allocations    for       basic
                                                     sector.
services to the poor. The Mission
rests on the postulate that in order to make cities work and meaningfully contribute to
India’s economic growth and poverty reduction objectives, it is essential to create incentives
and support for urban reforms both at the state and city levels; develop appropriate enabling
frameworks; enhance the creditworthiness of municipal governments; and integrate the poor
with service delivery systems.

In order to apply for grant assistance under JNNURM, the Government of India requires
eligible cities to -

(i) formulate a medium-term City Development Plan (CDP);

(ii) prepare project proposals; and

(iii) draw up a timeline for implementing the urban sector reforms.

Subject to the fulfillment of the above-stated requirements and their satisfactory appraisal,
the Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development/Ministry of Urban Employment and
Poverty Alleviation will sign a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) with the state government
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                 - 4-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



 and the applicant city, and release funds in accordance with the payment schedule that will
 form a part of the Memorandum of Agreement (MoA).
 The mission covers two Urban Local Bodies of Orissa namely Bhubaneswar and Puri. As
 formulation of City Development Plan (CDP) is a mandatory requirement for accessing Jn
 NURM funds, the Housing & Urban Development Department (H&UD) of Govt. of Orissa, as
 part of its agenda to address cities development challenges facing by Orissa cities, have
 initiated formulation of Puri CDP. In this context, the H&UD Department and Puri
 Municipality involved City Managers’ Association Orissa (CMAO) to prepare the CDP for Puri.

1.5.City Development Plan (CDP)

 A City Development Plan (CDP) is both a perspective and a vision for the future development
 of a city. It presents the current stage of the city’s development – where are we now? It sets
 out the directions of change – where do we want to go? It identifies the thrust areas — what
 do we need to address on a priority basis? It also suggests alternative routes, strategies, and
 interventions for bringing about the change – what interventions do we make in order to attain
 the vision? It provides a framework and vision within which projects need to be identified and
 implemented. It establishes a logical and consistent framework for evaluation of investment
 decisions.
 Puri City Development Plan envisages conservation and preservation of its glorious
 Heritage with a vision for future reflecting the aspirations of the city and its
 stakeholders to present a new story through interaction and debate in deciding

                what we want,
                what we’ve done,
                and what we have to do to create the sustainable future we want.
 The City Development Plan will include (1) an identification of needs based on a review of
 existing plans and policies, interviews with local citizens, business owners and other
 stakeholders, and an analysis of existing conditions, including field reconnaissance surveys
 of the community’s physical fabric; (2) the preparation of potential alternatives for
 consideration; and (3) the development of broad directives and specific recommendations.
 Puri City Development Plan would be Cities primary planning strategy, sets out what we
 believe must happen over the next few years to achieve our vision for the City of Puri in 2030.
 During the process of CDP Puri Municipal Council will work with all who have a stake in the
 City of Puri’s future to realize it’s vision and will simultaneously pursue:
        •       Preservation of Heritage
        •       Improvement of Environmental quality
        •       Economic prosperity
        •       Social equity
 1.5.1.The Guiding Principles

 In December 2005 to April 2006, Puri Municipality conducted a series of public consultations
 designed to help establish the principles that would guide the city’s growth in the form of a
 City Development Plan. The consultations produced seven guiding principles that were

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 5-
Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan



endorsed by Municipal Council and have become the backbone of the Puri CDP initiative.
This set of principles has guided the preparation of all five growth management plans within
the City of Puri and will also guide the municipality’s day-to-day decision-making in the long-
term.

The seven principles and accompanying objectives are equally important and must be
balanced when making decisions. The goal is one of sustainable development: to
accommodate growth and change without undermining the environmental or social systems
on which we depend. Thus, social, cultural, environmental and economic issues must be kept
in balance to make a liveable, prosperous city. The principles are:

A Creative City, Rich in Heritage, Unique in Identity – being proud of what we have and
who we are both as the religious heritage and as a city with a particular history; a vibrant
cultural centre, local arts and heritage; community vitality, creativity and innovation; culture
that is present in all the city’s communities; a distinct rural countryside.

A Caring and Inclusive City – universal access to adequate income, food, clothing,
transportation, health services and recreation; safety and security; equal opportunity to fully
participate in community life; respect for cultural and social diversity; access to services that
are responsive to special and differing needs.

Green and Environmentally-Sensitive City – preserving and enhancing natural habitats,
urban forest and rural forests, and the network of green spaces; developments that respect
the environment and use land wisely; a focus on walking, cycling and transit; improving the
quality of the air, water and soil; and protecting natural resources and agricultural lands.

A City of Distinct and Livable Communities – communities with identity; communities
that have a variety of housing choices, employment, parks, services and facilities accessible
by walking, cycling or transit; communities that are accessible to the disabled.

An Innovative City where prosperity is shared among all – creating a critical mass of
knowledge and experience that attracts venture capital and talent and spins off new
companies; a supportive environment for the creation of strong local businesses and a strong
rural economy; connecting people to opportunities.

Responsible    and   Responsive       City   –   accountability,   conducting   on-going   strategic
monitoring and making appropriate adjustments; fiscal responsibility meaning the City
makes efficient use of its infrastructure and resources; an open and participatory process
that is welcoming and easy for everyone to participate in; partnerships with other levels of
government, the private sector and community-based organizations; public education to raise
awareness and understanding of key issues and choices.

A Healthy and Active City – communities that are designed in ways that promote the health
of all residents; a focus on prevention by getting people to participate in physical activities;
the provision of parklands, recreational pathways, beaches, playgrounds, arenas, swimming
pools, and gymnasiums; a clean and safe water supply; treatment of storm water; and the
safety of contaminated soils/sites.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          - 6-
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



1.5.2.Objectives of City Development Plan

The main objective of the CDP is to have a planned growth of the city in the desired direction
and to project Puri as a Global Tourism Business City of Eastern India, guided by a shared
vision for city’s development. The CDP makes basic policy choices and provides a flexible
framework for adapting to real conditions over time. The objective includes:

        Preserve & Conserve Heritage & Culture

        Improve urban services to facilitate development of Heritage and promote tourism

        Improve Environmental Conditions

        Improve Conditions of Urban Poor

        Image Building of the city

        Strengthen Preparedness for City’s Disaster Management

1.5.3.City Development Planning Process

The City Development Plan has included: (1) identification of needs based on a review of
existing plans and policies, interviews with local citizens, business owners and other
stakeholders, and an analysis of existing conditions, including field reconnaissance surveys
of the community’s physical fabric; (2) the preparation of potential alternatives for
consideration; and (3) the development of broad directives and specific recommendations. The
CDP also took into consideration the works and plans of other government and semi
government agencies contributing towards the growth and development of the city and were
prepared by undertaking the following tasks:



    o Situation Analysis
    o Stakeholder Consultations
    o Public Forum
    o Vision Identification
    o Formulation of Goals & Strategies
    o City Finance Plan
    o Reform Agenda
    o Approval by the Council along with Draft MoA




Community input has been central to the planning process. Each phase of the process has
been organized around a public meeting to ensure the Plan is well-informed with public
sentiment and opinion. The meetings included a kick of meeting and four subsequent
workshops with the public. Simeltounsly consultations were held at the policy, legislative and
state levels.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 7-
Puri Municipality                                                              Puri City Development Plan



The kickoff meeting was held in December 2005 with the cities stakeholders to review project
goals and desired outcomes of the planning process. Members of the Stakeholders included:
representatives from the Govt. of Orissa, District Administration, Puri Municipality, Puri
Konark Development Authority, Police & Traffic, Water Supply, Tourism, Hotel & Restaurant
Association, Chamber of Commerce and Citizens etc.

The second workshop, held in February 2006
among officials and elected representative of                 Box 2: Public Participation
Puri Municipality and stakeholders presented
                                                              City Of Puri
the situation analysis of the city’s progress.
                                                              Puri Municipality
All the stakeholders were familiarised with the
                                                              Shri Jagannatha Temple Administration
purpose, process, and expected outcomes of
                                                              Puri Konark Development Authority
the     CDP,       and       build          enthusiasm,
                                                              Engineering departments
understanding and commitment to the CDP.
                                                              Traffic Police
The    process     also    helped     in     deriving     a
                                                              Public Utility Services
consensus      along      with     the      stakeholders
                                                              Public Health Engineering Organisastion
firming the process and agreeing upon a
structured     programme         to   take    the   CDP
                                                              District & Police Administration
forward. Each stakeholders of the workshop
explained his / her dream for Puri along with
                                                              State Level Organization
projects for JNNURM. The workshop ended
                                                              Housing & Urban Development Department
with a draft Vision for the city and path for
                                                              City Managers’ Association Orissa
growth.

During the month of February and March                        City Stakeholders
additional     information       on      demographics,        Chamber of Commerce
economy, civic services, physical features, etc.              Confederation of Indian Industries
were   collected    to     assess     the    validity    of   Tourism Development Agency
proposed       actions.      The         receipts       and   Citizens of Puri
expenditures of the Puri Municipality was                     Hotel & Restaurant Association
analyzed;    the    debt    profile      reviewed       and   Real Estate Developers
evaluated. Also, the operating efficiency of the
core infrastructure services provided by the Municipality and other institutions was
evaluated.

The result of public workshop, held in April 2006, to agree upon priority actions (projects and
reforms) for each of the focus areas. The priority actions were further detailed in terms of
resources required, responsibilities and stakeholder involvement, identification of potential
roadblocks and suggestions to overcome these, practical implications, preliminary funding
requirements and responsibilities, additional requirements and pre-requisites for successfully
accomplishing priority actions.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  - 8-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



The CDP identified performance-monitoring/ sustainability indicators to assist the Puri
Municipality to review the progress of the CDP on an annual basis and to enable them in
setting the agenda for the future. The process is iterative and enabled the city to review its
outcomes through the identified indicators so as to make the process dynamic and in tune
with the felt needs and requirements..

Within the process Puri Municipality identified its VISION considering the position occupied
by Puri as a strategic destination for various activities and initiatives planned by central and
state governments and to guide the planning and investment decisions in future. The CDP
envisages a sustainable development and to acquire image of a "Global Class Tourism and
Business City" in making and being a favourable destination for new economy enterprises of
Eastern India.

The final workshop conducted involving government officials and all other relevant
stakeholders wherein the entire City Development Plan, organized under the heads of Vision,
Goals Strategic direction and City Finance Plan. The implementation issues related to the
City Finance Plan was discussed. Finally, the CDP document is prepared after incorporating
the feedback from the workshop. A summary of the CDP is prepared for publication for wider
dissemination among participating stakeholders.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 9-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan




                                                             2.Puri City Profile

2.1.City Introduction
 Nestling on the eastern coast along the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal, the unique State of
 Orissa is known for its magnificent temples, sunny beaches, colourful wild life, traditional
 tribal culture and a rich heritage. To her credit, it has housed important pilgrimage centers
 for the Hindus - Puri, the 13th century magic carved on sand stone - Konark, the largest
 brackish water lake of the continent - Chilika, the wonder green land of the white tigers -
 Nandankanan, and many more caves, Chaityas, Stupas, Temples, forts and palaces.
 Statistics says most of the visitors frequent Orissa for Lord Jagannath and the blue bay,
 located in the town of Puri - the headquarter of district Puri.

 Puri which is one of the coastal towns of Eastern India is known all over the world as an
 important center of pilgrimage and possesses an enchanting beach. Millions of pilgrims
 and tourists visit the town every year. Puri the abode of Lord Jagannath is replete with
 historic antiquities. Numerous monuments like Shri Jagannath Temple, Gundicha temple,
 Sunar Gauranga, Loknath temple and the sacred tanks like Narendra, Sweta Ganga,
 Markandeya etc. are the main places of attraction in the town. Initially the human
 settlement began around the temple of lord Jagannath, houses within the settlements were
 improperly planned and connected with narrow lanes.




      Map 1: Regional Setting of Puri



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  - 10-
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



2.2.Evolution of Puri Town

 Located on the East Coast of India overlooking Bay of Bengal, Puri is located on a 67 km
 stretch of sandy beach that extends from the Chilika Lake to the south of Puri town. The
 sun temple of Konark is located on this beach at a distance of 35km north of Purl.

 The town consists of the Temple of Lord Jagannath in its centre with eight quarters (Sahis)
 radiating from it. The town colonies were called 'Sahis'. The population of the town was
 composed mostly priests and people attached to the various activities of the temple. Besides,
 there are large numbers of mathas which chiefly cluster round the temple. As the rituals of
 the temple and Ratha Yatra became more elaborate, more people started living in Puri.
 Ordinary people who had no contribution to rituals have also started living.

 The town was originally built on sandy track which began from north and west towards
 Cuttack and Ganjam road where the Madhupur or Matia stream is lined with the largest
 tanks, Narendra, Mitiani, Markandeya and Siva Ganga. As the tributary of the river Matiani
 draining into the sea dried up, it paved the way for the new direction of development of the
 town in the southeast.

 The Matha Complexes with their system of
 interconnected open courtyards as well as
                                                    Box 1: Puri as Seaport
 extensive areas of garden and plantations were
                                                    Historical records show that once Puri
 also closely associated with the major temple
 complexes. These Mathas were located within        was also a seaport. It was open for

 compact traditional neighborhoods or 'Sahis'       import and export trade from the middle
 with a distinctive built form which emerged in     of September to the middle of March.
 close proximity to    the Jagannath temple         During the other six months of the year,
 complex. The evolution of the town is believed     the surface did not allow the ships to be
 to have begun with Harachandi Sahi & Baseli        loaded or unloaded. The vessels that
 Sahi in the northwest, Kundhei-Benta Sahi &        frequented the port consisted chiefly of
 Hera Gouri on the north-east, Markandeswar         country barges. They were laid half a
 Sahi & Chudanga Sahi on the north; then west
                                                    mile away from the shore in good
 towards Loknath, and later to the east and
                                                    weather. The trade consisted mostly of
 south with Bali Sahi on the south, with
                                                    the shipment of rice to Madras coast and
 Matimandapa Sahi and Kalikadevi Sahi on the
                                                    occasionally to Mauritius.
 south-east towards Swargdwar and Goudabada
 Sa hi on the south-west, and Dolamandapa
 Sahi and Machi Sahi on the east. This was followed by the Badadanda area towards the
 Gundicha Temple. However, large areas of garden and plantations were integrated with the
 traditional' Sahis' and large open spaces were also associated as a green buffer around to
 sustain them. The sandy tract or Balukhand was not constructed upon, with the exception of
 the Swargdwar area where certain Mathas and a cremation ground were established,
 maintaining a distance from the seashore.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 11-
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



Table 2:      Origin of Puri Town (Vedic Age to 12th Century A.D.)
Ancient: (Vedic age to 9th century AD)

                      The antiquity of the initial settlement of Puri is shrouded in
Initial settlement
of   Puri   dating mystery. But a number of Sanskrit Slokas (Particularly a Passage
                   quoted from the Rigveda and explained later" by the Acharya
back to the age of
                   Sayana, one of the greatest Vedic commentators of India) indicates
Rigveda
                   an early settlement around Puri dating back to the age of Rigveda
                      itself. (Ref: Rig 10/155, sukta mantra No.3).

                      According to historical records, the early settlement of Puri started
                      with fisherman (Dhibars along the sea and hunter-gatherers
                      (Sabars) in the forests, later settling in scattered agricultural
                      villages.

The First Temple      The town owes its birth and existence to the temple of Lord
                      Jagannath. The story of the origin of the temple of Jagannath at
                      Puri dates back to the times of Mahabharata. According to it, Lord
                      Krishna was killed by the arrow of Jara, a fowler, Arjun consigned
                      the body to flames, but the flames could not consume it. Directed
                      from the heaven, Arjun then threw the body into the sea at
                      Dwarka. It floated in the form of a Daru log and took thousands of
                      years to reach the eastern shores. Indradyumna, the King of
                      Malava who had performed a thousand Ashwamedha Yogi, found
                      this log and for whom the god appeared in the form of log at Puri;
                      with this he got constructed the three deities of this temple.

First Nagar(Town)     In 262 AD King Ashoka invaded Kalinga, but the devastation did
                      not cast a permanent shadow on the settlement as Ashoka
- 2nd century BC
                      changed to Ahimsa, and to Buddhism. During his period, of rule,
                      Buddhism spread in Orissa but not so much in Puri.
                      In 640 AD Chinese traveler Huen Tsang probably visited Puri.
Pre Medieval: (9th century AD to 15th century AD)

Established as one      In 9th century A.D., a major change came in Puri. Acharya
of the ‘Dhams’          Shankar visited Puri, and upgraded the place as one of the four
                        ‘Dhamas’.
- 9th century A.D.

The Second temple -     10th century king Yayati Kesari (Yayati-II of Somavamsi dynasty)

10th century A.D        is likely to have built the second temple on the same spot, as the
                        first temple by Indradyumna was dilapidated.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 12-
 Puri Municipality                                                       Puri City Development Plan




 Third      and       the     King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva (1174-1198 A.D) of Ganga
 present temple               dynasty built the third or the present temple. He began the

 - 12th century A.D           construction of the present temple some time after 1135 A.D. The
                              temple    was     completed   by   his   descendent   and   grandson
                              Anangabhima Deva III

                              In this time most of the migration took place to Puri due its
                              welcoming geological nature and the most holistic Jagannath
                              temple. Pilgrims started visiting this place and this became a
                              major tirtha.

 Source: District Gazetteer, Puri

2.3.Structure of the Town

 Mythologically, the city is believed to have been planned in the shape of conch or
 ‘Sankhakshetra’. This area is
 about five Koshas (10 miles) in
 extent    of    which    nearly    two
 koshas are submerged in the
 sea. In the centre of the khetra
 lies Jagannath temple on a
 hillock called Nilagiri and eight
 Shiva    temples     guarding      the
 eight quarters radiating from it
 the     hillocks    called     Nilagiri
 where the temple stands and
 Bada Danda connecting to Sri
 Gundicha Temple being the
                                              Plate 1:      The Sankha Khetra
 Spine     and      the   bottom       of
 shankha and the Lokanath being the top portion of the shankha. The broad end of the
 Sahnkakshetra lies to the west where the temple of Loknath is located and on the apical end
 or tail end in the east is located the temple of Nilakantha.

 This ancient temple town continued to attract increasing number of pilgrims through ages
 and was recognized as one of the four Dhams in India. Simultaneously, Puri,s popularity
 also grew as costal health resort visited by more and more tourist from far wide. Above all,
 this town evolved and still thrives because of the temple dedicated to Lord Jaganath. The
 structure of the town has been linear along Badadanda (Grand Road) and the beach; around
 which the town has grown organically.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                           - 13-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



2.4.Topography of Puri Town

 Geographically Puri town is bound by the sea on the south east, Musa River in the north,
 Sunamuhin River in the
 west     and     Balukhanda
 reserved forest on the
 east.      Geologically       Puri
 town area is underlain
 by            unconsolidated
 formations of alluvium.
 The coastal sand dunes
 occur almost parallel to
 the     shoreline     and the
 width of this varies from
 few 100 m to 7 km. The
 lower       deltaic       plains
 occur      adjacent      to    the
 coastal sand dunes and
 the width varies from 5
 to    10     km.      Extensive
 agriculture        has        been   Map 2: Puri Municipal Area
 observed       around         Puri
 town area in the deltaic plains.

2.5.Climate

 In the deltaic region of the district the temperature variation is less but in the hilly areas the
 climate is comparatively drier with higher temperatures in summer and slightly cooler winter.
 The I.M.D observatories at Puri and Bhubaneswar can be considered as representative
 stations for these two regions. The winter season is from December to February followed by
 summer from June to September to May. The rainy season is from June to September
 followed by post monsoon transition period of October and November. The average annual
 rainfall in the district is 1488 mm. the rainfall generally decreases from northeast to
 southwest. Average annual rainfall at Pipli in NE is 1923 mm while at Banpur in SW is 1361
 mm. 74% of annual rainfall is received from southwest monsoon during June to September
 months with maximum rainfall in July. Mean monthly rainfall during rainy season varies
 from 166 to 322 mm. Average number of rainy days in a year are 71.

 May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 31.9*C at Puri and 38*C
 at Bhubaneswar. December is coldest month with mean daily minimum temperature of
 17.1*C at Puri and 15.7*C at Bhubaneswar. Maximum temperature goes up to 42*C at Puri
 and 45*C at Bhubaneswar during summer minimum temperature goes down to 10.6*C at
 Puri and 9.4*C at Bhubaneswar during winter. Relative humidity is generally high


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 14-
 Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan



 throughout the year in the coastal areas while it is slightly less in the interior of the district.
 It varies from 62 to 85% at Puri and 48 to 85% at Bhubaneswar.

2.6.Location & Linkages
 The town of Puri is located almost at the geographic centre of the District, and is bounded by
 sea on South east. Mauza Sipaurubilla on West, Mauza Gopinathpur on the North and
 Mauza Balukhand on the east surround it. Geographically Puri is located on 19 degree 18
 minutes North latitude and 85 degree 51 minutes East longitude.

 The Town is directly connected by broad gauge railway line with Khurda, a prominent
 Railway junction in S.E. railway. It is about 499 kms. from Calcutta and 468 kms from
 Vishakhapatnam. N.H.-203 connects the Town with the Capital city Bhubaneswar which is
 about 60 kms. Moreover, this town is also well connected with Satapada via Brahmagiri
 through N.H.-203 B and Konark through Marine drive road which comes under N.H.203 A.
 The nearest Airport is at Bhubaneswar, which is approx. 60 Kms from the town of Puri.

 Table 3:         Distance of Puri from major Cities
 Name                                       Distance in Kms
 Bhubaneswar                                  65
 Konark                                       35
 Cuttack                                    90
 Source: Directorate of Tourism, Govt. of Orissa

2.7.Area and Population
 The administrative jurisdiction of Puri Municipal area spreads over 16.3268 sq kms and
 stretches along the sea-shore measuring about 5.00 kms. The entire municipal area is
 divided in to 30 wards.

 As per 2001 census the population of Puri Town was 1, 57,610 with a growth rate of 26%
 during the period of 1991-2001. The growth rate of the town is less than that of the state
 (urban) which is 30.28 % for the period 1991-2001. The decade wise population growth is
 given below:

 Table 4:         Population of Puri
 Year               Population            Growth rate       Literacy        Sex Ratio
 1951               49,057                +19.49
 1961               60,815                +23.97
 1971               72,674                +19.50
 1981               100,942               +38.90
 1991               125,199               + 24.03
 2001               157.610               +26.00            83.53           917
 Source: Various Censuses Report
 Table 5:      Population increase during 1981- 2001
  Composition year       1981-91        %of total    1991-2001                    % of total
  Natural increase        18595          19.32         23042                       19.32
   In-migration           28056          30.08         38325                       32.13
       Total              46651          49.40         61367                       51.45


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         - 15-
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



2.7.1.Socio-Economic Characteristics

Till the late 50s of the 20th centuries, Puri reigned as a pilgrim centre. Slowly the tourists
from India and abroad are attracted towards the golden beach of Puri thus introducing other
functions to promote its economic activities. The occupational pattern of Puri urban area is
as follows;

Table 6:       Occupational Pattern 1991- 2011
                              1991              2001                     2011 projected
Sl.   Category           No          %       No      %                    No        %
No
I     PRIMARY
1.    Cultivators             291       14.89        301       12.00        314       10.00
2.    Agriculture             304       15.55        351       14.00        377       12.00
3.    Live Stock               61        2.12        101        4.00         94           -
4.    Mining          &         1         .05          -           -                      -
      Quarrying
      TOTAL                   657    33.61           753    30.00           785      25.00
                                1991                   2001               2011 projected
II    SECONDARY
1.    H.H. Ind.               150      767           201     8.00           283        9.0
2.    Other than HH            77     3.94           100     4.00           157       5.00
3.    Construction             20     1.02            75     3.00           125       4.00
      TOTAL                   247    12.63           376    15.00           565      18.00
                                1991                   2001               2011 projected
III   TERTIARY
1.    Trade       &           454       23.22        603       24.00        785       25.00
      Commerce
2.    Transport               169       8.65         226       9.00         283       9.00
3.    Others                  428      21.89         552      22.00         722      23.00
      TOTAL                  1051      53.76        1301      55.00        1790      57.00
      GRAND TOTAL            1955     100.00        2510     100.00        3140     100.00
Source: Census 2001

Puri being the oldest town in the district caters to the need of hinterland so far as wholesale
and retail trade, is concerned. After the establishment of new capital at Bhubaneswar the
wholesale trade has shifted to Bhubaneswar and Jatni, the nearest trade centers. The
commercial activities of Puri are mostly confined to retail trades. The grand road popularly
known as Badadanda, is the main trading axis of the town. Leaving aside the permanent
nature of shops, temporary shops and hawkers squat almost the entire stretch of Badadanda
on both the sides. These shops cater to the needs of local people as well as pilgrims in terms
of handicrafts, clothes & other materials.

There are about 1500 such shops within the Badadanda complex where clothes, handicrafts,
metal utensils, toys and sea shells, vegetables fruits and eatables are sold. In addition to this,
shopping centers are located along grand road, in Swargadwar area and Mochi Sahi Chhak.
Except these three places there is no large scale organized shopping complex and most of the
shops are located by the side of main roads and lanes. Generally, the entrance of the
residential building is used for commercial purpose. The Swargadwar shopping complex
mainly accommodates horn and shell works, ornamental bangles and artificial jewelry,
handloom saries and similar other products which attract the tourists.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 16-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



2.8.Tourism

 Puri Town is one of the nodes of the golden triangle of Orissa with Bhubaneswar and
 Konark being the other nodes. The town has been bestowed with magnificent sea beach. Lord
 Jagannath temple epitomizes the citadel of Jagannath culture. Many a natural tourism
 destination with potential are located surrounding Puri. The list of such destinations with
 approximate distance from Puri has been given below.

 Table 7:      Distance form Puri
 Place                         In KM     Place                In KM
 Bhubaneswar                   60        Balighai             14
 Konark                        35        Chaurasi             70
 Satapada                      50        Raghurajpur          14
 Biswanath Hill                35        Brahmagiri           25
 Kakatpur                      60        Pipli                40
 Astarang                      70        Ramachandi           27
 Kuruma                        43        Beleswar             17
 Satyabadi                     19        Jahaniapira          72
 Baliharachandi                27        Baligaon             29
        Source: Directorate of Tourism, Govt. of Orissa
 The study on inflow of tourist reveals that there has been a significant increase in flow of
 domestic tourists to the town, where as the inflow of foreign tourists is either constant or
 marginally increasing. Although the tourism number may be less but number visitors
 arriving in the city are more in number. The difference is due to the factor that all visitors are
 not calculated as tourist due to the difference in definations. The details of tourist arrival is
 given below:

 Table 8:      Number of Tourists Inflow to Puri Since 1995
 Year                   Domestic               Foreign                 Total
 1995                   2697365                28201                   2725566
 1996                   2773245                34303                   2807548
 1997                   2828131                35081                   2863212
 1998                   2861788                33101                   2894889
 1999                   2691840                25758                   2717598
 2000                   2888392                23723                   2912115
 2001                   3100316                22854                   3123170
 2002                   3413352                23034                   3436386
 2003                   3701250                25020                   3726270
 2004                   4125536                28817                   4154353
 Source: Directorate of Tourism, Govt. of Orissa

2.9.Development Plan Development Plan & Land use

 The Master Plan Area of Puri covers the Municipal area as well as 16 villages of Puri Sadar
 Police Station. The Master Plan area is about 63.578 sq km. and stretches along the sea-
 shore measuring about 20.35 km. The Municipal Area is about 16.84 sq km. and stretches
 along the sea-shore measuring about 6.59 km. The entire Municipal area has been divided
 into 34 units or mouzas and 30 wards.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      - 17-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



2.10.City Growth Direction

 The city has extended in four different directions during the last few decades by engulfing the
 fringe villages. Puri is a slow growing city due to the location of the reserve forests, costal
 areas and rivers. The south eastern part of is restricted growth due the existence of Bay of
 Bengal and Forest on the easte. The structure of the city today shows more growth towards
 Northe       East       and
 South West.

 The                transport          Growth Matrix
 corridors     and      their
                                                        Bhubaneswar
 proximity to existing                                    NH 203
 services     are    guiding
 the spatial growth of               Brahmagiri
                                                                           Konark Marin Drive
 the city. Based on the               NH 203 B
                                                                               NH 203 A
 assessment              and
 current growth trends,
 the city is fast growing
 along      the      NH-203
 towards Bhubaneswar
 in          north-eastern
                                       Hotels
 direction.           Similar
 growth trend may be
 observed on the other          Map 3: Growth Matrix of Puri Town
 direction (south-west)
 along the Brahmagiri NH 203 B road. Other growth directions may be towards along the cost
 line with hotels and small settlements. The scope for the extension towards south is limited
 due to the presence of the Bay of Bengal and Costal Zone Regulation (CRZ).

 However, the region may grow towards Konark in along marrendrive of NH 203 A, due to the
 upcoming of educational institutions etc. Similary Pruri Konark NH 203 A is expected to grow
 due the upcoming Vedanta Unviversity. The Vednta University will have coverage of taround
 10000 Acrs of land. It has benchmark to set up world class standard University like
 Cambridge, Stanford and Harford. However, it is required that Govt. of Orissa may undertake
 a detail study on the growth potential of Puri city.

2.11.Administrative Boundaries and Areas

 The Master Plan Area of Puri covers the Municipal area as well as 16 villages of Puri Sadar
 Police Station. The Master Plan area is about 63.578 sq. Kms. and stretches along the sea-
 shore measuring about 20.35 Kms. The Municipal Area is about 16.84 sq. Kms. and
 stretches along the sea-shore measuring about 6.59 Kms. The entire Municipal area has been
 divided into 34 units or mouzas and 30 wards.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 18-
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



 Table 9:      Administrative areas, Puri town
                            Area (Sq     Population (1991)            Gross density
                              Kms)                                  (Persons/Sq Km)
  Puri Master plan area        63.578           1, 36,073                  2140

   Puri Municipal area          16.84            1,25,199                  7435

 Source: PKDA, Puri
 As per 2001 census population of Puri Municipal Area is 1, 57,837 lakhs. Puri town is
 classified as Class I Town as per Census definition and a Medium Town as per UDPFI
 Guidelines. The Puri Municipal Area falls under the category of CRZ II as per Coastal
 Regulation Zone Notification of 1991 under the Environment Protection Act of 1986.

2.12.Land Use of Puri Town – A General Picture

 The town of Puri has two distinct portions, the town proper or the western part of the town
 and the Balukhanda, the sandy tract along the sea or the eastern part of the town. The town
 proper consists of the Temple of Jagaannath with the different quarters (Sahi) radiating from
 it and the main road, Badadanda, extending from the Temple to Gundicha Badi. The present
 physical extent of the town proper may be attributed to unplanned and unrestricted sprawl of
 the various 'sahis' around the temple. There appears to be no proper inter relationship
 between the various uses. Commercial, residential and public uses have emerged
 simultaneously in a mixed form and there exists no distinct identity of any use.

 Again the blowing sands have also been a contributory factor towards haphazard growth.
 Owing, perhaps to this natural feature, most of the houses especially in the old town have
 been constructed on raised platforms in order to avoid in blowing sand from entering in to
 the house. That is why wherever higher lands were available development started on such
 lands.

 As in case of many old towns, developments are mostly restricted along roads and lanes, the
 rear portions have remained vacant in the shape of undeveloped lands. Rows of buildings
 have come up along the roads without any uniformity. Thus the town proper with its nucleus
 in the form of Jagannath temple is densely developed and presents an unhealthy look
 characterized by overcrowding, congestion, slum influences, lack of sanitation, dilapidation,
 narrow and crooked lanes and lack of service and community facilities.

 The inhabited portion of Balukhanda stretches between two sacred Tirthas i.e. the
 Swargadwar or Heaven's Gate and the Chakratirtha. This eastern part of the town, which
 mainly consists of the government offices, major educational institutions, is open in
 character and gives some indication of planned growth. It can be said that the land use
 pattern of Puri presents a rather confused picture. There appears to have been no guided
 development on planned basis except in the comparatively new developments of eastern part.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  - 19-
Puri Municipality                                                    Puri City Development Plan



Table 10:       Land Use of Puri Town – 1968 and 2004
                                                1968                                        2004
S.No.     Use Zone                    Area In Acres    % Of                     Area In            % Of
                                                     Total Area                  Acres           Total Area
1.        Residential                    1306.00       31.40                                        33.8
2.        Commercial                             50.00          1.20                                   3.4
3.        Industrial                             3.774          0.09                                  1.75
3.        Public And Semi Public                150.00          3.60                                 24.28
          Areas
4.        Open Spaces & Agricultural            2443.00         58.61                                33.04
          Land

5.        Other Miscellaneous Uses              211.00          5.10                                  3.73
          TOTAL AREA                      4160.00           100.00            4160.00            100.00
Source: Puri Municipality, PKDA, Master Plan-1968, Directorate of Town Planning, Orissa

                                  RESIDENTIAL              LA N D U S E D IS TR IB U TIO N O F
LAND USE DISTRIBUTION                                         M U N IC IP A L A R E A ,2004
OF MUNICIPAL AREA,1968            COMMERCIAL                                                     R ESID EN TIAL
       5%                                                               4%
                                                                                                 C O M M ERC IAL
                                  INDUSTRIAL
                       31%                                                             34%
                                                                                                 IN DU STR IAL
                                                          33%
                                  PUBLIC AND SEMI
                                  PUBLIC                                                         PU BLIC A ND SEM I
                                                                                                 PU BLIC
                                  OPEN SPACES
                                                                                                 O PEN SPA C ES
                                  INCLUDING                                            3%        IN CLU DIN G
                        1%
                        0%        AGRICULTURE
                                                                                      2%         A G RIC ULTU RE
59%                    4%         OTHER                                                          O TH ER
                                                                        24%                      M ISCELLA NEO US
                                  MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                 U SES
                                  USES



2.12.1.Trends of Development (1968 - 2004)

      o The town has expanded in the North -East to South-West direction, into the green
        buffer planned in 1968.
      o There has been an increase in the residential area within the municipal boundary from
        the core towards the periphery. New residential developments and planned residential
        localities are coming up in the peripheral regions of the city.
      o There has been a considerable increase in the commercial activities along the Bada
        Danda stretch and roads along the sea beach. This can be attributed to the high
        population of tourists.
      o There are a number of hotels and guesthouses that have come up along the sea beach
        road.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  - 20-
Puri Municipality                                                       Puri City Development Plan



   o There is also a gradual conversion of residential use to commercial use which is
        predominant throughout the city especially in the areas of tourist interest. The
        character of these areas is that of mixed land-uses.



                                        LAND USE UT ILIZAT ION RAT E             RESIDENTIAL


                              70                                                 CO M M ERCIAL
        DISTRIBUTION (in %)



                              60
            LAND USE




                              50                                                 INDUSTRIAL
                              40
                              30                                                 PUBLIC & SEM I-
                              20                                                 PUBLIC

                              10                                                 O PEN SPACES &
                               0                                                 VACANT LAND
                               1960   1970    1980     1990     2000   2010
                                                                                 O THER
                                                 YEARS                           M ICELLANEO US



       Box 3: Land Utilisation Rate, 1968 - 2004
   o There is also growth of informal sector spread all over the city especially along the
        beach near Swargdwar area
   o A considerable decrease in agricultural land and open spaces has been observed.
        Many of the open spaces and vacant lands are getting built upon, the pressure on the
        land is increasing, driving up the land vatues. The numerous gardens belonging to the
        sahis and mathas have also reduced with the construction of newer buildings within
        the compound itself

2.12.2.Statutory Provisions Made For Master Plans/ Development Plans
   •     The Master Plan area consists of Puri Municipal area and 16 other adjoining villages.
         However, during discussion with city level stekholders it is assumed that these
         villages will take more than twenty five years before mergeing with Puri Municipality
         or Konark NAC.
   •     The Orissa Town Planning and Improvement Trust Act, 1956 was extended over Puri
         Municipal area during the year 1964.
   •     Extension of O.T.P & I.T Act over 16 other adjoining revenue mouzas was made In the
         year 1968.
   •     The draft Master Plan was prepared by Town Planning unit, Puri under the guidance
         of the Town Planning Organization and published by the then S.P.A., Puri in 1968.
   •     Constitution of P.K.R.I.T in the year 1982.
   •     The objections & suggestions were received basing on which in the year 1983, a short
         report was prepared by Town Planning Unit, Bhubaneswar for discussion before
         finalisation of the Master Plan.
   •     Sea-beach Dev. Plan (Draft) within 500mtsof H.T.L was prepared in partial
         modification of Master Plan for Puri by Town Planning Unit, Bhubaneswar under the
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          - 21-
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



       Directorate of Town Planning, Orissa, and the same was approved by H &U.D Deptt.
       in 1983.
   •   The same was draft published by the Trust during the year 1983 and also reflected in
       Orissa Gazette in the same year.
   •   The sea-beach Development plan within 500mts.of High Tide line of sea was prepared
       & submitted to Govt. for approval in the year 1985& final publication in Gazette
       under the provision of O.T.P& I.T Act.
   •   A coastal Zone management plan stretching the coast line up to 500mts of H.T.L of
       sea from Puri to Astaranga was prepared by the then PKRIT, Puri & submitted to
       Govt.
   •   Puri-Konark Development Authority came into being in 1997 with the same areas of
       jurisdiction, as it was earlier with PKRIT.
   •   On constitution of PKDA, the master Plan of Puri has been deemed to be interim
       Development plan (I.D.P) of Puri. The I.D.P for Puri has been prepared & published in
       the Orissa Gazette on 13.03.98 inviting objections and suggestions from general
       public, basing on which a land-use map of IDP, Puri has been prepared & submitted
       to Govt, in H& UD Deptt. In the year 2000.
   •   A comprehensive Development plan has to be prepared.
2.12.3.Emerging Issues
 • Due to rapid transformation of residential areas to commercial activity, mixing of land
   uses is taking place indiscrimately and as a result the intensity of use is increasing along
   with this friction of spaces are taking place. This Incompatibility of land uses have
   resulted in transformation of physical fabric and increased congestion of the city’s various
   networks.
 • The role of religious core has shifted from a social and cultural centre to that of a
   commercial core of the city -The effects are clash between religious and commercial
   activity.
 • High density in the core areas has lead to deterioration of physical environment and living
   conditions.
 • Haphazard development has lead to the deterioration of the city fabric along with filling up
   of low lying areas and wetlands.
 • The tourism sector forms a major component of the city's economy but if the sector is not
   developed in a planned fashion then sustainability will be a problem.
 • In the overall development of the city one does find the lack of planned recreational and
   open spaces.
 • Stricter enforcement of the CRZ Regulations seems to be one of the major issues that need
   to be addressed immediately.
 • Govt. of Orissa may undertake a detail study on the growth potential of Puri city.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   - 22-
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



2.13.Puri Today

 Puri today is the forerunner of the Jagannath culture in Orissa, which saw the flowering of
 several temples dedicated to Jagannath all over the world. It attracts millions of devotees
 through out the year on different occasion.

 Puri represents one of the four peethas established by Adi Sankaracharya, the other three
 being Sringeri in south India, Dwarka in Saurashtra, and Badrinath in the Himalayas.
 Chaitanya in 15th - 16th century popularized the worship of lord Jagannath.

 The temple dominates the town in every sphere – physical, social, cultural and
 economic. The town of Puri has evolved around it so that an intricate web of relationship
 exists between the temple and the town dwellers. There are many ancient settlements around
 the temple precinct that are engaged in the temple activities and are responsible for providing
 different materials for management of temple. Elaborate worship services are carried out
 throughout the day here.

 Puri as a town is more than thousand years old and being a religious town, the town is
 based on Vaastu Purusha Mandala and many meta-physical aspects have been interwoven
 in planning of the town. There are as many as 24 festivals each year, the most important
 being the Rath Yatra or the Car festival in the month June - July.

 Puri, known all around the world for its ‘Rath Yatra’ the cumulating point of all the festivals,
 is celebrated in all pomp and grandeur. The annual ‘Rath Yatra’ of Lord Jagannath is an
 event only of its kind, which attracts more than 1 million people. The grand festival is
 arranged with combined effort of Orissa Government and Temple Management committee.

 Today tourism provides livelihood for almost 80% people of the town. The total economy
 of town is depended on the inflow of tourist population. Rath Yatra being the most important
 festival is also the one, which has a strong environmental, social, cultural, economic and
 spatial impact on the town. The preparation for Rath Yatra starts months before the actual
 festival. Therefore the need of proper infrastructure cant be ignored in city development.
 Therefore proper infrastructure and neccessery infrastructure may be provided during the
 mission period so as make all intervention in protecting & preserving the heritage of the city.

 The City Development Plan can never be complete without taking into consideration all the
 ritualistic aspects of the Grand Festival and without giving a complete profile of all activities
 and arrangement that are parts of Rath Yatra




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 23-
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan




                                        3.Temple Of Lord Jagannath

3.1.Evolution of Jagannath Temple Complex

 Various stories have been narrated on texts, regarding the origin of lord Jagannath and
 about the temple of Jagannath. Many Scholars
 believe that the cult of Jagannath is an intricate
 blending of tribal and Brahmanical traditions.
 Jagannath was identified with Lord Krishna by
 the great Vaishnava reformer Chaitanya and his
 followers in the early 16th century.

 However, Since the last one and half centuries
 different historians have expressed different
 opinions about the time when the present
 Temple was constructed. Stenling in his History      Plate 2:       The   Jagannath    Temple
                                                      Complex
 of Orissa paper writes that Ananga Bhima Dev
 build the temple in 1196 A.D. Fergsum in his
 History of' Architecture volume II page 592 of opinion that it was in 1098. William Hunten in
 his, ‘History of Orissa’ writes that the construction of the temple began in 1114 and finished
 in1198. This fits in with the popular tradition in Orissa that it was Ananga Bhima Dev, who
 constructed the present Temple and fixed the various sebas, sebaks and Nithis.

 According to the palm leaf chronics (Mandala Panji) of Puri temple, Yayati Keshari erected a
 temple for Lord Jagannath but no remains of this temple is in existence. It is said the present
 temple of lord Jagannath- is of the 12th Century King Chodaganga Dev begin the
 construction of the present temple. Some times after 1135 A.D, the temple was completed by
 his worthy descendant Ananga Bhima Dev. Thus the city of Puri because the religious
 metropolis of Kalinga and of India.

 3.1.1.The Architecture of the abode of Lord Jagannath
 The temple of Jagannath built on an elevated ground about twenty feet above the level of the
 surrounding area, presents an imposing sight and can be seen from miles away. The height
 of the main temple or Vimana above the road level is 214’. It is a fine specimen of
 “Pancharatha” style of Orissian temple architecture. The main shrine consists of four distinct
 buildings viz.,

    o The Vimana or the great temple

    o Jagmohan or the hall of Audience

    o Natamandapa or the dancing hall

    o Bhogmandapa or the Refractory.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 24-
 Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan



 The Natmandapa is approachable by two entrances on the North and South. The main door
 from Natmandapa to Jagmohan is called Jaya Bijaya Dwar and there is another door to
 Jagmohan on the South side. The only entrance door to Bimana is known as Kalahata
 Dware, which is considered very sacred.

 The images of Jagannath, Balabhadra, Subhadra and the emblem Sudarshan are installed in
 the inner sanctuary of the temple on a raised platform called “Ratnavedi”.

 The whole temple complex comprises of an area of 10.7 acres. The temple has four gates at
 the eastern, Southern, Western and Northern mid-points of the outer wall, known as
 ‘SIMHADWARA’(Lions Gate), ‘ASHWA DWARA’( Horse Gate),’VYAGHRA DWARA’(Tigers Gate)
 and ‘HATHI GATE’(Elephants Gate) .they are said to represent Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya and
 Aishwarya. In front of the Singhadwara is installed the ARUNA STAMBHA made of single
 solid chlorite stone and upon it beautiful Arun Squats in obeisance.

3.2.The Daily Rituals in the Temple

 The word 'Jagannath' literary means the Lord of the universe. He is also 'Devadhideva' (Lord
 of Lords) and ‘Rajadhiraj’ (King of Kings) He is Purusottama the Supreme Purusa. The daily
 and periodical rituals observed and performed in His service and worship since time
 immemorial; bear the dignity and grandeur, which a supreme person is entitled to. The
 details of rituals have been specified in certain texts in Sanskrit and Oriya. Neeti or ritual
 signifies a particular type of religious rite. The daily rituals are described below.

    1. Dwarphita & Mangala arati (Opening of the Temple doors & auspicious lamp
        Offerings): The doors of the sanctum are to be opened by 5 in the morning, as stated
        in the Record of Rights of the Temple. During the month of Kartika (October -
        November) and Dhanu (Dec -January) and on certain specific days, the doors are to
        be opened much before 5 A.M. i.e. between 2 to 3 A.M. Presence of five sevaks
        (servitors) is necessary for performance of “dwaraphita” neethi. They are Bhitarchha
        Mahapatra, Pratihari, Muduli, Akhanda Mekap and Palia Mekap. The subsequent
        Neeti after 'Dwarphita' is Mangalaalati. It means the offering of lamps to the Deities
        early in the morning.

    2. Mailam (removal of dress, flowers etc.): The Scheduled time for mailam is 6 a.m., but
        it depends upon the time taken for Mangalaalati. Three Puspalak Sevaks change the
        clothes, flowers, Tulasi Leaves of the Deities, worn on the previous night. After
        removal of clothes, another clean or washed set of clothes are worn by the Deities. The
        clothes are known as 'Tadapa' and 'Uttariya' (like towels).

    3. Abakash: the time is between 6 to 6.30 in the morning for the purificatory rites of the
        deities, such as brushing of teeth and bath. One should not mean that the deities
        actually take bath. The sevaks sprinkle water mixed with camphor, curd, amla and
        sandal paste on the three brass mirrors, each about two feet high, symbolizing the
        bath.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       - 25-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



   4. Mailam: The time specified is 6.45 a.m. The Deities change their clothes and wear
      another set. A sevak known as Akhanda Mekap keeps in the santum Akhanda Baitha.
      This lamp is not extinguished and bums till 'Pahada' i.e. the time of retirement of the
      Deities to beds.

   5. Sahanamela: The time for Sahanamela of the Deities, specified in the Record of
      Rights of the Temples is 7 a.m. During 'Sahanamela' pilgrims are allowed to go upto
      Ratnavedito have a darshan of the Deities without paying fees for it. Thus general
      public get opportunity to see the Deities at a very close distance. Sahanamela is
      usually conducted for one hour. Though there is provision for 'Sahanamela' twice a
      day, but in practice, it is held only once, generally after Mailam.

   6. Beshalagi: This is performed between 8 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. The Deities are again
      dressed up. They wear different robes anti gold ornaments studded with precious
      stones to suit different festive occasions and seasons.

   7. Rosha Homa: The time is between 8 to 8.30 a.m. Homa or Fire sacrifice is done in the
      scared kitchen of the Deities, before cooking of food (prasad) starts. This important
      ritual is being done by Puja Panda Sevaks.

   8. Surya Puja (Sun worship): Next follows Sun worship. The sun God in the inner
      enclosure near the Muktimandap is worshipped by a Puja Panda.

   9. Dwarapala Puja: The Divine gatekeepers at the Jaya Vijaya gate in the main temple
      are worshipped by Puja Panda.

   10. Gopal Ballav Bhoga: The prescribed time is 9 a.m. This is the time for breakfast of
      the Deities. The bhog or food offered consists of Sweet popcorn (Khai). Khua Laddus,
      cocoanuts sweets (Kora), ripe banana, curd and chipped cocoanuts etc.

   11. Sakal Dhmpa (Morning food offering): The specified time is 10 in the morning. The
      daily and periodical Bhog or food items have been specified. This Bhog is also.called
      kota bhog or Raja bhog . Previously the Raja - Superintendent of the Temple bore the
      cost of materials for preparation of Bhog. Now the cost is borne by the Temple
      administration. Rice, wheat, ghee, sugar, fuel, earthen pots, vegetables etc are
      supplied for the cooking by the temple Administration. The bhog after being offered to
      the deities becomes Mahaprasada and thereafter is distributed as 'Khei' (dues) among
      the servitors of the day, including the Gajapati Maharaja. On an average, 75 nos of
      sevaks are engaged everyday in service to the Deities. The morning Bhog or food
      offered to the Deities consists of rice, Kanika & Khechudi, dal, vegetable curries,
      greens, cakes etc. The local names of the Bhog are Pithapuli. Hanshakeli, Kanti.
      Enduri. Mathapuli. Kakatua Jhili,. Alu Kadali Bhaja, Ada Pachedi (ginger tonic) etc.

   12. Mailam and Bhog Mandap: The prescribed time is 11 in the morning. After morning
      dhupa, the deities change their clothes and again Puja takes place in Bhog Mandap.
      Huge quantity of Bhog such as Rice, dal, curries, cakes of different kinds of saga etc
      are offered to the deities. The cost of the Bhogmandap bhog is not borne by the State


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   - 26-
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



        or the Temple Administration. This Bhog is generally prepared for the need of different
        Maths and the general public.

     13. Madhyahna (afternoon) Dhupa: The time is between 12.30 to 1.00 in the afternoon.
        The bhog is offered in the same manner as in the morning Dhupa. Lamp offerings are
        also made after the Bhog.

     14. Madhyahna Pahuda: if rituals have been done in time and if time permits then the
        deities retire for afternoon nap. The doors of the main temple remain closed. This is to
        take place between 1 to 1.30 p.m.

     15. Sandhya Alati: After opening of the doors, the evening lamp offering to the deities is
        made.

     16. Sandhya Dhupa (Evening puja): the time is between 7 pm to 8pm bhog is offered in
        the same way as in the morning and afternoon bhog but the items are less in quantity
        and number. After this bhog again lamp offerings is made. This is named ‘ Jaya
        Mangala Alati’.

     17. Mailam and Chandanlagi: then follows the Sahanamela or public darshan of the
        deities. If there is no Sahanamela, the deities change their clothes and are anointed
        with sandal paste mixed with camphor, kesar and kasturi.

     18. Badasinghar Besha: After chandanlagi the deities are dressed up again for
        Badasinghar Vesha. They wear flowers, garlands and floral headgear.

     19. Badasinghar Dhupa: the time for this is 11.15 at night. This is last bhog of the day
        and items are even less in quantity and numbers.

     20. Khata Sejalagi and Pahada: the time is 11.45 to 12.00 in the night. The bedsteads of
        the deities are arranged. Then follows the offering of green coconut, beetles and
        camphor alati to the deities. Thus the deities retire to bed.

 After Pahada the temple premise is vacated of the sevaks and visitors. Only a few temple
 police officials and sevaks keep a watch in the night.

3.3.Revenue Generation and Expenditure of Jagannath Temple

 3.3.1.The Shri Jagannath Temple Fund

 The Committee administers the Fund. The total income, which is derived in or by the temple
 excluding the share of the different Sevaks, will go to the Fund. In detail the Fund consists of
 –

     a) The income derived from movable and immoveable properties of the Temple.
     b) Any contribution by the State Government either by way of grant or by way of loan.
     c) All   fines   and   penalties   imposed   under   “The   Puri   Shri   Jagannath   Temple
        (Administration) Act, 1952”.
     d) All recoveries under this Act.


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 27-
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



    e) Any other gifts or contributions made by the public, local authorities or institutions.
 The Fund should mainly be used for the following purpose:
    (a) Maintenance (including repairs and reconstruction), management and administration
        of the Temple and its properties.
    (b) Training of Sevaks to perform the religious worship and ceremonies in the Temple.
    (c) Medical relief, water supply and other sanitary arrangements for the worshippers and
        the pilgrims and construction of buildings for their accommodation.
    (d) Culture and propagation of the tenets and philosophy associated with the Temple of
        Shri Jagannath.
    (e) Any other work or undertaking for the purposes of the Temple authorized by the State
        Government.
    (f) Maintenance and contribution to any leper asylum, poor home, orphanage or similar
        other institutions.

 3.3.2.The Temple Economy

 The economy of the Jagannath temple appears to be very complex. The religious importance,
 which attracts hundreds of thousands of pilgrims throughout the year, could be the reason
 for the immense and complex institution and the necessary organization. The total number of
 people directly employed with in the secular organization count approximately two hundred.
 These temple officers from the administrative and control staff. The ritual organization, which
 consists of nearly two thousand people, receives a share of Bhoga as remuneration for their
 services. The economic activities of the temple can be categorized as under:

 1. Receipts – The temple generates revenue from donation by the devotees, ticket darshan,
 land revenue, rentals from its properties, sale of books & photos etc.

 2. Expenditure: The expenditure are mainly for performance of daily rituals, maintenance of
 security for pilgrims, amenities for pilgrims, maintenance of temple and observing festivals
 round the year including Rathyatra.

3.4.The Administration of Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri

 Since the year of construction of the present temple, the Orissa kings were its Chief patron. It
 was under King Anangabhima III (1211-1238 AD), Lord Purusottama Jagannath became the
 State Deity of the Ganga empire. Like Ganga kings, the kings of the succeeding Surya
 dynasty made extensive endowments in land and jewelleries for the Deities. The temple
 flourished under patronage of the independent kings of Orissa till the death of Mukunda
 Deva, the last independent King of Orissa in 1568 A.D.


 The system of worship of the Deities and rituals in their present form, have an unbroken
 tradition over 800 years. This maintenance and administration of this great temple is like a
 small state within a big state. The foundation of a sound administrative system was laid by
 the Gajapati Kings for smooth management of the temple. During the British Rule, the Raja

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    - 28-
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



of Puri was appointed as Raja Superintendent to manage the temple administration. With a
view to get better administrative system, the State Government passed " The Puri Shri
Jagannath Temple (Administration) Act, 1952 " with provisions to prepare the Record of
Rights and duties of Sevayats and such other persons connected with the system of worship
and management of the temple. Subsequently a special act known as " Shri Jagannath
Temple Act - 1955 " was enacted to reorganise the scheme of management of the affairs of the
temple and its properties. The Act brought in to force with effect from 27.12.1960 .In terms of
the provision of this act the management, administration and governance of the temple vests
in a committee known as "Shri Jagannath Temple managing committee. The act has under
gone amendments from time to time & finally the administrative setup as per the
amendment, 2004. The present Managing Committee consists of the following :


1. Gajapati Maharaja of Puri - Chairman


2. Additional Chief Secretary, Orissa – Working Chairman


3. Chief Administrator, Ex-Officio Member- Secretary Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri


4. Collector & D.M., Puri Ex-Officio- Member Deputy Chief Administrator- Shri Jagannath
Temple, Puri


5. Commissioner of Endowments, Orissa, Ex-Officio- Member


6. Additional Secretary, Law Department, Orissa Ex-Officio- Member (JTA In-Charge)


7. Superintendent of Police, Puri Ex- Officio Member


8. Superintending Archaeologist, Ex- Officio Member Archaeological Survey of India
Bhubaneswar Circle, Bhubaneswar

9. One person to be nominated by the State Member Government from among the persons
entitled to sit on the Muktimandap

10. Five persons to be nominated by the State Member Government from among the Sevaks
of the temple

11. One person representing the Maths and other Member Institutions connected with the
Seva- Puja or nities of the Temple or any Hindu religions / spiritual organization to be
nominated by the State Government.


12. Three persons (one of whom shall be Chartered Accountant) from among general public.


No person who does not profess the Hindu religion shall be eligible for Membership.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     - 29-
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



 The Chief Administrator of Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri who shall be appointed by the State
 Government from among Members of the Indian Administrative Service not below the rank of
 Commissioner and Professing Hindu religion.

 The Chief Administrative shall be the Secretary of the Committee and its Chief Executive
 Officer and shall, subject to the control of the Committee have powers to carry out its
 decision in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

      The Duties of the Temple Administration:
      1. To arrange for proper performance of Sevapuja in accordance with the record of
          rights.
      2. To provide facilities for proper worship by the pilgrims.
      3. To ensure safe custody of funds, securities and properties vested in the temple.
      4. To ensure maintenance of order and discipline and proper hygienic conditions in the
          temple.
      5. To ensure that funds and endowments are spent according to the wishes of the
          donors as far as possible.
      6. To make provisions for payment of suitable emoluments to its salaried staff.
      7. To do all such things for the efficient management of the temple affairs.

3.5.Temple as a main Source of City Income

 The whole region around Puri is influenced by the temple in various aspects as if the temple
 is the most important employer of the town. It is the main market for agricultural products of
 the whole region. For the preparation of mahaprasada the temple requires an immense
 quantity of agricultural products like rice, ghee, vegetables etc. Several settlements produce
 goods mainly for the temple and its pilgrims (pots, paintings etc).

 As per the information shared by the Temple management committee approximately 1200
 families of sevayats (Servitors) are engaged in temple rituals round the year.

 Nearly five hundred cooks work in the kitchen of the temple. These cooks further employ
 nearly five hundred more workers.

 All these figures mentioned are only to give a picture of the extent of Temple’s influence on
 the economy of Puri Town.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   - 30-
 Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan


                                       4.Rath Yatra & the City Life

4.1.Rath Yatra – The Grand Car Festival

 The reference to Car Festivals is available in various scripture like those of Buddhists, Jains
 and Hindus. Many scholars connect Jagannath as Buddhist God. It is generally believed that
 the temple was built on Buddhist Pagoda. The car festival according to General Cunningham
 is the once-conscious reproduction of the Tooth Festival of the Buddhists. Puri was probably
 the place where the famous tooth relic of Buddha was worshipped and it is pointed out that
 the wooden image of Jagannath contains these relics. The Jagannath Cult is the universal cult
 since not caste specific. The many rituals of Jagannath is handled by Daitas who claim to be
 the descendant of Viswabasu, the tribal who first worshipped Nilakantha.

 The precise time when the Grand festival of
 Rath Yatra started as part of Jagannath
 Cult is not known. It is believed that
 during the reign of Ananga Bhima dev,
 when the temple was renovated and the
 town was restructured, the concept of Rath
 Yatra was propagated. The entire Rath
 Yatra is a symbolic humanisation of God.
 All rituals associated with the festival
 demonstrate an attempt to bring the God
 down from His pedestal of glory to a more
 human level. This annual festival has
                                                Plate 3:      Rath Yatra
 now acquired a grand scale and has
                                                               become the identity of the
                                                               Town of Puri.

                                                               The   most     splendid       of    the
                                                               innumerable festivals celebrated
                                                               round the year in the holy city of
                                                               Puri, the Rath Yatra is the grand
                                                               culmination     of    a    series    of
                                                               celebrations    spread      over    the
                                                               summer      and      the     monsoon
                                                               months.      The      Festival       is
                                                               celebrated in the June-July on
 Plate 4:      Grand Road                                      the second day of the bright



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 Puri Municipality                                                        Puri City Development Plan


 fortnight of the month of Ashadha. People from all across Orissa and from various parts of
 India come to take part in this auspicious occasion. Orissa witnesses the inflow of about 7 to
 10 lakhs of pilgrims during this Car Festival.

4.2.Activities Associated With Chariot Construction before Rath
 Yatra

 4.2.1.Collection of wood for Rath building

 The collection of wood for the three
 Chariots       begins          on         Vasant
 Panchami        (Feb-March).              Vasant
 Panchami,       better          known          as
 Saraswati Puja is considered as the
 most auspicious day for starting ant
 construction        activity        in     Hindu
 calendar.     The      wood         is    mainly
 collected    from        the     forests       of
 Dasapalla, Ranapur, Jajpur, Ganjam
 and Khurda District. Earlier the
 local royal family donated the wood,
 now it is the prerogative of the forest
 department. The wood variety that
 are   mainly    collected       for       Chariot
 building    activities    are:             Phasi,
 Dhaura, Mai Simili woods. Nearly
 1,072 pieces of logs are used for                    Map 4: Location of Storage and Construction of

 chariot     building.          State       forest            wood for Chariot Building Activities

 department provides these logs’s and
 take up plantation programmes to meet
 the future requirements.

 4.2.2.Construction of Chariots

 Each year three new chariots (Ratha) are
 constructed      for       the           car   festival.
 Construction of Chariots begins on day,
 Akshay tritiya (April). Near the entrance
 of the Temple Complex, the assembling of
 Chariots begins. About 175 carpenters
                                                            Plate 5:     Construction of Chariots


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -32 -
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


 including helping assistants and specialist team of carpenters who have hereditary rights to
 build the Chariots starts the carpentry work of different parts of the Chariots along Bada
 Danda. The construction of Chariots completes in two months time.




  Map 5: Rath Yatra Activities Areas in Grand Road

 4.2.3.Activities associated:

    o The construction of chariots starts near the south side of main entrance of the temple
       i.e, Singha Dwara.

    o The logs of wood are stored at different godowns along Bada Danda.

    o The carpenter built different parts and assemble the whole near main entrance

4.3.Description of the Three Raths

 The Chariot of Lord Balabhadra, called the Taladhwaja, has fourteen wheels, each of seven
 feet diameters, and is covered with red and blue cloth. Its height is forty-four feet. The length
 and breadth of the Chariot is 33’0” x 33’0”. The total number of wooden pieces used in this
 Chariot is 763. The name of the flag is Unnani.


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 Puri Municipality                                                            Puri City Development Plan


 The Chariot of Subhadra, known as Darpadalan is forty-three feet high with twelve wheels,
 each of seven feet diameters. This Chariot is decked with the coverings of red and black cloth.
 The length and breadth of the Chariot is 31’6” x 31’6”. The total number of wooden pieces
 used in this Chariot is 593. The name of the flag is Trailoky amohini.

 Lord Jagannath's Chariot is called Nandighosa; it is forty-five feet square at the wheel level. It
 has     sixteen    wheels,       each   of    seven   feet
 diameters, and is decked with red and yellow                  Box 4: Material Used In Building the

 coverings of cloth. The length and breadth of                            Chariots

 the Chariot is 34’6” x 34’6”. The total number                The    three     Chariots    of    Balabhadra,
 of wooden pieces used in this Chariot is 832.                 Subhadra and Jagannath are constructed
 The name of the flag is Nadambika.                            each year with logs of Phesi, Dhaura,

 Around     each     of     the    Chariots     are    nine    Maior Simili woods.

 Parsvadevatas, the guardian deities, and four                 Nearly 1,072 pieces of logs are used for
 horses. Each chariot has a Charioteer called                  chariot    building     by   125     carpenters
 Sarathi, Matali, Darruka and Arjuna are the                   including helping assistants.
 three charioteers attached respectively to the
                                                               Nearly 1.090 metres of clothes are used
 three Chariots of Jagannath, Balabhadra and
                                                               for this purpose.
 Subhadra.
                                                               The Chariots are pulled by rope made of
4.4.Chronology                     of          Rituals         coconut fiber, each 240-250 feet long
                                                               and 8 inches in diameter.
 Associated With Rath Yatra

 4.4.1.Snana Purnima

 Snana Purnima marks the starting of
 the Jagannath’s preparation for the
 Grand Rath Yatra. This ceremony is
 held on "Jyesthapurnima", when the
 main deities along the Sudarsana are
 brought     to     the     snanamandapa         (a
 platform for bathing, Snana means
 bathing) and are around mid-day. A                     Plate 6:         Deities during Snana Purnima
 total one hundred eight pot water are
 poured on the Deities. The water is brought
                                                              Box 5: Significance of Snana Purnima
 from a sacred well which is dear to the
 Goddess Sitala and all the five religious                    Snana Purnima is celebrated at end of Hot
 Tanks of Puri.                                               Summer month of Jyestha. Climatically this
                                                              is the period of inter phase between Jyestha
 After    bathing     the    Deities     are    put    on
                                                              and Ashadha.
 Elephant     masks,        which    are      called   as


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Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan


GANESH VESHA. Then the Deities are offered BHOG (Cooked Food) and ARATHI. The Deities
are then taken back to the temple in a procession and stay in retirement for fifteen days.

The deities are placed in the Hallway between the inner and outer shrine in a semi-horizontal
position. Here in this ceremony the general public can see the food Offerings to the Deities,
which is not possible any time in the year.

4.4.2.Anavasara Festival

During these Festivals after Snana Yatra Lord Jagannath become sick and suffers from fever.
He is therefore moved to his
private stay; there He is offered
drugs, which are prepared by the
fruit juice. The Dayita (servants of
Lord Jagannath) take care of Lord
Jagannath. They sleep and stay
there with the Deity. The word
ANAVASARA is used when Lord
Jagannath is not seen in the
temple.    The   variety        of   Food
prepared in the kitchen is less
than normal days. The Gods are
newly painted during this period.

4.4.3.Nibhrita Festival

The fifteen days period of Resting            Map 6: Congregation   of   People   during    Snana

and       Renovation       is        called           Purnima

NIBRITHA. Honoring the isolation of his wife Goddess Laxmi, Lord Jagannath lives there in
privacy enjoying SVAKIYA RASA. Then by taking her (Goddess Laxmi) permission Lord
Jagannath come out for His Rath Yatra.

4.4.4.Anga-Raga or Nava Yavana Festival

These Festivals are held for the purpose of renovation of the Lord Jagannath body. After being
washed the body of Lord Jagannath needs repainting. This work is done by the DAITYAS,
which takes two weeks to complete. Then the Lord Jagannath Deities is fully restored to youth
(NAVA YAVANA).

4.4.5.Netrotsava

This ceremony is performed in the inner shrine where the Deities are placed in semi-horizontal
position. They have been fully painted, except their eyes. In this ceremony the eyes of the



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Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


Deities are painted by their respected Pujaries and the Puja (worship) is started in the temple.
The Deities are still in the same position.

After completing the above said ceremonies the Deities are taken out from the temple and
placed in their respective chariots on the Rath Yatra day.

4.4.6.Rath Yatra

The procession of the Deities from the temple to the chariot is the most colorful aspect of the
Rath Yatra. The Chariots are brought and kept at front of the Simha Dwara, facing north side
before Rath Yatra begins. In a traditional ceremonial manner first Sudarshana is brought from
the temple and put on to the Chariot of Lady Subhadra, followed by Balabhadra first as is
elder in the family placed in his chariot, then followed Lady Subhadra and Lord Jagannath are
placed in their respective chariots.

Deities are taken out from the temple and placed in their respective chariots. The procession
of the Deities from the temple to the chariot is called "PAHANDI". By taking assistance from
the Pujaries who holds the ropes, the Dayitas (Lord Jagannath servants) move the Deities. The
small Deities of Lord Rama and Krishna are placed on the Balabhadra chariot and
Madanmohan Deity is placed on Lord Jagannath chariot.

Then the king of Jagannath Puri arrives in a Palanquin and sweeps the street in front of the
chariots with a golden handled Whisk broomstick and sprinkles the ground with fragrant
waters. This ritual is known as CHHERA PAHANRA.

After all these Rituals completed the Rath Yatra begins with the Balabhadra chariot followed
by chariot of Subhadra and Lord Jagannath, respectively. The chariots of Lady Subhadra and
Balabhadra reach directly the Gundicha temple, where as the chariot of Lord Jagannath stops
at his Mausima (Aunt's) Goddess Ardhamsini temple. Here the Lord is offered with Poda
Pitha (fried cheese cake). Again the chariot of Lord Jagannath proceeds towards the Gundicha
Temple. After reaching the Gundicha Temple the Deities take rest on their chariots for another
day, then they are taken into the sanctum of the Gundicha Temple. While staying in the
Gundicha temple for seven days the Deities receive all the routine Rituals same as they used
to receive in the main temple.

4.4.7.Bahuda Yatra (The Return Of Rath)

On the 10th day, fortnight of Ashada the Deities are brought back on to their respective
Chariots and the Rath is pulled back to the main temple, this is known as BAHUDA YATRA.
While returning to the main temple Lord Jagannath stops again at His "Mausima" Goddess
Ardhamsini temple and receives BOGH (Poda Pitha). He then proceeds towards the King's
palace where he has a meeting with Goddess Laxmi and continues his Yatra and the Rath




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Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan


Yatra reaches to an end i.e. to the Lord Jagannath Temple at night and spend their night in
the Rath till Morning.


4.4.8.Suna Vesha

Next day in the morning on BADA EKADASI the Deities are dressed in the SUNA VESHA (THE
GOLDEN-DRESS), Arms and Feet, which are made of pure gold, are attached to the Deities,
and are decorated by putting on them the Golden Ornaments and Golden Crowns. This day is
considered to be the most auspicious day of the festival.

The devotees make Pradhakshina of the Rath (chariot) by moving around the chariots. After a
few hours the golden ornaments are removed from the Deities and brought back to the temple,
As usual first comes Balabhadra then Subhadra and then Lord Jagannath in a traditional
procession among huge assembly of thousands of devotes.

Lord Jagannath faces a tough
time when he tries to enter into
the temple, as Goddess Laxmi is
angry       with    Lord     Jagannath
because he went to Rath Yatra
along    with       his    Brother    and
Sister She also expresses her
anger by going to the Gundicha
Temple       on     5th    day   of   the
festival.          The      DEVIDASIS
(servants     of     Goddess      Laxmi)
close the Simha Dwara and
ultimately opens it again but
closes the Jaya Vijaya Dwara,
Hear        songs        comprising    of
dialogues      exchanged         between
DEVIDASI and DAYITAS.                       Map 7: Location of Rath and Congregation of People

Then Lord Jagannath tells to Goddess Laxmi if he is allowed to enter into the temple He will
present her so many gifts, listening to this Goddess Laxmi allows Lord Jagannath to enter into
the Temple.




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 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


4.5.Special Infrastructural Provisions during Rath Yatra

 4.5.1.Social Infrastructure

 4.5.2.Health

 a)    Staff Deployment:

 The preventive and curative measures under the health programme are managed by the Chief
 District Medical Officer in Puri District and the Puri Municipality in Puri Town. The specialists
 include Cardiologists, Orthopedic, Anesthetist, Surgery Specialist, ENT Specialist and
 Radiologist.

 Table 11:       The staff deployed for the management of the Rath Yathra
 Staff                                                              Nos.
 Chief District Medical Officer, Puri                                     20
 Health Officer, Puri Municipality                                         9
 Chief District Medical Officer, Khurda                                    1
 Health Officer , Municipal Corporation, Bhubaneswar                       1
 N.G.O.s                                                                  51
 Source: Chief District Medical Officer, Puri
 Table 12:      The total no. of staff involved for the Rath Yathra
 Type                                Within Puri District From        outside    the
                                     (CDMO, Puri)            district (Director of
                                                             Health Services, Orissa)
 Medical Officers                             12                       70
 Specialists                                                              12
 Pharmacist                                                               48
 Supervisors                                    3                         51
 Health Worker                                  20                        57
 Senior Helper                                  5                         48
 Stretcher Bearer/ Attendant                                              39
 Staff Nurse                                                               6

 Source: Chief District Medical Officer, Puri

 b)    Preventive Measures:

 Chlorination of drinking water sources – done by Medical Officer of Puri District

 Periodical water analysis for disinfection of drinking water - Daily reporting of
 bacteriological status and diarrhoeal disorders     - done by pathological unit of Cuttack and
 submitted to IDH

 Prevention of Food Adulteration – Food Inspectors are responsible for checking of food
 adulteration

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Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


Epidemic Squad – two epidemic squads are positioned at the D.H. Hospital with the CDMO,
along with doctors, disinfectants etc. to take any preventive measures in case of any outbreak

First Aid Service inside the cordons of the – 9 persons including one doctor, one
pharmacist and one medical attendant for each chariots are deployed on the chariot side on
the Rath Yathra days

Reservation of Blood in the Red Cross Blood Bank – 100 bottles of blood are kept reserved
in the IDH donated by Rotary Club, Lions Club and other such agencies

Supply of Medicines – these are stored in the D.H. Hospital for procurement during
emergencies

Donation of Medicines, Food and Drinks – besides government supply of medicines NGOs
such as Rotary Club, Lions Club and even individual persons donate various medicines and
food such as cooked food, and processed food like sugar, salt, lemon water, glucose water,
ORS packets etc. the food is checked by the Food Inspectors before distribution to the public.

c)    Location of First Aid Centers and Ambulances:
During the Rath Yathra 82 nos. of First Aid Centers function in Puri District, out of which
there are 9 within the town. The 9 First Aid Centers within Puri town are shown in the map.
There are 19 locations within the district where ambulances are placed and 6 locations in
which mobile ambulances are placed.
d)    Reservation of Beds for treatment
79 beds are kept reserved in the following roadside hospitals
Table 13:       Reservation of Beds
Name                                       No. of Beds Reserved
DH hospital                                20
IDH                                        20
KDMMH                                      5
Pediatric Hospital                         6
Pipili Hospital                            6
Mangalpur PHC                              6
Sakhigopal Hospital                        10
Chandanpur Hospital                        6
Total                                      79
Source: Chief District Medical Officer, Puri

4.5.3.Security
a) Police Arrangement:
The 5 police stations are responsible for the security arrangement during the Rath Yathra
period and outposts are also setup near Gundicha Temple.

b) Fire Station




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -39 -
 Puri Municipality                                                               Puri City Development Plan


 Temporary Fire Stations are open at 3 places and additional fire brigades also at 2 places. The
 above facilities have been also located at the places where the devotees reside during the Rath
 Yatra.

 4.5.4.Public facilities and Arrangements during for Rath Yatra
       o Placement of police force at Strategic locations.
       o Arrangements of Volunteers.
       o Arrangement of vehicular movement and parking
       o Arrangement of Registration Booths and Help - line facilities.
       o Arrangement of Health and emergency Facilities.
       o Shifting of informal activities from Bada Danda to the beach area.
       o Arranging movement of people on Rath Yatra.
       o Making cordon around the chariots to discourage approach of general public to
         chariots.
       o Arrangement of food and drinking water facilities during the Rath Yatra.
       o   Arrangements for King’s movement and VIP movement.

4.6.Physical Infrastructure
 4.6.1.Solid Waste Management
 The Solid waste generated during the festival season is estimated to be 80 tonnes/day. The
 amount of solid waste generated during the peak season from the hotels has been calculated
 as below. Hotels and restaurants dispose off their wastes into the waste bins provided by the
 municipality or in heaps along the street sides.

 Table 14:      Estimation of Tourists during Peak Season
 Classification        No.     Avg.     Avg.      Avg.                           Population            Population
                               no. of persons     persons                        residing    in        residing    in
                               rooms    per hotel per                            hotels during         hotels during
                               per      during    hotel                          normal season         peak season
                               hotel    normal    during
                                        season    peak
                                                  season
 3 Star Hotels         2       50       50        300                            100                   600
 1st   Class Hotels           107        40          50             200          5,350                 21,400
 Other Small Hotels,          136        30          30             150          4,080                 20,400
 Guest       Houses,
 Restaurants
 Small Lodging and            117        25          20             150          2,340                 17,550
 Boarding Houses
 Total                        362                                                11,870                59,950
 Source: National Productivity Council Report; Note: Tourists also take shelter as paying guests in residences




 Considering the waste generation to be 0.3kg/occupant/day waste generated by hotels are:



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 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


 Normal Day: 3600kg/day (≅ 12,000 persons)

 During Peak Seasons: 18000kg/day (≅ 60,000 persons)

 Table 15:     Location of Hotels
 Locations                                      Approximate No.
 Both Side of Grand Road                        50
 Beach Side near Mayfair Hotel                  25
 Along Chakratirtha Road                        15
 Along Station Road                             8
 Along Marine Drive Road                        250
 Distributed Within the city                    20
 Source: National Productivity Council Report

 Therefore out of 80 tonnes only 18000kg is generated from the hotels rest are generated from
 the temple and the various locations at which the devotees reside during the Rath Yatra.

 4.6.2.Electricity

 The electricity demand during the peak season shoots up to 28 MW of power, whereas for
 normal days the requirement is 20MW.

 4.6.3.Water Supply

 •   14 Tankers of 10,000 L capacity are located at various places

 •   80 temporary hand pump tube wells & 170 Temporary Stand posts are also placed all
     around the town

 •   Water Sprinklers are placed along grand Road (15 Govt. and 57 provided by NGOs)

4.7.Significance of Rath Yatra in City Development Plan

 The grand festival of Rath Yatra is important not only for the people of Orissa but also a world
 famous event. It is a very important festival from the point of any development programme as
 almost all levels of Govt. are involved in this event. Attracting more than one million pilgrims
 & tourist on the festival and on an average of 5-6 Lakhs people during 10 days of Rath Yatra
 puts a tremendous pressure on the resources of the town. Though there used to be set up
 under chairmanship Chief Minister but the pressure mounts local governments too. Local
 Governments need to look after various infrastructure services like Solid Waste Management,
 Water Supply, Sanitation, Health and communication etc. This puts lot of pressure on the
 city’s existing infrastructure. The CDP address the requirements of Puri towns next two
 decades. Similalry it would also provide significance of Rath Yatra as an cultural heritage of
 the city.




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 Puri Municipality                                                        Puri City Development Plan


                                                          5.Puri- The Heritage city

5.1.Regional Setting of Puri as Coastal Cultural Landscape

 Considered to be one of the four holy 'Dhams' of India, the historic town of Puri is located on
 the Bay of Bengal coast, along a distinctive 67 km stretch of sandy beaches which extends
 from the Chilika lake to the south of Puri town to the delta of the Prachi river to the north.
 This stretch of sandy beach is interspersed with a number of ridges, some of which enclose
 saltwater lagoons, & the World Heritage Site of Konark is also located along it towards the
 north.
 This distinctive coastal cultural landscape, of great historic, religious and environmental
 significance is thus characterized by the vast expanse of Chilika lake known for its aquatic and
 migratory as well as indigenous bird life to the south; the formerly large swampy lake known
 as Sara Pata formed by the backwaters of the Bhargavi river and the patch of waterlogged land
 known as Samanga Pata near Puri town; numerous saltwater lagoons and creeks, formerly
 with mangrove forests; villages and cultivated land with numerous 'bandhas' or embanked
 tanks; the interlinked network of the Bhargabi, Chandi, Kanchi, Dhanua, Kusbhadra, Kadua
 and Prachi rivers (part of the Mahanadi Delta system) used as waterways during the rainy
 season; the Balukhand or sandy beach tract which extends from the mouth of Chilika lake to
 the mouth of the Prachi river; within which are sited the ancient town of Puri with its
 numerous       heritage       sites    and      traditional
 institutions     of        religious     and      cultural
 significance and the World Heritage Site of
 Konark,   both        of    which      were     prominent
 landmarks for ships traveling along the east
 coast of this seafaring state which established
 trade and cultural links with lands as far as
 Indonesia by the cent A.D.                     From   1913
 onwards    a    coastal        belt    plantation     was
 established to prevent sand-dunes, cyclones
 and tidal water from damaging agricultural
 fields and villages, and the Casuarina and
 Cashew    plantations         and      later    settlement
 patterns testify to the interventions of the
 Portuguese and the British in this area.                      Plate 7:    The   King's   palace   near
 This area is also known for its rich intangible               Temple
 heritage of crafts skills and fine art traditions,
 such as stone carving, salt manufacture, wood carving, appliqué work, pattachitra, sola pith


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 Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan


 and papier mache, palm leaf manuscripts, as well as performing arts such as classical Odissi
 dance and the Sahi Yatra which were associated with the temples & traditional neighborhoods
 or 'sahis' of Puri

5.2.Legal Framework of Heritage Development

 The heritage component of the Puri city includes monuments, religious places and sacred
 sites, buildings of architectural significance or traditional values; history, any other. Various
 institutions identified heritage components of the city. The culture department of Govt. of
 Orissa has identified 387 Matha’s, 4 Ashram’s, 10 Dharmasala’s and 200 temples. Similarly in
 19986-88, INTACH identified 147 temples, mathas, civic buildings, etc. The District Gazetteer
 list’s 130 Mathas or Monastic establishments,
 some believed to date from the century AD as
 well as information related to the sacred tank
 complexes & temple complexes; the list of 133
 Mathas, 22 Jagaghars, 12 Dharamsha, 75
 Lodging     houses,        traditional        Libraries.
 According to the Archeological Survey of India
 (ASI)   about    157   unprotected,           2   states
 protected and 2 ASI protected monuments are
 located within the city.

 Monuments       over   100    years      of    old   are
 identified as Heritage and they are defined
                                                            Plate 8:    Heritage Structure in Puri
 according to the Ancient Monuments and
 Preservation Act, 1904 and Ancient Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act,
 1958. The heritage components of the city are owned by both public and private. In terms of
 private ownership belongs to Sahis, Aakhada and Jagagharas etc. Where as the public
 heritage are being owned by Jaganath Temple Administration and Endowment Commission of
 Govt. of Orissa.

 Legal Framework

         Ancient Monument and Preservation Act, 1904
         Ancient Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958
         The Orissa Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1956
 The heritage components are protected and preserved as per the Act. The Act also allows for
 the grading of the heritage buildings. Similarly these monuments are restricted from
 reconstruction, additions/alterations, demolition, change of use, restrictions placed on
 displaying signage etc. The Act is adequate to protect, preserve and provision for the
 acquisition of heritage monuments. However, in due to financial constraints privately owned
 monuments are yet to be acquired.


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 Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan


5.3.Institutional Framework

 The maintenance of Heritage monuments are done by the ASI, State Archeology and Temple
 Trust’s. Where as waste cleaning, street lighting, water supply and other infrastructure to the
 heritage sites are being maintained by the Puri Municipality and PHEO. Similarly Orissa
 Tourism Development Corporation, Department of Tourism and Culture of Govt. of Orissa are
 the agencies responsible for the promotion and publicity of the Heritage Monuments. Although
 the Puri Municipality has not direct role in preservation of heritage but it is along with Puri
 Konark Development Authority are responsible for to restrict un authorized buildings, safety of
 the building and protection of heritage area.

5.4.Identification and Categorization of Heritage Components

 The heritage resources of Puri have been categorized to include complexes and systems of
 different types, comprising heritage components which include natural, man-modified & man-
 made heritage. Various lists of heritage buildings including the INTACH survey of 147 temples,
 mathas, civic buildings, etc. The District Gazetteer list’s 130 Mathas or Monastic
 establishments, some believed to date from the century AD as well as information related to the
 sacred tank complexes & temple complexes; the list of 133 Mathas, 22 Jagaghars, 12
 Dharamsha, 75 Lodging houses, traditional Libraries. The heritage components of the city are
 owned by both public and private sector.

                       Public   heritages   are   being    owned   by   Shri   Jaganath   Temple
                       Administration and Commissioner of Endowment Govt. of Orissa

                       Private ownership belongs to Sahis, Aakhada and Jagagharas, etc.

                       Moveable Heritage i.e Palm Tree Pothis, Yatri Records of Pandas
                       covering undivided India & Nepal,

                       Natural Heritage Natural Sea Beach, Rivers, water bodies

    o   Sahis', natural & cultural resources & heritage elements indicated on the 1840-41
        Survey Plan; information from primary surveys on the site have been collated to compile
        the list of heritage components which have to be designated as part of the City
        Development Plan for Puri.

    o Seven historic SAHIS - Each neighbourhood or 'Sahi' is characterized by a distinctive
        settlement pattern & cohesive communities, open spaces, water harvesting and storage
        elements, a concentration of heritage buildings and complexes, streetscapes and street
        network with 'chhakas' or chowk intersections & two types of mainly residential narrow
        streets and mixed use Sahis with wider streets. These ‘Sahis' are Harachandi Sahi and
        Baseli Sahi on the west; Goudabada Sahi on the south-west; Bali Sa hi on the south;
        Matimandapa Sahi with Kalikadevi Sahi on the south-east; Dolamandapa Sahi & Mochi


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -44 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan


      Sahi on the east; Kundhei-Benta Sahi & HeraGouri on the north-east; Markandeshwar
      Sahi & Chudanga Sahi on the north.

   o Open Spaces & Gardens / Plantations which include the sacred temple gardens, mango
      groves/ topes, coconut plantations, sea beach, 'pal' or silt enriched banks of the
      Madhopur river and balukhand nala, 'jana' or fishery grounds on the seashore.

   o Water Management & Storage Elements including sacred tank complexes including
      Indradyumna tank, Narendra or Chandan Talao, Markandeya Talao, Svetaganga Talao,
      Parbati Talao, Rohini Kund, Chakratirtha, bandhas or embanked pools, wells - pucca &
      kuccha

   o Sri Jagannath Temple Complexes with 108 Components

   o Temple Complexes of Siva, Thakuranis & other Deities

   o Badadanda & other Processional Routes

   o Mathas, Ashramas, Burujas, Kotas, Akhadas - monastic institutions, both Hindu & Non-
      Hindu, some dating from the e" cent. AD, endowed with land & movable property for
      their maintenance & functions of imparting relligious education, rituals of the
      Jagannath Temple complex, shelter to mendicants etc. Some consist of large building
      complexes     with   interconnected courtyards,   shrines,   gardens,   invaluable     mural
      paintings and important collections of manuscripts.

   o Jagaghars - 'Important socio-religious institutions'. Important Jagaghars include
      Marichakot, Ganesh Guruja, Kadambagarh Brahmi Jaga, Gurujang, Nuagarh, Sankat,
      Majena, Mala, Satabakhara, Sundara, Mali, Bisuni, Panda, Bhoga, Duari, Gopalatirtha,
      Panchauti, Nuagarh, Champagarh, Khuntia, Tapang, Barabati

   o Bhagbatghar - Community house where palm leaf manuscript copies of the Bhagbat are
      kept, worshipped & read

   o Chaura - A raised mound or structure near the house in which the Tulsi plant is
      worshipped.

   o Atharanala Bridge Dharamsalas

   o Lodging Houses

   o Philanthropic organisations

   o Libraries: collection of copperplates & palm leaf manuscripts

   o Palace complexes of raja of puri - bali sahi 1827 & badadanda1918




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -45 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


5.5.The Heritage Area

 Within the identification of the area as a 'Sankhakshetra', the interrelationship and
 significance attributed to the cultural and natural resources of the settlement are clearly
 evident. The major temple complexes were provided with extensive areas of garden and
 plantations with tanks and wells, and were linked both symbolically and by processional
 routes. The most important routes include the Badadanda which links the Jagannath Temple
 complex with the Gundicha Temple Garden complex located on another elevated point on the
 east and the Indrayumuna Talaa beyond; the Loknath Temple/ Parvati Sagar Complex on the
 west; the Narendra or Chandan Talaa Complex with its garden and plantation to the north-
 east; and the Svetganga Talao and the Swargdwar areas to the south.




    Map 8: The Delineated Heritage Zone
 The water bodies linked with various protective temple complexes were also considered to have
 sacred attributes, and were in addition essential community facilities. The Balukhand or
 stretches of the sandy beach tract were considered to be of ritual significance, with temples,
 tirthas and vedis located along it at elevated points, or along the water channels.

 5.5.1.Criteria for delineation
 The methodology used for the delineation of the heritage zone of Puri takes into account a
 number of factors related to the Jagannath Temple Complex which is a designated monument



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -46 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan


protected by the Archaeological Survey of India, but which is surrounded by an unparalleled
concentration of heritage components of various types within the culturally, historically &
architecturally significant traditional neighbourhoods or Sahis' which are not recognized or
designated as being of heritage significance, and are hence transforming and deteriorating at a
rapid rate.

The delineated heritage zone boundaries have been defined to include the centrally ASI
protected walled Jagannath Temple complex within the core area with an area of 100 m width
surrounding it which is the 'Restricted Area', & another area of a further 200 m width
surrounding which is the 'Regulated Area' required by legislation. A further 200 m minimum
width area has been defined as a buffer conservation area in order to include 'Sahis' identified
during primary surveys as being of heritage significance due to the dense concentration of
listed heritage components, homogeneity, distinctive built form & architectural characteristics.

Heritage precincts, cultural corridors and processional routes linking the central core area
have also been delineated & include the main Badadanda processional route and adjacent
areas, as well as the routes linking the Loknath Temple and Swargdwar precincts &
contiguous areas with the central core area. These also include the natural features such as
the Madhupur stream, manmade 'talaos' or tank complexes, the Chakratirtha area, as well as
the second centrally ASI protected monument in Puri, the Atharana Bridge which is attributed
to the 13th century, at the entrance to the city. The boundaries of the delineated heritage zone
take into account the historic evolution of the traditional areas, the architectural, cultural,
environmental,     social,   religious/metaphysical,   archaeological,   art   historical,    economic
significance and potential of the listed heritage components and complexes as well as the
symbolism and ritual networks which are manifested in the sacred geography of the'
Sankhakshetra

In addition to the historic town, the sand tract regulated by the Coastal Regulation Zone, the
'Civil Station' of the British period with some significant character defining features, buildings
& layouts, as well as the 19th century 'Nolan' or fishing settlements are parts of the town with
specific characteristics & infrastructure deficiencies which require special conservation
planning measures.

5.5.2.The Historic Delineation

1. Historically the most important part of the town is the temple complexes namely:

       -      The Jagannath Temple Complex established during 12th century A.D.

       -      The Lokanath Temple Complex constructed between 10-12th century A.D

       -      The Gundicha Temple Complex established during 12th century A.D.

       -      The Religious tanks




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                            -47 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


2. Ananga Bhima Dev, who is credited for building the Grand Jagannath Temple Complex, is
also responsible for reorganization of Saba Ingots of the Temple. The 18 settlement founded by
King Yayati Keshari all around the Temple was remodeled and changed into 7 SAHIS. These
Sahis are of historical significance. These Sahis are still in existence and are involved with the
activities of Temple. In Historic Delineation these are the most important parts of the Temple
Town of Puri. They are:

         -   Bali Sahi

         -   James war Sahi

         -   Kapalaswar Sahi

         -   Chudanj Sahi

         -   Dolmandap Sahi,

         -   Kalikadebi Sahi and

         -   Kundhai Benta Sahi

5.5.3.The Ritualistic Delineation

Religious Town such as Puri is characterized by the inter-relation of the Core – Periphery.
The city expands from the point core
and forms an entire web of settlements.
The movement plays a vital role in form
of:

      - Circumambulation        around   the
      centre
      - Linear movement or ceremonial
      paths
The          concept       of        sacred
circumambulation is also a part of
ritual in Puri town. It touches all the
main guardian gods of the Puri town.
The sacred circumambulatory path
in town of Puri starts from:
                                               Plate 9:    Bada Danda or the Grand Road
- Lokanath
- Moving along the bank of Bhergabi
- Mukteswar
- Budheswar
- Northern Compound of Indradyumna
- Bileswar
- Bay of Bengal or Mahodadhi


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -48 -
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan


 - Sea Beach of Chakratirtha
 - Then reaching the Lokanath

 Linear movement in the town of Puri is mainly in form of sacred ceremonial paths. These
 paths usually signify the movement of Gods, people or material during the festival time. The
 significant sacred ceremonial paths of
 Puri Town are:

 1. The Bada Danda: the Bada Danda
 or   the    grand     road   is   the   path
 connecting    the Jagannath Temple
 with the Gundicha. This is the road
 of   Rath    Yatra.    Bada       Danda   is
 physically the main spine of the city
 of Puri where all types of socio-
 economic activities take place.

 2. The path connecting Lokanath                Plate 10:   Early morning at Indradyumna tank

 with Jagannath is another important
 sacred path. This path is used by
 image of Jagannath to visit Shiva in
 Shiv Ratri night.

 3. The path connecting Jagannath to
 Swarga Dwara. This path consists of
 many subsidiary temple associated
 with Jagannath. Each fortnight the
 image of Lord Jagannath visit these
 temples to eat prasad.
                                                Plate 11:   Narendra tank
 Another important ceremonial path is
 the path connecting Jagannath to
 Narendra Tank. This path is used
 during Chandan Yatra.

5.6.Five Holy Tanks
 There are 5 important tanks in the
 town; in addition there are a number
 of smaller ponds strewn along the
 periphery of the town. The main
 tanks are
      • Narendra tank
      • Markandeya tank


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -49 -
                                                Plate 12:   Deity on visit to different Temples
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


     • Shwetaganga tank
     • Indradyumna tank
     • Parvatisagar tank
These tanks are fed by rainwater as well as groundwater and are therefore perennial sources
of water. The waters are used for bathing, washing, various household requirements in
addition to religious ceremonies and rites. They are an intrinsic part of the life of the town

5.6.1.The Sahi structure

The 'Sahis' of Puri; are characterized by a distinctive settlement pattern & cohesive
communities, open spaces, water harvesting & storage elements, a concentration of
heritage buildings & complexes, streetscapes & street network with 'chhakas' or chowk
intersections & two types of mainly residential narrow streets & mixed use Sahis with
wider streets. These 'Sahls' are Harachanrf Sahi & Basel! Sahi on the west; Goudabada
Sahi on the south-west; Bali Sahi and Manikarnika Sahi on the south; Matimandapa Sahi
with Kalaikadeni Sa hi on the south-east; Dolarnandapa Sahi on the east; Markandeswar
Sahi & Chandang Sahi on the north.
These developed around a typical street structure around which the built form came up, a
special character which needs to be followed in the area improvement plan as well. The
congregation points are usually the intersections of these roads which is marked by the
presence of a chaupal or religious building like a temple. This is also accompanied by a
well sometimes with a highly decorated gate •. These elements are a vital part of the
heritage character of Puri
In 1951, the population was recorded as 49,057, since then population has been steadily
growing. In 1961 it was 60,815; in 1971 it was 72,674; & in 2001 the population was 1,
57,610. This has resulted in extensive construction, often in contravention of traditional
norms regarding not using the Balukhand area for building, and densification of the
traditional ‘Sahis’ by building on the gardens / open plantation spaces which sustained
them, resulting in deterioration of the traditional neighbourhoods and stress on the
inadequate infrastructure. As the population of the town increased, the built up area
within these sahis was re-defined and more development happened in the gardens and
open spaces that existed in these sahis.

5.6.2.Mathas and Ashramas

Centering round the great temple of Lord Jagannath, many a Matha (Monasteries) grew up
gradually in course of time in this holy town. In the past, many Saints and Sadhus had come
to Puri to have darshan of Lord Jagannath. They came in contact with and influenced the
Gajapati Kings through their philosophical doctrines. The saints and sadhus established their
monasteries on the lands donated to them by the kings and wealthy persons. The Maths
continued preaching their respective doctrines and also performed certain ritual services in
the Jagannath Temple. With endowed properties and lands, the heads of the Maths were able

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -50 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


to maintain their institutions. Lands were donated to the Maths for `Amritmanohi'- the
proceeds thereof were spent in offering `Bhoga' to Lord Jagannath and the `Mahaprasad' thus
obtained, were distributed among the pilgrims, pupils, ascetics, and beggars. The functions of
the Maths were:

1) Propagation of the essential philosophy of Hinduism and Jagannath Culture,

2) Providing shelter to pilgrims coming to Puri,

3) Providing accommodation / financial help to poor and meritorious students,

4) Participating in various rituals of the temple of Lord Jagannath.

As reported in the Puri Gazetteer (1929) the "Mathas are monastic houses originally founded
with the object of giving religious instructions to chelas or disciples and generally of
encouraging a religious life." The heads of the Mathas are called Mahantas or Mathadharis.
They are generally celebrates but in certain Mathas married men can become the Mahantas.
They are generally selected from among their `Chelas'. Some mathas were set up for defence
purposes. King Narasingh Dev-1 established 4 mathas ('Akhadas') namely Bagha, Khaki, Hati
and Nirmohi mathas with strong valiant Sadhus to guard the temple. As per the said
Gazetteer “there are over seventy mathas in Puri town." The Mathas are affiliated to different
sects of Hinduism, namely Angira sect, Adwait sect, Ramanandi sect, Ramanuja sect, Atibadi
sect, Gaudiya sect, Pancha Ramanandi sect, Gauda Mahaba sect, Nimbarka sect, Anant sect,
Utkal Vaishnab sect, Madhabacharya sect, Dashanami sect, Pustimarga sect. etc. There are
also some mathas belonging to the Gurunanaka sect and the Kabir sect. Most of the Mathas of
Puri have ritual relation with the Sri Jagannath temple.

Jagannath Ballav Matha

It is so to say the pleasure garden of Lord Jagannath. The "Bije pratimas" (the representative
images) of the Lords visit this Matha on different festive occasions like "Basanta Panchami",
on the 1st,4th,5th,and 12th days in the bright fortnight of Falguna. This Matha supplies
flower-ornaments like `talk and jhumpa' for Baddasinghara besha and supplies `Kora' (a sweet
food) for `Kaliya dalana' and `Pralambasura badha' beshas. It also supplies dayana for dayana
chori' ritual. This Matha situated on the grand road has a trust board under the
administrative control of the Endowment Commissioner of the State.

Raghaba Das Matha

It is situated near the southern gate of the Jagannath temple. This Matha supplies `tahia' on
Snana purnima, Car festival, return Car festival and Niladribije days. It supplies a part of the
Hati besha. It supplies `tuli'for pahandiand a certain quantity of sandal wood for
`Sarbanga'neeti on `Khalilagi ekadasi. It also supplies flower garlands for `Nabanka bedha' and
offers `adhara pana bhog' and `panti bhog' on certain festive days.

Oriya Matha


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -51 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


This Matha is responsible for supply of the materials for certain rituals. It supplies,`trimundi
chandua' and silk clothes for ` Chaka apasara', repairs `Kanakamundi'. It also supplies till oil
for Phuluri neeti, oil and ghee etc. for `Deva deepawali', offers `Chakata bhog' in `Anasara' and
adharpana bhog' and `Panti bhog'on certain days. On Neeladri bije day, the Mahanta makes
`majana' of ratnavedi. This Matha was set up by Atibadi Jagannath Das, a poet-saint of Orissa
in early part of the 16th century.

Emar Matha
It was established by the Saint Ramanuja. This Matha supplies `Chandrika'and `Chausara'
made of flowers for the Badasinghar besha of the Lords,`Mala' and `Chula' for the `nabanka'
ritual. It offers `Pana bhog' during the Chandan Yatra, `Chakata bhog' during the `anasara'
period and `bala bhog' during the month of Kartika.

Gopaltirtha Matha
This Matha supplies a part of `Hati besha' on the Snana Purnima day and ` makara chula' on
the Snana Purnima and Makara sankranti days and offers panti bhog.

Gobardhan Matha
It was established by the great Sankaracharya in the Swargadwar area. Puri became one of
the four important `dhamas'(places) of Hinduism because of the establishment of this Matha
by the great Saint. The head of this Matha also known as Sankaracharya is the permanent
head (nayak) of the Muktimandap of the Sri Jagannath temple by virtue of his position. The
temple authorities use to consult him in religious or ritual matters when ever necessary.

Bada chhata Matha
Situated in front of the temple Performs `Kirtan’ at the time of `mangala alati’ and `pahuda
alati' and bala dhupa. Padma besha of the Lords is done and `Kshiri bhog' offered by this
Matha.

Suna goswami Matha
It supplies flower ornaments like `alaka'and `chausara' during the Chandan Yatra, makes
`majana' of `ratnavedi' at the time of `banakalagi', supplies `adhibasa jala' from the well of
Sitala for Snana purnima rituals, and offers `panti bhog' to Dola Govinda at the time of
`Agniutschaba'. The Mahanta of this matha also happens to be the mahanta of Darpanarayan
Matha.

Mangu Matha
It is located by the side of the Emar Matha. It is associated with the memory of Guru Nanak.
This Matha supplies a ram for `bali'(sacrifice) before the Goddess Bimala, each year on
Mahanabami night. There is another Matha of Guru Nanak sect, known as Baaul Matha. The
other Maths connected with the affairs of Sri Jagannath temple are Sri Ram Das (Dakhina
parshaw)Matha,Uttara parshaw Matha,Trimali Matha,Mahiprakash Matha,Sankarananda
MathaGangamata Matha,Gangamata Matha,Radhaballav Matha,Labanikhia Matha,Chhauni


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -52 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


Matha,Jhadu Matha,Papudia Matha,Nebal Das Matha, Devagiri Matha,Pipili Sadabarta
Matha,Sanachhata       Matha,       Jhanjapita      Matha,Samadhi       Matha,Balaram         Kota
Matha,Badasantha          Matha,Ramji            Matha,Sidhabakula         Matha,Venkatachari
Matha,Narasinghachari Matha,Ghumusara            Matha,(now in ruins), Radhakanta Matha,(Sri
Chaitanya visited Puri in 1510 AD and stayed in this Matha. Some of his personal belongings
have been preserved in this Matha).Kothabhog Matha,Mahabir Matha etc. The mahantas of
these Matha are entitled to perform `Upachara Chamara seva, but most of them are not doing
the seva. The Mathas are under the control of State Endowment Commissioner.

There are two Mathas under the Sri Jagannath Temple Managing Committee. They are
Chaulia Matha and Delhi Nalak Ram Das Matha (near Gundicha temple).There is another
Matha known as Sata lahadi Matha in the Swargadwar area. It is the burial place of Atibadi
Jagannath Das, author of the Bhagabata purana in Oriya. This Matha is being managed by a
committee under the Chairmanship of Collector, Puri. Another Matha located in the same area
is the Kabir choura Matha, associated with the Kabir sect. It is said that Kabir, the mystic
poet stayed here when he visited Puri. There are some other Matha unconnected with the
rituals of the Jagannath temple like Chaitanya Goudiya Matha,Purusottam Goudiya
Matha,Panjabi Matha etc. Many Mathas have stopped performing services in the temple and
those who perform now, do so to a limited extent. Some of the Mathas are entitled to get
`Khei'(a portion of the Kotha bhog) of the temple. Outside Puri town, there is another Matha in
the Kakatpur village area, known as Deuli Matha which is connected with the Nabakalebar
ceremony of the temple.

5.6.3.The Four Ashrams
Connected with certain rituals of the temple of Jagannath, there are four Ashrams
(hermitages) in Puri town. These are Angira Ashram, Pandu Ashram, Markandeya Ashram and
Parasara (Ugrasena) Ashram.

On the ninth day of the bright fortnight of Sravana, the Nrusimha deity of the Sri Jagannath
temple pays a visit in a ceremonial manner to these four Ashrams. This is called `Badi
Nrusimha bije'.`Sital bhog' is offered to the Deity in each Ashram. On the full moon day of
Margasira, Nrusimha again visits these places. On the full moon day of Sravana, Lord
Sudarshan visits all these Ashrams. These Ashrams are being managed by different local
committees.

There are some other Ashrams not ritually connected with the Sri Jagannath temple. Some of
those Ashrams are Bijaya Krushna Goswami Ashram(near the Narendra tank),Adwait
Brahmashram (Girinarbanta), Omkarnath Thakur or Neelachal Ashram (Swargadwar area),
Karar Ashram (founded by the great Kriya yogi Sri Yukteswar Giri, (Swargadwar area)Bharat
Sevashram (Swargadwar area),Pranabananda Ashram (near Chakratirtha),Satsangha Ashram
(Chakratirtha   road),Nigamananda      Ashram        (Lokanath    road),Dibyadham     Yogashram
(Chakratirtha    road),Maa      Anandayamayi       Ashram    (near     Swargadwar),     Abhiram


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -53 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan


Paramahanshashram (marichikote      lane), Bhagabat   Ashram   (near   bus stand), Haridas
Ashram (Sarbodaya nagar).




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                              -54 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan




 Plate 16:     Girishyam             Plate 17:   Haridas        Plate 19:     Bhrugu
 matha                               matha                      Ashrama




                                                 Plate 18:    Pandu Ashrama
Plate 13:    Ginarbanta




Plate 15:    Angira Ashrama                      Plate 14:    Bagadia Dharmashala



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                              -55 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan


5.7.Cultural Heritage

 5.7.1.Dola Yatra

 This is celebrated from the tenth day of the
 bright fortnight of Falguna up to the full moon
 day. The representative deities Dologobinda,
 Bhudevi    and    Sreedevi      are     taken     in    a
 procession to Dolabedi located outside the
 outer compound wall of the main Temple and
 special rites are performed.

 5.7.2.Chandan Yatra

 This Takes place in the month of Vaisaksha
 and continues for long          42 days. But,
 generally speaking it is a Festival of first 21
 days only. The first period of 21 days is
 known     as   "Bahar    Chandan"         or    outer
 Chandan.       During    this         period,    the
 representative images of Rama, Krushna,
 Madanmohan,      Sridevi and Bhudevi are
 taken in a procession to Narendra tank. The
 images of Siva from 5 Siva Temples known
 as "Pancha Pandavas" also accompany them to the Narendra tank, At Narendra tank the
 images play in well decorated boats and are worshipped. The second period of 21 days known
 as "Bhitar Chandana" is celebrated inside the Temple. The rites observed on this period are
 not popularly enjoyed.

 5.7.3.Snana Yatra

 This Festival takes places in the month of
 Jestha. it is popularly known as the Deba
 Snana Purnima. This is the first occasion in
 the course of a year when the deities
 Jagannath, Balabhadra,Subhadra along with
 Sudarsan and Madanmohan are brought out
 from the Temple and taken in procession to
 Snana Bedi located in the North East corner of the outer compound. The deities are bathed
 there with 108 pitchers of water drawn from a well near the Northern Gate. Here, Jagannath
 and Balabhadra are dressed like Lord Ganesh of the Purans with the head of an elephant.


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                -56 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


5.7.4.The Chariots

The three Chariots of Balabhadra, Subhadra and Jagannath are constructed each year with
Sal wood, customarily brought from the ex princely State of Dasapalla, by a specialist team of
carpenters who have hereditary rights for this. Lord Jagannth's Chariot is called nandighosa.
It is forty-five feet square at the wheel level. It has sixteen wheels, each of seven feet
diameters, and is decked with red and yellow coverings of cloth. The Chariot of Lord
Balabhadra, called the Taladhwaja, has fourteen wheels, each of seven feet diameter, and is
covered with red and blue cloth. Its height is forty-four feet. The Chariot of Subhadra, known
as darpadalan is forty-three feet high with twelve wheels, each of seven feet diameter.

This Chariot is decked with the coverings of red and black cloth. Around each of the Chariots
are nine Parsvadevatas, the guardian deities, and four horses. Each chariot has a Charioteer
called Sarathi, Matali, Darruka and Arjuna are the three charioters attached respectively to
the three Chariots of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra.




 Plate 20:      Three Chariot in Badanada for the Rathyatra




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -57 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


5.7.5.Ratha Yatra (Chariot Festival)

The most splendid of the innumerable festivals celebrated round the year in the holy city of
Puri, the Ratha Yatra is the grand culmination of a series of celebrations spread over the
summer and the monsoon months. Akshaya Trutiya tithi marks the beginning of the
construction of the Rathas (chariots) for the ceremonial journey and sojourn of Lord
Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra at the Gundicha Temple for a week.

On the full-moon day of the month of Jyestha (May-June) in the Snana Yatra, the Bathing
Festival, when the three deities move in colourful processions to a platform in the outer
enclosure of the temple, the Snana Vedi, the bathing platform, where they bath with one
hundred and eight pitchers of perfumed water drawn from a temple well once a year.

After the ritual bath, the deities assume the special elephant form, recalling the legend of the
Lord's affection for a devotee, whom He proved that he was in fact another manifestation of
Lord Ganesha.

At the end of the Snana Yatra day, the holy triad, supposedly afflicted with fever, does not
return to their pedestal in the sanctum. They stay away from the public view for a period of
fifteen days, called Anasara, after which they appear in their Navayauvana Vesha, literally a
renewed youth, on the new moon day of the Month of Ashadha. During this fortnight the icons
get a fresh coat of painting which gets washed out on the day of the Bathing Festival. During
this period the deities eat only fruits other restricted diet and soft drinks. Cloth paintings,
representing the deities called Anasara Pati, are displayed beyond the enclosures hiding the
deities from the devotees to see and worship.

Finally comes the Ratha Yatra on the second day of the bright fortnight of the month of
Ashadha, when the three deities come out of the temple in a spectacular procession called
Pahandi. The deities, which are colossal wooden statues, adorned with giant floral crowns,
called Tahias, are literally pulled, pushed and dragged in rhythmic movement to the
accompaniment of the beat of cymbals, drums and chanting of their names in chorus by
devotees in frenzied ecstasy. After all the deities are seated in their respective chariots starts
the Chhera Pamhara, the ritual of sweeping of the chariots with a golden broom by the
Gajapati King of Puri, the foremost servant of God, the Adya sevaka of Lord Jagannath. The
King comes from his palace on a richly decorated palanquin. Chhera Pamhara is a symbolic
rite which proclaims that the King, like others, is but an humble servant of the real sovereign,
Lord Jagannath.

The most exciting part of the Rath yatra is the pulling of chariots by thousands of people who
lay their hands on the sturdy ropes and drag the massive structures along the Bada-Danda,
the grand road. The chariot of Balabhadra moves first, followed by those of Subhadra and
Jagannath. The chariots grind forward slowly until they reach the Gundicha temple and the




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -58 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


three deities rest for a night at the entrance on their own chariots. They enter the Gundicha
temple on the next day in the usual Pahandi style and stay there for seven days.

Godess Laxmi, who gets angry for being left out at the temple, proceeds to the Gundicha
temple to meet her Lord, Jagannath , on the Hera Panchami day, the fifth day of the fortnight.
After having a stealthy look at her Lord, she returns to the temple, damaging a part of
Jagannath's chariot in anger and disgust.

The deities, after the seven-day stay at Gundicha Temple, their garden house, commence their
return journey. It is called Bahuda Yatra held on the tenth day of bright fortnight of Ashadha.
The return of the chariots takes place in the same order as in the Rath Yatra. Balabhadra’s
chariot moves first, followed by those of Subhadra and Jagannath. On his way back,
Jagannath stops for a while at Ardhasani temple, popularly called Mausi Ma temple or the
temple of Aunt. He accepts from the aunt His favourite rice cake, Poda Pitha. The three
chariots pulled by thousands of devotees, reach back the Simhadwara in the late afternoon of
the Bahuda day and the deities remain seated on their chariots. On the next day known as the
Bada Ekadasi, the three deities, are attired in costumes of glittering gold and are worshipped
by thousands of devotees. This form of the deities is known as the famous Suna Vesa.

On the Dwadasi day, the three deities go back to their original place, the Ratna Simhasana,
literally the jeweled platform, with the usual fanfare and the Pahandi style. Their arrival into
the Sanctum sanctorum marks the end of the Ratha Yatra the grand festival of chariots.

5.7.6.Navakalevara

As a man discarding worn out clothes
takes   other   new   ones,   so   also   the
embodied soul, casting off worn out
bodies enters into others which are new.
In the light of his truth of the Bhagavat
Geeta, Navakalevar can be interpreted as
a ceremony for entering into new bodies,
when     Lord   Jagannath,     Balabhadra,
Subhadra and Sudarshan cast off their
old bodies and take new ones. It is called
Navakalevar. The year which has two
months     of   Ashadha       is   regarded
auspicious for Navakalevar ceremony. It
usually occurs in 8, 11 or 19 years. The new bodies of the deities are made out of the newly
cut Neem trees. The previous navakalevars were held in 1733, 1744, 1752, 1771, 1790, 1809,
1828, 1836, 1855, 1874, 1893, 1912, 1931, 1950, 1969, 1977 and 1996.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -59 -
  Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan


5.8.Fairs and Festivals

  It is popularly said Puri City celebrates thirteen important festivals in twelve months.
  However, in reality the city has various festivals all across the year. Importantly all these
  festivals are not only linked with the culture and heritage of Orissa but also of India. These
  activities are directly and indirectly linked with the cities employment and economic
  development potential. It is estimated that around 80% of cities income is linked with heritage
  related activities. The bellow table explains about thirteen big festival and number of visitors
  visiting the city.

  Table 16:    Major Fair and Festival
  Sl.No.    Major Festivals Oriya Month                 Month           Days      Visitors
     1       Devasnan           Jyestha Purnima       June                1       100000
             Purnima
     2       Shree Gundicha     Asadha       Sukla    June       &        1       1200000
             (Car Festivals)    Dwitiya to Dasami     July
    2i       Shree Gundicha     Asadha       Sukla    June       &        8       1600000
             (Car Festivals)    Dwitiya to Dasami     July
     3       Bahuda             Asadha      Sukla     July                1       800000
                                Dasami
     4       Suna Vesa          Asadha      Sukla     July                1       1500000
                                Ekadasi
     5       Dakshinayan        Karkata Sankranti     July-Aug            1        80000
             Yatra
     6       Parsva             Bahadrab    Sukla     August              1       200000
             Parivartan Yatra   Ekadasi
     7       Debothapan         Kartika     Sukla     Oct.                1        60000
             Yatra              Ekadasi
     8       Odhan Sasthi       Margasira   Sukla     Nov.                1        50000
                                Sasthi
     9       Pusyabhisekh       Pausa Purnima         Dec.                1       100000
    10       Uttarayan Yatra    Makar Sankranti       Jan.                1       200000
    11       Dolo Yatra      Falguna      Sukla March          5                  500000
                             Dasami to Purnima
    12     Damanak Yatra     Chaitra      Sukla April          1                   50000
                             Chaturdasi
    13     Chandan Yatra     Akshay      Tritiya May          21                  1200000
                             Baisakha     Sukla
                             Trutiya
  Source: Puri Municipality and Shri Jagannath Temple Administration




  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -60 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



Table 17:       Major Festivals in Picture
 Sl.No.              Major Festivals           Visitors

   1        Devasnan Purnima                  100000




   2        Shree      Gundicha        (Car   1200000
            Festivals)




  2i        Shree      Gundicha        (Car   1600000
            Festivals)




   3        Bahuda                            800000




   4        Suna Vesa                         1500000




  11        Dolo Yatra                        500000




  13        Chandan Yatra                     1200000




Source: Puri Municipality and Shri Jagannath Temple Administration




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                           -61 -
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



5.9.New Heritage Facilities

 This Plan identifies the need for two major new facilities: Puri’s Heritage Gateway and the
 Preservation Centre. Both of these facilities are long-term projects which are meant to
 address gaps at the city-wide level.

 As none of the existing museums has a city-wide mandate, the Heritage Gateway will be a
 place where people can learn about and be introduced to the history of Puri. It will be a space
 where archival material and artifacts from both the City’s collections, Temples and
 community-based organizations will be exhibited. It will feature exhibitions and extensive
 programming, and provide space to community-based heritage organizations for exhibitions,
 events, workshops and meetings. The Preservation Centre will provide professional standards
 of storage and conservation for local history and archaeological artifacts which cannot be
 accommodated elsewhere. Far from competing with existing museums and archives, both
 facilities will serve to celebrate the history of Puri as a whole, and act as a hub for community
 archives, museums, historic sites, and other heritage resources.

 5.9.1.Puri’s Heritage Gateway

 The City needs a new facility where people
                                                    Puri’s Heritage Gateway
 can learn about, and become involved in the
 full, rich history of Puri. This will be a space   o   Long-term objective
 where archival material and artifacts from         o   City-wide mandate
 the   City’s   collections,   community   based
                                                    o   Broad thematic scope
 museums,        other     organizations    and
 community members will be exhibited. This          o   Hub for heritage community
 centre should also be regarded as a public         o   Comprehensive heritage website
 space, where citizens can engage in dialogue
                                                    o   Innovative   educational   and    public
 and debate about heritage and history.
                                                        programs
 The Heritage Gateway will be an inclusive
 place where all Puri residents, no matter where they were originally from, will be able to see
 themselves. Heritage programs and holdings require a focal point for research, exhibitions,
 public access and training that complements existing resources and facilities. The city
 currently has a number of local museums that are either focused on one individual and
 community, a specific period in time, or one geographic wards within the city. The city enjoys
 a wealth of national resources. However, no existing municipal heritage institution has a
 mandate to preserve, present and promote a comprehensive history of Puri, or to serve as a
 catalyst for discussion about the development of Puri as a city, the characteristics that make
 Puri what it is today and what it will become in the future. No program within the
 Corporation of the Puri Municipality is mandated to collect, preserve, study and interpret
 artifacts and information pertaining to the City’s history as a whole, including artifacts
 related to the history of municipal services such as Solid Waste Management, Sanitation,
 transportation and water supply etc..


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -62 -
 Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan



 One potential location for the Heritage Gateway is the proposed new Shrekhetra Central
 Library Arts and Heritage Complex, a complex that would also better accommodate the Puri
 Public Library.

5.10.Issues and Problems of Heritage in Puri

 As any settlement, which has grown around a single centre of activities, the ancient town of
 Puri is also facing many problems in the delineated Heritage Zone. The most critical of these
 problems are: -

 Movement: The street widths are very narrow causing disruption in traffic movement and
 hampering accessibility to many areas by vehicle.

 Affordable Shelter for Pilgrimage: Lack of affordable shelter for poor pilgrims visiting the
 sites i.e. on an average 25000 to 35000 in number during festive seasons.

 View Tower: Non Hindu Religious people are not allowed to get inside the temple and there is
 no watch tower provision for visibility of temples architecture.

 Building Controls and Planning: There is a glaring lack of policy and no action blueprint
 exists for the conservation of heritage resources either at the state or city government level.

 Definition of Heritage: A definite problems with the existing definition of heritage as
 interpreted by ASI as well as the government agencies.

 Surveillance: The heritage areas and city requires appropriate surveillance system to
 monitor any Terrorist threats.

 Traffic Congestion: Vehicular traffic has predominantly increased through the years
 creating problems of parking, thus, blocking the visibility and accessibility of heritage
 buildings.

 Encroachments: The visual character and aesthetic ambience of the heritage buildings/
 precincts is totally engulfed by intense commercial activity, signboards etc.

 Inadequate Municipal Services: Inadequate and inappropriately located facilities for
 garbage collection, inadequate fire services due to congested lanes, shortage of water supply,
 storm water and sewerage connections has lead to overall deterioration of the urban fabric.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -63 -
  Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan




                       6.City Management and Governance

6.1.Institutions

  The responsibility of providing citizens of Puri with basic urban services like water supply,
  sewerage, waste management, street lighting, roads etc. are vested with various institutions
  such as Puri Municipality, Puri Konark Development Authority, Public Health Engineering,
  Orissa Water Supply Sewerage Board etc.

6.2.Legal Framework

  A number of institutions are involved in the governance of the city of Puri. Most of the
  institutions were established through Acts of legislation and others are part of state’s
  governance framework. The institutions established by law are given in table below.

  Institutions established by law
  Agency                                           Legislation
  Puri Municipality                                Orissa Municipal Act 1950, Orissa Municipal
                                                   (Amendemnt) Act 1994
  Puri Konark Development Authority                Section 3 of Orissa Development Authority
                                                   Act 1982
  Orissa Water Supply & Sewarage Board             Section 67 of OWSSB Act 1991
  Public        Health       Engineering           Formed by Govt. of Orissa
  Organsiastion
  Orissa Pollution Control Board         of Section- 4 of the Water (Prevention and
                                                   Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1974,
                                                   vide Notification No.1481-VII-HI-11/83
  Shri Jagannath Temple Adminsitration             The    Puri      Shri   Jagannath     Temple
                                                   (Administration) Act, 1952
  Source: Various Institutions Discussion, 2006

  Urban local bodies in the state are governed by two important legislations viz., orissa
  Municipal Corporation Act 2003 and the Orissa Municipalities Act 1950. The former Act
  extends to all the 2 municipal corporations of the state and the latter applies to all the
  municipalities & notified area councils. The Acts specify the governance framework, the
  spatial jurisdiction and the functional domain of the local bodies.

6.3.Local Governments Framework

  The 74th CAA, 1992 of the GoI has imparted constitutional status on the ULBs and assigned
  appropriate functions to them. A constitutional backing is given to the relationship of the
  ULBs with the State Government with respect to their functions and powers, ensuring of
  timely and regular elections, arrangements for revenue sharing etc. ULBs are given additional
  powers including preparation of local development plans, programmes for ensuring social
  justice, environmental management making them responsive to the local needs. This is
  facilitated by Section 243 (W) of the 74th CAA, 1992.

  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -64 -
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



 In conformity with the 74th CAA, various State Governments have taken initiative to amend
 their respective Municipal Corporation / Municipalities Act and the ULBs are entrusted with
 the functions listed in the Twelfth Schedule of the constitution or Section 243 (W) of the 74th
 CAA, 1992. Similarly, the GoO has also taken similar initiative and amended Orissa
 Municipal (Amendment) Act 1994 and enacted Orissa Municipal Corporation Act 2003 in
 conformity with the 74th CAA. Further State Election Commission conducted elections in the
 year 1995, 2000 and 2003.

 The urban reforms resulting from the 74th CAA lays larger responsibility on the ULBs, in
 terms of development planning, service provision and fiscal affairs. The policy framework of
 the State and Central Government has provided the necessary impetus to the urban sector to
 play a pro-active role in the development process. In the changed scenario, it is imperative for
 the ULBs to set their priorities and strategies right, designed to achieve a clear vision.

 Table 18:      Functional Devolution as per Twelfth Schedule
 Sl    Functions                                                           OMCA       OMA
 1     Urban planning including town planning                              √          √
 2     Regulation of land use and construction of buildings                √          ×
 3     Planning for economic and social development                        √          √
 4     Roads and bridges                                                   √          ×
 5     Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial                √          ×
       purposes
 6     Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste              √          √
       management
 7     Fire services                                                       ×          ×
 8     Urban forestry, protection of the environment, and                  √          √
       promotion of ecological aspects
 9     Safeguarding the interests of the weaker sections of the            √          √
       society, including the handicapped and the mentally
       retarded
 10    Slum improvement and upgradation                                    √          √
 11    Urban poverty alleviation                                           √          √
 12    Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as                 √          ×
       parks, gardens, playgrounds
 13    Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects            √          √
 14    Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation                   √          √
       grounds and electric crematoriums
 15    Cattle pounds, prevention of cruelty to animals                     √          √
 16    Vital statistics including registration of births and               √          √
       deaths
 17    Public amenities including street lighting, bus stops,              √          √
       public conveniences
 18    Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries                        √          √


6.4.City Management

 As stated earlier, the City Administration is vested with the Puri Municipality. After the
 Orissa Municipal (Amendment) Act, 1994, full-fledged Municipal Council is functioning. The
 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -65 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



 last elected council is functioning from October 01, 2003 with an elected Chairperson and
 Councilors. The Puri Municipality has an executive body comprising of various administrative
 wings headed by the Executive Officer to act upon the decisions of the Municipality Council
 and day-to-day functioning of the Corporation. The Puri Municipality discharges various
 obligatory and discretionary functions as per the provisions of the Orissa Municipal
 (Amendment) Act, 1994 and provides various specified civic services / infrastructure facilities
 to the citizens of the city.

6.5.About Puri Municipality

 The Puri Municipality was established in 1864 as Puri Improvement Trust. Further in the
 year 1881 Puri Improvement Trust transformed into Puri Municipality. Post independence
 period after the enactment of Orissa Municipal Act- 1950 the City administration is vested
 with Puri Municipality and it is represented by Chairperson and councilors elected by the
 people. The election is being conducted by the State Election Commission. Puri Municipality
 has an elected council comprising elected representatives (Councilors) of 30 wards within the
 Municipal area. The council is headed by Chairperson who is elected by the councilors. The
 council meeting of Municipality takes place every month to decide on issues and Governance.
 Duties entrusted to the Puri Municipality were to maintain cleanliness, arrangement for
 street light and maintenance of roads etc

 6.5.1.Organisational Structure

 The Chairperson is the elected head of the Corporation. The Chairperson functions through
 municipal councils. The administrative head of the Corporation is Executive Officer, who
 along with the Addl. Executive Officer, Municipal Engineer, Health Officer, Medical Officer,
 etc carries out various activities related to engineering, health and sanitation, taxation and
 its recovery. Puri Municipality currently has 706 employees. The organisational structure is
 provided below

 The administrative set up of Puri Municipality at present is as follows:

                 1.   Chairperson
                 2.   Vice-Chairperson
                 3.   Executive Officer
                 4.   Addl. Executive Officer
                 5.   Municipal Engineer
                 6.   Health Officer
                 7.   Medical Officer
 The Executive Officer is supported by Addl Executive Officer and 199 staffs of Sr. Asst Jr.
 Asst, Tax collector peon gardeners etc. Municipal Engineer is assisted by 22 staff such as Jr.
 Engineer, Draftsman, work sarkar, gang coolies etc. Health officer is supported by 469 staff
 and Medical officer is supported by 16 staff. In all there are 706 numbers of employees in the
 Municipality. Puri Municipality discharges its obligatory and discretionary function as per
 provision of Orissa Municipal Act and Rules.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -66 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



Table 19:      Functional Devolutionof Puri Municipality as per Twelfth Schedule
Sl    Functions                                                               Puri
                                                                              Municipality
1     Urban planning including town planning                                  √
2     Regulation of land use and construction of buildings                    ×
3     Planning for economic and social development                            √
4     Roads and bridges                                                       ×
5     Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial                    ×
      purposes
6     Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste                  √
      management
7     Fire services                                                           ×
8     Urban forestry, protection of the environment, and                      √
      promotion of ecological aspects
9     Safeguarding the interests of the weaker sections of the                √
      society, including the handicapped and the mentally
      retarded
10    Slum improvement and upgradation                                        √
11    Urban poverty alleviation                                               √
12    Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks,              ×
      gardens, playgrounds
13    Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects                √
14    Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds               √
      and electric crematoriums
15    Cattle pounds, prevention of cruelty to animals                         √
16    Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths            √
17    Public amenities including street lighting, bus stops, public           √
      conveniences
18    Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries                            √

Apart from the Puri Municipality providing above services, the city has various Government
Departments and their Directorates with development related responsibilities and functions.
However, necessary steps may be taken to transfer powers & responsibility to puri
municipality i.e parks, regulation of landuse etc. The following table provides an insight into
the development related responsibilities and functions of various government departments /
institutions in Puri Town along with a brief note on the intended responsibilities & functions
of the Puri Municipality vis-à-vis other agencies / departments / institutions (in Puri Town
context) as per the provisions of the 74th CAA:

Table 20:     Urban Services in Puri
Sl. Name      of  the    Responsibilities and Functions          Remarks (Intended Roles as
No Department/                                                   per the 74th CAA)
     Institution
1.   Puri        Konark    • Puri    Konark       Development      • All functions pertaining to
     Development             Authority        (PKDA)      was        Master        Plan        &
     Authority               constituted under the Orissa            Development             Plan
     (PKDA)                  Development    Authorities   Act-       preparation,preparation of
                             1982.                                   development scheme and


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -67 -
Puri Municipality                                                            Puri City Development Plan



                          • Responsible for development of                       its implementation,all city
                            Puri Master Plan area                                planning
                          • Preparation             of         Interim,          functions,development
                            comprehensive                and         zonal       controls        and         building
                            development plans                                    sanctions          within         the
                                                                                 Municipal         limits,to        be
                          • Enforcement of the provisions
                                                                                 dealt      by         the         Puri
                            of the development plan, zoning
                                                                                 Municipality as per the
                            regulations and planning and
                                                                                 74th CAA.
                            building standards by way of
                            issuing         permissions                for     • PKDA       role    within         Puri
                            construction of buildings                            Municipality        area      would
                          • Preparation       of         development             be limited.
                            schemes                 and                its
                            implementation
                          • All    city    planning        functions,
                            development         controls              and
                            building sanctions
                          • Principal      objectives           of    the
                            authority include creation of
                            housing        stock,        creation       of
                            commercial                    complexes,
                            improvement         of        city       level
                            infrastructure,         environmental
                            improvement,             parks            and
                            plantations in colonies, blocks,
                            institutions and roadsides.

2.   Public     Health    • Responsible       for        construction          • All functions pertaining to
     Engineering            and maintenance of city water                        planning
     Organisation           supply,        sanitary            sewerage          designg,construction,oper
     (PHEO),                installation            owned              by        ation and maintenance of
     Government      of     Government of Orissa.                                city    water      supply         and
     Orissa               • Apart from above, the PHEO is                        management            of      waste
                            also           responsible                 for       water(sanitation                  and
                            construction and maintenance                         sewarage)schemes
                            of the external and internal                         including                      their
                            water     supply,       sanitary          and        transportation                    and
                            sewerage installation for state                      distribution        within        the
                            Government Buildings ( both                          Municipal         limits     to    be
                            residential and non residential)                     dealt      by         the         Puri
                            in the city.                                         Municipality as per the


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                       -68 -
Puri Municipality                                                        Puri City Development Plan



                                                                             74th CAA

                                                                           • The PHEO can continue to
                                                                             deliver      its        assigned
                                                                             responsibilities             and
                                                                             functions      outside       the
                                                                             administrative jurisdiction
                                                                             of the Puri Municipality.

3.   Works                 • Responsible      for    construction,         • All functions pertaining to
     Department             repair    and     maintenance           of       construction,repair          and
     (R&B     Division),    buildings, roads, bridges and                    maintenance of all major
     Government      of     other         related        structures          arterial            roads,city
     Orissa                 financed from the state and                      roads,bridges      and      other
                            capital budget          allocations     of       related road infrastructure
                            GoO.                                             within      the     Municipal
                           • All major arterial roads in the                 limits to be dealt by the
                            city are under the control of the                Puri Municipality as per
                            Works Dept.                                      the 74th CAA.
                           • Also responsible for ensuring                 • The Work Department can
                            that     no     encroachment            of       continue     to    deliver    its
                            structure, whether temporary                     assigned     responsibilities
                            or permanent is erected on the                   and functions outside the
                            land and property under the                      administrative jurisdiction
                            control of Works Dept. It is also                of the Puri Municipality.
                            responsible for removal of such
                            encroachments           as   per     GoO
                            rules.
                           • Maintaining a register of land,
                            buildings        and         properties
                            belonging to the GoO and under
                            the administration of WD.

4.   Orissa      Water     • Responsible for construction of               • As per the 74th CAA, Puri
     Supply         and     water-         supply,            sanitary       Municipality, at its own
     Sewerage    Board      sewerage scheme on behalf of                     discretion,can     decide      to
     (OWSSB),               PHEO and local bodies at their                   hire the services for the
     Government      of     cost and on payment of cent                      works within the its limits
     Orissa                 age charges.

5.   Water Resources       • Responsible      for    construction          • All function pertaining to
     Department,            and      maintenance         of     major        construction                 and
     Government      of     storm water channels and river                   maintenance        of     major


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -69 -
Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan



     Orissa                embankments                within   Puri       drains(Atjhar Nala) within
                           Municipality limits                            the Municipal limits

                                                                        • The       water         resources
                                                                          Department can continue
                                                                          to    deliver its       assaigned
                                                                          responsibilities                 and
                                                                          functions      outside           the
                                                                          administrative jurisdiction
                                                                          of the Puri Municipality

6.   Revenue              • The Revenue Administration is               • All Revenuew Department
     Department,           responsible       for       Government         owned       land           parcels
     Government      of    Land Management in Puri                        located       within             the
     Orissa               • Administration of Government                  Municipal limits,should be
                           residential and non residential                transferred       to    the     Puri
                           estates and buildings located in               Municipality                      for
                           Puri city                                      undertaking        development
                          • Other      capital     administration         activities,as per the 74th
                           issues connected with land in                  CAA
                           the city.

7.   Orissa    Tourism    • Promotion of Tourism in Puri                • These
     Development                                                          Department/Institutions
     Corporation and                                                      should                  undertake
     Department      of                                                   development activities in
     Tourism                                                              close
                                                                          consultation/cooperation
                                                                          with the Puri Municipality

8.   Department      of   • Promotion of Cultural Image of              • These
     Culture               the city                                      Department/Institutions
                                                                         should                   undertake
                                                                         development activities in
                                                                         close
                                                                         consultation/cooperation
                                                                         with the Puri Municipality

9.   Archeology      of   • Protection           of        Heritage     • They should conitune their
     India                 Monuments                                     activities          in           close
                                                                         consultation/cooperation
                                                                         with the Puri Municipality




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                 -70 -
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan




10.       Shri     Jaganath   • Management      of    Jaganath       • These Institutions should
          Temple               Temple and its related activities      conitune their activities in
          Administration                                              close
                                                                      consultation/cooperation
                                                                      with the Puri Municipality

Source: Various Institutions Discussion, 2006

Puri Municipality has initiated Pvt sector participation in solid waste management. Where as
Pvt Sector intervention in other key areas are yet to take place. Following table provides
insight into institutional responsibilities for various urban infrastructure & services, as per
the illustrative table of the Jn NURM Toolkit 2.

Table 21:     Institutional Responsibility and Role of Private Sector
      Urban          Planning and Design         Construction                    Operation and
  infrastructure                                                                 Maintenance
Water supply            PHEO/OWSSB               PHEO/OWSSB                   PHEO
Sewarage                PHEO/OWSSB               PHEO/OWSSB                   PHEO
Storm Water             Water Resource           Water Resource               Water Resource
Drainage -Major         Department and           Department and works         Department
Drains                  works Department         Department
Storm Water             Puri Municipality        Puri Municipality            Puri Municipality
Drainage -Minor
Drains
Solid Waste             Puri Municipality        Puri Municipality            Puri Municipality
Management

Roads(including         Works                    Works Department(R&B         Works
Flyovers) Major         Department(R&B           Division)                    Department(R&B
Roads                   Division)                                             Division)

Municipal Roads         Puri Municipality        Puri Municipality            Puri Municipality
(including
Flyovers)-
Minor/Internal
Roads
Street Lighting         Puri Municipality    Puri Municipality                Puri Municipality
                                             /CESCO
Source: Various Institutions Discussion, 2006
Based on the above, it may be observed that the following functions as outlined in the Twelfth
Schedule (Article 243 W - 74th CAA) are not finding place as functions of the Municipality in
the Orissa Municipal (Amendemnt) Act, 1994.

      •    Urban planning including town planning;
      •    Landuse regulation and construction of buildings;
      •    Planning for economic and social development;
      •    Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes;
      •    Public health and sanitation; and
      •    Fire services.
It is noteworthy that the GoO is committed to associate municipal bodies in the planning
related functions like urban planning, landuse regulation, building construction and
planning for economic & social development etc.The matter relating to adoption of the reform

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -71 -
 Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



 programmes has been approved by the Cabinet which is communicated in the Memo of the
 Parliamentary Affairs Department No.7409, dated the 21st September, 2006. The State
 Government has decided to commit to undertake the reforms within the Mission period. The
 Gazate Notification is attached in annexture.

6.6.Organisastion Structure

 6.6.1.Puri Municipality



                                          City Council



                                           Chairman              Vice Chairman



                                        Executive Officer



                   Add Executive           Municipal               Municipal
                      Officer               Engineer               Engineer



               •   Tax                  • Roads              •   SWM
               •   Budget               • Drains             •   Sanitation
               •   Accounts             • Buildings          •   Birth & Death Reg.
               •   Establishment                             •   Food Licence
               •   Poverty Allv
               •   Street Lighting




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                               -72 -
 Puri Municipality                                                    Puri City Development Plan



 6.6.2.WSS Institutional framework (Orissa)

                                                      Minister, UD
                                                           &
                                                    Chairman, OWSSB




                          Principal Secretary,                              Special Secretary, H&UD
                        H&UD Department cum
                        Vice-Chairman, OWSSB




     Chief Engineer, PH (U)                    Director,                      Chief Engineer-cum-
                                        Municipal Administration               Member Secretary,
                                                                                    OWSSB



    Superintendent Engineer,                                               Project Director PM Circle
                                                                                    Cuttack
         PH Circle, BBSR


        Executive Engineer,
                                                                               Project Engineer
         PH Division Puri
                                                                                   PMU Puri



6.7.Key Issues
 Good governance in the municipal context stands on four areas i.e. Transparency,
 Accountability, Participatory and Capacity Building. However, Puri Municipality has many
 issues related to Good Governance. Following are some of the key issues identified under the
 urban governance related issues:

    o    Puri Municipality needs to re organized to function as per the 12th Schedule of 74th
         CAA, as GoO has been expressing its commitment to undertake full decentralization
         within seven year period of the JNNURM. This in result requires Municipality to
         strengthen its financial & human resources,

    o    In the event of transfer of functions to Puri Municipality will result in expansion of its
         administrative jurisdiction covering the development area of Puri Konark Development
         Authority.

    o    The city lacks modern day Resource mobilization strategy.

    o    There is a need for capacity building and training for the municipal staff to take
         forward the reform process in the following areas:

    o    Double entry accounting system - Conversion of existing cash based single entry
         accounting into accrual based;

    o    e-governance - Computerization of the office and citizens service centre;

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                            -73 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



   o   PPPP Experiment - Models on successful PPPP initiative in civic services;

   o   There is a need to reform the present Holding Tax collection into Property Tax System.

   o   Effective decentralization of local administration as per the true spirits of the 74th
       CAA.

   o   The Puri Municipality needs a transparent mechanism to showcase its performance of
       functioning
   o   There is need for institutional mechanism to coordinate activites between various
       institutions of the city.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -74 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan




     7.Urban Environment Infrastructure Services

7.1.Urban Environment

 The socio economic and ecological situations of Indian cities today are marked by the way in
 which urbanisation takes place over the years. The intensity in which migration from the
 rural to urban and the natural population growth has swollen some of the main cities with a
 million inhabitants or more and shows there is growth in small and medium towns. The
 speed of urbanisation the socio economic origin of immigrants and relatively high rate of
 natural population increases the expansion of settlement and there by environmental
 situation in the cities. The urban environment services of the Puri city is dealt through many
 areas and affects by many factors. The following line will provide pictures of the puri urban
 environment and its related services.

7.2.Solid Waste Management

 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is an essential, but often neglected part of the
 urban environmental management of the cities and towns. The mid term appraisal of 9th five
 year plan states that solid waste management is most neglected areas of urban development.
 It is estimated that about one lakh metric tones of solid waste are generated everyday with a
 percapita of 200 to 700 grams in the Urban Centers of India. The Puri Municipality maintains
 the solid waste management network in Puri city. The solid waste collection and
 transportation is carried out by the staff headed the by Health Officer. The city has been
 divided into 7 zones each headed by a Sanitary Inspector. Under the sanitary inspector there
 are 24 Jamadars and 464 sweepers.

 For better management of sanitation work, the whole Municipal area is divided in to seven
 Conservancy District and for control the mosquito, one Malaria Section functions. There are
 8 number of Sanitary Inspector and 10 Conservancy Jamadars, are supervising the work of
 464 Safai Karmacharies. The various cleaning activities include (1) Road cleaning (2) drain
 cleaning (3) public latrine (community laterne) (4) garbage loading and unloading (5) spraying
 of Baytex, Malarial oil, Abeta for anti-mosquito development.

 All these sanitation work is being done under the direct guidance of the Health Officer. Near
 about 350 Hand barrows are being used by the Safai Karmacharies to lift the garbage to sub-
 depot from where the garbage are transported by 10 tractors, one truck to solid waste plant
 situated at Balipanda.

 7.2.1.Solid Waste Management System practice in Puri Municipality

 •   Storage of Domestic Waste at Source:

        • Apart from the 7 larger dumping areas there are 60 small waste bins located placed
         at various locations


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -75 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



         • However the waste is thrown all around the bins due to insufficient number of waste
          bins
         • Some even dispose off their wastes on the roadsides, surface drains, open spaces and
          ponds.
•   Segregation of Recyclable Wastes:

    There are 10-11 organized recyclers operating within the town who pick up waste of
    commercial value such as plastic items, broken glasses, scrap steels, liquor bottles, etc.

•   Primary Collection of wastes:

Domestic, Market and Institutional Waste: Primary collection is carried out by hand wheel
barrows in the narrow lanes of the city, while in other locations wastes are lifted from the
waste bins and heaps are formed on the street side. There are 275 hand wheelbarrows owned
by the municipality for the purpose of primary collection of wastes. The waste from the 60
smaller waste bins are collected by the wheelbarrows and then transferred to the 7 larger
waste storage depots. Apart from these 10 to 11 NGOs are engaged occasionally for primary
collection of the waste from public and pilgrimage places using their own equipments and
tools.

Hospital and Nursing Home Waste: Presently there is o facility for solid waste management
of hospital waste. At the District Headquarter Hospital deep burial is done for infectious
wastes in a concrete cement well of 1.5m dia. and 3.5m depth. Other wastes are dumped
along with the municipal solid waste. However the waste of the other hospitals is thrown into
the municipal solid waste system. The amount of waste generated by the various hospitals is
as below.

Table 22:     Amount of Waste Generated by various Hospitals
Name of Health care Establishment                      No. of             Waste Generation
                                                       Beds                Rate (kg/day)
District Headquarter Hospital                           210                      61
Red Cross Infectious Hospital                                   108               35
Kamla Maternity Hospital                                         12               2.5
Chandan Hazuri Pediatrics Hospital                               10                3
Ayurvedic Hospital                                               80               25
Police Lines Hospital                                            15                4
2 Municipal Dispensaries (Swargadwar, Laxmi Bazar)               12                4
3 Private        Nursing   Homes    (Nilachal,   Sharadha,       20                4
Nandalaya)
20 Clinics                                                        -                2
25 Pathological Labs.                                             -               1.5
Total                                                           467              119.5
Source: Puri Municipality
Hotel and Restaurants Waste: hotels and restaurants dispose off their wastes into the
waste bins provided by the municipality or in heaps along the street sides.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -76 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



Construction Debris: these are used for filling up of low-lying areas. Parts of it are also
disposed off into the municipal solid waste.

Slaughter House Waste: the slaughterhouse is situated along the Puri Bhubaneswar Road
in Athernalla. About 15-20 Goats are slaughtered daily and 1 wheelbarrow capacity of waste
is generated and transferred to the compost plant. The waste is stored temporarily near the
boundary wall of the slaughterhouse openly before being transferred to the compost plant.

Street Sweeping: The timings for street sweeping are 7-11 am and 3-6 pm. However streets
are swept only in the morning hours. The streets are swept with long handles and tins are
used for lifting wastes.

Table 23:    Equipments used for Solid Waste Management
For Sweeping                      500 short and long handle brooms
For Primary Collection                 480 Wheel Barrows
For Transportation                     1 Mini Truck
                                       13 Tractors
                                       1 auto rickshaw (not owned by municipality)
At Compost Plant                       1 Front End Loader
                                       1 Bobcat
For Temple Waste                       1 Mini Truck

Source: Puri Municipality

Transportation of waste: The waste is transported via the above-mentioned vehicles to the
compost plant.

Processing and Disposal of Wastes: The Compost Plant was set up under the Indo-
Norwegian Project in 1998. It occupies 2 ha. of land and it is highly underutilized. The plant
has a capacity of processing 100 TPD of solid waste in the form of aerobic composting plant,
however only 25-30 mixed waste is being processed daily. There is no sanitary landfill site for
the disposal of non-treatable wastes and is disposed off by the trolley drivers near the
compost plant gate. Presently the residues from the compost plant are stored within the
premises. The plant generates 250 MT of manure yearly. The quantity of waste received at the
compost plant is as below:

Table 24:      Composition of Amount of Waste received at the Compost Plant
Classification                                         Quantity per day (MT)
Biodegradable
Dry leaves and vegetables                                        8.16
Dry leaves, grass, wood, cotton, rags, coirs                     7.42
Cow dung Excreta                                                 1.32
Paper                                                            1.06
Green Coconut Shells                                             2.12
Total                                                           20.08
Non bio degradable
Polythene, Plastic                                               1.48
Glass                                                            0.16
Leather                                                          0.16
Metal Scraps                                                     0.11
Total                                                            1.91

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -77 -
Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan



Classification                                                    Quantity per day (MT)
Solid Waste for Ground Filling
Ash, Silt, and Sand                                                                        23.33
Debris                                                                                      7.68
Total                                                                                      31.01
Source: Puri Compost Plant

It may be concluded that the compost output is drastically lesser than the waste input in the
compost plant. However the plant is highly under utilized as the segregation of waste is not
done properly and enormous amounts of the waste cannot be treated in the plant. The
amount of input and output waste has varied nominally during the past three years.

Presently there is no facility for of hazardous waste. However, for hospital waste at District
Headquarter Hospital at Puri, a deep burial is done for infectious waste in a cement concrete
well of 1.5 mt dia and 3.5 Mt depth. Others wastes are dumped along with municipal solid
waste. A necessary steps need to be taken for scientific based landfilling of hazardous &
medical waste after incinerated.

7.2.2.Quantity and Composition of Wastes
According to Puri Municipality the city of Puri generates about 50-60 tonnes/day of solid
waste including debris and construction waste at the rate of 200gm/capita/day on normal
days. However during the festival season an estimated 80 tonnes/day of solid waste is
generated. Seven different sources of Municipal solid waste have been identified in Puri.

Temple Waste: Puja Materials such as food, flowers, banana leaves, bowls made of saal
leaves, pots made of earth etc.
Household Waste: Garbage including food waste (organics/tins/cans/glass etc.), paper,
furniture, crockery, sweepings, garden waste etc.
Commercial: similar to household waste produced from offices, shops and restaurants.
Drain Desilting Waste: solids from large and small drains carrying the waste/storm water
Institutional Waste: Similar to household waste plus hazardous, explosive, pathological and
other wastes (example hospitals and research institutes)
Construction and Demolition Waste: bricks, brickbats, concrete, asphalt, pipes, and other
construction debris
Municipal Waste: street waste, dead animals, market waste, abandoned vehicles
Table 25:          MSW Characteristic
                                                                            2.5      0.2
                                                                                    0.3
                                                                                   20.3                 Ash,Silt, Sand
MSW Characteristic                      By %                          2.8
                                                                  4
Ash, Silt, Sand                          44                                                             Green leaves/
Green leaves/ Vegetables                15.4                                                            Vegetables
Debris                                  14.5               14
                                                                                                        Debris
Dry leaves, grass, wood, coir, rags      14                                                        44
Green Coconut Shell                       4                                                             Dry leaves, grass,
                                                                                                        wood, coir, rags
Polythene/plastic                        2.8
                                                                                                        Green Coconut
Cow dung/Animal excreta                     2.5                                                         Shell
                                                                                                        Polythene/plastic
Paper                                        2             14.5


Glass                                      0.3                                                          Cow dung/Animal
                                                                                                        excreta
Leather Waste                              0.3                                    15.4                  Paper

Metal Scrap                                0.2
                                                       Box 6: MSW Characteristics
 Source: Puri Municipality

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                               -78 -
Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan



Table 26:       Amount of Waste Collected by Recyclers on Normal and Rath Yatra Days
Type of Waste Collected         Waste   Collected      During   Waste Collected During Rath Yatra and
                                Normal Day (T/day)              Puja Vacations (T/Day)
Broken Plastic Items                        1.16                                2.32
Broken Glass                                 4                                   8
Polythene Items                             0.7                                 1.4
    Source: Puri Municipality
Apart from these huge quantities of liquor bottles are also collected from restaurants and
hotels, which are recycled directly for reuse.

7.2.3.Problems with the Existing Solid Waste Management System
The existing Situation has been compared with the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and
Handling) Rules, 2000. The variations from the Rules have been identified in the following
table along with the Critical Problems which the town is presently facing due to the lacunas
of the Solid Waste Management System.

It was also observed that all roads and streets were not being swept on daily basis. In
practice, certain important roads and markets were swept daily, some were swept on
alternate days or twice a week, some were swept occasionally or not at all. The road length to
be swept by a sanitary worker was also not standardized. There was no definite yardstick
prescribed for each sanitary worker. As stated earlier, the system of door-to-door and/or
doorstep collection are unscientific and it was observed that the sanitary workers were
restricting themselves only to the sweeping of the streets and cleaning of drains. The
desirable practice in this regard was that the sanitary workers of the ULB to collect the
wastes from the doorstep during street sweeping process on daily basis. Due to the absence
of such a system, solid waste in the city was often subjected to double handling leading to
wastage of both manpower and financial resources of the ULB.

7.2.4.Performance Indicators
An index of performance of the Solid Waste Management sector parameters benchmarked
against the normative/standard requirements or service levels as prescribed by reference
guidelines/standards such as CPHEEO guidelines, Municipal Solid Waste (Management &
Handling) Rules, 2000, pertinent manuals/publication and nominally prevalent level of
services in similar cities with functional (good) urban infrastructure is furnished in the table
below. It is imperative to mention that the nominal standard/benchmark is the requisite level
of provision/delivery that is to be achieved over the existing and proposed urban
agglomeration area in Puri.
Table 27:       Solid Waste Management: Performance Indicators
Sl No   Parameter / Component          Service Level     Benchmark        Commitment / Remarks
1       Per-Capita Generation          200 grams         250 grams        Moderate
2       Collection Performance         70 percent        100 percent      Needs Improvement
3       Spacing of Collection Bins     1000 meters       500 meters       Inadequate
4       No. of Sanitary Workers        2.7               1.80             Almost adequate
        per 1,000 population
5       Sanitary    Workers     per    65                25               Grossly Inadequate
        Supervisor

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                           -79 -
 Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan



 7.2.5.Issues:

 Solid waste management, a key sector which plays a
 significant role is not only hygiene of city residents
 but also ambient appearance of the city through
 developed aesthetics requires careful evaluation for
 identification of important issues and requisite
 improvement plans. Key issues and concerns are
 outlined below:

   o Significant portion of collection infrastructure is       Plate 21:       Solid Waste dumped on
                                                               the Street
    reportedly damaged

   o Waste is also indiscriminately dumped along
    major drains and water bodies posing a severe
    health      hazard   and   rendering   the   city   un-
    aesthetic.

   o Door-to-door collection and source segregation of
    waste is abjectly neglected.

   o Containerization of collection and transportation
    of municipal solid waste is also a critical factor to
    avoid double and man handling of wastes.
                                                               Plate 22:       Stray Animals   Feeding
   o Specific    treatment     of   bio-hazardous   waste      on Garbage and Scattering
    generated from slaughterhouses, hospitals and
    other institutions is absent resulting in a high risk to public safety and environmental
    health.

   o Use of polythene disposable packing products and other recyclable waste material
    without planned disposal creates un-healthy environment.
   o Capacity of Municipality is far less than required for management of solid waste.
   o Public awareness is at minimum level adding further to the problem.
   o Weak enforcement with regard to ban on use of polythene multiplies the problem.

7.3.Preservation of Water Bodies

 The holy city of Puri has six important sacred
 tanks      which   is   historically   and   spiritually
 important. Many tourists visit the sacred tank and
 take a dip during festivals and other occasions.

       1.   Narendra tank
       2.   Indradradumna tank
       3.   Markandaya tank
       4.   Swetaganga tank
       5.   Parbati sagar tank                                Plate 23:      Early    morning       at
       6.   Chudanga tank.                                    Indradyumna tank

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         -80 -
 Puri Municipality                                                                 Puri City Development Plan



 Besides the above there are as many as sixty two ponds which have got an affiliation to the
 community place (Akhadas and Jagaghar). These ponds are used by the locality for their day
 to day needs. Musa river passes through Puri town and is in a very bad condition. The ponds,
 tanks and the rivers needs restoration and conservation, as their improvement shall lead to
 significant improvement of the environment quality.

 The Six important tanks along with the other sixty ponds within Puri Municipality area used
 by        communities           have         been
 included       in    C    D     P     for    their
 Preservations. During preparation
 of DPR the aspect of maintenance
 cost,      portability    of        water     and
 institutional aspects will be taken
 care.      The      investment         plan     is
 included in the CDP

 7.3.1.Issues:
  • The existing water bodies are
      in    a     deteriorated         condition
      with no proper facility for inlet
      and outlet of storm water from
      adjacent catchments areas
  • Additionally,              solid         waste,        Plate 24:     Puri Sea beach during Sun Rise

      specifically plastic material, is dumped into these tanks and water bodies compounding
      the problem.
  • The existing water bodies are reportedly heavily silted due to non-maintenance and
      require strengthening of embankments.
  • Proper fencing and access control to prevent misuse is absent.
  • The collected water is not treated nor re-circulated resulting in development of anaerobic
      conditions.
  • Illumination and landscaping to these
      water       bodies       are     missing        to    attract
      tourists

7.4.Beach Development

 Puri town has about 5 kms of natural sea
 beach. The magnificent sea beach at present
 attracts       considerable          number          of   tourists
 round the year. Puri sea beach is home to
 world famous Sand Art & Sculpture.

 The city of Puri is bestowed with river mouth
 of River Mangala in its South & Nua Nai in its                        Plate 25:      Sand Sculpture


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                        -81 -
 Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan



 North. These rivers and sea beach need protection, conservation & development to maintain
 their uniqueness as well as to attract tourists for economic growth of the city.

 The sea shore and the water bodies have direct linkages in the rituals connected with Shree
 Jagannath      Temple    and       different    festive
 occasions. They are equally important for pilgrim
 tourist. These development projects are potential
 for bringing in private sector participation in
 development.

 The development of beach front is one of the
 priority areas to be addressed. Govt. of India
 through the department of tourism has taken up
 development of beach and its beautification
 programme during the current financial year.
 But allocation of funds and scope of the work do
                                                             Plate 26:    Puri Sea beach during Sun
 not cover the entire beach. Development of street           Set

 furniture    promenade    street     lighting   under
 ground HT electricity main line are few of the areas which needs immediate intervention.

 The existing only park in front of sea beach is being maintained by NALCO measuring 4.00
 acres at Gandhighat. There is no levy of user charges. The is provision to identify the
 available open space converting it to green park in order to attract the tourists

 7.4.1.Issues:

    •   Lack of public conveniences force the public to spoil the environment.
    •   Technologal deficiency in cleaning the beaches.
    •   Concentration of few tourists’ nodes at Digabareni, Swargadwar and in other area
        results in pressure on the environmental condition of the beach.
    •   The storm water discharge point at Bankimuhan causes a major threat to pollution of
        the sea.
    •   The location of fishermen community close to
        sea     without   adequate      toilet   facility   and
        awareness leads to degeneration of quality of
        environment of the golden beach.

7.5.City      Beautification-              Parks            and
 Green Spaces

 The city has limited number of parks and green spaces
 within its periphery. In recent past National Aluminum
 Company (NALCO) authorities have developed a patch
 of land in sea shores measuring 4.00 acres                   at
                                                                   Plate 28:    Gandhi Park


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -82 -
  Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



  Gandhighat, which is the only park in the town. Though there are many vacant places
  available, this needs to conversion into green lawn.

  7.5.1.Issues:

     •   Lack of organized green spaces deprive the citizen from morning and evening walk in
         environmental friendly atmosphere. The environment quality of the town remains in a
         low key due to vacant land having potential of development of green space being used
         as place for litters and garbage.
     •   Lack of maintenance of the green spaces also works in a negative way in terms of
         promoting further green spaces.
     •   At present there were no detail studies on the green infrastructe level of the city i.e.
         tree counting, tree audits and mass restoration of costal tress. Similalry There is a
         need of intervention green infrastructure restoration and development using the
         community and public institutions.
     •   Similalry neither studies nor annual reports aviliable on various key indicators of City
         Environments performance.
     •   Roles of Municipal bodies on Parks and Garden development may be specified.

7.6.Public Toilets

  A number of public toilets have been built in the town to cater to the pilgrims who come to
  Puri on day visits from nearby villages and to the floating work-force (rickshaw pullers,
  hawkers). The amenities are however insufficient and a large number of people use the beach
  as an open defecation ground. 8 Public latrines (toilet) are maintained by Municipality. 12
  Sulabha Sauchalay are maintained by Sulabha International Social Service Organization.

  Table 28:     The list of Public toilet along with other details is furnished below.
  Name of the toile         Total          Seats          No. of Seats    Maintained by
  Bus Stand                 20               13             7              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Swargadwar                24               14             10             Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Dist.     Headquarters    10               7              3              Sulabha
  Hospital.                                                                International
  Narendra Tank             15               10             5              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Matitota                  10               7              3              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Indradyumna Tank          10               7              3              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Markanda                  10               6              4              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Police line premises      10               6              4              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Balinolia Sahi            10               5              5              Sulabha
                                                                           International
  Near Flag staff           15               10             5              Sulabha
                                                                           International

  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -83 -
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



 Name of the toile           Total           Seats           No. of Seats     Maintained by
 Singhadwara                 15              10              5                Puri
                                                                              Municipality
 Daitapada         Sahi      10              7               3                Puri
 Municipality Market                                                          Municipality
 Urban Hat Near DAG          20              11              9                Under
 office                                                                       Construction
 Source: Puri Municipality

 7.6.1.Issues:

    o Open defecation causes environmental degradation
    o Suitable land for locating public toilets in large scale needs to be identified.
    o Financial assistance in a large scale is to be made.
    o Self help group/ communities are to be involved for sustained maintenance.

7.7.Environmental quality

 Environmental Quality is a major concern all around the world. It has adversely affected the
 lives of millions of people and caused many deaths and health disorders. Pollution is
 contamination by a chemical or other agent that renders part of the environment unfit for
 intended or desired use. It deserves emphasis that the environment also refers to the place
 where you live. Natural processes have released toxic chemicals into the environment
 throughout the history of the earth. Currently, the pollution generated by human activities
 presents the most serious problem.

 7.7.1.Air Quality

 Air pollution consists of substances present in the atmosphere in high enough levels to harm
 humans, other animals, plants, or materials. The air quality of Puri town is influenced by the
 increase in various activities like transportation, hotel industry, burning of solid waste etc. To
 assess the air quality of Puri town, the OSPCB (Orissa State Pollution Control Board) carries
 out ambient air quality monitoring for
 the parameters namely S02' Nox' SPM,
 and RSPM three times in a year before,
 during and after Ratha Yatra. The
 OSPCB has five monitoring stations in
 all keeping in mind the different types
 of activities. The major issues regarding
 air pollution in Puri Town are the high
 levels of SPM and RSPM. Puri is a
 rapidly developing town; in future the
 amount of vehicular traffic and other
 activities will only increase. The grand
                                                 Plate 29:   Air Quality Monitoring Station
 road is a critical stretch as the two AAQ

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -84 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



stations (i.e. Badadanda and Mausima mandir) are located at two end points of the road.
Preventive measures must be taken immediately to check the high levels of SPM and RSPM
along the Grand Road. Also though the S02 and NOx levels are within the prescribed limits
as of now, with the increasing volume of vehicular traffic, the concentrations will increase. So
measures must also be taken to check these two.

7.7.2.Water pollution

Monitoring is done for five tanks thrice a year in Puri by OSPCB. The tanks are a very
important part of the Puri town as they have a historic and cultural significance. Also they
form part of the day-to-day activities of the local population. The OSPCB carries out ambient
water quality monitoring in Puri three times in a year: before, during and after Ratha Yatra at
the five tanks namely Narendra tank, Indradyumna tank, Markandeya tank, Swetganga tank
and Parvati Sagar. It carries out monitoring for 7 parameters namely pH, TSS, BOD, TC, S04,
P04 and N03

Water pollution in the tanks has already reached
high levels. For some of the parameters like BOD
N03, S04 and TC it has exceeded the standard
limits and has reached alarming limits. The main
reason for this is the absence of any cleaning
operations for these tanks. There is no regulation,
which provides for the cleaning of these water
bodies. It is because of the monsoon that natural
cleansing to some amount takes place but there is       Plate 30:       Water Quality Monitoring
                                                        Station
immediate need for cleaning of the tanks on a
regular basis.

Another major issue, which has not been taken up for analysis but which is nevertheless is a
major issue for concern, is the quality of the beaches in Puri. The pollution occurring at the
beach is a major issue, which has not been taken up due to lack of data. The beach is one of
the most prominent features of the town besides the Jagannath temple and it should also be
taken into focus.

7.7.3.Environment in Festive Seasons

During festive occasions there is massive congregation of the pilgrims of nearly 8 lakhs
gathered in Puri town. Such huge gatherings have an impact on the environment of the Puri
town with respect to air, water and noise. Due to increase in number of tourists, transport
ion activities, mass bathing, generation of huge quantity of municipal solid waste and waste
Water, noise produced by vehicles, musical instrument and microphone etc. During this
period study has been conducted by State Pollution Control Board, Orissa.

     I Change in water quality of the five sacred tanks with pre & Post period i.e. Narendra,
      Indradyumna, Markanda, Swetaganga and Parbati Sagar. The report is attached in
      annexure.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -85 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



      II Change in ground water quality of Puri town during pre and post period. The quality of
        water of deep tube well, shallow tube wells and temporary tube wells is enclosed
        herewith.

      III. The water quality of PHED water super in Puri town at different

      IV The am net as quality of Puri Town at Mausima Mandir, Badi Darda, Sea Beach Babi
        pandan & Banki Muhana is ensure

 7.7.4.Issues of Concern

 The major issues regarding air pollution in Puri Town are the High levels of SPM and RSPM.
 Puri is a rapidly developing town; in future the amount of vehicular traffic and other activities
 will only increase. The grand road is a critical stretch as the two AAQ stations (i.e.
 Badadanda and Mausima mandir) located at two end points of the road. The results obtained
 from these two stations. Preventive measures must be taken immediately to check the high
 levels of SPM and RSPM along the Grand Trunk Road. Also though the SO2 and NOx levels
 are within the prescribed limits as of now, with the increasing volume of vehicular traffic, the
 concentrations will increase. So measures must also be taken to check these two.

7.8.Diasaster Management

 At any one time, some natural disaster has just struck or about to strike somewhere in the
 world, taking a toll of human lives and material losses. Extreme natural events like flood
 earthquakes, and droughts have always been part of the natural cycle; virtually all part of the
 world is exposed to them. What makes the event a disaster is its impact on vulnerable
 structures like buildings and infrastructure. Thus, natural disasters are human, social and
 economic disasters. However, many often the urban areas more vulnerable due to its past
 activities of neglecting disaster management as part of the regular planning process.

 The planning process of the Disaster Management Plan can be divided into state, district, city
 and local level planning. Plan should cover three important components: Risk analysis and
 vulnerability assessment, Response plan and Mitigation strategy. The risk analysis and
 vulnerability assessment will depict the present picture for each disaster exposure, loss of
 life, property damage, etc. It will also show the geographical distribution of each hazard. The
 various monitoring facilities, regulatory regimes, countermeasure available for each disaster,
 etc. will help in this exercise.

 The response Plan should look into organizational structure of all the agencies in the state of
 origin (both government and non-governmental bodies) to effectively deal with the disaster in
 a coordinated fashion. It will help to identify functional areas such as relief, communication,
 information, and transport. Health services etc, and assignment to various departments
 including identifying lead and supporting organizations. The response plan also lays down
 preparedness checklist, standard of services, operating procedure guidelines and reporting
 formats.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -86 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



The mitigation strategy and plan is basically directed towards long term planning for disaster
reduction. It deals with issues of continued commitment to hazard identification and risk
assessment, applied research and technology transfer, investment incentives for mitigation,
leadership and coordination for mitigation. The mitigation strategy makes argument for better
land use management, building codes, traffic standards, health standards, etc. These
objectives are to be secured through disaster legislation, mitigation, regulation and incentive
for mitigation.

7.8.1.Issues of Concern

   •   The city don’t have Disaster management plan

   •   It is prone to natrula disasters and man made

   •   It does not have systems to safeguard sea beach areas and nor used any programmes.

   •   There is a need of disaster management centre with databse etc.

   •   The district administration used to be state agency for management of Diaster in Puri
       town.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -87 -
  Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan




                                 8.Urban Infrastructure Services

8.1.Infrastructure services

  Development of Infrastructure is an indispensable part of any settlement. Traditional
  settlement infrastructure consisted of water sources and storage, waste disposal, road
  network, security etc., decentralized to a large extent creating self-sufficient communities.
  Modern day urban areas are, on the other hand, heavily dependent on various networks of
  infrastructure, a failure or lack of which severely deteriorates the quality of life of the people.
  The high densities of the urban area require extensive, adequate infrastructure networks for
  the smooth functioning of the city. A lack of adequate road network, wastewater treatment or
  solid waste disposal system affects the natural environment through contamination of air,
  water and land – the basic building blocks of life.

  This section reviews the existing situation and issues related to all core urban services
  provided in Puri Municipality areas such as Water supply, Sewerage, Solid Waste
  Management, provision of storm water drainage and street lighting in terms of their current
  level of service, coverage and key issues. In addition to these services in Puri Municipality
  areas also includes such as Fire Services, Primary and Secondary education and Health.
  However, the second categories are not discussed as they are not under the JNNURM
  framework.

8.2.Water Supply

  Puri, like more than half of the population of India, is dependent on ground water for its
  supply. Unfortunately the incidence of ground water pollution is highest in urban areas
  where large volume of wastes are concentrated and discharged into relatively small areas.
  The urban areas, due to the high density of population and quantity of usage, also abstract
  the water at a rate faster than its recharge. Ground water once contaminated becomes
  difficult to treat and affects not only the urban supply but also the soil and the vegetation
  and ultimately the quality of life. Sustainable preventive measures need to be taken in time to
  protect the groundwater from pollution and depletion.

  8.2.1.Existing Infrastructure

  In the absence of any major surface water source, ground water forms the only alternative for
  water supply to Puri town. The raw water for domestic supply to the town is at present drawn
  from two ground water well fields located at the eastern and western boundaries of the town,
  apart from other deep tube wells and hand pumps located at various places. The two well
  fields are Chakratirtha – 497.68 acres on the east and Baliapanda – 207.52 acres on the
  west. Ground Water is pumped up through 200mm diameter production wells with
  electrically operated submersible pumps. Chakratirtha area has 20 wells, Baliapanda has 14
  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -88 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



and there are 12 other isolated wells scattered within town. There is no water treatment
plant. The water is treated with gas chlorinators, and stored in the two underground and
three overhead reservoirs, from where it is supplied into town. About 26Mld water supplied to
Puri town from various sources but the total capacity of storage tanks is only 3.61ML, which
is inadequate for supplying 26 MLD of water. There should be minimum of 13 mld of storage
capacity is required. In the present proposal, additional storage capacity has been provided.

Provision has been made for water supply network coverage of 100 % by strengthening the
existing infrastructure with new infrastructure to provide 24 hours water supply into the
town and use ground water would be discouraged against surface water to be taped from
Munduli. Similarly provision would be made for installation of a water treatment plant and to
check the depletion of ground water table. Also measured would be taken to controlled Non-
revenue water supply.

Table 29:     Quantity of water supplied to Puri from miscellaneous       sources: 2004
No.     Supply System                                                      Quantity
1.      From Baliapanda to Gopinath Supply System                          8MLD
2.      From Chakra Tirtha – Markandeswara Tank Supply System              7MLD
3.      From Ghoda Bazar Supply System                                     5MLD
4.      Individual Industrial Sources                                      2.5MLD
5.      Hand pumps (504 nos.)                                              3.5MLD
        Total                                                              26MLD
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisation Puri Division


Table 30:     Storage Capacity of Overhead and Underground Tanks
                    Storage Tanks                 Capacity (l) Capacity (ML)

                     Ghodabazar                         908,000        0.91
Overhead




                     Markandeshwar                      998,800        1.00

                     Totagopinath                       454,000        0.45

                     Ghodabazar                         340,500        0.34
ground
Under-




                     Totagopinath                       908,000        0.91

                     Total Storage Capacity                            3.61
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisastion Puri Division

The Public Health Engineering Directorate (PHED) supply piped water to Puri Municipal
areas. In 2005, the quantity of piped water supply was 20 million liters/day (MLD). For a
population of 1, 57,610 (2001Census of India), that is 126.9 liters per capita per day (LPCD)
of water supplied as against standard demand of 150 lpcd, the shortfall in piped water is
3.64 MLD or 23.1LPCD. This shortfall is made up mainly from two sources – hand pumps
and tanks. In many areas of the town the piped water supplied is used for drinking and
cooking while the other requirements are fulfilled by the surface water tanks. The piped water
is supplied by providing public stand posts and through individual connections. The supply

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -89 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



is intermittent, for about 2 hours each morning and evening. There has been a rise of 7.8% in
the number of domestic connections from 2001 to 2004 and a rise of 9.5% in the number of
hand pumps. However, there has been no increase in the public stand posts, which are the
main source of piped water supply in most parts of the town, for more than two decades.

Table 31:  Number of registered supply points in town,2004
Year Stand post Domestic             Hand         Institutional                  Commercial
                Connection           pump         Connection                     Connection
2001 1017       6684                 461          Not available                  Not
                                                                                 available
2004   1017           7205                  505          68                      88
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisastion Puri Division

Table 32:     Tariff for water connections in Puri Town
Type             of One time Charge Monthly Tariff collected from the users
Connection           (Rs.)
Domestic             3,000.00              Stand posts & domestic connections:
                                           Rs.48/connection
Commercial           5,000.00              Industrial Use: Rs. 5.75 for a 1000 litres
Institutional        4,000.00
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisastion Puri Division
Puri Municipal area has 30,969 households
according to Census 2001 population data. The
number domestic connections in 2001 were
6684, which means that 24,285 households,
i.e. 78% of the households were dependent on
public stand posts, hand pumps and surface
water reservoirs (tanks) for their water needs.
The river Musa on the north of the town is
presently a dead river; its mouth joining the sea   Plate 32:      A hand pump along the
                                                    street side; on the street connecting
is filled up with shifting sand from seashore.      Shwetaganga Tank & Jagannath Temple

The river near Mangala ghat (Sunamuhin) is
prone to high tides from the sea and is
frequently flooded with saline waters. The
tanks, therefore, are the only source of surface
water supply for the urban population.

8.2.2.Analysis of Current Situation

8.2.3.Source

Situated on the coastal sand dunes along the
                                                    Plate 31:        The     residents  around
Bay of Bengal, Puri lies on a delicate balance of   Narendra Tank are waiting at the community
fresh water and salt-water aquifers. Rapid          stand post for water supply

withdrawal of freshwater without adequate
recharge could result in infusion of saline water into the fresh water aquifers, rendering them
unusable for human and animal consumption. Since Puri town is entirely dependent on
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -90 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



groundwater, rapid rise in urban population or development of water intensive activities for
economic improvement may not be sustainable over a long period unless strategies for
conservation and recharge of the fresh water
aquifers are implemented.

As the population has increased over the
decades the number of production wells for
drawing groundwater has also increased, it has
in fact doubled over the last two decades. Due
to the inadequacy of piped water supply, most
hotels and tourist resorts have their own deep
tube wells and hand pumps, adding to the
groundwater     withdrawal.    As     individual
groundwater extraction cannot be metered,
abundance leads to excess withdrawal and           Plate 33:         The stand post has no
                                                   faucet; the base platform is broken and mossy
waste.

Table 33:     The number of production wells over time
                   Year                              No. of Production Wells
                                              1982                     23
                    2001                                               37
                    2004                                               46
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisastion Puri Division
8.2.4.Demand & Supply

The population of Puri Municipal area has increased from 1, 25,199 in 1991 (source: Census
of India 1991) to 1, 57,610 in 2001 (source: Census of India 2001), a decadal increase of
25.88%. The water demand has also, accordingly, increased. Considering the UDPFI
guideline of 150 LPCD, the water demand for resident population increased from 18.78MLD
in 1991 to 23.64MLD in 2001. In addition to this, Puri, as a tourist town, a pilgrimage center
and an administrative center has a large floating population throughout the year, which adds
to the water demand. The estimated daily floating population in Puri for 2001 was 33,599,
i.e. an additional water requirement of 5.04MLD.

Table 34:    Demand for and Supply of piped water to Puri Town
Year   Population Water   Demand Piped Water Water                           Shortfall       in
                  @150LPCD          Supply (MLD) Supply                      Supply
                  (MLD)                             (LPCD)                   (LPCD)
1991 1,25,199        18.78              Not available    Not available       Not available
2001 157,610         23.64              20.00            126.90              23.10
2004 169,560         25.43              20.38            120.18              29.82
Source: Public Health Engineering Origanisastion Puri Division
The piped water supply in 2001 was 20MLD, i.e. 127LPCD considering only the resident
population. When the estimated daily floating population is added to the resident population




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -91 -
Puri Municipality                                                         Puri City Development Plan



the total becomes 1, 91,436 and the water supplied becomes 104.47LPCD, a shortfall of
45.53LPCD from the standard requirement.

The Puri Municipal Area had an average water requirement of 1.7 MLD/sq.km. in 2001,
which is directly related to the population density of the town. A comparison of ward wise
break-up of water requirement depicts the level of stress on the supply system in various
wards. Ward No. 17 has the highest demand per sq.km. of 7.196 MLD/sq.km. followed by
ward numbers 2, 8 and 9. The minimum stress is on Ward No. 29 with a demand of 0.56
MLD/sq.km. A comparison of this with the actual supply in each ward will help in estimating
the localized shortfall and lack of infrastructure.

Table 35:     Ward wise division of Water Requirement in Puri town (Population Data
for year 2001)
Ward    Area    Grndwate      Grndwate      Resident     Estimated        Estimated    Water Req    Water Req
No.     of      r table (m)   r table (m)   Population   Floating         Total        @150lpcd     mld/sq.k
        Ward    Pre-          Post-                      Population/day   Population                m
        sq.km   monsoon       monsoon
1       1.34    5.00          3.50          6146         1896             8042         1.2063       0.9002
2       0.12    6.20          4.15          3535         1135             4670         0.7005       5.8375
3       0.18    6.95          5.50          4536         1223             5759         0.8639       4.7992
4       0.16    8.01          7.10          3641         1068             4709         0.7064       4.4147
5       0.95    6.09          4.48          7392         459              7851         1.1777       1.2396
6       2.01    9.67          6.92          8847         466              9313         1.3970       0.6950
7       0.38    9.55          6.70          4047         1183             5230         0.7845       2.0645
8       0.15    6.02          3.82          4411         1072             5483         0.8225       5.4830
9       0.15    9.15          6.55          4570         1107             5677         0.8516       5.6770
10      0.29    5.18          3.25          4570         1162             5732         0.8598       2.9648
11      0.25    6.01          3.80          4315         1280             5595         0.8393       3.3570
12      0.20    5.36          3.40          3534         999              4533         0.6800       3.3998
13      0.87    4.06          2.55          4353         1183             5536         0.8304       0.9545
14      0.20    6.25          4.65          4341         1177             5518         0.8277       4.1385
15      0.19    6.20          4.60          4779         1033             5812         0.8718       4.5884
16      0.37    6.02          4.56          4086         1133             5219         0.7829       2.1158
17      0.11    4.50          2.58          4152         1125             5277         0.7916       7.1959
18      0.54    3.75          2.02          4681         1114             5795         0.8693       1.6097
19      0.17    4.58          2.90          4026         1081             5107         0.7661       4.5062
20      0.43    4.50          3.50          4555         1359             5914         0.8871       2.0630
21      0.30    6.10          4.20          5201         1414             6615         0.9923       3.3075
22      0.23    4.65          2.01          5787         1324             7111         1.0667       4.6376
23      0.31    3.05          1.80          4925         1271             6196         0.9294       2.9981
24      0.98    4.70          2.10          5566         1492             7058         1.0587       1.0803
25      0.35    3.10          1.70          6683         1408             8091         1.2137       3.4676
26      0.76    5.50          2.10          6226         496              6722         1.0083       1.3267
27      0.63    3.66          2.43          6650         1237             7887         1.1831       1.8779
28      0.53    4.58          2.40          6822         1452             8274         1.2411       2.3417
29      2.17    3.75          2.55          7484         640              8124         1.2186       0.5616
30      1.52    3.04          1.42          7976         610              8586         1.2879       0.8473
        16.84                               157,837      33,599           191,436      28.7154      1.7052

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -92 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



8.2.5. Revenue collection & Augmentation

The demand of revenue and O.M. cost is 22.1 lakhs and 15.6 lakhs per year respectively. But
actual collection of revenue is about 25 lakh per year. The gap in collection of revenue is due
to collection from ULB and Govt. Institution is nil. Similarly PHED raises monthly bill to the
Puri Municipality against public stand post. However, Puri Municipality is not in a position to
deposit the amount due to its scarcity of fund. The cost recovery is not assessed but it may
be considered as 30 %.

For augmentation of water supply to Puri town under JNNURM has been proposed with
surface water from permanent perennial source at Mundali barrage over river Mahanadi
situated at a distance of 120 KM from Puri town. The water supply system comprises of
intake structure, 120 river water rising main with boosting arrangement at 23 locations, 80
mid capacity treatment plant with clear water rising main, distribution main service reservoir
and intermediate pumping arrangements. Further improvement of existing sweet water zone
provision has been made in this proposal.

Table 36:     Proposal for the Water Supply Scheme in Puri
Item                                                   Rs in Lakhs
8mld Capacity Water Treatment Plant                        26320
Rising Main, Distribution Main (Extension                  2718
& Replacement)
Storage Reservoir & Metering Devices                       2616
Pumping Stations                                           6400
Water Quality Monitoring, Disinfection                     6446
System, Lobotomy Equipments & Others
Total                                                      44500
Source: PH Division Puri

During festive occasions PHEO is taking the following steps to mitigate the water supply to
the town.

   i)       24 hours water supply at Jagannath Mandir and its immediate neighborhoods
            area.

   ii)      D.G. sets have been provided to ensure 24 hours water supply.

   iii)     80 Mps. Of temporary tube wells, 150 nos. PHED temporary water taps are being
            arranged at different place of Puri. Thirteen no. of water tank head are being
            arranged.

   iv)      All tube wells and other drinking water sources are disinfected.

   v)       Water from tube wells, PHED taps High level tanks are being disinfected by
            different chlorination techniques.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -93 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



8.2.6.Performance Indicators

An index of performance of the existing water supply system parameters benchmarked
against the normative/standard requirements or service levels as prescribed by reference
guidelines/standards such as PWD/CPHEEO guidelines, pertinent manuals/publication and
nominally prevalent level of services in similar cities with functional (good) urban
infrastructure is furnished in the table below. It is imperative to mention that the nominal
standard/benchmark is the requisite level of provision/delivery that is to be achieved over
the existing and proposed urban agglomeration area in Puri.

Table 37:     Water Supply System Performance Indicators
Sl    Parameter / Component     Service Level   Benchmark                Commitment
No                                                                       / Remarks
1     Water Supply / Source     127 lpcd        150 lpcd (+15%           Low
                                                losses)
2     Treatment Capacity        100%     ground 100 percent              Less
                                water    source
                                utilized
3     Storage                   15 % of daily 33 percent                 Low
                                water demand
4     Distribution       System 55 percent      85 percent               Low
      Coverage
5     Non-Revenue Water / UFW 33 percent        15 percent               High.
                                                                         Uneconomical
6      Cost Recovery                  30 percent      85-90         pc   Significantly
                                                      nominal            low
8.2.7.Issues and Problems

•   The Chakratirtha and Baliapanda areas, where the supply wells are located have been
    protected to prevent contamination of the groundwater aquifers have been encroached for
    housing colonies, slums and parking areas.
•   Absence of methodology for withdrawing water; conservation and recharge of the
    groundwater aquifers.
•   Low level of service coverage in terms of ratio of House Service Connections (HSC) to
    Holding Tax Assessments (HTA). The present coverage is approximately 30 percent, where
    as a fully developed water supply system for a city like Puri should have a minimum
    coverage of 70 to 80 percent of the HTA.
•   Significant volume of water loss takes place from the stand posts and other leakages.
•   Non revenue water is entailed by the system resulting in revenue losses.
•   The total revenue from the connections and monthly charges meets only 60% of the total
    cost of O & M.
•   Illegal tapping in distribution mains.
•   Inequitable distribution of water – improper/ no hydraulic assessment prior to extension
    of existing pipe lines.
•   The ground water sources of water supply are not properly protected from possible
    contamination.
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -94 -
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



 •   Non metering of water supply results in indiscriminate use.
 •   Lack of control on tapping of ground water can cause imbalance sweet water reservoir
     leading to intrusion of saline water.
 •   Lack of scientific study on ground water recharge & replenishment.

8.3.Sewerage System

 A large number of tourists and pilgrims visit Puri through the year, during Rath Yatra and
 other religious festivals as well as for the
 tourism    purpose.   A   total   of   1,   90,000
 populations (resident + est. floating) generate
 considerable load of wastewater or sewage.
 Since the subsurface formation of this area is
 of unconsolidated and loose material like sand,
 special attention needs to be given to the
 disposal of solid and liquid wastes. Fluid waste
 and sewage can enter the ground water, both
 intentionally   and   unintentionally.      Seepage
 from septic tanks, soak pits, sewage lagoons
                                                       Plate 34:     Trunk Sewer laid along the
 and pressure generated by tube well pumping           Swargadwar beach to carry the sewage to
                                                       Bankimuhan
 result in entry of sewage into groundwater. An
 efficient sewage disposal and treatment system
 is therefore an essential urban element.




  Plate 35:      Bankimuhin River – now a large sewage drain
 8.3.1.Existing Situation

 The town did not have an organized public sewerage system except for a coastal stretch
 between Atibadi Das Jagannath Math and Bankimuhin treatment plant, which covered a few
 major hotels. The old town area is devoid of sewage disposal system and traditional soak pits
 have been in use for a long time. The Grand road that leads to the Lord Jagannath Temple
 and the south-central part of the town have a storm water drainage system which at present
 carries wastewater as well as storm run off. (Bada Danda Drain, Ganamalla Sahi Drain and
 Dhoba Sahi Drain).

 The existing sewage treatment plant is located at the confluence of the Bankimuhin River and
 the sea. It is based on the concept of stabilization ponds and was designed for a capacity of
 5MLD. There are three ponds for sedimentation and aeration processes, which require at
 least 7 days of retention. At present the ponds are silted with reduced storage capacity. The

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -95 -
Puri Municipality                                                      Puri City Development Plan



flow of sewage is also much more than 5MLD. Consequently, the retention period is barely
one day and raw sewage flows into the sea.

At present a project on sewage collection and treatment system for Puri is under construction
amounting Rs. 48.29 crores (Govt. of India 70% and State Government 30%). The project is
executing by Orissa Water Supply & Sewerage Board and probable date of completion is
31.3.2008. The project is designed for
the year 2021 and 50 % of the work
                                               Box 7: Issues   and      Problems   of   Underground
has already been completed. The
                                                        Sewerage
project has following provisions:
                                               • Absence of sewerage system in the town.
   a) 15 mld STP
                                               • The drains function as combined system to
   b) 134000 mt. of RCC S/S pipe                transport rain water and waste water in part of the
       for lateral, branch main and             town.
       trun sewer of 150mm dia to
                                               • Silting of drains indiscriminate non biodegradable
       900 mm dia
                                                garbage to the drains & Bankimuhan pond results
   c) 72300 mt. house laterals of               in failure of the system.
       100mm dia                               • Major part of the town lack drainage system.

   d) 10 nos. of pumping station               • High water table during rainy season cause

       with stand-by D.G. sets.                 insanitary condition.
                                               • Disposal of household liquid waste through septic
For Vision 2030 of JNNURM Scheme,
                                                tank and soak pit leads to high infiltration in the
the provision has been made for
                                                sandy underground formation and pollution of
sewerage system of the extended area
                                                groundwater.
like sipasarubali, towards Gopalpur,
                                               • Poor hygiene practice by slum population, open
towards Balighat etc. Provision has
                                                defection and defection alongside        the   drains
been   made     for    laying    of    sewer
                                                aggravates the situation.
network of 72 KM with man-holes,
                                               • Need for increased number of public toilets for the
pumping      station   and      STP.    This
                                                floating population.
extended     project     will    help     to
overcome the dangers of the high tourist and floating population of Puri town during festive
occasions.

Table 38:    Proposal for the Sewerage System for the new area Puri
Item                                     Rs in Lakhs
Sewerage Treatment Plant                 691.20
Swear Network                            1411.20
Shoring, Manholes, Appurtenances, Road 776
Repair
Pumping Station & Mains                  691.20
A&S Charge, Land and Others              930.40
Total                                    4500
Source: OWSSB Puri




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -96 -
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



 8.3.2.Performance Indicators

 An index of performance of the existing sewerage system parameters benchmarked against
 the   normative/standard   requirements   or   service   levels   as   prescribed   by    reference
 guidelines/standards such as PWD/CPHEEO guidelines, pertinent manuals/publication and
 nominally prevalent level of services in similar cities with functional (good) urban
 infrastructure is furnished in the table below. It is imperative to mention that the nominal
 standard/benchmark is the requisite level of provision/delivery that is to be achieved over
 the existing and proposed urban agglomeration area in Puri.

 Table 39:      Underground Sewerage Scheme Performance Indicators
 Sl    Parameter / Component       Service Level Benchmark       Commitment
 No                                                              / Remarks
 1     Collection           System 10 percent    75 percent      Very Low
       Coverage
 2     STP      –    Functionality Stabilization Activated       Inadequate and
       characteristics of Cities   Pond of 5 MLD Sludge Process  Conventional
                                   Capacity
 3     Revenue / O&M cost ratio                  > 95 percent    Uneconomical

8.4.Storm water Drainage

 The storm water drainage net work in Puri is partially exist in a very bad condition
 approximately 70.965 Kms. Basically there are two primary main drains which carry the
 storm water to the sea via Bankimuhan. Subsidiary drains carry storm water from the
 catchments area to the main drain. The normal elevation of Puri is approximately 6 mtrs
 above sea level. The overall topography of the city is more or less flat with a mild gradient
 from North West to South East. The net work is presently maintained by Puri Municipality

 To the south of the Grand Road (towards the beach) the storm water drains slope towards the
 Bankimuhin River, carrying all the sewage from here to the River and finally to the sea.
 Sewage from the Chakratirtha area is also carried to the Bankimuhin through open channels.
 To the north of the Grand Road the drainage network slopes towards the Musa River. The
 area around the Markandeshwar tank drains first into the Mitiani Jheel, which is an
 eutrophied water body and finally into the Musa River. The Narendra tank area also drains
 into the Musa River. The Musa River is dead, its mouth is blocked off by the shifting sands of
 the seashore, and it is now a stagnant and atrophied water body.

 8.4.1.Analysis of the Current Situation

 The absence of a sewage treatment system in Puri town has meant a continuous discharge of
 untreated sewage into the soil and water bodies in and around the town. This will inevitably
 contaminate the groundwater sources in time. Ward wise estimation of wastewater generated
 in addition to the slope and hydro geological factors of the area will help in identifying
 problem areas and work towards decentralised solutions to this major problem.

 The OWSSB is in the process of constructing a new sewage network with a proposal for the
 construction of a new sewage treatment plant on the banks of Daya River. The work progress

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -97 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



is slow due to the sandy soil and high water table. Excavation and laying of the sewage
pipeline is more difficult in such conditions. Alternative, decentralised solutions could have
been explored keeping in mind the hydro geological and the topographical factors.

The movement of contaminants in the saturated and unsaturated zones is influenced by a
large number of prevailing factors i.e. Topography of land surface, reaction in the top soil,
vadose and saturated zone, dilution, dispersion, filtration and chemical processes like acid
base reaction, oxidation reduction, precipitation solution and precipitation dissolution etc.
These processes may cause breakdown of the leading to a natural assimilation process. In an
urban scenario with high population densities an excess of pollutant load cannot be
attenuated and contaminants cannot be restricted from moving downward to the ground
water body.

8.4.2.Performance Indicators
An index of performance of the existing storm water drainage system parameters
benchmarked against the normative/standard requirements or service levels as prescribed by
reference     guidelines/standards    such     as       PWD/CPHEEO    guidelines,     pertinent
manuals/publication and nominally prevalent level of services in similar cities with
functional (good) urban infrastructure is furnished in the table below. It is imperative to
mention that the nominal standard/benchmark is the requisite level of provision/delivery
that is to be achieved over the existing and proposed urban agglomeration area in Puri.

Table 40:     Storm Water Drains Performance Indicators
Sl    Parameter / Component      Service Level   Benchmark              Commitment
No                                                                      / Remarks
1     Major       Drains       – 30 percent      100 percent            Inadequate
      Catchments Area
2     Minor Drains – Coverage 40 percent         90 percent             Inadequate
      (Drain Length / Road
      Length)
3     Hydraulic       Conveying Analysis     not 100-year               Inundation
      Capacity of Major drains   made available  return flood, 2-       prone    areas.
                                                 hrs rainfall, 4-       Master     plan
                                                 hrs flow               required
8.4.3.Issues and Problems of Storm water Drainage

• Storm water drains in the city function as a conveyance channel for untreated sewage from
  the partially laid/ incomplete interceptor sewer network.

• Drains located within the Puri Municipality limits are choked by indiscriminate dumping of
  solid waste, building materials and related refuse.

• Drains are also significantly silted and collapsed.

• A well designed and developed Master Plan for Storm water drainage.

• Awareness programmes need to be conducted at the city level.

• Prevention of dumping of solid waste, discharge of sewage from households and related
  issues.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -98 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan




8.5.Street Lighting

 Puri Municipality has been entrusted with the responsibility for provision and maintenance of
 street lights within Puri Municipality area. The Municipality handles procurement of material,
 installation and maintenance of street lights in house through their own staff. The details of
 street lighting provisions within Puri Municipality is out lined below

 Table 41:       Street Light Infrastructure
 Types                                                                    In No
 Ordinary bulb                                                            1007
 Tube light                                                               1957
 70 watt S.V Light                                                         412
 250 watt S.V Light                                                        556
 400 watt S.V. fitting                                                     247
 22 watt C.F. fitting                                                      120
 400 x 2 watt fitting                                                       38
 High mast                                                                   9
 Mini high mast                                                              1
 Semi high mast                                                              9
 Source: Puri Municipality


 Puri Municipality is responsible to provide and maintenance of street light within its area.
 The monthly bill is being paid by the Municipality and average monthly electricity bill is
 about Rs. 4, 93,000/- per month. In this CDP provision has been made for augmentation
 street lighting within the city, provision of cable lines for Bada Danda and seabeach road,
 provision of High Mast and S.V. lamp at important junction along with important road,
 provision of energy efficiency measures, dimmer system and timer system has been made.

 8.5.1.Performance Indicators

 An index of performance of the Street Light sector parameters benchmarked against the
 normative/standard requirements or service levels is furnished in the table below:

 Table 42:     Streetlight Performance Indicators
 Sl    Parameter / Component       Service Level         Benchmark           Commitment /
 No                                                                          Remarks
 1     Spacing between Lamp 80 m                         <30 M               Very    high
       posts                                                                 spacing
 2     Proportion of Florescent 20 percent               70-80 percent       Less
       Tube Lights
 3     Proportion    of   Sodium 5 percent               20-30 percent       Less
       Vapor Lamps
 8.5.2.Issues:

     o Short fall of resources for augmenting street lighting within the city.

     o In adequate management of power consumption by street lights



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -99 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



    o Absence of power consumption measurement and saving equipments such as trip
        censor solar coupled lights, resulting in high electricity consumption expenditure.

    o Absence of energy saving measures such as power saver, timer, dimmer etc.

    o Inequitable distribution of street lights within different areas

8.6.Roads & Transport

 At present the N.H. roads are maintained by N.H. Department Govt. of Orissa. The O & M cost
 of the N.H. roads and financial aspect is taken by Government of India. P.W.D. roads are being
 maintained by Work Department, Government of Orissa. The O & M cost and financial aspect
 are being taken care by Work Department, Government of Orissa. The Municipality roads are
 maintained by Puri Municipality from its own source and also from grants of the Government
 of Orissa.

 There is proper co-ordination between Puri Municipality, Public works Department and
 National Highway for smooth and efficient management of the traffic. During festive seasons,
 co-ordination Committees is being set up for providing one way traffic routes, parking places
 and other requirements.

 Regarding transport management, special permit to the buses are given, extension of route
 buses from outside to Puri, relief vans from the approach of main roads to Puri good number
 of Traffic Inspectors are being engaged. Speed contrl of the buses, provision of First Aid in the
 buses, provision of crane and tractors are engaged for clearance of accidents occurred if any,
 restriction and use of air horn, provision of Ambulance at Railway stations and Bus stands are
 taken care by Transport Management. In the CDP proper parking of vehicles at different
 locations of the town and development of parking lot along with bus and truck terminal has
 been made.

 Almost 75-80% of the vehicles running on the roads are mainly slow moving and very few are
 fast moving vehicles which are two-wheelers. There had been no consideration in planning
 system in the road infrastructure.

 The total volume of traffic on the Grand Road is approximately 16,000 on a normal day. The
 vehicular composition of the vehicles in the morning and evening has maximum percentage
 of slow moving vehicle, that varies from 65% to 75% and the fast moving vehicle varies from
 25%.

 The journey speed of the vehicle in the Grand Road is approximately 50 Km/hr. Hence, it can
 be inferred that the problems in the Grand road is mainly due to the congestion of larger
 number of vehicles, lesser parking facilities and too many intersection which serve as
 through traffic for slower vehicles.

 Table 43:     Types of Road in Puri Municipal Area
  Types of Road                            Length
  National Highway                         8 kms
  PWD road                                 20 kms
  Municipality road

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -100 -
Puri Municipality                                                        Puri City Development Plan



 Black topped                                         153.589 kms
 Metalled                                             83.262 kms
 Un-metalled                                          38.972 kms
 Cement concrete                                      36.116 kms
 Earthen road                                         58.28 kms
 TOTAL                                                691.901 kms
Source: Puri Municipality

Puri City has an extensive road net work of approximately 691.901 kms within the Municipal
limit. There is a wide variation in the width of such roads starting from 8’-0” width to 300’-0”
width. The municipal roads works within the Municipal limits are being maintained by Puri
Municipality and PWD and NH roads are being maintained by respective departments. Puri
does not have air connectivity. The surface transport (roads) connectivity between
Bhubaneswar and Puri is quantitatively enough but requires four laneing to attract good
quality luxury buses for tourism development.

The city is connected by road as well as rail.
Regular buses ply between Puri and the
regional        cities      like     Berhampur,
Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Baleswar, Konark,
Paradip, Rourkela, Anugul and other places
in the state. Inter state bus services also
operate on the daily basis to West Bengal &
Chatisgarh and Jharkhand.

The bus stand and city passenger halt
stations are inadequate to accommodate
                                                           Plate 36:     View of Grand Road
both inter and intra state bus services, for
which at present large number of tourist buses are parked at Talabania. Parking requirement
of the city during car festival, new-year, kartik purnima and other festivals are significantly
high for which very little facility is available.

8.6.1.Grand Road

Puri being famous for its religious temples and
beach has attracted large number of tourist
from every corner of India and states. Grand
road connects the Jagannath temple with the
Gundicha Temple. This brings in a large
number of populations in the Grand Road
during day time. The land use along the road
people     to   enter    from   various   lts   in   the
congestion along the road side

The basic characteristics of the Grand Road                  Plate 37:      View of a bi lane of Grand Road
are:


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -101 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



   -   The road forms too many intersections. At every 80-100 meters the road is being
       served by the collector road. Too many junctions in the road give opportunity to the
       entries into the Grand Road. This also results in the congestion along the road side.
       However, the traffic is being controlled by the police at major intersection.

   -   There is large number of flow of slow moving vehicles that reduces the speed in a
       meantime. There is no parking facilities provided in the Grand Road which is another
       reason for the road to be congested. Parking is only available at Marich Kote till
       hospital Crossing. Therefore, it has no control on traffic. The width of the road varies




       at different sections. The average width of the stretch varies from 50 to 45 mts and
       goes up to 100 mts as we go near to the Gundicha temple. The width of the road near
       to the Gundicha temple is 100 meters approximately. But we goes towards the
       Jagannath, the width comes down to 45 meters and further decreases as we reach to
       Jagannath temple.

The road system in Puri would therefore be characterized with:-

   o Absence of hierarchy of roads within the entire city
   o Absence of cycle track and footpaths along roads
   o Absence of parking for vehicles, even in places of visit
   o Absence of public facilities, telephone booths, passenger shelter etc.
   o Higher composition of slow moving vehicle in the grand road creating congestion.
   o Too many intersections give an opportunity for the vehicles to enter into the required
       destination.
   o Too many entry points around Jagannath temple, therefore brings in more and more
       vehicles to this particular place.
   o No controlled intersection except on in Grand Road
   o No provision of Street furniture
   o The area with highly commercialized land use has narrow roads despite being an
       attracting zone
   o The town being a religious place has too many pedestrian traffic, therefore proper
       pedestrian system is needed which is absent in this town.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -102 -
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



 8.6.2.Performance Indicators

 An index of performance of the roads’ sector parameters benchmarked against the
 normative/standard     requirements    or     service   levels   as   prescribed   by     reference
 guidelines/standards such as MoRTH / PWD guidelines, pertinent manuals/publication and
 nominally prevalent level of services in similar cities with functional (good) urban
 infrastructure is furnished in the table below. It is imperative to mention that the nominal
 standard/benchmark is the requisite level of provision/delivery that is to be achieved over
 the existing and proposed urban agglomeration area in Puri.

 Table 44:     Roads, Traffic and Transportation
 Sl    Parameter / Component           Service              Benchmark        Commitment
 No                                    Level                                 / Remarks
 1     Fully Paved (Flexible & Rigid) 50 percent            95 percent       Not
       Road Length – Puri Municipality                                       Satisfactory
       Roads
 2     Average Road Density            4.6 km/sq.           10-15            Not Adequate
                                       km                   km/sq.km
 3     Per Capita Road Length          1.7 m                1.5 – 2.0 m      Not Adequate
 4     Vehicular Increase per Year     5%                   5 percent        Moderate
 8.6.3.Issues

    o Roads are being critical to ensure economic development of the city should have
       priorities in the agenda of the municipality and Government.

    o Roads in the city are characterized by poor surface conditions and insufficient carriage
       way width to accommodate constantly increasing traffic volume.

    o Main/ arterial roads are plagued with hawking and squatting by marginal traders,
       there by creating traffic congestion.

    o By pass roads and circular access roads for restriction and diversion of traffic from the
       inner city is lacking

    o Inadequate, disorganized and non scientifically designed road furniture, signage, street
       light, signals, medians etc. needs improvement.

    o Road over bridges to segregate railway line and roads are absent.

    o Inadequate greenery/ landscape along the roads with top soil exposure pollutes the air
       quality, environment and condition of the road.

    o Ring roads should be encouraged to by pass the traffic direct into Sea beach are from
       the Atharnala.

    o The intra city town bus services is in a very rudimentary stage giving rise to high
       traffic index of two and three wheeler index.

8.7.Cost Recovery on Infrastructure Services

 Few cities have realistic policies, operational strategies or plans for cost recovery and
 financing for sustainable Infrastructure Services i.e. water supply, sewarage, solid waste
 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -103 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



management, street lighting services, particularly for the poor. In fact most of the strategies
for cost recovery are short sighted and address only part of the issue of sustainability,
resulting in system degradation. Governments, development agencies and communities all
over the world are struggling with this. This focus area needs to be addressed urgently.

Table 45:      Cost Recovery in Urban Infrastructure Services of Puri
Infrastructure    Cost incurred in Service Provision    Direct Recoveries (Rs Lakh)
                              (Rs Lakh)
                 2002/03      2003/04      2004/05   2002/03      2003/04 2004/05
Water Supply     147.19       188.81       201.99    51.15        51.37       51.39
Sewerage         10.17        66.71        559.13    Under Construction
Sanitation       144.74       158.37       121.29    No Fees as yet
Solid Waste      6            7,37         7.98      5.75         5.75        5.75
Public bus       NA           NA           NA        NA           NA          NA
Source: Respective institution

8.7.1.Water & Sanitation Sector

The gaps between revenue income & expenditure are quite large. This is due the lack of
knowledge based reforms intervention. Similarly like any old systems over burden with staffs,
high NRW, energy costs and poor accounting systems. This could be understood from below
points:

          Inadequate tariff level
                  Lack of rationalised tariff structure
          Poor financial management and accounting system
                  Age-old cash based single-entry accounting system
                  No ring fencing of budget
          High energy cost
          More staff per 1000 connections compared to well managed systems
          Non-Revenue Water (NRW)
                  No study has been made on this for any city in the state. But it appears this
                  figure would be considerably high in various ULBs.
          The factors contributing to such losses include
                  Physical losses in the transmission and distribution pipelines
                  Absence of domestic meters
                  Metering inaccuracies in industrial and commercial connections
                  Unbilled consumption
                  Unauthorized connection etc.
8.7.2.The challenge in WSS sector

The institutions responsible for improving the service delivery are now serious about bringing
reforms. However, some the challenge:

          To make access to WSS infrastructure further close to 100% within a definite time
          frame.
          To make WSS service
                 Reliable
                 Sustainable and
                 Affordable
The Government of Orissa is committed to achieve above challenges within the mission
period. The Government of India programs like JnNURM and UIDSSMT would be of great

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -104 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



help to achieve this goal. Government of India has recently choked out plans for improving
WSS service in Orissa. Some of the steps include:

       Government of Orissa has initiated reforms in the WSS sector.
       In the first instance, reforms will be undertaken in Bhubaneswar, Puri, Cuttack,
       Berhampur and Sambalpur towns.
       For other ULBS, reform will be taken up progressively within a time frame.
       Notification issued by GoO on 3rd November 2006 for adoption of Reform Programs
       under JnNURM and UIDSSMT to undertake reforms, both mandatory and optional,
       within a definite time-frame.
               The various mandatory reforms would be undertaken so as to complete their
               implementation by 2007-08 to 2010-11.
               Similarly various optional reforms would be undertaken by end of 2006-07 to
               2011-12.
8.7.3.Some of the steps undertaken on Water Sector Reform are:

       Draft document on Strategic Roadmap for WSS Sector Reform prepared
              To delineate roles of policy maker, regulator and service provider
              To evolve appropriate institutional arrangement for providing WSSS in place of
              State run PHED & OWSSB
              Regional and State level workshops held to discuss with stakeholders.
              A dedicated Urban Sector Reform Cell would be set up at the State level and
              later on at the city level
              Engineering consultants are being engaged to prepare WSS projects as per
              best practices
              Preparation of DPR for Basic Services to the Urban Poor
              DPR under preparation
              Service delivery contract between ULB and Corporatised Utility is being
              formulated to formalize relations between Asset Owner, Service Provider and
              Customer
              Training programs and exposure visits to learn best practices in India and
              abroad
8.7.4.Some of the steps in proposal for Management improvements initiation
     include:

       Simplified procedure for new house service connections
       Easy installments for payment of connection charges
       Subsidized tariff for the urban poor
               Every household to have a tap with subsidized tariff structure proposed
               :Project Piyush
       Temporary connections to kiosks/ milk booths etc.
       Regularization of unauthorized house service connections
       Rebates for advance payment of water tax
       Improved billing & collection efficiency
               Collection of water tax in multiple PHEO counters across the cities
               Collection of tax through Electronic Clearance Service (ECS) in banks
       E-seva
               Collection of water, energy and holding taxes and receipt of complaints related
               to these sectors in common counters Prayash




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -105 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



 However, there is a great degree of support required experienced international development
 agencies to support the state & local Governments in achieving the road map. Supports
 required include:

         Capacity building & training.
         Institutional Strengthening & Restructuring
         Development of Integrated IT enabled service in the WSS Sector.
         Introduction of double entry accounting system in the WSS Sector.

8.8.Waste Management

 Urban waste management is drawing increasing attention, as citizens observe that too much
 garbage is lying uncollected in the streets, causing inconvenience and environmental
 pollution, and being a risk for public health. Although government authorities apply all the
 means at their disposal, the piles of wastes only seem to grow from day to day. In an era of
 shrinking municipal budgets and a restriction of the scope of municipal government
 jurisdiction, the problem is likely to intensify unless alternate approaches can be developed.

 Increasingly, the private formal sector is seen as a key participant in the full range of urban
 waste management activities, including collection, transportation, treatment, processing,
 separate   collection,   recycling,   composting,   and   disposal   of   waste.   Neighbourhood
 associations, communities, and small, informal enterprises are increasingly involving
 themselves in the management of household and business wastes -- often with the
 encouragement of NGOs and development support organisations – with the explicit aim of
 creating livelihoods and maintaining a clean and healthy living environment. The Seven Step
 Solid Waste Management System Programme (Step7) of CMAO, was created to assist urban
 local bodies including Puri to document the existing waste practices of people, community
 organisations and informal enterprises in low-income urban neighbourhoods, and to support
 new initiatives in this field.

 Seven steps Solid Waste Management is a tool, which divides the entire solid waste
 management programme into seven steps. In each step various options and actions would be
 executed both by users (citizens, industry), Govt. and Pvt Players etc. The Step7 programmes
 will works in recovering costs incurred in solid waste management of the city. Some of the
 concepts will be used for cost recovery include:

     •   User to Pay
     •   Producer to Pay
     •   Community Payment
     •   Income through Composting
     •   Income through Construction waste
 The waste information system would help cities in providing information such as Database
 on waste, comparative views with other cities, Annual reports, NGO’s Participation, Costs
 involved, Solid Waste Management Infrastructure, Training Programmes, Modules on seven
 steps, Success stories, Best Practices, projection for future development, Networking
 opportunity, and present position (standing) of respective cities in terms seven steps.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -106 -
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan




                          9.Urban Poverty and Slum Development

9.1.Institutional Framework on Poverty Allevation

 At the Govt. of Orissa, Housing & Urban Development Departments functions Project
 Director UPA Cell. Its functions are to monitior give direction to local governments in
 implementing various poverty allevation programmes. The state UPA Cell is supported by the
 State Urban Development Agency (SUDA). The SUDA monitors the MIS of the Poverty
 Allevation Programmes in Orissa. At the distcite level functions District Urban Development
 Agency (DUDA) with District Collector as Chairman and Adiditional District Magistrate as
 Vice Chairman and at the city level there used to a UPA cell. The UPA cell at the city level
 implements the programmes and monitiors the progress of SJSRY, NSDP etc. The main
 thrust of implementation of projects rests with Community Organisers.

9.2.Existing Situation

 Puri City is no exception to slum development and proliferation. In fact, the slum
 proliferation and informal sector has been growing since evolution modern Puri. The growth
 of informal sector in slums and squatters is due to huge migration from the rural hinterland
 and borders states of Andhra Pradesh in search of employment particularly in tourism and
 fishing sector. The slum settlements in the city can be classified into slum colonies belonging
 to fishing communities, common slums, population squatting on the land belonging to Indian
 railways and other government agencies. The growth of slums, squatters and informal
 settlements has become more acute after super cyclone, which has aggregated the problem.
 Most of the slums of the city ate located on unutilized Government land/ Railway land. These
 Government land remained temporarily vacant where development could not be done
 immediately. This provides favorable opportunities to the lower economic groups specially
 belonging to the labor classes who came to the city in quest of new opportunities and
 employment.

 A significant portion of the slum dwellers in Puri are migrants in search of employment,
 primarily in the unorganized sector. Basic characteristics of these slums are dilapidated
 housing structures with poor ventilation, overcrowding, inadequate lighting, lack of potable
 water, absence of sanitation facilities, faulty alignment of streets/lanes, inundation during
 monsoon season, lack of access for fire-fighting and control measures and other basic
 physical and social services.

 As per the 2001 Census, there were 33768 slum populations in the city, which constituted
 about 21.39 percent of the city’s population. Lack of civic services, unhygienic living
 conditions coupled with increase in housing stock deficit gave raise to slum dwellings and its
 population. However, as per the information of Puri Municipality the present slum population
 is about 47,707 in 46 slum pockets. The analysis of the slum profile based on Census 2001
 is presented below.

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -107 -
Puri Municipality                                                                Puri City Development Plan



Table 46:          Slum Profile of Puri
Index                                                                  City         Slum
Population                                                             157837       33768
Average Household Size                                                 5.10         5.00
Sex Ratio                                                              919          902
Proportion of SC Population in Slums                                   6.68         10.47
Proportion of ST Population in Slums                                   0.21         0.17
Literacy Rate                                                          74.0         51.89
Workers Participation Ratio                                            29.99        30.53
Proportion of Main Workers to Total Workers                            28.28        92.17
Source: Census of India, Slum Population, 2001


Table 47:          Census Slum Profile of Puri
            Item                       Puri Slum                     Puri Town                       Orissa
 Total Households                        6759                         30969                          1119518
                             Pop         Male      Female    Pop       Male      Female     Pop       Male       Female
 Total Popoulation          33768       17758      16010    157837     82269     75568     5517238   2911600     2605638
 Population 0-6 Age          4847        2578       2269     17109      8884      8225      662452    342620      319832
 Scheduled Caste
 Pop                         3535        1838       1697     10550      5386      5164      703275    360866      342409
 Scheduled Tribes
 Pop                           58          34         24       337       213       124      446723    229373      217350
 Litrates                   17522       10355       7167    116731     64617     52114     3924451   2258801     1665650
 Total Worker               10308        8344       1964     47339     40809      6530     1689519   1428311      261208
 Main Worker                 9501        8012       1489     44636     39393      5243     1517270   1327323      189947
          Cultivators          11           9          2       134       108        26      42855      38799        4056
         Agricultural
           Labourers               8        8          0       85         77         8      40966      31581        9385
  Household Industry
              Worker           64          47         17      1075       830       245      44109      33771      10338
        Other Workers        9418        7948       1470     43342     38378      4964     1389340   1223172      166168
 Marginal Worker              807         332        475      2073      1416       657      172249    100988      71261
          Cultivators              1                   1       16          8         8        6894      4217        2677
         Agricultural
           Labourers               2        1          1       11          8         3      36213      16243      19970
  Household Industry
              Worker           36           2         34       368        82       286      14807       4935        9872
        Other Workers         768         329        439      2308      1318       990      114335     75593      38742
 Non Worker                  23460     9414    14046        110498     41460     69038     3827719   1483289     2344430
Source: Census of India, Slum Population, 2001

9.2.1.Growth Trends in Slums

The city presents a range of activities in the tourism, fishing, handicrafts and commercial
sectors. Growth in such activities, possibilities of absorption in allied as well as service
sectors, scope of employment in trade & business activities, hawking, retailing, carting etc.
have attracted rural poor to the city. It is noteworthy that the proportion of slum population
in Puri is increasing. However, it may be noted that the demographic features (number of


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                       -108 -
 Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



 households and population) provided by the Census vary with that of the database provided
 by the Puri Municipality owing to difference in the definition of the slums followed by Census
 and Puri Municipality.

 9.2.2.Socio-Economic Characteristics

 As stated earlier, the demographic features (number of households and population) provided
 by the Census vary with that of the information provided by the Puri Municipality owing to
 difference in the definition of the slums followed by Census and Puri Municipality. However,
 for the purpose of analyzing the socio-economic characteristics, data as per the Census 2001
 has been utilized. Some of the key socioeconomic features of the slum population as per the
 Census 2001 are given in the above table. It may be observed that the average household size
 in slums was 5.00, which was lower than that of the city (5.10). The sex ratio of slum
 population (902) was also lower than that of the city (919). In terms of sex ratio Puri city well
 ahead of both country & state average of 901 and 895 respectively. Slums in Puri had about
 6.69 percent of population belonging to SC/ST category. However, the literacy rate of the
 slum dwellers (51.89 percent) was lower than that of the city population (74.00 percent). The
 workers participation rate was also higher than that of the city, which was 30.53 percent as
 per 2001 Census. About 92.17 percent of the total workers were main workers in the slums.
 The prevailing socio-economic characteristics of slum population indicate immense potential
 for bringing them into the social and economic main stream of the city.

 9.2.3.Current Status of Services in Slums
 Puri Municipality has provided certain key data pertaining to status of services in all slums
 (44 Nos.) in the city. These slums were spread over an area of about 0.6 sq. km (134 acres) as
 a whole. About 33768 persons forming part of about 6700 households were living in these
 slums. Factual information on the type and number of dwelling units was not available.
 However, based on the discussion, it is estimated that about 7000 dwelling units are there in
 the notified slums and out of which, only about 5 percent may be pucca in nature. About 10
 percent may be semi-pucca structures and remaining 85 percent may be kutcha in nature,
 indicating huge capital investment for upgradation of existing dwelling units. The water
 supply requirements in these slums were met with tube wells; public stand posts and wells
 altogether. Few of the slum dwellers in the notified slums were having individual latrine while
 others were relying on community latrines or open defecation.

 Some of the notified slums were provided with temporary waste storage points/dustbins for
 the storage/collection of the solid waste generated. All slums were provided with these
 dustbins and the Puri Municipality has been providing the collection and transportation
 services. Most of the notified slums were provided with streetlights. There were community
 centres in the slums. The Puri Municipality has provided training to the slum dwellers of the
 notified slums in various areas under different employment generation schemes.

9.3.Growth Analysis & Information Gaps
 The super cyclone of 1999 changed the socio-economic map of all towns in Orissa and Puri is
 not exceptional. However, the information related analyse the growth trend is limited and not

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -109 -
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



 authentic. Given this difficult situation, trend analysis on the urban poor, growth of slums,
 increase in number of slum dwellers, acess to services, etc cannot be undertaken in the
 context of Puri. However, an attempted was to present aviliable information as per the tables
 illustrated in Jn NURM Toolkit-2, which are presented in tables.
 Table 48:     Social Composition of Population
    Year         Number of Urban Poor                Source
                  (Below Poverty Line)
 1993/94       Not enumerated
 1998/99       39,955                   Puri Municipality
 2001          33,768                   Census of India
 2004          48,746                   Puri Muniicpality
 2005-06       -                        BPL Survey is undertaken but
                                        results are awaited for analysis.
 Source: Analysed from the information of Puri Municiplaity

 Table 49:     Housing Stums among Slum Dwellers
      Year        Kuccha       Pucca             Semi Pucca
   1998/99      11206 (100%)     0                    0
     2004       10719 (83.60)                    2103 (16.40)
 Source: Analysed from the information of Puri Municiplaity

 Table 50:    Acess of Slum Dwellers to Basic Services
  Year     Number of Percentage of Slum Dwellers having acess to Services
           Slum
           Dwellers
                          Water Supply              Sanition         Wste Service
                         Own    Other    Own      Community Open       Collection
  1998       11206         0.21      99.79   4.82      89.51         5.67       Yes
  2004       12822         16.70     83.30   78.77     24.55         3.32       Yes
 Source: Analysed from the information of Puri Municiplaity

 Lack of comprehensive database on number of slums, slum dwellers, socio-economic and
 physical features, including information on access to services, is a major deterent to
 formulate ‘Urban Poverty Policy’ to identify, notify and categorise slums for possible
 upgrading initiatives. Thus, it is critical to evolve a comprehensive ‘Urban Poverty Policy’
 along with slum upgrading database on the slums and slum dwellers, including soci-
 economic and physical features.

 In 2004-05 Govt. of Orissa in Housing & Urban Development Department innitated Below
 Poverty Line (BPL) Survey for all urban local bodies of Orissa including Puri Municipality. It
 was first time various socio economic and service delivery parameters were surveyes to
 understand the urban poverty of cities. However, during preparation of the City Development
 Plan information on BPL Survey were not published but it is proposed to use the information
 on a latter course to upgrade the chapter on urban poverty with facts and figures.

9.4.Slum Improvement Programmes

 This section reviews past and current programs including ongoing schemes that address
 service delivery to the poor in Puri. Given the complexity of the social, economic and physical

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -110 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



environment in which a growing number of urban poor eke out their livelihoods, it is clear
that the formulation of anti-poverty measures and the design of slum improvement programs
is a difficult issue. A review of slum improvement programmes indicate that by improving
basic infrastructure and access to municipal services, there is a significant impact on the
quality of life of slum residents, both poor and non-poor. To alleviate the problems of slum
dwellers and to reduce urban poverty, a number of programs are initiated and being
implemented by the Puri Municipality with assistance from the GoO and the GoI. Some of the
major slum improvement programs being implemented in Puri are in the adjacent box while
the components of these schemes, beneficiaries, and other details are given below.

9.4.1.National Slum Development Programme (NSDP)

Under this scheme, roads, drains, street lighting, community toilet/bath for the slum people
can be constructed. The allotment under the scheme involves 70 percent as loan and 30
percent as grant. The loan portion carries a grace period of 5 years for repayment with 10
percent interest per annum, with 15 (fifteen) equated installments per annum and with a
penal interest of 2.75 percent if not paid in time. Special Priority is given to the following:

      •   Improvement of drinking water supply system
      •   Laying/relaying of roads
      •   Provision of street lights
      •   Drainage facilities
      •   Improvement and new public conveniences with water supply
      •   Welfare (education, etc.); and
      •   Shelter upgradation (individual water connections)

The       Puri   Municipality    has   availed   financial   assistance   from    the    GoI      and
constructed/provided drains, roads, streetlights, community latrines/baths, community
centres.

Table 51:         National Slum Development Programme in Puri
Year              Funds released                        U/C submitted
2002/03                                        2132000                                  2132000
2003/04                                         500000                                   500000
2004/05                                              0                                        0
2005/06                                              0                                        0
Total                                          2632000                                  2632000
Source: State Urban Development Agency

9.4.2.Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)

Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) was introduced in the year 2001. The primary
objective of this scheme is to provide shelter or upgrade the existing shelter of people living
below the poverty line in the urban slums. The upper financial limit for construction of
VAMBAY units under normal circumstances will be maximum of Rs. 40,000/- including
provision for sanitary latrine for an area of not less than 15 (fifteen) sq. m with a subsidy of
50 percent i.e. Rs. 20,000/- by HUDCO.
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -111 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



Under this program, the Puri Municipality has identified 222 beneficiaries and the
construction of dwelling units are under progress. The unit cost of each dwelling unit was Rs
40,000/-. The Puri Municipality has transferred entire subsidy of Rs. 20,000/- received from
the GoI to the beneficiaries and also provided loan assistance to beneficiaries to an extent of
Rs. 20,000/- per dwelling unit to meet the gap.

9.4.3.Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna (SJSRY)

Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna (SJSRY) consists of two special schemes, viz. Urban Self
Employment Programme (USEP) and Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP). It is
funded in a ratio of 75:25 between the Centre and the State. Under UWEP of SJSRY, socially
and economically useful public assets i.e. roads, drains, culverts, community centers,
community latrines are constructed in slum areas, providing wage employment to the urban
poor. Under the USEP, the Puri Municipality has provided loan and subsidy for income
generation activities to the beneficiaries. The beneficiaries have been trained on health,
sanitation, child care, leprosy, AIDS, different social welfare schemes, etc. Under the UWEP
activities, roads, drains, culverts, community centers, community latrines, etc. have been
constructed in many slum areas. In addition, Angadwadi workers are functioning under ICDS
Programme and Balwadie are functioning under the SJSRY Scheme.

Table 52:      Status of Puri Municipality on Swarna Jayanti Rojgar Yojana Programme
Year           Funds       U/C         USEP (S)   USEP (T)    Manday s    DWCUA     T & CS
               Released    Submitted                          Generated   Group


  2002/03      1631080     1311450       43           0          623         0         6
                                       persons                                      groups
  2003/04       181000      180000       46          344          0         47        23
                                       persons     persons                groups    groups
  2004/05       151364         0         23           0           0          0         0
                                       persons
  2005/06      2249800         0          6           0          560         0         0
                                       persons
       Total   4213244     1491450
Source: State Urban Development Agency

9.4.4.6.2.4 Development of Women and Children In Urban Areas (DWCUA)

This scheme is distinguished by the special incentive extended to urban poor women who
decide to set up self employment ventures as a group as opposed to individual effort. Groups
of poor women shall take up an economic activity suited to their skill, training, aptitude and
local conditions. Besides generations of income, their group shall strive to empower the
urban poor women by making them independent as also providing a facilitation atmosphere
for self employment.

The DWCUA group sets itself up as a Thrift and Credit Society, in addition to its other
entrepreneurial activity. The group is entitled to a lump-sum grant of Rs. 25,000/- as
revolving fund at a maximum rate of Rs. 1000/- per individual. 11 Thrift and Credit Society



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -112 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



(self-help groups) having women members assisted with revolving fund. They are engaged in
income generation activities i.e. household articles, food items, etc.

9.4.5.Issues:

Most of the slum dwellers of Puri belong to fisherman communities located at Penthakata,
Balinolia Sahi, Baliapanda. There are altogether 46 slum pockets in Puri with a total
population of 47,770. This constitutes almost 25% of the total population. Many of the slum
pockets are inhabited by migrant population who came to Puri in search of employment.

Basic character of the slum pockets are temporary houses, dilapidated structure, poor
ventilation, over crowding, inadequate lighting, absence of sanitation facility and lack of basic
physical and social services.

For improvement of slum condition Puri Municipality has been striving hard to provide basis
amenities. Various poverty alleviation programmes such as NSDP, SJSRY along with old age
pension, Orissa Disability Pension, BPL, Annapurna Aantodaya Anna Yojana and Balika
Samrdhi Yojana are implemented by Puri Municipality. Efforts have also been made by Puri
Municipality to organize the urban poor in to several self help groups to improve their
economic condition. Following are some of the key issues identified based on the above
assessment:

   •   Fresh listing, categorization ( tenable/ non tenable) and mapping of all slums within
       the Puri Municipality area as first step towards slum upgrading initiatives,
   •   Creation of comprehensive database on socio-economic characteristics of slum
       dwellers and physical characteristics of slums ( housing and services);
   •   Availability of continuous and non lapsable fund flow for the ongoing slum
       improvement programmes;
   •   Immediate identification of land parcels for undertaking resettlement of slum dwellers
       from select listed slums and involve NGOs/ CBOs in the process;
   •   Ensuring minimum coverage/ provision of basic services such as water supply,
       sanitation, etc. to the slum dwellers; and
   •   Focused land reforms especially for transferring land from Revenue department to
       Puri Municipality for undertaking slum improvement schemes and housing for urban
       poor.
   •   State and City required to lunch innovative programmes other than national
       programmes to improve the status of Urban Poor.
   •   The city needs to have a comprehensive Livlyhood support programmes linking with
       tourism and heritage.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -113 -
 Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan




                                                      10.Municipal Finance

10.1.Legal Framework

 For the purpose of financial assessment, financial data pertaining to the last five years (2000-
 01 to 2004-05) were analysed. The Puri Municipality maintains & approves its budget as per
 the rules laid down in Orissa Municipal Act 1950. The current accounting system is on a
 cash basis and income and expenditure heads are also maintained on a cash basis. All the
 expenses towards regular maintenance are treated as revenue expenditure, and all income as
 Revenue Receipt.

 The Municipality accounts can be classified under two major heads, Receipt and
 Expenditure. The revenue sources of the Municipality may be broadly classified as internal or
 operating income and external receipts. Internal income includes receipts from the operations
 of the Municipality, in the form of taxes, grants and fees and charges on other services such
 as advertisement fee, food and license fee, etc. Receipts heads of internal sources are:

    o General tax and other taxes levied by the Municipality such as holding tax, latrine tax,
       lighting tax, etc.

    o Income from properties -- rent receipts from lands, buildings, and other properties

    o Income from municipal services such as receipts from solid waste management

    o External fund sources include revenue grants from State and Central Government,

10.2.Financial Status at a Glance

 The finances of Puri Municipality have been reviewed for the five-year period ending in FY
 2004-05. The items of both receipts and expenditure are classified under revenue income and
 expenditure as per their sources and uses. In 2004-05, the revenue income of Puri
 Municipality was Rs. 4, 89, 37,777. In absolute terms the revenue expenditure in 2004-05
 was Rs. 4, 50, 44,724 and the revenue account surplus in 2004-05 was Rs. 38, 93,053

 Table 53:       Revenue Income and Expenditure (2001 – 02 - 2004-05)
                          2000-1    2001-2      2002-3       2003-4              2004-5



 Receipt                       Rs           Rs           Rs             Rs          Rs
                               (%)          (%)          (%)            (%)         (%)
 Municipal Tax               3081987      3085137      3752490        4012856     4353798
                                 6.01           5.9          6.3          7.65          8.9
 License & Other Fees         950754      2253961      1081314        1171160     1507106
                                 1.85         4.31         1.82           2.23        3.08
 Under Special Act              24015        31850        60898          62564       46382
                                 0.05         0.06           0.1          0.12        0.09
 Non Tax     and     Own     4911093      4690084      6035820        8673236     6785063
 Sources                         9.57         8.97        10.13          16.54       13.86

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -114 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



Govt. Grant              34787002      40347200     44355657      37525461    33519947
                              67.8        77.16        74.47         71.57        68.5
Misc                      1008746       1625341      2406630        884972     2627500
                              1.97         3.11         4.04          1.69        5.37
Others & Loan             6546235        258825      1872788        102000       97981
                             12.76         0.49         3.14          0.19         0.2
Total                    51309832
                                       52292398     59565597     52432249    48937777

                                 100          100         100          100          100
Expenditure
Gen Admin                   7441154     6804772      8598246       7636975    4910053
                              14.51       12.91        14.52         14.26       10.9
Public Safety               3877678     4414024      4440814       5026340    5281582
                               7.56        8.37         7.5           9.39      11.73
Public Health               18037714   19473091     14474358      15837778   12129322
                              35.18       36.94        24.45         29.57      26.93
Medical                     1216412      842156       893101        966190     875141
                               2.37         1.6         1.51          1.8        1.94
Public Conveyance           10712918   10803548     21039758      16585199   13269680
                              20.89        20.5        35.54         30.97      29.46
Education                   4305715     4127335      5052488       4751364    3841274
                                8.4        7.83         8.53          8.87       8.53
Misc                         769617     3246601      1452795       1212206    2474029
                                1.5        6.16         2.45          2.26       5.49
Others    &       Loan      4915413     3001471      3255366       1537076    2263643
Repayment                      9.59        5.69         5.5           2.87       5.03
Total                    51276621      52712998     59206926     53553128    45044724

                              100        100          100           100         100
Source: Puri Municipality

The following sections provide an in-depth review of the revenue account, in order to assess
the municipal fiscal status and to provide a base for determining the potential of each of the
sources and ability of Puri Municipality to sustain the extent of planned investments
identified under the City Development Plan.



10.2.1.Revenue Account

The revenue account comprises two components - revenue income and revenue expenditure.
Revenue income comprises internal resources in the form of tax and non-tax items. External
resources are in the form of shared taxes/transfers and revenue grants from the State and
Central Government. Revenue expenditure comprises expenditure incurred on salaries,
operation & maintenance cost etc.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -115 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



10.2.2.Revenue Income

The revenue sources of Puri Municipality can be broadly categorized as own sources, grants
and contributions. The source-wise income generated during the review period is presented
in below Table.

Table 54:       Revenue Income (2001 – 02 - 2004-05)
                         2000-1    2001-2       2002-3           2003-4       2004-5



Receipt                      Rs          Rs           Rs             Rs          Rs
                             (%)         (%)          (%)            (%)         (%)
Municipal Tax              3081987     3085137      3752490        4012856     4353798
                               6.01          5.9          6.3          7.65          8.9
License & Other Fees        950754     2253961      1081314        1171160     1507106
                               1.85        4.31         1.82           2.23        3.08
Under Special Act             24015       31850        60898          62564       46382
                               0.05        0.06           0.1          0.12        0.09
Non Tax       and   Own    4911093     4690084      6035820        8673236     6785063
Sources                        9.57        8.97        10.13          16.54       13.86
Govt. Grant               34787002    40347200     44355657       37525461    33519947
                               67.8       77.16        74.47          71.57        68.5
Misc                       1008746     1625341      2406630         884972     2627500
                               1.97        3.11         4.04           1.69        5.37
Others & Loan              6546235      258825      1872788         102000        97981
                              12.76        0.49         3.14           0.19          0.2
Total                     51309832
                                      52292398     59565597      52432249     48937777

Source: Puri Municipality

10.2.3.Own Sources

Own source income includes income from holding tax, other taxes and non-tax income in the
form of income from municipal properties and other miscellaneous income. Income from own
sources accounts has been almost 26% of the revenue income, indicating higher
dependability of Puri Municipality on external sources for its operations. Govt. Grants which
contribute to about 68% of the total revenue income.

Own sources of revenue (both tax and non-tax) contributed only 22.76 percent per annum in
2004-05 against 14.87% in 2000 – 01. On an average own sources of revenue (both tax and
non-tax) contributed only 18.76 percent per annum which is far less than the desirable level
of at least 35-40 percent. Thus, there is a need to augment own sources of revenue towards
improving creditworthiness of the Puri Municipality and self-sustainability. However, revenue
from own sources revenue have registered a growth, which is a positive indicator.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -116 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



 Table 55:      Municipal Revenue Income (Tax, Non-tax & Grants)
 Year                              Revenue Account Receipts (Rs. Lakh)
                     Tax                Non-Tax             Transfers                   Total
 2001/02          30,85,137            86,01,236           4,06,06,025               5,22,92,398
 2002/03          37,52,490            95,84,662           4,62,28,445               5,95,65,597
 2003/04          40,12,856           1,07,91,932          3,76,27,461               5,24,32,249
 2004/05          43,53,798           1,09,66,051          3,36,17,928               4,89,37,777
 Source: Puri Municipality

 Table 56:     Municipal Capital Receipts (State Govt. Financing Inst., Market)
 Year     State government (Rs. Lakh)           Financing
                                                                   Market              Total
                                               institutions
                  Loan           Grants
 2001-02        2,58,825      4,03,47,250                                           4,06,06,025
 2002-03       18,72,788      4,43,55,657                                           4,62,28,445
 2003-04        1,02,000      3,75,25,461                                           3,76,27,461
 2004-05         97,981       3,35,19,947                                           3,36,17,928
 Source: Puri Municipality

10.3.Revenue Expenditure

 Revenue expenditure of Puri Municipality has been analysed based on nature of expenditure.
 The four broad heads under which the analysis has been undertaken have been general
 administration, public health, public conveyance and public safety expenditure.

 Table 57:     Revenue Expenditure (2001 – 02 - 2005-06)
 Expenditure               2000-01     2001-02    2002-03          2003-04      2004-05
                               Rs          Rs         Rs              Rs            Rs
                               (%)         (%)        (%)             (%)           (%)
 Gen Admin                 7441154     6804772    8598246          7636975      4910053
                             14.51       12.91      14.52            14.26        10.90
 Public Safety             3877678     4414024    4440814          5026340      5281582
                              7.56        8.37       7.50            9.39         11.73
 Public Health            18037714    19473091 14474358           15837778     12129322
                             35.18       36.94      24.45            29.57        26.93
 Medical                   1216412      842156     893101           966190       875141
                              2.37        1.60       1.51            1.80          1.94
 Public Conveyance        10712918    10803548 21039758           16585199     13269680
                             20.89       20.50      35.54            30.97        29.46
 Education                 4305715     4127335    5052488          4751364      3841274
                              8.40        7.83       8.53            8.87          8.53
 Misc                       769617     3246601    1452795          1212206      2474029
                              1.50        6.16       2.45            2.26          5.49
 Others      &     Loan    4915413     3001471    3255366          1537076      2263643
 Repayment                    9.59        5.69       5.50            2.87          5.03
 Total                    51276621    52712998 59206926           53553128     45044724
                            100.00      100.00     100.00           100.00       100.00
 Source: Puri Municipality

 Of the total revenue expenditure Puri Municipality spends about 30% of its revenue in Public
 Conveyances and about 27% in Public Health. In general administrations Puri Municipality
 have reduced expenditure percentage from 14.51% in 2000-01 to 10.90% in 2004-05. In

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -117 -
 Puri Municipality                                                             Puri City Development Plan



 other way it is assumed that Puri Municipality working to reduce its administrative expenses,
 which is more related to Establishment cost.

 Table 58:     Municipal Expenditure               (Establishment, Interest)
 Year     Establishment     (wages                  and        Interest Payament                           Total
          salaries)
 2001-02        4,64,64,926                        30,01,471                   32,46,601               5,27,12,998
 2002-03        5,44,98,765                        32,55,366                   14,52,795               5,92,06,926
 2003-04        5,08,03,846                        15,37,076                   12,12,206               5,35,53,128
 2004-05        4,03,07,052                        22,63,643                   24,74,029               4,50,44,724
 Source: Puri Municipality

10.4.Credit Worthiness
 In reference to assess the financial situation and performance of the Puri Municipality certain
 key financial indictors have been generated. Following are the heads under which specific
 indicators of financial status and performance of the Puri Municipality has been assessed.

     •    Resource Mobilization;

     •    Expenditure Management; and .

     •    Debt and Liability Management.

 Following table provides performance of various key financial indicators of the Puri
 Municipality during the assessment period, along with comparison with benchmarks for
 evaluation.

 Table 59:         Performance of Key Financial Indicators
 Indicators                  2000-1   2001-2   2002-3    2003-4   2004-5   Average     Benchmark         Remarks
 Operating Ratio             99.94    100.80   99.40     102.14   92.04    98.86       Less than 1      Satisfactory

 Share of Own Sources to     15.58    14.87    16.43     24.20    22.76    18.77       More than 30-    Not
                                                                                       40 percent       Satisfactory
 Total Income
 Establishment               46.81    40.3     45.01     45.28    49.79        45.44   Less than30-     Not
                                                                                       40 percent       Satisfactory
 Expenditure as compare
 to total revenue income
 Establishment               53.89    46.01    40.72     45.06    45.28        46.19   Less than40 -    Not
                                                                                       45 percent       Satisfactory
 Expenditure as compare
 to      total     revenue
 expenditure
 Holding Tax Collection      45%      50%      55%       55%      60%      53%         More than 85     Not
                                                                                       percent          Satisfactory
 Performance
 Outstanding Loan to         -        -        -         -        -        -           Less than 25
                                                                                       percent
 revenue income

 Although the financial position of Puri Municipality is not sound as it should have been
 compare to similar size cities across the country. However, using the reforms agenda setup in
 the JNNURM, it is assumed that Puri Municipality will improve its credit worthiness and
 would sustainable in long run. Based on the above, there is an immediate need for initiating
 the following performance improvement measures:

     •    Increase in own-sources of income, especially tax revenues;
     •    Reduce establishment expenditure;
     •    Try to match own sources of income with the establishment expenditure; and
     •    Need to improve Holding tax collection performance.

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                        -118 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



At present, the Puri Municipality does not have evaluation details on the asset base in terms
of land holdings, movable and immovable properties. Thus, it is of principal importance to
recognize these assets and update their market value as this would facilitate the Puri
Municipality to improve its overall creditworthiness.

10.4.1.Issues

   o No inventory of scientific based Resource Mobilisation.
   o Assessment of holding tax is yet to be re assessed.
   o Heavy expenditure on activities related to Heritage, Festival and Tourism.
   o No specific grant for maintaining cleanliness and other services in and around the
     Heritage, Festival and Tourism sites.
   o Poor accounting system provides no scope for projection of its expenditure.
   o Human resources lack present day techniques of financial management.
   o The collection performance is also poor and it is to a tune of about 60-65 percent on
     total demand.
   o Generally Expenditure were to the tune of 13.31 percent of revenue income, which is
     some how positive sign
   .




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -119 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


                                   11.Stakeholders Consultation

11.1.The Process
 The broad purpose of stakeholder participation is to involve the Stakeholders in development
 of plans for the city. In the context of the Puri CDP, this purpose has to be expanded to
 include introducing the ideas and techniques of stakeholders’ participation in strategic
 planning to local governments and citizens.

 Support for stakeholders’ consultation comes from the JNNURM call for reaching out.
 Reaching out is interpreted as not only greater openness to the world outside Puri but also
 internal openness as well. Stakeholders’ participation in planning is a strategy for increasing
 the internal openness – and transparency - of government.

 Objectives for stakeholder participation in the Puri City Development Plan are both
 substantive and process-oriented. The substantive goal was to provide local governments
 and CDP consulting team with useful information and a sense of community priorities that
 would inform development of the CDP. The process goals were to:

    o introduce participatory strategic planning
    o ensure that all participants had an opportunity to be heard
    o provide all involved with a positive experience that would encourage further citizen
      and stakeholders participation.
 Because stakeholders are new to this type of participation, the substantive goals were
 modest. While the role of the citizen participation was advisory, that input helped shape the
 plans developed for each city. In all consultations stockholders were given enough space for
 interaction and also written participation tools were used to establish priorities.

 11.1.1.Participation Techniques Used

 In each consultation process the local officials and state govt. convene meetings. There were
 in four levels of consultation meeting were held in preparing the CDP. Relevant documents
 attached in annexture and other as follows.

 Table 60:      Stakeholders Consultation
 Institutions      Convene                               Consultation
 City Level        Puri Municipality                     Ward level
                                                         Municipal Councils
                                                         Public Forum
                                                         Temple Administration
 District          District Magistrate Cum Collector     Municipal Councils
 Administration    Puri                                  City and District Level Officials
                                                         Line Departments
 State Govt.       Housing & Urban Development           Chief Minister
                   Department                            Chief Secretary


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -120 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


Institutions         Convene                              Consultation
                                                          All Concern Department Secretaries
                                                          Member of Parliament, Puri
                                                          Member of Legislative Assembly, Puri
                                                          Minister for Tourism
                                                          Speaker of Orissa Legislative Assembly
State Level          City Managers’ Association Orissa    Workshop on Municipal Resource
                                                          Mobilization focusing JNNURM



Consultative         Convene                        Out Come
Workshop
1st Workshop         Puri Municipality              Understand Jn NURM, Reform Agenda,
                                                    Review project goals and desired outcomes of
                                                    the planning process
2nd Workshop         Puri Municipality & District   Consensus along with the stakeholders
                     Magistrate Cum Collector       firming the process and agreeing upon a
                     Puri                           structured programme to take the CDP
                                                    forward.
                                                    The workshop ended with a draft Vision for
                                                    the city and path for growth.
3rd  &         4th   Puri Municipality & District   Public forum to agree upon priority actions
Workshop             Magistrate Cum Collector       (projects and reforms) for each of the focus
                     Puri                           areas.
                                                    Individual Citizens Vision on City
5th Workshop         Puri Municipality & District   Ccommunity support for planned major
                     Magistrate Cum Collector       projects. Puri stakeholders strongly support
                     Puri                           the planned development in Puri. The
                                                    stakeholders strongly support the integration
                                                    of the three cities Bhubaneswar, Konark and
                                                    Puri for development of Orissa
6th Workshop         Puri Municipality & District   Focused on the strategic options outlined in
                     Magistrate Cum Collector       the CDP
                     Puri
All meetings began participation with
self-introductions by the participants        Box 6 Stakeholders Consultation
at the beginning of the meeting. The                 Kick-off meeting - December 2005
only guidance was that the discussion
                                                     Second workshop held in -February 2006
topic should not only be relevant to the
                                                     Ward level consultations - March 2006
CDP but also meet the following three
                                                     Public forum workshop - April 2006
criteria:
                                                     Tourists of the city - April 2006
   o   The topic should be important
                                                     Reforms Agenda January – May 2006
       enough to motivate government
       action and engage the citizens.               Project Identification / Prioritization      -
                                                     May / June 2006
   o   It should be an area where
       government finds it feasible and helpful to consider citizens’ opinions when making
       decisions.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -121 -
Puri Municipality                                                    Puri City Development Plan


     o   The issues addressed should be immediate enough to have the possibility of showing
         results in the short term.
In all consultation officials explained broad topics with a presentation, this became the focus
of information and a question and answer period. Also during the meeting participants were
asked to describe their visions for a desired future relevant to the CDP. These visions were
used – along with statements from local
plans – to establish Puri City’s Vision for
the CDP.

In second round stakeholder consultation
meeting, the topic of discussion was the
interim CDP. Participants were asked to
comment on the strategic options put forth
in broad terms and on the local strengths
and weaknesses affecting the cities future
development.           Their      comments      were
considered when developing more fully
strategy options for the final CDP.

Meeting goals dictate the choice of citizen
participation tools. The use of written
suggestion         and         small-group      work
enhanced         the     opportunity      for   each
participant to be heard. Following the
presentation of information about the CDP
and the selected topic, each participant
was given opportunity and asked to give
suggestion on a sheet.

After      the    workshop        consulting    team
organize the discussion points and written
portion      by        category     and    prepared
proceedings. These consultations helped
in   shaping      the     Vision    and    priorities.
During the consultation, the presenter
answered the questions.

The visioning task was conducted in small
groups except the public forum. In each
consultation        the        responsibility   were
assigned for (1) ensuring that all members
                                                         Plate 38:       City Consultation   Process    with
of   the    group       had an opportunity         to    Municipal Council & line Dept.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -122 -
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


 contribute ideas, and then helping to decide which ideas should be included in its vision (2)
 assigning one person to keep a written record of the consultation and discussions, and (3)
 presenting the vision to the full workshop. This description responsibility was part of the
 directions for the vision task. The vision task concluded with the presentations from each
 consultation.

 The second stakeholder meeting focused on the interim report. It placed a greater emphasis
 on the substance of participation. A PowerPoint presentation of the interim CDP report, with
 emphasis on major findings and strategic options, set the stage for the discussion. The
 session focused on the broad strategic options in the context of cities SWOT. At the end of a
 facilitated discussion, participants were asked to indicate their priorities of projects. The
 results were reported back to all stakeholders at the Public Forum Workshop. The evening
 session of the Public Forum organized by the District Administration focused on specific to
 tourism, heritage, media, chamber of commerce and senior citizens seen as offering growth
 potential. The full public forum took about 8 hours time in two sessions.

11.2.Stakeholder Discussions
 The stakeholders came to the meetings with many things that they wanted to tell their
 government. This caused lively but good-humored discussion, some resistance to efforts to
 focus discussion on CDP topics, and complaints that the discussion sessions were not long
 enough. The discussions did, however, provide clear insight into the priorities and concerns
 of the stakeholders.

 The First workshop of kickoff meeting was held in December 2005 with the cities
 stakeholders to review project goals and desired outcomes of the planning process. Members
 of     the   Stakeholders   included:   representatives   from   the   Govt.   of   Orissa,   District
 Administration, Puri Municipality, Puri Konark Development Authority, Police & Traffic,
 Water Supply, Tourism, Hotel & Restaurant Association, Chamber of Commerce and Citizens
 etc.

 The second workshop, held in February 2006 among officials and elected representative of
 Puri Municipality and stakeholders presented the situation analysis of the city’s progress. All
 the stakeholders were familiarised with the purpose, process, and expected outcomes of the
 CDP, and build enthusiasm, understanding and commitment to the CDP. The process also
 helped in deriving a consensus along with the stakeholders firming the process and agreeing
 upon a structured programme to take the CDP forward. Each stakeholders of the workshop
 explained his / her dream for Puri along with projects for JNNURM. The workshop ended
 with a draft Vision for the city and path for growth.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -123 -
Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan


In    the   month    of   March     2006      Puri
Municipality has undertaken a series of
ward level consultation to identify issues
and suggestion for the city development
and also discussed the Vision and path for
the cities growth as identified in second
workshop by the stakeholders of the city.
The    major     areas    that   citizens     were
concerns are improvements in City level              Plate 39:        Public Forum organsied by Puri
                                                     Municipality
Infrastructure    such     as    water   supply,
drainage, solid waste management and road transport etc. One of the positive aspects is the
citizens are willing to pay price for improved services but the price should be affordable.
Similarly suggestion was that city authorities must try to improve the Local Economic
Development linking to Jaganath Temple and Tourism.

The third & fourth workshop was held in April 2006, as on public forum to agree upon
priority actions (projects and reforms) for each of the focus areas. At the public forum
stakeholder workshop, the Puri Municipality asked for input about (1) how to strengthen the
economic base – especially the tourism, heritage, education, (2) the relationship of the
central city to other development zones - especially the Puri Konark Development Authority
new    area,   (3) the    urban environment,         and   (4) environmental and transportation
infrastructure aspects.

Although the Public Forum workshops held in the Town Hall attained by about four hundred
participants was about CDP and focused on topics particular to the local situation, the
                                                                         clearest message from each
                                                                         was   the    shared       concern
                                                                         about tourism potential of
                                                                         the city and Golden Triangle
                                                                         of the Orissa Tourism. The
                                                                         discussion at Public Forum
                                                                         included         support         for
                                                                         tourism     development          and
                                                                         concerns that local officials
                                                                         implement        the     proposed
                                                                         developments as planned.

                                                                         At the meeting conclusion,
 Plate 40:        City Consultation Process
                                                                         leaders     or    the     highest-




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -124 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


ranking local official present presented the wrap-up summarizing the day’s discussions.
Solicitation of feedback from participants was instituted. Participants were asked to submit
written views if they have come across regarding to development of Puri.

The fifth workshop was conducted with stakeholder also confirmed community support for
planned major projects. Puri stakeholders strongly support the planned development in Puri.
The stakeholders strongly support the integration of the
three cities Bhubaneswar, Konark and Puri for development
of Orissa.

The sixth workshop with with senior officials of the cities
focused on the strategic options outlined in the CDP interim
reports and asked participants to identify (1) the options that
they considered most important and (2) the areas or actions
most likely to contribute to future development in this
region. The priority actions were further detailed in terms of
resources required, responsibilities and stakeholder involvement, identification of potential
roadblocks and suggestions to overcome these, practical implications, preliminary funding
requirements      and    responsibilities,   additional   requirements   and    pre-requisites    for
successfully      accomplishing        priority
actions.

The consulting process identified Tourism
as one of the major areas concern for the
city development. Taking this as backdrop
small consultations were held with the
tourists of the city in the month of April
2006. Some of the important observations
that   tourists     were     raised    include
improvements        in        Solid      Waste
Management, Setting up a Watch Tower
near to Temple (Foreign Tourist), providing        Plate 41:      Participants at the stakeholders’
bicycle track, public conveyances, beach           conference organized by District Magistrate Cum
                                                   Collector Puri
development, heritage walk / tour by
bicycle etc. However, a major chunk of business tourist highlighted to set up a International
Convention Centre in Puri. As large number of the business travelers are visiting Puri as
parts of there tour to Bhubaneswar the state capital.

These discussions were input into CDP development. The interim reports recognized the
concerns expressed at stakeholder meetings and incorporated concepts from the visioning
exercises into the goal statements for the interim reports. Because stakeholders gave
tourism development a high priority for future development, further data collection and


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -125 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


 analysis were conducted on this aspect of the Study. The stakeholder input, along with input
 from local officials, helped guide selection of strategic
 options to be developed more fully for the draft and final
 CDP reports. The VISION of the Puri city was finally
 placed before municipal council on 14.08.2006 and
 approved by Puri Muniicpality in its council meeting on
 30.08.2006.

11.3.Results
 Overall, participants felt the meetings were worthwhile
 and would like to see in future more stakeholder
 participation meetings. The nature of the discussions and the variety of issues raised further
 reinforces conclusions. From the perspective of the consultation, stakeholder participation
 provided important insights into priorities and provided valuable information for the
 development of the CDP.

 All discussion sessions began with a relatively formal / informal presentation, with comment
 by the rest of the participants and discussion was more open. The series of speeches take up
 time, but participants appeared to regard them as necessary preliminary conversations on
 the topic.

 There is a preference for written opportunities to participate – either alone or in combination
 with discussion sessions. The technique of written suggestions was very effective in giving
 everyone a voice and in using time efficiently. Facilitated discussions were valuable and
 useful but more apt to go off the track and more likely to be dominated by a few individuals
 in consultations.

 Preparations make a difference:
    o Scheduling allowed time to meet stakeholders ahead of the meetings to explain the
        process and desired results, the discussions benefited.
    o   It give stakeholders opportunity to ask, but there is a fine line between guiding and
        inhibiting discussion.
    o   Participants wished that they had received substantive materials about the CDP
        interim report ahead of the meeting so that they would have had time to review the
        document.

 Strong opportunities were provided without looking at the hierarchy of stakeholder
 participation. For example, discussion did not select leaders; instead the allowed every one
 present to assumed leadership or individuals were come forward. When participants feel
 unequal, written participation techniques used because they effectively equalize the
 opportunity to be heard. For example, the perception after each discussion found




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -126 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


 participants much more satisfied with their opportunity to be heard when the facilitated
 discussion sessions added a written participation tool.

11.4.Key outcomes
 The current custom is for local government to develop plans and then to show them to the
 public in a quasi review process. The challenge is to change the scheduling of community
 participation so that it occurs before rather than after plans are finalized.

 The Puri CDP experience indicates that both government and citizens are highly supportive
 of increased communication, and that stakeholder workshops offer a useful channel for that
 communication. After the process it is now taken a shape of methodology as stakeholder
 consultation is now a regular part of the planning process in future city planning process.

 The message that needs to be delivered is that participation should occur during not after
 the planning process. Technical assistance along with repeated efforts that give people
 experience with community participation in plan development will lead to familiarity with the
 process.

 In future stakeholders’ consultation consulting team will have to work with local government
 officials to get sufficient time to prepare for meetings. The government officials have to be
 convinced of the need for timely invitations and pre-meeting dissemination of information to
 the participants. In Puri CDP process consulting team had, pre-meeting sessions with key
 participants to explain the process and desired results are valuable.

 The media offer an opportunity to disseminate information from stakeholder meetings to a
 broader audience. The media were present at the each level of discussion held in Puri City
 and reports appeared in local newspapers the following day.

 Finally the vision of the city derived from the consultation process which was approved by
 the Puri Municipality.

 Puri Municipality has decided to publish the full CDP or Summarised version for the citizens
 of the town in both Oriya and English language.

 The City Developemnt Plan of Puri will be placed at website and each activites would be
 updated for cizens as well stakeholders at www.orissa.gov.in/cmao

 The finally as per the suggestions of the stakeholders the CDP will upadated time to time
 with progress of the city development plan.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -127 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


                                12.Vision and Strategic Direction

12.1.The Process

 The City Development Plan has included: (1) an identification of needs based on a review of
 existing plans and policies, interviews with local citizens, business owners and other
 stakeholders, and an analysis of existing
                                                  Box 8: Public Participation
 conditions, including field reconnaissance       City Of Puri
 surveys of the community’s physical fabric;      Puri Municipality
 (2) the preparation of potential alternatives
                                                  Shri Jagannatha Temple Administration
 for consideration; and (3) the development
                                                  Puri Konark Development Authority
 of   broad        directives    and   specific
 recommendations. Community input has             Engineering Section
 been central to the planning process. Each       Traffic Police
 phase of the process has been organized
                                                  Public Services, Utilities
 around a public meeting to ensure the Plan
 is well-informed with public sentiment and       Public Health Engineering
 opinion.                                         District Administration
                                                  District Magistrate
12.2.VISION 2030
                                                  District Superintendent of Police
 City Development Plan 2030 is Puri City’s
                                                  Information and Public Relation Department
 primary planning strategy. It sets out what
 we believe must happen over the next 20          State Level Organization
 years to achieve our vision for the City of      Housing & Urban Development Department
 Puri in 2030.                                    City Managers’ Association Orissa
 Our vision for the City of Puri to be Puri as    Orissa State Archeology
 a vibrant sustainable city with unique
                                                  Archeology Survey of India
 heritage and rich legacy. The Vision is
 supported with healthy, sustainable future       INTACH
                                                  City Stakeholders
 and celebrate our strengths as a vibrant,
                                                  Chamber of Commerce
 diverse City of natural beauty nestled
                                                  Confederation of Indian Industries
 around     Lord    Jagannath     Temple   and
                                                  Tourism Development Agency
 Seashore of Bay of Bengal and able to
                                                  Citizens of Puri
 achieve our full potential through access to
                                                  Hotel & Restaurant Association
 clean air, safe water and food, shelter,
                                                  Real Estate Developers
 education,        satisfying     employment,




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -128 -
Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


spirituality and culturally by weigh of social, health, economic and environmental costs,
benefits and risks equally when making decisions

12.2.1.Strategic directions for the City

The strategic directions for the City are outlined under four inter-related themes. Each
strategic direction has a set of objectives to achieve it. These strategic directions are also the
basis of the City’s Corporate Plan, known as City Development Plan, which guides Council’s
operations and activities. Issues may be addressed under more than one theme. For
example, transport is addressed under the Connected and Accessible City, Inclusive and
Engaging City and Environmentally Responsible City themes.

The path to achieving sustainability is long and will take many years to travel. However, by
2030 we will have taken many significant steps. We will have made many positive changes to
the natural and physical environment, to the City’s culture, to the way we do business, and
to how we value our community. Puri Municipal Council along with all stakeholders has
adopted a set of strategic directions to realise this vision. These directions are organized
around four themes:

Theme 1 Connected and accessibility

Theme 2 Environmentally Responsive City

Theme 3 Inclusive and Engaging City

Theme 4 Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -129 -
  Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan




Connected and Accessible City                                          Environmentally Responsive

     Transport systems and                                                           City
   infrastructure Alliances and                                       Greenhouse gas emission reduction
  networks integrated transport                                       and air quality Waste reduction and
system Public transport Integrated                                         water quality Biodiversity
 and connected parks system City                                       Leadership Efficient resource use
           connections                                                      Sustainable built form




                                      The City’s vision: Puri as a
                                      vibrant sustainable city
                                      with unique heritage and
                                             rich legacy




Inclusive and Engaging City                                           Innovative and Vital Heritage
  Community participation and                                             Tourism Business City
    involvement Social equity
                                                                      Knowledge city Entrepreneurial and
 Community services Cultural life
                                                                         innovative culture Corporate
    through the arts and sport
                                                                        Citizenship Centre for tourism
Management of residential areas A
                                                                         business and small/medium
  sense of place and identity The
                                                                         business growth and logistics
urban environment Tourism Major




  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                            -130 -
 Puri Municipality                                 Puri City Development Plan




12.3.Connected                             and
 Accessible City

 A ‘Connected City’ has local, regional,
 national and global connections. It
 has an integrated transport system
 with high levels of infrastructure to
 develop      strategic       alliances     and
 networks.     A     broad     definition    of
 ‘connection’       incorporates     physical
 links       through       transport        and
 communications         infrastructure       as
 well as the alliances through which
 sustainable       business    opportunities
 and the City’s social capital can be
 facilitated and enhanced.



 An ‘Accessible City’ has easy access
 to and within the City and key sites,
 and     provides      a      welcome       and
 supportive        environment       for     all
 citizens.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                     -131 -
Puri Municipality                                                            Puri City Development Plan


12.3.1.Strategic direction 1.1

Ensure that the City’s transport
infrastructure is world Tourism -
competitive and supports the Puri
economy,            whilst        minimizing          its
impact on local neighborhoods.



Promoting the City of Puri as the
‘gateway to Orissa costal tourism’ and                      Specific opportunities include:

ensuring         transport        infrastructure       is   o Direct Bus Services from Bhubaneswar Airport
well managed, efficient and competitive
                                                            o The transformation of Puri Railway Station into
will help us to draw on the City’s
                                                             a world class transport infrastructure
existing strengths and to position the
City        in      the         National         tourism    o Develop the Central City connected with tram
                                                             system
marketplace.              The      planning          and
management of this infrastructure must                      o Improve rail access to, and integration with,
be        undertaken        in     a      way      which     Bhubaneswar.
maximises            the        state’s       economic
                                                            o Develop regional rail links to other parts of the
potential whilst at the same minimising
                                                             State and enhance fast rail interstate links
potential          impacts        on      the      Puri’s
                                                            o Develop Double lane system of Rail Tracks
environment and communities.
                                                             between Puri – Bhubaneswar
Objectives
                                                            o Develop four lane systems with exclusive
o    Position Puri connected at the National                 bicycle and pedestrian path between Puri –
     and international level cities.                         Bhubaneswar
o    Ensure          continual            development,      o Improve minimisation of environmental impact
     improvement and integration of major
                                                             by transport.
     transport infrastructure so that the City
     of     Puri    is     recognised       as     having
     competitive         transport     that      supports
     business and tourism needs for rural,
     regional,      national      and      international
     markets

o    Enhance        links       between     Puri’s    key
     transport infrastructure, including road
     and rail network




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                   -132 -
Puri Municipality                   Puri City Development Plan




City Managers’ Association Orissa                       -133 -
Puri Municipality                                        Puri City Development Plan




12.3.2.Strategic direction 1.2

Build       international     relationships
that consolidate Puri’s Heritage city
role    and      promote     social     equity,
environmental quality and economic
prosperity.


Relationships          are         increasingly
important within the global marketplace
and for meeting the needs of Puri. The
City    has    the   opportunity      to    forge
significant international relationships.
Puri will work towards strengthening
cultural,     business      and     educational
partnerships with other cities, networks
and agencies internationally.

Objectives
                                                    Specific opportunities include:
o   Broaden            and          strengthen
    relationships     with   other     national
                                                    o•   Use   the   Nabakalabar      as     an
    and international cities
                                                     opportunity      to     create        new
o   Facilitate         knowledge             and
                                                     international links and relationships
    information        exchange        between
                                                    o • Use overseas tourism offices to
    businesses, the tertiary sector, and
                                                     connect Puri businesses with sources
    the       financial      and       creative
                                                     of international finance and enterprise
    communities
                                                    o Explore opportunities for partnership
o   Strengthen and develop long-term
                                                     under the Sister Cities, ASIA Urbs,
    strategic partnerships with Sister
                                                     Resource Cities etc.
    Cities,      Business     Partner       City
    Network       cities    and     other    key
    partners

o   Develop cultural and business links
    within    the    Asia-Pacific     region   /
    Europe /USA / Japan etc.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                -134 -
Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan


12.3.3.Strategic Direction 1.3

Ensure a sustainable and highly
integrated transport system services
the needs of the city and its people



An       integrated            transport         system
supports          the           City,          maintains
operational             efficiency            and      is
sustainable.           It     increases        transport
choice      for        users         and       improves
accessibility to better serve the needs of
residents, businesses and visitors.


                                                            Specific opportunities include:
Objectives
                                                            • Extend the bicycle network throughout
 o Increase            opportunities           for   City
                                                                the City to Marine Drive and other
     access       by        walking,     cycling     and
                                                                areas
     public transport.
                                                            • Develop pedestrian/cycle links across
 o Provide         for         an      efficient     and
                                                                the Sea front and River boundaries
     integrated         road        freight    transport
     system        that            reduces      negative    •     Develop      pedestrian/cycle     links
     environmental effects on residential                       between Temple area and Sea Beach,
     and public areas                                           Handicrafts village etc.

 o Improve the bicycle network and                          •    Further     develop   water    transport
     cycle facilities within the City                           systems along the River and sea

 o Develop a coordinated, accessible                        •    Introduce    a   consistent   pedestrian
     and    integrated              water      transport        oriented signage system
     system

 o Manage          the        City’s     car     parking
     supply       to        ensure       priority     for
     residential             car       parking       and
     affordable short-term car parking for
     visitors

 o Facilitate               accessible         transport
     options for people with a disability




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -135 -
    Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan


    12.3.4.Strategic direction 1.4

    Increase public transport services
    and use

    With over 50,000 people accessing the
    City daily, the City of Puri role would be
    seriously       undermined         without     an
    efficient and effective public transport
    system.

    Increasing use of the public transport
    system will improve the sustainability
    and liveability of the municipality.

    There are a number of ways to improve
    public    transport;      enhancing        service
    connections, frequency, quality, value
    for    money      and     area      of    service.   Specific opportunities include:
    Improvements       may      occur        via   the
                                                           o Upgrade Town Bus Services routes on
    targeted use of subsidies to increase
                                                             Bada Danda and adjoin areas.
    patronage,      infrastructure       extensions,
    better information for travellers and                  o Extend    public    transport     to    Konark,

    service     enhancements.           Cooperative          Raghuraj Puri etc

    partnerships will be required to achieve               o Improve the standard of facilities at
    this strategic direction.                                major areas.

    Objectives                                             o Enhance        transport        infrastructure

o         Improve    the    overall    convenience,          associated with the Rath Yatra

    quality, safety and patronage of public                o Modernize ticketing systems
    transport serving the City of Puri
                                                           o Improve     real-time   information       about
o         Ensure      major           entertainment,         public transport services
    recreation, retail and employment areas
                                                           o Improve       co-ordination       of     public
    are accessible by public transport
                                                             transport timetables
o         Enhance           public           transport
                                                           o Establish a rapid transit system to the
    infrastructure within the City, especially
                                                             Bhubaneswar and Berhempur area
    to Temple and Costal Areas
                                                           o Promote      Travel      Smart         programs
o         Ensure the public transport system
                                                             amongst city residents, visitors and
    adapts to the changing needs and
                                                             workers
    structure of the City and that serves the
    City twenty-four hours a day


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -136 -
Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan


12.3.5.Strategic direction 1.5                          • Increase the biodiversity within the City’s
                                                         open spaces
Enhance          the     network       of     Puri’s
                                                        • Improve      connections         between     Mathas,
Heritage        Site     (Matha      &      Ponds),
                                                         ponds, parks and open spaces for bikes,
parks and gardens to include a wide
                                                         pedestrian and people with disabilities
range of diverse landscaped areas
                                                        • Ensure parks are as safe as possible and
that      are    well     connected         to   the
                                                         accessible to all
community and reflect community
values                                                  • Manage all City parkland to provide a
                                                         balanced mix of active and passive leisure
Heritage Site, Parks and gardens are
                                                         facilities
one of the City’s defining elements and
contribute to Puri’s livability.                        • Ensure the diversity of users within the
                                                         carrying capacity and heritage framework
They are also a key component of the
                                                         of parkland so as not to compromise the
extensive         open       space          network
                                                         legacy for future generations
throughout the wider urban area. The
City’s     Mathas,        Ponds,     parks       and    • Provide      interpretative       and      awareness

gardens are significant for their heritage               programs       to        enable    heritage    to   be

features, horticultural value and for the                appreciated         by     all    members     of    the

leisure     and       recreation    opportunities        community

they provide. The park network provides
a range of open space environments,
from temples of the ancient era to the
parks of modern times.                                  Specific opportunities include:

Objectives                                                o Develop      Heritage          Walk      using    the
                                                            important sites
• Manage the City’s park network as the
 central        component      of    Puri’s      park     o Enhance      landscaping         and     recreational
 network                                                    access along the River belts

• Ensure        no     net   loss    of     publicly      o Pursue potential for use of Puri’s open
 available open space                                       space for recreational opportunities

• Identify new opportunities within a                     o Extend/enhance Gandhi Park to provide a
 needs analysis that recognizes access,                     Sea view frontage
 proximity, ethnicity and diversity of                    o Integrate Athar nala with other River
 the open space systems                                     programmes network with surrounding
• Protect       the    heritage     attributes     of       areas
 Mathas and ponds




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -137 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan


12.3.6.Strategic direction 1.6

Improve connections between Bada
Danda, the temple area, the River
belts, Sea front and other key City
attractions
Physical and visual barriers presently
restrict    movement         and     integration
within parts of the City. As major
developments         and      City’s       urban
structure    changes       over    time,   it    is   Specific opportunities include:
essential that connections and links are                o Improve image of Seafront
developed. Within the City of Puri, Bada
                                                        o Enhance     links      to   Museums,
Danda, the temple area, the River belts,
                                                          Temples, Mathas, Ancient Tanks.
Sea front all require attention.
                                                        o Develop open air ampi theater near
Objectives
                                                          to sea beach
o Improve          links      between           the
                                                        o Build     World         class      Puri
  recreational        and         entertainment
                                                          International Convention Centre
  attractions in the River corridor and
  sea beach                                             o Enhance directional signage for
                                                          key City attractions
o Integrate Seafront with the Central
  City and surrounding areas through
  enhanced connections and design.

o Ensure     the    City’s   pedestrian         and
  transport infrastructure connects and
  links key sites, places and activities,
  including Seafront and Badadanda,
  with the Central City




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         -138 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri     City    Development
Plan




12.3.7.Indicators for a Connected and Accessible City

The City’s progress will be measured against the following indicators:




What      we       want    to Indicators                                        Desired Direction
monitor

Tourist inflow                   Increase in tourism arrival and expenditure




Transport Mode                   Number of people that access the City for
                                 work purposes via automobile


Transport Mode                   Number of people that access the City for
                                 work

                                 purposes by either walking or cycling

Transport Mode                   Number of people that access the City for
                                 work

                                 purposes using public transport

Public Open Space                Total area (Ha.) of Public Open Space in the
                                 municipality

Pedestrian       and   Cycling   % of Puri residents walking and cycling to
connections in Puri City         the Central City




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -139 -
 Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan


12.4.Innovative Heritage Tourism
 Business City

 An ‘Innovative City’ means promoting Puri
 as a smart, creative and progressive city.
 Innovation     is    critical   to    the    continued
 development and prosperity of the City. A
 ‘Vital    Heritage     Tourism       Business         City’
 ensures business development, job growth
 and enhancement of gateway infrastructure.



 Puri’s success as a global city will rest on its
 reputation for innovation and its open-minded
 and      sophisticated     approach         to     change.
 Specializing    and      innovating    in        fields   of
 competitive and comparative advantage, such
 as    food   manufacturing,      cultural         tourism,
 biotechnology, health, finance, information and
 communications         technologies,        multimedia,
 tertiary education, arts, retail, environmental
 and creative industries will advance Puri.

 In order to be globally competitive in knowledge
 sectors, Puri will need a highly skilled, qualified
 and motivated workforce, as well as a capacity
 to respond quickly to change, and an urban
 environment that is recognised internationally
 as safe, attractive and highly livable.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -140 -
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan


12.4.1.Strategic direction 2.1                                 • Enhance and promote the City’s
                                                                 liveability and lifestyle options,
Increase        Puri’s         performance            and        including its affordable, high quality
recognition as an international, Tourist                         housing and educational centres
                                                                 and its rich and diverse culture, as
Centre and competitive ‘knowledge city’
                                                                 some of the particular benefits of
The convergence of economic globalisation and                    conducting business in the City
the   information    technology         revolution    has
transformed business and given rise to a
knowledge based economy. Our capacity to
cultivate and apply knowledge is critically
important     because     it   will     drive   economic     Specific opportunities include:

development in the City through the creation of                o Develop Bio Park key centres for the
new tourism products, education and services.                    commercialisation     of   medical        and
                                                                 biotechnology research
Leading up to 2030, the City of Puri will build
on    its   competitive    strengths       in   Tourism,       o Support the development of emerging
                                                                 digital design technologies and skills
biotechnology,             information                and
                                                                 near to Raghurajpur Heritage Village.
communications       technology,          environmental
                                                               o Support the development of a tourist
management,       handicrafts         industries      and
                                                                 Village near to Sea beach.
tertiary education services.
                                                               o Develop      International       Standard
The quality of the urban environment is also                     Convention       Centre    for    business
critical to the City’s future as a ‘knowledge                    tourist.
city’. A clean, green, safe and liveable city will             o Develop near bi areas in Marin Drive
attract     investment    and     business       in   the        as gate way to World Class University
knowledge based economy.                                         to strengthen Puri as a Knowledge
                                                                 City.
Objectives                                                     o Expand tertiary education services
                                                                 and facilities
 •    Develop Puri as a major centre                   for
      Tourism in Orissa and in India.
 •    Support   gateway           for      international
      business meet.
 •    Promote strategic growth in the City’s
      tertiary education and tourism services
 •    Develop and promote the City as a place
      that understands, respects and operates
      successfully with other business cultures
 •    Develop and promote the City’s diverse
      and highly skilled workforce regionally,
      nationally and globally to attract global
      Tourist and Business Delegates


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                 -141 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan


12.4.2.Strategic direction 2.2                     o Develop globally competitive, sustainable
                                                    industry and business clusters
Foster a civic and business culture
                                                   o Attract and develop a pool of domestic and
that encourages entrepreneurship
                                                    international venture capitalists
and innovation

Puri must continue to enhance its
capacity for innovation. Developing a
strong educational base and a culture of
sharing ideas will significantly improve
the   City’s     global     reputation       for    Specific opportunities include:
innovation.
                                                    o Develop and implement a ‘Puri
Information exchange and networking
                                                    o Innovation Statement’ to foster creativity
are keys to the City’s competitiveness in
                                                      and innovation
the global market: sharing knowledge,
resources     and     infrastructure      across    o Pursue start-up innovative enterprises,
educational      institutions,      hospitals,        forums and projects that demonstrate
research institutes, industry, the arts               Puri’s creative capabilities
and the service and finance sectors                 o Demonstrate      and      promote       Puri’s
must be promoted to ensure ideas are                  sustainable and innovative capabilities
taken from ‘mind to market’.                          through projects and events such as the
                                                      Rath Yatra Festival
Objectives
                                                    o Pursue start-up innovative enterprises,
o Develop partnerships to promote a
                                                      forums and projects that demonstrate
 culture of innovation in all sectors of
                                                      Puri’s creative capabilities
 Puri’s life and business
                                                    o Promote       collaboration           between
o Increase the competitiveness of City
                                                      education, research and development
 businesses      by    developing      strategic
                                                      establishments      and        the    finance
 alliances     with    tertiary   institutions,
                                                      communities
 research             and         development
 organisations and training institutions            o Recognise and reward excellence in the
                                                      Puri business community
o Promote the commercial application of
 Puri’s research and development

o Identify    and     develop     early    stage
 technologies and innovations that will
 establish a competitive advantage for
 the City




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -142 -
    Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan


    12.4.3.Strategic direction 2.3

    Promote and extend the City’s role as
    Orissa’s principal centre for Tourism
    business and trade

    The City of Puri provides expertise and
    specialist    services   including       tourism,
    professional and business services. These
    sectors contribute to the Puri’s value
    chain and help maintain the international
    and   inter-regional     competitiveness       of
    tourist destination.

    The tourism services sector is the largest
    employer in the City. Tourism sector play
    a vital role in the economic development of
    the City and Orissa.

    Growth in exports is of vital importance to
    the City and State. Puri is well positioned
    to promote and facilitate export growth in
    targeted sectors.

    Objectives

o    Build       the    City's    capabilities     in
                                                        Specific opportunities include:
    professional,      business     and       tourism
    services                                             o Develop       and      promote          Puri’s
                                                           competitive    advantages        in   tourism
o    Expand the City’s share of tourism
                                                           resources
    business support services
                                                         o Work with the education and private
o    Attract new investment in tourism sector
                                                           sectors to facilitate new investment in
o    Expand the City’s Tourism image as                    education facilities
    international business and trade activity
                                                         o Encourage a strong market for high
o    Facilitate     export   growth     in   targeted      quality office space
    business sectors
                                                         o Develop a Puri Business and Trade
o    Facilitate     clustering    and   information        Development         Plan    to        promote
    exchange between sector participants to                opportunities for tourism
    increase the critical mass of existing
    businesses         and   to     attract      new
    participants.


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -143 -
    Puri Municipality                                     Puri City Development Plan


    12.4.4.Strategic direction 2.4

    Develop and sustain a world-class
    retail experience within the City

    The City’s Business areas offers a
    diverse range of external and internal
    shopping and leisure environments, and
    its buildings and streetscapes reflect the
    history and heritage of the City of Puri.

    The City’s Business Area’s proximity to
    cultural institutions, parks, sporting
    facilities,      entertainment      venues,
    universities, and tourism facilities make
    it a unique resource.

    Objectives

o     Enhance the city business areas as
    the    State’s     preeminent      shopping,
                                                   Specific opportunities include:
    cultural, entertainment and business
    precinct                                       o Upgrade the VIP Street Mall to be a
                                                    world-class    pedestrian       and    retail
o     Facilitate         significant        new
                                                    space
    refurbishment and/or redevelopment of
    the Retail areas major attractors and          o Strengthen pedestrian links in the
    public spaces                                   Business Areas between Bada Danda,
                                                    Sea front area, and the VIP Road
o     Establish an effective and sustainable
    precinct management        structure that      o Revitalise major Street as a retail and
    provides strong leadership and is at the        lifestyle   avenue    by    improving      its
    forefront of world class standards and          design and retail mix
    practices                                      o Support improvements in amenity,
                                                    access and safety around emerging
                                                    retail locations

                                                   o Integrate new complementary retail
                                                    development        with   the   City   retail
                                                    experience




    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -144 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan


12.4.5.Indicators for Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City

The City’s progress will be measured against the following indicators:

What      we     want     to Indicators                                       Desired Direction
monitor
Driving Economy Sectors        Growth in and retention of the City’s
                               priority Tourism sectors



Education                      Total   enrolments    in    major    school,
                               colleges and Universities


Centre for Tourism and         Net growth in tourist inflow and use of
trade                          office floor space in the City


Strength of the Business       Business Areas vacancy rates
Areas


Visiting Museums               Number visitors visiting Museums




Heritage Visitor               Number visitors visiting Heritage sites




Tourist Inflow                 Increase in number of Tourist




Income generation              Income generation through heritage /
                               tourism activities



Income                         Increase in Temple Income




Heritage Income                Increase in Revenue Income through
                               Heritage site / property management /




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -145 -
 Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan




12.5.Inclusive and Engaging City

 An ‘Inclusive City’ welcomes and enables all
 people to participate fully in City life.
 Population,     housing,          services,      social
 inclusion     and   liveability     are   important
 elements of this theme.

 An    ‘Engaging     City’    is     attractive     and
 stimulating place in which to live, work and
 visit with a high level of cultural vibrancy
 and   creativity.     It    supports      the     arts,
 recreation,     cultural     heritage,        events,
 festivals,    services,     sport      and       street
 activities for the greater benefit of the
 community.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                             -146 -
    Puri Municipality                                                             Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.1.Strategic direction 3.1                                o     Embrace     and     accommodate        cultural
                                                                      diversity
    Welcome and facilitate all sectors of                         o     Promote a healthy, active and involved
    the community to participate in City                              civic society
    life                                                          o     Build on and create a city environment
                                                                      that promotes participation in, and the
    An environment that empowers and
                                                                      expression of, the City’s various cultures
    fosters        community            involvement         and
                                                                  o     Create a city environment where the
    builds social and community networks                              community feels safe and comfortable and
    is     essential       to      the    City’s      future.         that stimulates cultural activity and vibrancy
    Understanding,                  welcoming               and   o     Create diverse public spaces and leisure
    embracing all sectors of the community                            facilities to provide for the needs of the City’s
    is important to enable all to participate                         diverse communities (for example, children,
                                                                      young people, residents and workers)
    fully     in    City        life.    High      levels    of
    participation in a city’s cultural life                       o     Promote strong civic culture and pride
                                                                      through the expression of ideas, discussion
    generate         a          sense         of     vitality,
                                                                      and critical debate
    attractiveness,                 liveability             and
    democracy. Importantly, participation in
    city life and an active and responsible
    civic culture are central to enhancing
    social capital.                                                     o Specific opportunities include:
    Puri life is greatly enriched by the                                o Use Puri Town Hall and other civic
    contributions of its indigenous peoples                               buildings as centres of civic life
    and from other diverse cultures and
                                                                        o Develop partnerships and strategies
    nationalities. The City of Puri celebrates
                                                                          to enrich the City’s social capital and
    the City’s and Orissa’s multiculturalism
                                                                          which     facilitate   the     increased
    by providing opportunities that foster
                                                                          participation of older people, children
    and support the diverse local culture
                                                                          and young people in community life
    and encourages participation.
                                                                        o Develop strategies which encourage
    Physical settings invite participation in
                                                                          increased participation of people from
    public life and provide the venues where
                                                                          culturally and linguistically diverse
    people can meet, engage and connect,
                                                                          communities
    and     express        their        own     identity.    A
    creative,       safe        and       vibrant      street           o Investigate the provision of aged care

    environment            helps         to     create       an           facilities and a children’s centre at

    engaging and exciting city.                                           Sea beach areas

    Objectives

o      Increase participation in the cultural
    life of the City


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                      -147 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


12.5.2.Strategic Direction 3.2                         o Encourage the development of accessible
                                                        housing opportunities throughout the
Encourage social equity, inclusion and                  City;
wellbeing
                                                       o Encourage activities which contribute to
Social      cohesion      and   collaboration    are    the development of an inclusive and
critical for people, communities and cities             engaging      place     for     all    people       and
to prosper and grow in a sustainable way;               communities in the municipality
economically,                socially            and
                                                       o Encourage opportunities for the City’s
environmentally.
                                                        diverse    people      and      communities           to
Social equity implies fair access to the                access housing, services and facilities to
resources of the City and it enables                    assist     their      contribution           to     the
diverse groups to fully participate in the              community
political      and     cultural      life   of   the
                                                       o Improve the accessibility of City services
community.
                                                        and facilities by providing signage and
A City where all people are treated with                services    that      are     user     friendly      for
respect,      interest,    dignity   and    concern     international and local audiences.
leads to more cohesive and collaborative
                                                       o Minimise the adverse social impacts of
communities. It also fosters openness,
                                                        new development.
creativity,          entrepreneurialism          and
ingenuity.

It is important that there is a diversity of
housing types and tenures throughout the                  Specific opportunities include:
City to provide for people’s changing                     o Create opportunities for Indigenous
housing needs over their lifecycles. There                 arts    and        culture         programs        to
is a need for low-cost accommodation and                   acknowledge the past, recognise the
social housing to be retained in the City to               present,        and         support            future
meet the needs of low to moderate income                   aspirations.
households        which      contribute     to   our
                                                          o Engage     communities            in   arts     and
diverse communities and encourage social
                                                           cultural    development,            encouraging
equity and inclusion. The Inner City Social
                                                           opportunities for marginal and high
Housing Trust been established to provide
                                                           needs groups.
a financial and management vehicle to
extend social housing stock in Puri.                      o Develop        and         implement             an
                                                           Indigenous         Social     and       Economic
Objectives
                                                           Development Strategy
o Ensure that the development industry is
  well informed of housing needs and
  affordability issues in the municipality



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -148 -
Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan


12.5.3.Strategic direction 3.3                                  Objectives

                                                            o     Meet the diverse needs of City residents,
Deliver and provide access to facilities
                                                                workers, students and visitors by providing a
and services to support those living in,
                                                                range of affordable and equitable services
visiting, and working in the City
                                                                and facilities
Services and facilities that adequately
                                                            o     Ensure that City assets and services are
serve the working, visiting, student and
                                                                responsive to the changing demands of
residential population include education,
                                                                residents, workers, students and visitors to
family health facilities, children’s services,
                                                                the City
library   and        information        services     and
community          support        for     the    socially   o     Encourage the development of services
disadvantaged.           Sporting,        leisure    and        commensurate with a city and its function
recreation facilities need to serve people of               o     Achieve and promote a high standard of
all abilities across the community to                           environmental health
achieve      community-wide               health     and
                                                            o     Support the location and contribution of
wellbeing.
                                                                public institutions, including art galleries,
As the residential population changes and                       libraries, educational institutions, museums
grows over time, and given the status of a                      and associated public education programs in
Heritage City, role and high daily visitation                   the City
levels,     it      is    important         that     the
                                                            o     Improve the accessibility of City services
community’s needs are monitored on an
                                                                and   facilities       by     providing       signage     and
ongoing     basis        and     that   services     and
                                                                services        that        are        user-friendly       for
facilities adapt and change.
                                                                international and local audiences
Similarly, the needs of City workers and
visitors are becoming increasingly complex
                                                                 Specific opportunities include:
as    changing            demographic            patterns
                                                                 o Establish a community health care centre in the
influence        lifestyles.     Access     to    quality
                                                                   ward level
supermarkets,            local    shops,        childcare
                                                                 o Maintain accreditation as a Safe City with the
centres, schools and medical facilities are                        World Health Organisation
becoming necessary within the City. These
                                                                 o Sustain the City Local Learning and Employment
services are particularly important in new                         Network
residential       areas     and     neighbourhoods               o Improve facilities for young people, children and
where there are high proportions of short-                         their   families,    the     aged    and   people    with
term residents, and in areas where stable                          disabilities

networks are harder to establish.                                o Work with other government, non-government
                                                                   and     private     sector     organisations   to    plan
                                                                   coordinate and improve service provision




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                             -149 -
    Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.4.Strategic direction 3.4

    Promote, celebrate and further develop
    the City of Puri as a culturally rich
    capital city which encompasses its key
    strengths in art and sport

    Culture is broader than simply the arts and
    sport — it is essentially a way of life, a
    celebration of the community and forms
    part of the City’s cultural identity. Council’s
    facilities and resources for arts and sports
    are the best in India.

    Recognition of, and support for the arts and
    cultural community are essential. Puri is
    increasingly recognised by regional, national             Specific opportunities include:
    and    international        communities        as    a
                                                              o Encourage      programs       that   support
    destination renowned for its sporting and
                                                               cultural and arts development within
    recreational facilities and its appreciation of
                                                               the City
    the arts including art in the public domain.
                                                              o Encourage artistic expression and
    Objectives
                                                               activities in the City’s public spaces.
o    Continue to build and develop the strong
                                                              o Develop cultural activities/programs
    cultural   identity    of    the    City   and      its
                                                               associated           with      the       2012
    communities
                                                               Nabakalabar
o    Nurture, facilitate and further develop the
                                                              o Continue to develop Waterfest as a
    City’s arts industry and community
                                                               celebration     of    Puri’s    reconnection
o    Support Puri as a hub of diverse arts and                 with its waterways
    cultural activity
                                                              o Build   Arts    Integration     Project   to
o    Support and encourage cultural activity                   provide a new recital hall and theatre
    within the public domain                                   for the Puri Theatre on the corner of
o    Promote     and      further       develop     Puri’s     River belt.
    renowned     capabilities      as    the      sporting
    capital of Orissa




    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -150 -
Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan


12.5.5.Strategic direction 3.5                                   Objectives

                                                             o    Increase housing densities and the
Enhance the liveability and diversity of
                                                                 number of dwellings throughout the City
local areas
                                                                 in a sensitive and sustainable manner
Around half of the City of Puri’s housing
                                                             o    Ensure new residential developments
growth over the past four years occurred in
                                                                 contribute to the social and physical
the Central City and Seafront; in 2004 the
                                                                 infrastructure of the City
Central City, and the Seafront                       had a
combined              residential             population     o    Provide a level of residential amenity in
representing 60 per cent of the City of Puri’s                   the Central City commensurate with a
overall        population.       Apartments            now       vibrant and active twenty-four hour city
comprise 10 per cent of total dwellings in                   o    Develop the culture and identity of
the City.                                                        local      communities            and      emerging
The growth in housing and population is set                      neighbourhoods
to continue. By 2011, the City is expected to
accommodate           some       30,000        additional
dwellings,       accommodating             around      One
Lakh      people.     Growth         in    dwelling    and
                                                                    Specific opportunities include:
population       numbers        that      preserves    the
valued characteristics of local areas and                           o Development           areas    will    provide

adds      to    the    liveability,        sustainability,               residential        accommodation         for

diversity and prosperity of the City is                                  2,00,000 people

necessary.                                                          o Investigate            opportunities        for

Ensuring the City’s residents have access to                             provision of residential community

appropriate           social          and        support                 facilities    in    new    high     density

infrastructure is essential to creating a                                residential development.

residential environment that is secure and
that enables the community to become
settled and to establish networks. The City’s
established local areas are known for their
livability and diversity. Residential growth
areas       such      as       the        Seafront     and
Development Areas present opportunities to
create new local areas that embrace similar
qualities. Making the City safe for residents
and managing noise is also important.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                        -151 -
    Puri Municipality                                                       Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.6.Strategic direction 3.6                              o    Provide and maintain a variety of quality
                                                                    parklands and informal public spaces to
    Protect and promote Puri’s distinctive                          meet the passive and active recreational
    physical        character        and        ensure     it       needs of the community
    continues to develop a strong sense of
                                                                o    Reinforce and extend the role of public
    place and identity
                                                                    sculpture, monuments and artworks in
                                                                    creating landmarks and a sense of place
    The City’s public spaces make up its                            and identity in the City
    physical framework/structure and create
    a     setting    for    people,       activities     and
    buildings. The quality of the City’s public                      Specific opportunities include:
    and built environment and its parks,
                                                                     o Extend    the    City’s   street   grid,
    gardens etc are one of Puri’s greatest
                                                                       streetscape and urban form from
    attributes. The existing form and new
                                                                       Temple areas into Seafront, especially
    gardens in sea front of Puri, which is
                                                                       through the Narow lanes
    enhanced by the Gandhi Park and narrow
    lanes located in the City, contribute to the                     o Create a new ring road along the sea

    City’s    character.          These     features,      in          front an approach to the City.

    conjunction       with        the     City’s      people,        o Enhance the boulevard appearance of
    cultural life and public art, combine to                           VIP Street between Victoria Street
    create    a unique        sense        of   place    and           and main roads
    identity.
                                                                     o Revitalize the appearance of Grand
    Puri’s sea beach, parks and gardens                                Road with unique colour of Lord
    provide a range of passive and active                              Jagannatha
    recreational opportunities. As the City’s
    population increases and public spaces
    are      used          more         frequently,      the
    maintenance and enhancement of these
    spaces becomes more important.

    Objectives

o       Protect, value and respect the cultural,
    natural, heritage and built form of the City
    and its diverse neighbourhoods

o       Reinforce the City’s diverse built form,
    especially the dominance of the Bada
    Danda




    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -152 -
    Puri Municipality                                                        Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.7.Strategic direction 3.7                                 improve       links    between       key     sites     and
                                                                   activities within the City and near by cities
    Enhance the quality of the existing                            like Bhubaneswar, Konark etc.
    public      and    private     built    form       and
                                                               o    Recognise the distinctive character and
    further      develop        the      City     as     an
                                                                   built     form        of     the     City’s         diverse
    exemplary urban environment
                                                                   neighbourhoods             and     complement         their
    The City’s urban fabric is constantly                          architecture, scale and character in new
    changing with new developments and                             developments
    redevelopments           affecting      the        built
                                                               o    Ensure that the urban form and physical
    environment        and      public      realm.       To
                                                                   layout of the City facilitates both pedestrian
    maintain and enrich the City’s distinctive
                                                                   and bicycle access in and around the City
    urban character, it is important to achieve
    positive outcomes in all areas of the City’s               o    Ensure that the ‘leafy nature’ of the City is
    urban environment — design of private                          maintained and enhanced through more
    developments and public spaces, parks                          vegetation within the city and seafront and
    and gardens, infrastructure provision and                      the built environment
    maintenance of civil infrastructure assets.                o    Enhance and develop areas of open and
    The location and scale of development can                      public space throughout the City where
    also affect the City’s urban form, character                   people can safely gather, meet and interact
    and structure. The key is to ensure that                   o    Design public urban space and promote
    new developments add value to the overall                      activities that encourage people to visit and
    character of Puri, create an accessible,                       extend their time in the City
    safe,    inclusive       and      engaging     public
                                                               o    Ensure that          new development           is well
    environment, and provide high levels of
                                                                   designed for users and makes a positive
    public and private amenity.
                                                                   contribution to the public realm and City
    The cycle of change offers the opportunity                     environment
    to      incorporate       sustainable          design
                                                               o    Maximise solar access to key public spaces
    principles and treatments of built form.
    Development        not     only      needs    to     be    o    Facilitate redevelopment of key vacant sites
    sensitive     to      the         existing     urban           in the City
    environment (especially heritage assets)                   o    Identify creative uses of new spaces and
    but also needs to also make a positive                         opportunities to revitalise existing spaces
    contribution to Puri.

    Objectives

o    Continuously improve the urban design,
    amenity, safety and quality of the City’s
    public      environment,          particularly       its
    streets, laneways, parks and gardens and


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                         -153 -
    Puri Municipality                                                           Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.8.Strategic direction 3.8
                                                                   Specific opportunities include:
    Increase       urban,      rural,        national      and
                                                                   (Strategic direction 3.7)
    international tourism
                                                                   o New     public    spaces      along    the      River,
                                                                    including Atharnala, Mangala Nala etc,
    The City of Puri is a world class city with a
                                                                    Bridge
    vibrant and diverse range of attractions,
                                                                   o Enhance the City’s boulevards, especially
    events     and       lifestyles.    It    is    in    close
                                                                    along VIP Road, Grand Road and Seafront
    proximity to the many                    attractions of
                                                                    road
    Orissa.
                                                                   o Support          revitalisation        of,        and
    Tourism is a key component of Puri’s
                                                                    enhancements to, the public environment
    economy and is one of the Countries
                                                                    of the City’s eastern end
    fastest growing tourism destinations. The
    development and enhancement of tourist                         o Provide a prototype for sustainable office
    infrastructure, products and services and                       urban design to Govt Buildings
    optimising the operational environment for                     o Ensure that Sea Beach and Development
    all, are vital to the City’s future.                            areas      are     a    high        quality     urban
    Objectives                                                      environment

o     Increase the City’s share of the tourism                     o Implement an Urban Design Framework
    market                                                          for Development Areas

o     Enhance the City experience — the
    product,       its      quality,     diversity         and     Specific opportunities include:
    availability                                                   o Work with Govt of Orissa and India to
o     Increase       participation       in        the   City’s     setup the Puri Convention Centre, to
    cultural, entertainment and sporting life                       ensure Puri is the destination of choice in
                                                                    the global and national business market.
o     Foster and support tourism activity in
    areas     of     Puri      Konark         Development          o Support the redevelopment of the Heritage
    Authority as well as within the City’s                          sites, theaters, buildings, Show grounds to
    municipal boundaries                                            create an events and exhibition precinct
                                                                    which reinforces the link between rural
o     Support the development of tourism
                                                                    and urban Orissa.
    infrastructure,             including                visitor
    information                                                    o Develop and implement a Orissa Tourism
                                                                    Action Plan

                                                                   o Develop    a     network      of     high     quality,
                                                                    accessible and visible visitor information
                                                                    services and products.



    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                             -154 -
    Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan


    12.5.9.Strategic direction 3.9                         o    Maximise the flow-on effect of events and
                                                               festivals throughout the City
    Attract,      facilitate      and        maximise
                                                           o    Facilitate the provision of event facilities
    benefits     of    major    City       events   and
                                                               and encourage the staging of major city
    festivals
                                                               events and festivals in a range of public
                                                               spaces throughout the City
    Events and festivals not only increase                 o    Ensure that the community can access the
    visitation to the City, they also celebrate                range of events held in the City
    the community’s diversity and talents and
    increase     cultural      understanding        and
    awareness.        Events   and     festivals    help
                                                                Specific opportunities include:
    ensure the energy of the City’s cultural
    activity is evident on streets and in public                o The ongoing support of Puri Rath

    spaces,      and      make        an     important            Yatra

    contribution to the City’s economy.                         o Support    organiseing       Puri   Water

    The successful promotion of hosting and                       festival in its Rivers and Seashore

    delivery of the Rath Yatra will put Puri on                 o Organise national events of Sea Race
    the world stage and serve to strengthen
                                                                o Promote for hosting National Games
    and   promote       the    City    experience     to
                                                                  in Puri
    prospective visitors.

    Objectives

o    Position Puri nationally and globally as
    the events and festivals capital of Orissa
    and India by providing and supporting a
    diverse range of quality events year round

o    Enhance the quality and variety of
    sporting, recreational and entertainment
    events hosted in the City

o    Derive maximum long-term benefit for
    the City from key events

o    Provide a coordinated approach to the
    hosting of events within the City

o    Increase City visitation and improve
    public perception and enjoyment of the
    City through events and festivals




    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                             -155 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


12.5.10.Indicators for an Inclusive and Engaging City

The City’s progress will be measured against the following indicators:

What    we        want    to Indicators                                   Desired Direction
monitor
Participation                   Community        participation       in
                                cultural/art events




Civic Society                   % of residents that are part of a
                                community group or local club



Students                        Number of Students, living in the
                                city



Availability     of   Student   Growth    in   number    of   student
Housing                         hostels



Culture                         The number of art organisations
                                located in the City and their rate of
                                engagement


Population                      % growth in residential population




Residential Amenity             Number of noise complaints (per
                                nominal    head      of   population)
                                received by Pollution Control Board
                                in Puri
Sense of Place                  Perception of City's parks




Tourism industry                Number of hotel rooms and tourist
                                accommodation    and   occupancy
                                rates


City Users *                    Number of people visiting Puri for
                                tourism     from     international,
                                national, interstate and regional
                                areas




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -156 -
    Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan


12.6.Environmentally
    Responsive City

    An      ‘Environmentally          Responsive       City
    seeks to actively increase natural assets
    through        the   decisions     it    makes,     the
    development it chooses to pursue, and the
    benefits and impacts these have on the
    natural world.



    An environmentally responsible city:

o     contributes        to    the    stabilisation     and
    reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions;

o     has    air    that      does   not    create    health
    problems;

o     has water resources that are safe to drink,
    safe to swim in, and that support diverse
    aquatic life;

o     promotes efficient water use;

o     recovers, re-uses and generally minimizes
    the amount of natural resource use;

o     manages noise because its systems work
    efficiently and effectively;

o     maintains and supports its own biodiversity
    and in other areas; and

o     has a sustainable built form.




    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                              -157 -
Puri Municipality                                                            Puri City Development Plan


12.6.1.Strategic direction 4.1                              and fauna and the community’s quality of
                                                            life.
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
                                                            Objectives
promote        renewable           energy        and
maintain air quality in the City of                     o        Reduce greenhouse gas emissions within
Puri                                                        the City of Puri by 20 per cent by 2030
                                                            (based on 2008 levels)
Global climate change is caused by
increased levels of greenhouse gases,                   o        Achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions
such as carbon dioxide, methane and                         in the City of Puri by 2030
nitrous    oxide      in     the     atmosphere.        o        Develop, promote and support the uptake
Increases in greenhouse gas levels are a                    of      renewable      energy     to    increase      its
direct result of human actions, mainly                      availability and use in the City
fossil fuel combustion and vegetation
                                                        o        Increase      and     advocate       for     inter-
clearing. Changes in weather patterns,
                                                            governmental           action     to    enable        the
rising sea levels, loss of biodiversity and
                                                            development of sustainability projects
habitats, and impacts on agricultural
productivity    are    implications         of    the
                                                            Specific opportunities include:
‘greenhouse effect’. The utilisation of
renewable energy sources, such as solar                     o Establish best practice standards for

and wind power, reduces emissions that                           energy efficient designs for residential

contribute to the enhanced Greenhouse                            and commercial

Effect.    Further,        the     protection      of       o development in the City of Puri
existing vegetation and the revegetation
                                                            o Advocate         investment    in    and      use   of
of cleared land assists in the absorption
                                                                 renewable energy, especially wind power
of carbon dioxide. On a global scale,
                                                                 and solar power etc.
soils and vegetation absorb about 40
                                                            o Increase the City’s technological, legal
per cent of carbon dioxide emissions.
                                                                 and       financial   capacity     to      service
Human      activities,      particularly         from
                                                                 emissions trading regimes
industry, motor vehicle emissions and
                                                            o Develop international agreements with
domestic       wood          burning,            have
                                                                 cities,    businesses      and    organisations
increasingly impacted on air quality,
                                                                 which are capable of sequestering or
causing health risks for people. Some
                                                                 otherwise reducing the City’s greenhouse
forms of air pollution create global
                                                                 gas emissions
problems, such as upper atmosphere
ozone depletion, acid rain and the                          o Develop further business partnerships
enhanced greenhouse effect. Reducing                             with local businesses involved in energy
air quality impacts is important to                              reduction programs
ensure the future health of people, flora



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                        -158 -
    Puri Municipality                                                      Puri City Development Plan


o        Promote transport modes that help                   methane production, as well as significant
    reduce greenhouse gas emissions and                      water savings.
    enhance air quality
                                                             In addition, designing and managing our
o        Enhance the City’s and Puri Konark                  urban environment to minimise its impact
    Development Authority area’s carbon                      on the urban water cycle (from rain to rivers
    sink capacity                                            and bay to sky) and to maximise water
                                                             efficiency will assist in the reduction of water
o        Encourage and support the City’s
                                                             consumption,          reduce     stormwater      and
    businesses to adopt strategies to reduce
                                                             improve waterway quality, minimise waste
    greenhouse gas emissions
                                                             water and assist sustainable groundwater
o        Advocate monitoring and management
                                                             management.
    of air quality by the Orissa Pollution
    Control Board as per the international                   Objectives

    standards.                                           o    Create and maintain agency partnerships
                                                             to manage the quality of the City’s waterways
    12.6.2.Strategic direction 4.2

    Encourage improved water quality,                        Specific opportunities include:
    reduced      water      consumption            and       o Establish best practice standards in water
    sustainably manage waste in the City                       efficient     design     for     residential     and
    of Puri                                                    commercial development in the City
    Despite recycling greater volumes of                     o Develop and implement water conservation
    materials, the overall amount of waste                     measures      for    Municipal     Council’s     open
    we produce has increased. One of the                       spaces, trees and recreation facilities
    central      goals      of         environmental
                                                             o Assess the viability of a solid waste and
    sustainability is to reduce the amount
                                                               energy recycling facility operation within the
    of     resources     used     to    create     and
                                                               municipality
    consume       products        and     to     reuse
    materials more efficiently to minimise                   o Develop partnerships with construction and
    environmental impact.                                      demolition drive to encourage recycling and
                                                               reuse of demolition and construction waste
    The greatest environmental benefit from
    sustainable        production       and      waste       o Increase participation rates of the food
    management is not from savings in                          service sector in the food waste collection
    landfill space, but through resource                       service
    savings from the reuse and recycling of                  o Demonstrate the benefits of using recycled
    material     rather    than     manufacturing              water in urban settings
    new     products      from    additional       raw
                                                             o Develop River Catchment Strategy and
    materials.      Waste         reduction        and
    recycling    also     provides       savings    in       o intergovernmental       projects    such    as    the

    greenhouse gas emissions, by reducing                      Riverfront Development


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -159 -
    Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan


    and to manage stormwater                                   processes       and     natural    systems     and     to
                                                               preserve biodiversity. Further, although the
o     Improve the management of the City’s
                                                               City is highly urbanised and developed,
    water cycle and enhance the quality of
                                                               actions can be taken to preserve and extend
    waterways within the City
                                                               the     known         sites    containing      remnant
o     Promote      recycling       and      increased
                                                               indigenous vegetation. Green spaces and
    efficiencies in the use of resources,
                                                               corridors that connect habitats contribute to
    particularly water, in the City
                                                               maintaining and enhancing the biodiversity,
o     Achieve a 10% absolute reduction in                      amenity and well-being of the City. Waste
    total water use across the City by 2030                    management, water quality and treatment,

o     Close the waste loop by reducing the                     and energy use must also be considered for

    amount of waste to land fill                               their impact on biodiversity.

o     Increase          the         environmental
    knowledge,              commitment               and         Specific opportunities include:
    performance of the City’s business and                       o Complete construction and commission
    residential communities with respect to                          wetlands Park to contain and treat run-
    resource use                                                     off from the Puri city and to provide
o     Promote        recycling       and         waste               extended habitats
    minimization programs, particularly to                       o Use street tree planting to connect the
    the residential and commercial sector                            City’s Sea shore
o     Work in partnership with industry                          o Use planting to enhance the City’s
    and      government       to   reduce      use    of             habitat     potential,      whilst   protecting
    drinking     water       for    non        drinking              historic landscape character and other
    purposes.                                                        significant landscape features

    12.6.3.Strategic direction 4.3                               o Work with adjoining municipalities to
                                                                     identify and retain areas of remnant
    Protect      and    enhance          the     City’s
                                                                     vegetation      to   form    habitat    friendly
    biodiversity
                                                                     ‘corridors’
    Biodiversity is commonly defined as ‘the
                                                                 o Enhance         the       ecological    value     of
    variety of life, including the different
                                                                     waterways by maintaining catchment
    plants, animals and micro-organisms,
                                                                     planning across agencies
    the genes they contain, the population
    they live in and the ecosystem in which                    Objectives
    they form a part’.                                     o    Enhance the environmental values of Puri
    Whilst protecting heritage values, the                     Coastal areas, the river belts, lakes and
    City’s    park     system       also       provides        ponds which support a variety of plant and
    opportunities      to    maintain       ecological         animal life



    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                       -160 -
    Puri Municipality                                                         Puri City Development Plan


o     Promote the protection of the City’s                      to meet its sustainability goals and the
    natural land systems and waterways                          expectations of its community.
    through          agency     and          community
                                                                Objectives
    partnerships, information and activities
                                                            o    Demonstrate leadership at the national
o     Encourage        park,    open         space    and
                                                                and   international    levels     by    seeking    to
    rooftop greening, incorporating native
                                                                proactively     influence   the        sustainability
    vegetation planting where possible
                                                                agenda, particularly as it relates to local
o     In      appropriate      locations,        protect        government’s role
    existing landscape features on public
                                                            o     Demonstrate leadership to civic and private
    and private land which contribute to the                    organisations       through         improved
    City’s biodiversity and identity                            environmental performance

    12.6.4.Strategic direction 4.4                          o     Increase public awareness of sustainability
                                                                and ensure that the City’s natural capital is
    Demonstrate               and            encourage          enhanced by all of Municipal Council’s
    leadership in Sustainability                                policies, activities and works.

    Corporate attitudes and responses to                    o     Provide support and incentives for the
    social,    economic        and    environmental             City’s businesses to improve their Triple
                                                                Bottom Line performance
    responsibility have shifted significantly
    in recent years, as government bodies                   o     Use major and specific development
                                                                opportunities as showcases for sustainable
    and corporations come to appreciate the
                                                                communities and energy efficiency
    business case for sustainability.

    Further,          as      society         embraces
    sustainable            development                and
                                                                Specific opportunities include:
    management,               governments             are
                                                                o Build Sustainable Puri Fund to expand its
    increasingly       expected         to     influence
                                                                  profile as an exemplar of sustainable
    corporate behaviour to meet social,                           investment practice
    economic and environmental outcomes                         o Support   policy    development  at   all
    for the benefit of existing and future                        government levels that both promotes and
                                                                  ensures sustainability
    generations.
                                                                o Increase the proportion of renewable
    Managers, leaders, policy makers and                          energy used by organisations within the
                                                                  City
    program managers in the public and
    private sector have a vital role to play in                 o Establish initiatives on International
                                                                  Programmes for Sustainable Cities, in Puri
    assisting their organizations develop a
                                                                o Use the Business Partnership Cities
    culture     of    corporate      and      individual          Network and other business missions to
    social and environmental responsibility.                      profile  the    City’s   environmental
                                                                  management industry
    Leadership,       education,      accountability
    and transparency           are    some       of   the
    pathways that will be taken by Council

    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                     -161 -
    Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan


    12.6.5.Strategic direction 4.5                      Objectives

                                                    o    Encourage        adoption       of    sustainability
    Create a sustainable built form for
                                                        principles in the design and construction of
    the City
                                                        the City’s built form and actively engage with
    The City is heavily reliant on natural              other government tiers and the building
    resources for its sustauinance. The                 industry to achieve better performance with
    sustainable future of the City relies on            regard to ESD in building development
    development that enhances its natural
                                                    o    Advocate      for     the       incorporation        of
    assets     and      improves       ecological
                                                        ecologically sustainable design principles in
    processes to sustain life, and on the
                                                        new building and planning legislation and
    creation of a built environment that is
                                                        policies
    environmentally          responsible     and
    ecologically sensitive.

    Municipal Council is largely responsible
    for the development of public spaces
    and for development approvals in the                   Specific Opportunities include:
    City and therefore must ensure the built
                                                           o Manage       noise      levels     in      the
    form      is     sustainable.     Important
                                                             municipality          and         minimise
    components of ecologically sustainable
                                                             conflicts between residential and
    design (ESD) include:
                                                             non-residential uses
o    design of buildings and public space;
                                                           o Encourage       the   Puri       Convention
o    energy efficiency and orientation —                     Centre to be built to embrace
    lighting and passive solar design;                       environmentally sustainable design
o    energy use;                                           o Encourage       public    space      design
o    management         of    the   water   cycle            that demonstrates the adoption of
    (decreasing water use and increasing                     environmentally sustainable design
    reuse);                                                  principles

o    systems for minimising stormwater
    runoff;

o    planting and landscaping;

o    waste management systems (during
    construction and occupation);

o    accessibility;

o    flexibility and adaptability of buildings
    and space; and

o    noise management


    City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                -162 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



12.6.6.Indicators for an Environmentally Responsible City

The City’s progress will be measured against the following indicators:

What    we       want     to Indicators                                        Desired Direction
monitor
Air Quality                    The quality of the air getting better




Water Consumption              Change in the municipal wide consumption
                               of drinking water


Water Consumption              Kilolitres (kl) of rainwater storage capacity




Biodiversity                   Number of native bird species observed.




Green building                 Kilowatt (kw) hours of renewable energy
                               produced




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -163 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan




                                            13.Projects Identification

13.1.The Project Development

 Puri Municipality and its stakeholders identified Cities vision Puri as a vibrant sustainable
 city with unique heritage and rich legacy with healthy, sustainable future and celebrate
 its strengths as a vibrant, diverse City of natural beauty nestled around Lord Jagannath
 Temple and Seashore of Bay of Bengal and able to achieve our full potential through access
 to clean air, safe water and food, shelter, education, satisfying employment, spirituality and
 culturally by weigh of social, health, economic and environmental costs, benefits and risks
 equally when making decisions. Puri Municipal Council will work with all who have a stake in
 the City of Puri’s future to realize this vision and will simultaneously pursue:

       • Preservation of Heritage
       • Improvement of Environmental quality
       • Economic prosperity
       • Social equity.
 The path to achieving sustainability is long and will take many years to travel. However, by
 2030 the city believes to have taken many significant steps to bring many positive changes to
 the natural and physical environment, to the City’s culture, to the way it do business, and to
 value its community. Puri Municipal Council along with all stakeholders has adopted a set of
 strategic directions to realise this vision. These directions are organized around four themes:

 Theme 1 Connected and accessibility

 Theme 2 Environmentally Responsible City

 Theme 3 Inclusive and Engaging City

 Theme 4 Innovative Heritage Tourism Business City

13.2.Population Projection

 A critical factor in the estimating the future requirement of urban infrastructure for future
 planning, design and investment for a Heritage City like Puri is projection of population,
 Tourism and Area of city is important. The basis of projection is contingent on the following
 factors:

    o Past census population of the city;
    o Decadal growth and growth rates of the country, state and the city;
    o Population density pattern and availability of land for the future growth of the city;
    o Socio-economic characteristics and economic base along with employment generating
        potentials of the city;
    o Relative developmental characteristics of similar project areas;


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -164 -
  Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



     o Availability of resources to facilitate provision and delivery of services and facilities
     o Development (Master) Plan for the city considering the contextual issues stated and
        growth pattern of the city in terms of landuse and land availability for growth
        including proposed plans and potential for significant change in landuse (within
        project period/ design life);

     o Other factors - tourism, natural disasters etc.

  The impact of the above factors at different rates was considered while assuming the growth
  rate for population projection. Projection of future population for consideration in planning
  and design of urban infrastructure is performed employing various methods generally
  acceptable for urban planning and development related planning. The basis of selection of
  stages of projection of future population is listed below:

     Year of Study - 2006. Census Years - 2011, 2021, 2031, 2041, 2051,
     Design Stages - 2009 (Commissioning), 2024 and onward at 15-year intervals

  As Per CPHEEO guidelines and general construction practices, civil works/structures are
  designed for a nominal service life of 30-years and Mechanical/Electrical equipment for 15
  years. Therefore, design stages essentially reflect the period/duration for which projection is
  required to design the replacements, renewals and reconstruction activities. Projection of
  future population has been performed for the Vision period exceeding till 2051. The future
  population of Puri town is projected as mentioned in below table and graphs.

  Table 61:      Population Projection of Puri Municipality
  Year            Population                   Projected Population (in 000)
   1951              49,057
   1961              60,815
   1971              72,674
   1981             100,942
   1991             125,199
   2001             157,610
   2011                                                   200.38
   2021                                                   254.28
   2031                                                   322.67
   2041                                                   409.47
   2051                                                   519,63


13.3.Project Identification & Prioritisation

  The projects identification has been done based on the VISION identified by the Municipal
  Council through various detailed stakeholders consultation and discussion with various
  levels of Govt. Utmost concern is given Puri as Heritage city and all its projects must linked
  the development heritage and must benefit poorest of the Poor in the city.

  The stakeholders of the city combined its all projects for the Mission to ensure that city come
  up as a international Heritage city as desired in its vision. All stakeholders are committed to


  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -165 -
Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



implement respective projects in a combined effort. The projects were shared by various
stakeholders including Puri Municipality, Shri Jagannath Temple Trust, Orissa Tourism
Development Corporation, Department of Tourism / Culture / Handicrafts, District
Administration, National Highway Authority and Works Department etc. Similarly, like a
share vision stakeholders have taken responsibility of various projects to overcome financial
and institutional issues of the city. Some of the activities and institution includes:

Table 62:       Institutional Activities in Puri CDP
Areas                                   Institutions
Heritage Preservation and               Shri Jagannath Temple Administration,
Promotion                               Archaeological Survey of India, State Archaeology
Heritage Promotional Infrastructure Puri Municipality
Awareness Campaign                      Shri Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri
                                        Municipality
City Level Infrastructure               Puri Municipality, PHED, Works Department etc
Slum Development                        Puri Municipality
Tourism Infrastructure                  Orissa Tourism Development Corporation /
                                        Department of Tourism
Disaster Management                     Puri Municipality, District Administration
Promotion of Handicrafts                Department of Industries
The following are the projects identified by the stakeholders to meet the VISION of the city.
The stakeholders’ consultation helped the consulting team to identify key projects for the city.
After several rounds of discussion all chiefs of the stakeholders organisation of the city met
on 15th of May 15 2006 to finalise the projects to posed under the Jn NURM. The projects
derived based on ensuring optimal and efficient utilisation of existing infrastructure systems.
The developmental projects include projects viz. heritage development, bicycle path, system
modernisation, river conservation etc. The projects are bradly categorised under the following
categories and each category were explained below in details.

Table 63:     Identified Projects for Puri City under Jn NURM
  Sl.No    Sector                                  Projects
 A        Heritage Preservation
 1                    Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas / Monasteries and other Built
                      Heritage
 2                    Preservation of ancient and sacred Water Bodies

 3                    Preservation of Community Owned Jagaghara, sacred water bodies
                      and immovable heritage

 4                    Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha temple
 5                    Upgradation & Development of the Heritage Garden (42acre )of Shri
                      Jagannatha Temple at Jagannatha Balav Matha

 6                    Development of Parikrama around Shri Jaganath Temple and Shri
                      Gundicha Temple complexes
 7                    Development of Parikrama around Shri Gundicha Temple complexes
 8                  Landscaping around Heritage area
 9                  Development of Swargadwar
 10                 Heritage Awareness IEC
 11                 Sea and River front Development
 B        Heritage Promotional Infrastructure
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                        -166 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



  Sl.No    Sector                                  Projects
 1
                     Security Measures in Shri Jagannath Temple and Heritage Places
 2                   Viewing Tower for Foreign Tourists
 3                   Development of Bicycle Lanes and Pedestrian Network
 4                   Development of Heritage Circuits
 5                   Divine Discourse Convention Centre
 6                   Construction of Night Shelters (for 10000 Pilgrims)
 7                   Urban Hatt & Amphitheater
 8                   Heritage Gateway & Interpretation Centre
 9                   Street Furniture, City Beautification (signage,        traffic   lights,
                     landscaping, etc)
 10                  Provision of Public Toilets near Heritage Sites
 11                  Water Supply
 12                 Major Roads / Bridges / Flyovers
 13                 Inner City Revitalization
 C        City Level Infrastructure
 1                  Street lighting
 2                   Municipal Roads
 3                   Subways
 4                   Sewerage
 5                   Development of Storm Water Drain System
 6                   Social Infrastructure
 7                   Animal Protection
 8                   Slaughterhouse & Ghosala
 9                   Upgradation of Town Hall
 D        Basic Services to Urban Poor
 1                   Housing & Infrastructure
 2                   Livelihood Support Programme
 3                   Economic Opportunity Complex
 4                   Social Amenities (Community Toilets, Halls etc)
 E        Environment Infrastructure
 1                Urban Forestry
 2                Environment Monitoring Infrastructure
 3                Solid Waste Management
 F        Tourism Infrastructure
 1                  Dev. of Bus & Truck Terminus
 2                  Development of Parking Lots
 3                  Development of Heritage (Urban) Villages
 4                  Beach Cleaning Mechanism
 5                  Tourism Information Centre
 6                  Eco Friendly Tourist Vehicle
 7                   Capacity Building & Database Dev. Information System
 8                   Water Sports & Maritime Aquarium & Museum
 9                 International Convention Centre
 G        Urban Governance
 1                 e-Governance
 2                   Capacity Building


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -167 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan



  Sl.No     Sector                                Projects
 3                     Disaster Management Mechanism
 4                     Research & Development


13.3.1.Preservation of heritage Project

Among above identification 9 projects are identified for the purpose of Preservation of
Heritage in Puri. These projects includes Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas /
Monasteries and other Built Heritage, Preservation of ancient and sacred Water Bodies,
Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha temple, Up gradation & Development of the Heritage
Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannath Temple at Jagannath Balav Matha, Development of
Parikrama around Shri Jaganath Temple and Shri Gundicha Temple complexes, Landscaping
around Heritage area, Development of Swargadwar, Heritage Awareness IEC, Security
Measures in Shri Jagannath Temple and Heritage Places. Each project with its justification is
explained below.

     Sector                Projects           Justification

 Heritage
 Preservation

                     Preservation        of   There are around 200 temples, bridges and built
                     ancient       temples,   Heritage located within the city limits which
                     Mathas              /    require immediate attention.
                     Monasteries       and    These date back to a period from C.AD 8th
                     other Built Heritage     Century to late 19th Century.

                                              The city has around 387 old Mathas and 4
                                              Ashrams.     These    Matha    and   Ashrams   need
                                              immediate         structural    conservation       and
                                              revitalization.

                                              Besides Puri has other built heritage like colonial
                                              buildings, buildings built by feudatory rulers, old
                                              Dharmsalas, etc.

                                              Puri been also a centre of ancient learning and
                                              one finds a Sanskrit University, very old Sanskrit
                                              College, Aurvedic College, along with provision
                                              and patronage provided by certain Mathas for
                                              Sanskrit learning

                     Preservation        of   There are five important sacred water bodies,
                     ancient and sacred       dating back to the ancient times, found in the
                     Water Bodies             city. These water bodies have very important
                                              ritual connection with the Jagannath temple and

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -168 -
Puri Municipality                                                     Puri City Development Plan




     Sector                  Projects           Justification

                                                interesting legends behind them.

                                                Rehabilitation of these water bodies by renovation
                                                of the banks, desalting, treatment of the water
                                                and    rejuvenating      the     sources        along   with
                                                development of the Ghats for renewed Heritage
                                                related activities.

                                                Re-development of area adjoining water bodies for
                                                community use i.e. paved walkway, area lighting,
                                                compound      wall/fencing,       access     control       and
                                                landscaping

                    Heritage      Museum        Shri Gundicha temple is an important component
                    inside               Shri   in the Puri Heritage system. During the Rath
                    Gundicha temple             Yatra festival Jagannath trinity comes this ancient
                                                shrine for a short sojourn. Rest of the year scores
                                                of visitors regularly visit this place for its special
                                                Heritage character.

                                                In order to develop the complex for promotion of
                                                Heritage tourism. It is proposed to organize a
                                                museum depicting the legends and Heritage of
                                                Jagannath and Puri.

                    Up       gradation     &    There is a garden, related to Lord Jagannath
                    Development of the          located inside Jagannath Ballava Math premises.
                    Heritage           Garden   It covers an area of 42 acre and has rare plants
                    (42acre      )of     Shri   and   medicinal       herbs    along     with    prescribed
                    Jagannath          Temple   flowering plan used in daily rituals of Lord
                    at Jagannath Balav          Jagannath. This Garden dates back to 16th
                    Matha                       Century.

                                                It is proposed to develop this garden along with its
                                                Heritage   character      and    further     enhance        its
                                                important as a Heritage tourist spot by proper
                                                landscaping, provides pathways and enriched the
                                                present plantation.

                    Development            of   Both the Jagannath temple and Shri Gundicha
                    Parikrama          around   temple     have     prakara      walls     enclosing       the
                    Shri        Jagannath       complexes.    The      outer    prakara of       Jagannath
                    Temple      and      Shri   temple called Meghnada Wall, had been earlier
                    Gundicha           Temple   encroached upon by shops, vender and misused

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                 -169 -
Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan




     Sector               Projects        Justification

                    complexes             as dumping ground of garbage. Presently a
                                          measure portion of outer perimeter has been
                                          cleared off. It is essential to provide plight
                                          protection   as    well     as   have   a   Parikrama
                                          (circumambulatory path) outside the Meghnada
                                          wall and outer wall Shri Gundicha temple to
                                          prevent further degradation of the area around
                                          the temple encroachers.

                                          It is proposed to have paved paths around both
                                          important shrines of Puri, which would match the
                                          architectural features of the temple.

                    Landscaping around    Since the entire proposal revolves around heritage
                    Heritage area         preservation of Puri, while going for its city
                                          development plan one has to very careful and at
                                          the same time try to enhance the Heritage
                                          Tourism potentiality of the place. In this effort it is
                                          proposed to develop the environment             of all
                                          Heritage structure and ancient monuments after
                                          their conservation is over by proper landscaping
                                          so that each becomes another destination point in
                                          Puri Town.

                    Development      of   The burial ground for Hindus on the seafront is
                    Swargadwar            aptly called Swargadwar or door to Heaven. Dead
                                          bodies of Hindus not only from in and around
                                          Puri but even from far off places brought and
                                          cremated by lighting the pyre. On and average
                                          twenty bodies are cremated daily at this place.
                                          The traditional accounts date this place along
                                          with origin of Puri town.

                                          It is proposed to develop this place without
                                          altering the    original ambience       but providing
                                          amenities to the users so that the sacredness
                                          antique character and the environment of the
                                          place enhanced.

                    Heritage Awareness    No planning, development, promotion of any
                    IEC                   object place or commodity will be a success if
                                          right awareness is lacking or not there.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -170 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan




     Sector              Projects            Justification

                                             As such it is proposed to have an awareness
                                             programme on Heritage of Puri its enhanced
                                             economic       importance       for    the   people   when
                                             developed as a Heritage Tourism centre through
                                             different mediums.

                                             Jagannath temple in Puri one of the important
                                             religious shrines of Hindus. With growing terrorist
                                             activities in the country. It is essential to enhance
                                             and improve the security measures and system
                                             those are operational at present in the temple and
                                             other important Heritage sites of the town. This is
                                             also necessary in view of the fact that Puri is
                                             visited by thousands of tourists and pilgrims each
                                             day through out the year.

                    Security    Measures     It is proposed have Installation of informatory
                    in Shri Jagannath        cantilever sign boards & identification boards,
                    Temple and Heritage      active CCTV surveillance system and active traffic
                    Places                   control

                    Sea and River front      The city of Puri is fortunate to have river meting
                    Development              place with the bay of Bengal. However, these
                                             rivers and sea beach need protection to maintain
                                             its   water     quality   and     providing     sustainable
                                             livelihoods.

                                             The sea shore and rivers have direct linkages in
                                             the   rituals    connected      with    main     Jagannath
                                             Temple and different festive occasions. They are
                                             equally important for pilgrims’ tourist.

                                             Introduction of theme based parallel road for
                                             improvement of sea and river front development.

                                             These projects are potential for bringing private
                                             sector participation in development.

13.3.2.Projects for Heritage Promotional Infrastructure

Nine projects are identified for the purpose of contribute in revving heritage component of
Puri town. These projects includes Viewing Tower for Foreign Tourists, Development of
Bicycle Lanes and Pedestrian Network, Development of Heritage Circuits, Divine Discourse
Convention Centre, Construction of Night Shelters (for 10000 Pilgrims), Urban Hatt &
Amphitheater,   Heritage       Gateway   &    Interpretation      Centre,     Street      Furniture,    City
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -171 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



Beautification (signage, traffic lights, landscaping, etc), Provision of Public Toilets near
Heritage Sites. Each project with its justification is explained below.



 Heritage                     Projects                                Justifications
 Promotional
 Infrastructure

                   Viewing Tower for Foreign          The temple of Puri is restricted for Non
                   Tourists                           Hindu pilgrims, as a result they are not
                                                      able see the glimpses of the inside temple
                                                      architecture. It is proposed to set up
                                                      viewing tower within strategic location of
                                                      the city to promote heritage and facilitate
                                                      visual glimpses of surrounding temples,
                                                      sea and rivers etc.

                   Development      of      Bicycle   Conversion of Narrow lanes across the
                   Lanes      and        Pedestrian   Grand Road and Old Conservancy lances
                   Network                            of British period into Bicycle track. This
                                                      will meet the bubbling traffic problems of
                                                      the interior city and improve image of the
                                                      city in front of Foreign Tourist.

                   Development      of     Heritage   The city’s heritage infrastructure are not
                   Circuits                           been properly shown to the world except
                                                      the Lord Jaganatha Temple. It is proposed
                                                      to take up a Heritage Mapping and Walk
                                                      programmes for the entire Heritage sites of
                                                      the city. In long run this will promote each
                                                      heritage site as separate destination there
                                                      by providing economic benefits to the local
                                                      people.

                   Inner City Revitalization          It is important to undertake specific area
                                                      based extensive revitalization plans to
                                                      spur      redevelopment      to        improve     the
                                                      surrounding      as   well        as     low-income
                                                      neighborhoods. Further city revitalization
                                                      plan must try to answer How can Puri
                                                      Town harness economic growth in their
                                                      neighborhoods to spur investment in the
                                                      surrounding low-income neighborhoods?.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                               -172 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan




 Heritage                   Projects                                  Justifications
 Promotional
 Infrastructure

                                                   Similarly    implement       the     city    plan    in
                                                   restoring        tradition         rock        roads,
                                                   compactable lightings and hoardings etc.
                                                   Experience of the European cites need be
                                                   studied while implementing the projects.
                                                   Similarly it is proposed to build linkages
                                                   with international cities to learn from each
                                                   other. Possibly explore the existing links
                                                   like Sister Cities Programmes, City Links,
                                                   Asia Urban and exchange programmes
                                                   etc.

                  Divine               Discourse   Puri is a Divine abode of Hindu Religion
                  Convention Centre                and nationally acclaimed as the universal
                                                   religious hub of the Divine discourse.
                                                   Every year may Divine discourses are
                                                   organized by leaders of various religious
                                                   sects and communities. Around 10,000 to
                                                   20,000 pilgrims attend such programmes.
                                                   It is proposed to set up a Divine Discourse
                                                   Centre to accommodate around 25,000 to
                                                   30,000 pilgrimage.

                  Construction      of     Night   Around 25000 to 30000 poor pilgrims visit
                  Shelters (for 10000 Pilgrims)    Puri     every      day.    Due      to     lack     of
                                                   accommodation, there force stay outside.
                                                   It is proposed to set up Pilgrimage Night
                                                   Shelter. In these shelters pilgrims will get
                                                   opportunity to stay within an affordable
                                                   price.

                  Urban Hatt & Amphitheater        The city lacks a regular auditorium or an
                                                   open     theater    to     promote    its    cultural
                                                   heritage & performing art forms. It would
                                                   be immensely beneficial to the artisan
                                                   living in & around Puri, where some of the
                                                   streets names of the Craft person and
                                                   Artisans. The most important thing about
                                                   the Artesian of Puri is there linkage with


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -173 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan




 Heritage                     Projects                                Justifications
 Promotional
 Infrastructure

                                                     the rituals of Jagannath Temple.

                                                     Organization      of    an    Urban        Hatt     for
                                                     showcasing       the    craft       tradition       and
                                                     heritage    of     Puri       along        with      an
                                                     amphitheatre for facilitating the rich and
                                                     colorful performing Art forms of Puri will
                                                     further promote Heritage Tourism in the
                                                     place. Amphitheater may be set up near
                                                     sea   beach      area   to    promote        cultural
                                                     heritage of the city and state.

                  Heritage        Gateway       &    The city lacks a world class Museums to
                  Interpretation Centre              show case its Archeology and heritage. It
                                                     is proposed to set up a Heritage Gateway
                                                     Preservation Center by converging various
                                                     available heritage resources of the city.

                  Street      Furniture,      City   It is proposed to provide Street Furniture,
                  Beautification         (signage,   signage, traffic lights, landscaping, etc
                  traffic   lights,   landscaping,   which is befitting the character of the Puri
                  etc)                               town and spirit of City Development Plan.

                  Provision of Public Toilets        Puri is an ancient city with more narrow
                  near Heritage Sites                lanes lacks public toilet places. This is one
                                                     of the vital infrastructure required for
                                                     heritage and tourism development

                  Water Supply                       Proposed distribution system in uncovered
                                                     areas.

                                                     Rehabilitation and upgrading of operation
                                                     systems    in     existing      water      treatment
                                                     plants.

                                                     Raw water supply system to meet (2010 -
                                                     2040)

                                                     Augmentation of WTP and Clear Water
                                                     Transmission Mains for ultimate stage
                                                     demand.

                                                     Support       Studies        link     to     identify


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                               -174 -
Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan




 Heritage                    Projects                             Justifications
 Promotional
 Infrastructure

                                                mechanism for reducing NRW supply.

                                                Mechanism for delivery of service to urban
                                                poor with 24/7 coverage and
                                                Institutional restructuring plan including
                                                enabling        framework        for    outsourcing
                                                service delivery.
                                                Develop     Urban     water       and      sanitation
                                                policy;
                                                Strategy for reform of water and sanitation
                                                services;
                                                Legislative      reform     to    enable      service
                                                improvements and to comply with the
                                                provisions of 74th CAA;
                                                Improve efficincency in collection system
                                                including use of e-Governance;
                                                Simplification in new collection procedure
                                                i.e. payment through installments;

                  Major Roads / Bridges /       To divert vehicular traffic from Atharnala
                  Flyovers                      to Sea Bach area without interfering the
                                                City traffic.

                                                To minimize the accidental possibilities.

                                                Better control on pollution aspect.

                                                Being Broad in nature i.e. 4 lanes smooth
                                                vehicular traffic.

                                                To facilitate the Transport arrangement for
                                                proposed prestigious Project like Divine
                                                Discourse       Convection       Centre,    Heritage
                                                Gateway etc. and educational institutions.

                                                Widening of major roads from 2 to 4 lanes
                                                with provision for Bicycles, Pedestrians,

13.3.3.Heritage-related City Level infrastructure Project

The worldwide experience on Heritage management suggests a better city level infrastructure
is a must for the promotion and preservation of Heritage in the city because it leads to a
heritage places of the city. Fifteen projects are required for the city level infrastructure
development. These infrastructures are of very much required for this ancient city of India.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -175 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



These projects includes Street lighting Major Roads / Bridges / Flyovers, Municipal Roads,
Subways, Sewerage, Development of Storm Water Drain System, Water Supply, Up gradation
of Town Hall, Housing/ Slums – Infrastructure, Solid Waste Management, Sea and River
front Development, Dev. of Bus & Truck Terminus Each projects with its justification is
explained below.

   City Level                 Projects                         Justifications
 Infrastructure

                    Street lighting           Upgrading street lighting in existing areas
                                              which essentially entail replacement of
                                              fluorescent lights with sodium vapor or
                                              equivalent lamps and installation of high-
                                              mast.

                                              Cluster lighting at important junctions that
                                              are not present covered with such lighting
                                              arrangement.

                                              New street lights shall be provided for
                                              uncovered areas.

                                              Power      consumption      management            and
                                              energy efficiency measures.

                                              Development of General Lighting Plan with
                                              possibilities of linking with CDM projects

                    Municipal Roads           Puri    Municipality    Maintained       Roads      -
                                              Restoration and reconstruction of existing
                                              BT and CC           roads   based on existing
                                              condition     and    type   of    pavement        and
                                              considering the incidental traffic. The city
                                              requires up gradation and rehabilitation
                                              roads. This is of immense requiring for
                                              promotion of Heritage and Tourism of Puri.

                    Subways                   Construction of pedestrian subways at
                                              major      intersections    including      Medical
                                              Square of Grand Road

                                              Construction of Subways for medium size
                                              vehicular      (excluding        Heavy    Vehicle)
                                              movement at Medical Square. This will
                                              solve much traffic problems during the
                                              festival    season     in   Grand        Road      in



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -176 -
Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan




   City Level                  Projects                           Justifications
 Infrastructure

                                                  particularly Car Festival (Rath Yatra).

                                                  Subway         Cum     Tunnel       to     connect
                                                  Badadanda (Grand Road through National
                                                  Highways 203

                    Sewerage                      Absence of sewerage system in the town.

                                                  The drains function as combined system to
                                                  transport rain water and waste water in
                                                  part of the town.

                                                  Silting   of    drains     indiscriminate          non
                                                  biodegradable garbage to the drains &
                                                  Bankimuhan pond results in failure of the
                                                  system.

                                                  Major part of the town lack drainage
                                                  system.

                                                  High water table during rainy season
                                                  cause in sanitary condition.

                                                  Disposal of household liquid waste through
                                                  septic tank and soak pit leads to high
                                                  infiltration   in    the   sandy    underground
                                                  formation and pollution of groundwater.

                                                  Poor hygiene practice by slum population,
                                                  open defection and defection alongside the
                                                  drains aggravates the situation.

                                                  Need for increased number of public toilets
                                                  for the floating population.

                    Development      of   Storm   Storm water drains in the city function as
                    Water Drain System            a conveyance channel for untreated sewage
                                                  from the partially laid/ incomplete
                                                  interceptor sewer network.
                                                  Drains located within the Puri Municipality
                                                  limits are choked by indiscriminate
                                                  dumping of solid waste, building materials
                                                  and related refuse.
                                                  Drains are also significantly silted and
                                                  collapsed.
                                                  A well designed and developed Master Plan
                                                  for Storm water drainage.
                                                  Awareness       programmes         need     to      be

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                           -177 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan




   City Level                Projects                             Justifications
 Infrastructure

                                                 conducted at the city level.
                                                 Prevention of dumping of solid waste,
                                                 discharge of sewage from households and
                                                 related issues.

                    Up gradation of Town Hall    There is an old town hall in Puri near the
                                                 sea beach but without modern amenities.
                                                 It is the only place where political, social,
                                                 cultural and other meetings take place.

                                                 There is a necessity for upgrading the
                                                 structure as well as the facilities to cater to
                                                 the greater demand of local populace.

                    Social Infrastructure        As a heritage city Puri requires lots of
                                                 Social Amenities to cater the need of
                                                 pilgrims,    tourists    and      citizens   within
                                                 affordable      price.      It     is    proposed
                                                 rehabilitation of Kalyan Manadp and build
                                                 new amenities to cater the needs. Such as
                                                 community        centres,        swimming    polls,
                                                 market complex etc. This type of projects is
                                                 proposed to proceed with P4 concept.

                    Animal         Protection,   It is proposed to set up scientific based
                    Slaughterhouse & Ghosala
                                                 mechanism to protect Animals entering
                                                 inside the cities as well as near to the
                                                 heritage places. These mechanisms will
                                                 improve aesthetic value of the Heritage
                                                 areas.      Similarly    Slaughterhouse           will
                                                 ensure that Animals would slighter for
                                                 human needs in closed door with hygienic
                                                 condition.

                                                 Further Puri being one of the important
                                                 Hindu Religious centres many pilgrims
                                                 requires some form of Ghosala for keeping
                                                 Cows. Particularly the old cows normally
                                                 left to the city streets after no use for the
                                                 owners.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         -178 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



13.3.4.Heritage-development including Basic Services to Urban Poor Project

The worldwide experience on Heritage management suggests that some portion of the
development must trickle down to urban poor. As a city can’t grow with its citizens growth.
Similarly Heritage promotion and development provides wide scope for improving the urban
poors quality of life. It is believed through the project intervention Urban Poor’s access to
economic development will improve, thus an example could be set up for eradication of
poverty. This project includes Housing, / Slums – Infrastructure, Economic Opportunity
Complexes, Livelihood Support and Social Amenities, Each project with its justification is
explained below.

 Basic Services                Projects                              Justifications
 to Urban Poor

                    Housing/         Slums   -   Comprehensive listing of slums; Mapping
                    Infrastructure               and assessment of physical characteristics
                                                 of slums (housing and services)

                                                 Preparation      of    a    database       on      socio-
                                                 economic       characteristics       of     all     slum
                                                 dwellers;

                                                 Identification        of     land    parcels           for
                                                 resettlement of slum dwellers

                                                 Preparation of DPRs for each of the slums
                                                 as an integrated scheme covering both
                                                 housing and services.

                                                 Resettlement of existing slums in scientific
                                                 manner.

                    Livelihood Support           Urban       areas     particularly        cities     with
                                                 heritage & tourism potential have very
                                                 good options for improving urban poors
                                                 quality of life through an efficient livelihood
                                                 support       mechanism         programmes.             A
                                                 detailed project would be developed with
                                                 packages compatibility with Bankers to
                                                 fund and linking it to cities activities i.e.
                                                 garbage      collection,     composting,           tourist
                                                 guide, handicrafts marketing and language
                                                 translator     etc.    The    project       will     take
                                                 International and Indian experience in
                                                 implementing          the     programmes              i.e.
                                                 Kudumbashree and CDP programmes of

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                             -179 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



                                                  Andhra Pradesh etc.

                    Economic        Opportunity   Puri is a Heritage Tourism city, where
                    Complex                       many tourist and pilgrims visit every day.
                                                  Similarly the economy of the Puri is based
                                                  on Heritage & Tourism. Many informal
                                                  shops and venders are dependent on
                                                  economy       generated        from     Heritage   &
                                                  Tourism. However, as an organics process
                                                  these informal shops and venders have
                                                  encroached many Heritage areas.

                                                  It   is     proposed      to    build     Economic
                                                  Opportunity Complex for streamlining the
                                                  local economic development of the city.
                                                  Similarly     these    Economic         Opportunity
                                                  Complex will be a source of revenue
                                                  income for the Puri Municipalities.

                                                  Public Private Partnership opportunity will
                                                  be explored.

                    Social Amenities              Urban Poor are more often deprived of
                                                  social amenities such as public toilets,
                                                  community        halls,        waste      collections
                                                  systems etc. Through the projects it is
                                                  assumed that a complete open defection
                                                  will be eradicated.

13.3.5.Tourism Infrastructure Project

Tourism infrastructure is part and partial requirement for Heritage development and
promotion. It is the tourist who markets and creates Heritage promotion from one place to
another place with no cost. However, a tourist requires certain degree of support from the
local government in meeting its requirement. In returns leaves enough financial resources for
the city development. Even the Ministry of Tourism Govt. of India is keen on promotion of
tourism centres under the Jn NURM. Based on the expectation of Ministry’s encouragement
of support stakeholders identified projects to promote tourism. The project includes Dev. of
Bus & Truck Terminus, Development of Parking Lots, Development of Heritage (Urban)
Villages, Beach Cleaning Mechanism, Tourism Information Centre, Eco Friendly Tourist
Vehicle, Capacity Building & Database Dev. Information System, Water Sports & Maritime
Aquarium & Museum, International Convention Centre. Each project with its justification is
explained below.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                           -180 -
Puri Municipality                                                         Puri City Development Plan




 Tourism                        Projects                                      Justifications
 Infrastructure

                    Dev.   of    Bus        &     Truck    The City celebrates around 13 big festivals
                    Terminus                               within     a    year.   These        festivals    attract
                                                           various types of vehicles into the city. The
                                                           cities at present don’t have enough parking
                                                           spaces for the Trucks and Bus terminals.
                                                           At presently these types of vehicles are
                                                           parking        within   the    Grand       Road         and
                                                           causing problems of the city traffic.

                    Development        of       Parking    The city at present lacks personal vehicles
                    Lots                                   parking.       Since    land    is    precious     it    is
                                                           proposed to have multi storied parking in
                                                           two locations one in Sea Beach area, one in
                                                           City Entrance and one in Grand road with
                                                           a capacity to park around 1000 Vehicles
                                                           each every day.

                    Development of              Heritage   Within and Near by Puri there are few
                    (Urban) Villages
                                                           pockets famous for heritage & handicrafts.
                                                           Though these pockets are with urban areas
                                                           but still maintains its village life as a
                                                           showcase existing cultural heritage of the
                                                           city & state. It is proposed develop these
                                                           villages in light of heritage villages with
                                                           basic      amenities       i.e.       night      shelter,
                                                           museums, small amitheater etc.

                    Beach Cleaning Mechanism               As discussed earlier at present the no
                                                           scientific mechanism is not in place to
                                                           clean the sea beach. The project soughs to
                                                           utilize    the     experience          Australian        &
                                                           Netherlands cities in addressing the issues
                                                           garbage & beach cleaning etc.

                    Tourism            Information         It is proposed to set up international
                    Centre
                                                           standard Tourism Information Centre with
                                                           Sovenious shop trough P4 concept. This
                                                           would      not     only       expect      to     provide
                                                           information to tourist but an opportunity
                                                           to   create      employment          generation     with


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                         -181 -
Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



                                                     promotion of local handicrafts etc.

                    Eco     Friendly       Tourist   The city of Puri very congested city with
                    Vehicle
                                                     scope large size bus is limited within
                                                     heritage areas. Similarly it doesn’t have
                                                     CNG system to encourage people to use as
                                                     fuel. It is proposed to promote Solar or
                                                     Battery based fuel vehicle through P4
                                                     concept.

                    Capacity   Building     &        It is understood that there is no proper
                    Database Dev. Information
                    System                           system to segragte tourist & pilgrims etc. It
                                                     is proposed to conduct some specifics
                                                     study & capacity building programmes to
                                                     evolve an indigenous system of monitoring
                                                     database on tourist & pilgrim inflow into
                                                     the city.

                    Water Sports & Maritime          It is proposed to set up Water Sport &
                    Aquarium & Museum
                                                     Maritime Aquarium & Museums etc within
                                                     the costal areas with similar experience of
                                                     Singapore    and   Rotterdam,   Pattaya     etc
                                                     through P4 concept.

                    International       Convention   The Puri due to its location and cultural
                    Centre
                                                     aspect has the potential of catering to host
                                                     international & national conventions. It is
                                                     proposed to have Convention Centres with
                                                     international standards through private
                                                     sector participation.

13.3.6.Projects for Environment Infrastructure

One of the important components for any development is to have proper Environment
Infrastructure. Env Infra not only to keep the city meet all targets of sustainable development
but also monitor its progress. Among the projects four identified for the purpose of Env Infra.
These projects include Solid Waste Management, Urban Forestry, Environment Monitoring
Infrastructure e-Governance, Capacity Building and Disaster Management. Each project with
its justification is explained below.

 Urban                      Projects                              Justifications
 Governance

                    Solid               Waste   Implementation of source segregation system.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -182 -
Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan




 Urban                    Projects                               Justifications
 Governance

                    Management             Installation of additional primary collection bins
                                           and related component.

                                           Augmentation of transportation fleet - tractors,
                                           dumper-loader trucks.

                                           Installation     of         transfer    stations           with
                                           compactors, material handling equipment

                                           Seting up a scientific based Landfill Sites

                                           Implementation         of     municipal       solid       waste
                                           treatment system with possibilities of linking
                                           with CDM projects

                    Green Infrastructure
                                           Green infrastructure is a strategic approach
                                           to     conservation           that     addresses             the
                                           ecological, social and economic impacts of
                                           sprawl and the accelerated consumption
                                           and fragmentation of open land. Through
                                           these projects not only urban forestry will
                                           be promoted but also other aspects like
                                           Tree     auditing,           Canopy           Assessment,
                                           Emission Reduction etc would also be
                                           included.

                    Environment            It is proposed to build proper environment
                    Monitoring
                    Infrastructure         monitoring systems to supports city council in
                                           developing     City    Environment        Report.         These
                                           reports would be beneficial for identifying cities
                                           progress towards achieving GHG Emission, Use
                                           of   Energy,     Renewable           Energy        use,      Eco
                                           Budgeting and building projects under the CDM
                                           Programmes.       The        project   will        also    seek
                                           international    cities      experience       in    achieving
                                           environmental standard etc. Puri city proposes
                                           to be one of the models in India.

13.3.7.Projects for Strengthening Urban Governance

JNNURM sought for reform based urban governance in India. In this regard Puri Municipality
and stakeholders have identified various programmes to strengthen urban governance in Puri
Town. Among the four projects are identified for the purpose of strengthening urban
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -183 -
Puri Municipality                                                  Puri City Development Plan



governance.   These    projects   include       e-Governance,     Capacity   Building     and     Disaster
Management. Each project with its justification is explained below.

 Urban                    Projects                                  Justifications
 Governance

                    e-Governance                 In order to bring transparency and access to
                                                 citizens   in    decision   making       process        e-
                                                 governance initiative much required. Initiatives
                                                 includes citizens service centre, GIS based
                                                 Mapping, Website, Birth and Death registration,
                                                 Tax collection and accounting etc.

                    Capacity Building            The success of the Mission requires capacity
                                                 building of elected representatives, officials and
                                                 stakeholders Human Resource Development.
                                                 Similarly to promote various research study on
                                                 cities progress interms of CDP and peoples
                                                 perception etc

                    Disaster Management          Puri is located near to Sea and drains by many
                    Mechanism                    rivers. With recent days natural and man made
                                                 disaster is rising city needs to have disaster
                                                 management       mechanism.      Funds    would         be
                                                 required prepare community based disaster
                                                 management       plan   focusing    mitigation         and
                                                 response plan. Similarly city’s infrastructure
                                                 needs strengthen to address disaster response
                                                 appropriately.

                    Research                &    Every success to urban management depends
                    Development                  with the hands of City Manager both Political
                                                 and   executive    wings    of   the   city    council.
                                                 However, many often city managers founds it
                                                 difficult to address the issues due lack of access
                                                 to Knowledge base and lands up with consulting
                                                 firms. Many a time this approach becomes
                                                 difficult due non availability of resources and it
                                                 is still a dream for small & poor cities. In order
                                                 to over come the dependency with consulting
                                                 firms it is proposed to set up or support
                                                 institution within the state to hand hold the city
                                                 not only to implement the CDP but also in long
                                                 run. The institute would be developed as

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                              -184 -
Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan




 Urban                   Projects                            Justifications
 Governance

                                          excellence     centre   with   collaboration    with
                                          national & international institutions / agencies
                                          to strengthen the urban governance in Orissa.
                                          In other word it will facilitate cities with one stop
                                          innovative, cost saving and environment friendly
                                          approaches to manage cities.

 Although the projects were identified based on a consultative process but it is strongly
 recommended for conducting study analysis to develop institutional mechanism, use of IEC
 / ICT and setting up the information base. Overall the interface between citizens should be
 encouraged for successful implementation of projects.

 .




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -185 -
 Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan




              14.Financial Plan: Investment Estimate

14.1.The Process

 While the investments identified in the core sectors mentioned are based on the
 infrastructure requirements identified through assessment of the current infrastructure
 situation in Puri City as part of CDP Process. While arriving the price values of each projects
 it is understood that the actual funds requirement may vary as per the Detailed Project
 Report (DPR). At present the stakeholders are yet to have DPR’s for various projects identified
 for the JNNURM. However, stakeholders of the city are in the process of preparing DPR’s of
 various projects. These include inner city revitalisation, restoration of heritage structures,
 water supply, solid waste management, storm water management, river front development
 and roads etc.

 After identification of the projects detail discussion were held with individual stakeholders.
 The individual stakeholders consultation helped the consulting team to arrived tentative cost
 of the identified projects. After several rounds of discussion all chiefs of the stakeholders’
 organisation of the city again met on May 24, 2006 to finalise projects investment
 requirements. During these phase some of the projects were prioritised for submission under
 the JNNURM. The projects estimate derived based on various factors. This estimate is based
 on the following factors:

    o Discussions held with principal stakeholders;
    o Review of available information on existing system;
    o Discussion with mission stakeholders during the respective stages of preparation of
       the CDP.
    o Assessments through field visits and specific discussions with entities responsible for
       system implementation, operation and maintenance;
    o Available Standard Schedule of Rates used in state Govt.;
    o Experience with projects of similar scale and nature;

14.2.Capital Investment Plan

 The Capital Investment Plan (CIP) is the multi-year scheduling of public physical
 improvements and investments. The scheduling or phasing of the Plan is based on analysis of
 fiscal resources availability, technical capacity for construction and the choice of specific
 improvements to be taken up over a period of 7 years into the future. Accordingly, the CIP for
 infrastructure services in Puri has been formulated. Phasing of the investments is also
 worked out considering the need for the service and the sustainability of its investments. The
 phasing/ scheduling of investments have been carried out through an interactive process and
 the principles taken into account include:


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -186 -
  Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



  .Priority needs, with developing wards/ areas getting priority over future development areas/
  locations as expressed by the stakeholders; Inter- and intra service linkages, viz. investments
  in storm water drainage shall be complemented by corresponding improvements in roads;
  and Size and duration of the requirements, including preparation and implementation period.

  14.2.1.Process

  The Capital Investment Plan involved the identification of public capital facilities to cater to
  the demands of the city populace during different stages (design stages) as per the
  requirement of various urban services. Broadly, following is the process adopted in
  identifying the capital investment requirement and formulating the CIP:

14.3.Project Identification

  The general criteria used in identifying projects were the institutions goal of efficient service
  delivery, prompt customer service, environmental sustainability, strategic implementation of
  projects, community benefits, infrastructure maintenance needs, and meeting growing
  demand. The City Stakeholder Consultations and focus group discussions held as part of the
  CDP preparation process were another important aspect in the identification of the projects.
  These consultations have brought out the deficiencies at the macro and micro levels and have
  provided the first platform for the identification of the projects. Further the results of
  stakeholders’ consultations helped in arriving at specific project proposals.

14.4. Strategies

  14.4.1.Strategic Capital Investment

  The city shall use fiscal notes and policy analysis to assist in making informed capital
  investment choices to achieve the stakeholders’ long-term goals. This process provides
  guidance for capital budgeting and long-term capital facilities planning across all institutions
  for identifying and balancing competing needs, and for developing short and long term capital
  finance plans for all of the capital investments.

  This process includes defining desired outcomes of capital investments, evaluating potential
  investments on a city wide, applying standard criteria for assessing alternative investments,
  and making more efficient use of all potential resources. The city shall budget sufficient
  funds to perform major and preventive maintenance of existing facilities that is considered
  cost effective. The city shall use maintenance plans for capital facilities and a funding
  allocation plan for such maintenance, and may revise these plans from time to time.

  There is a need for fiscal impact analyses of all major capital projects considered for funding.
  Such analyses shall include, but not be limited to, one-time capital costs, life- cycle operating
  and maintenance costs, revenues from the project, and costs of not doing the project. The
  Puri Municipality shall make major project specific capital decisions through the adoption of
  the City’s operating and capital budgets, and the CIP.



  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -187 -
Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



14.4.2.Facility Siting

Encourage the location of new community-based capital facilities. The city shall consider
providing capital facilities or amenities as an incentive to attract both public and private
investments to an area.

14.4.3.Decision Making

Work together with other stakeholders towards a coordinated capital investment planning,
including coordinated debt financing strategies, to achieve the goals of the CDP.

14.4.4.Plan Funding

Explore funding strategies for capital facilities, particularly for those that serve or benefit
citizens throughout the region.

14.4.5.Agencies

In order to streamline the way forward for CDP, it was further decided who should do what to
achieve the vision. Each project areas is identified with an institutions to take action.

Table 64:    Institutionwise Action Plan for Project Execution
 Sl.No    Sector                    Projects                             Total Funding( In
                                                                               Crore)
 A        Heritage Preservation

 1                    Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas /          Jagannath Temple
                      Monasteries and other Built Heritage                  Administration
 2                    Preservation of ancient and sacred Water          Jagannath Temple
                      Bodies                                            Administration
 3                    Preservation    of   Community       Owned
                      Jagaghara,   sacred   water bodies     and         Jagannath Temple
                      immovable heritage                                    Administration
 4                    Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha               Jagannath Temple
                      temple                                                Administration
 5                    Upgradation & Development of the Heritage
                      Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannatha Temple          Jagannath Temple
                      at Jagannatha Balav Matha                             Administration
 6                    Development of Parikrama around Shri
                      Jaganath Temple and Shri Gundicha Temple          Jagannath Temple
                      complexes                                         Administration
 7                    Development of Parikrama around Shri               Jagannath Temple
                      Gundicha Temple complexes                              Administration
 8                    Landscaping around Heritage area                  Puri Municipality
 9                    Development of Swargadwar                           Puri Municipality
 10                   Heritage Awareness IEC                                  OTDC / Dept.
                                                                           Tourism / Water
                                                                                 Resources
 11                 Sea and River front Development
 B        Heritage Promotional Infrastructure
 1
                      Security Measures in Shri Jagannath Temple         Jagannath Temple
                      and Heritage Places                                 Administration
 2                    Viewing Tower for Foreign Tourists                 Jagannath Temple
                                                                          Administration

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -188 -
Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



 Sl.No     Sector                        Projects                       Total Funding( In
                                                                              Crore)
 3                   Development of Bicycle Lanes and Pedestrian
                     Network                                           Puri Municipality
 4                   Development of Heritage Circuits                     OTDC / Dept.
                                                                             Tourism
 5                   Divine Discourse Convention Centre                 Jagannath Temple
                                                                         Administration
 6                   Construction of Night Shelters (for 10000          Jagannath Temple
                     Pilgrims)                                           Administration
 7                   Urban Hatt & Amphitheater                         Industries Dept.
 8                   Heritage Gateway & Interpretation Centre           Jagannath Temple
                                                                         Administration
 9                   Street Furniture, City Beautification (signage,
                     traffic lights, landscaping, etc)                 Puri Municipality
 10                  Provision of Public Toilets near Heritage Sites   Puri Municipality
 11                  Water Supply                                             PHED
 12                  Major Roads / Bridges / Flyovers                  Works Dept/
                                                                       National Highway
 13                 Inner City Revitalization                           Puri Municipality
 C        City Level Infrastructure
 1                  Street lighting                                    Puri Municipality
 2                   Municipal Roads
                                                                       Puri Municipality
 3                   Subways                                           National Highway
 4                   Sewerage                                                 PHED
 5                   Development of Storm Water Drain System            Puri Municipality
 6                   Social Infrastructure                              Puri Municipality
 7                   Animal Protection                                  Puri Municipality
 8                   Slaughterhouse & Ghosala                           Puri Municipality
 9                   Upgradation of Town Hall                           Puri Municipality
 D        Basic Services to Urban Poor
 1                Housing & Infrastructure                               Puri Municipality
 2                Livelihood Support Programme                           Puri Municipality
 3                Economic Opportunity Complex                           Puri Municipality
 4                Social Amenities (Community Toilets, Halls
                  etc)                                                   Puri Municipality
 E        Environment Infrastructure
 1                Green Infrastructure                                   Puri Municipality
 2                Environment Monitoring Infrastructure                  Puri Municipality
 3                Solid Waste Management
                                                                         Puri Municipality
 F        Tourism Infrastructure
 1                  Dev. of Bus & Truck Terminus                         Puri Municipality
 2                  Development of Parking Lots                        Works Dept /
                                                                       Jagannath Temple
                                                                       Administration
 3                   Development of Heritage (Urban) Villages             OTDC / Dept.
                                                                            Tourism
 4                   Beach Cleaning Mechanism                             OTDC / Dept.
                                                                            Tourism
 5                   Tourism Information Centre                           OTDC / Dept.
                                                                            Tourism
 6                   Eco Friendly Tourist Vehicle                         OTDC / Dept.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -189 -
 Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



   Sl.No     Sector                         Projects                     Total Funding( In
                                                                               Crore)
                                                                             Tourism
  7                     Capacity    Building   &   Database Dev.            OTDC / Dept.
                        Information System                                    Tourism
  8                     Water Sports & Maritime Aquarium &                  OTDC / Dept.
                        Museum                                                Tourism
  9                     International Convention Centre                     OTDC / Dept.
                                                                              Tourism
  G          Urban Governance
  1                   e-Governance                                         Puri Municipality
  2                     Capacity Building                                  Puri Municipality
  3                     Disaster Management Mechanism                      Puri Municipality
  4                     Research & Development                             Puri Municipality


14.5.Project Estimates

 The total estimated investment required for providing efficient services to the present
 population and future population of Puri city by the year 2031 is about Rs. 1828 Crores at
 present prices. The table below presents the identified and the reason that led to
 prioritisation of the projects. About 54.65 percent of the total investment has been worked
 out for programmes like inner city revitalisation, preservation & conservation of heritage
 structures etc. They account for Rs. 999.00 Crores. However the detailed estimates of all
 projects would be finalised only after preapration of Detailed Project Rport (DPR’s) of each
 projects during the mission period.

 Table 65:         Summary of sector wise Invest estimate
   Sl.No     Sec                       Projects                                                  %
             tor                                                   Total Funding( In Crore)
  A          Heritage Preservation

  1                 Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas /             100.00
                    Monasteries and other Built Heritage                                        5.47
  2                 Preservation of ancient and sacred Water               30.00
                    Bodies                                                                      1.64
  3                 Preservation     of   Community        Owned           18.00
                    Jagaghara,    sacred   water    bodies   and
                    immovable heritage                                                          0.98
  4                 Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha                    5.00
                    temple                                                                      0.27
  5                 Upgradation & Development of the Heritage              10.00
                    Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannatha Temple
                    at Jagannatha Balav Matha                                                   0.55
  6                 Development of Parikrama around Shri                    0.50
                    Jaganath Temple and Shri Gundicha Temple
                    complexes                                                                   0.03
  7                 Development of Parikrama around Shri                    0.50
                    Gundicha Temple complexes                                                   0.03
  8                 Landscaping around Heritage area                       3.00                 0.16
  9                 Development of Swargadwar                              2.00                 0.11
  10                Heritage Awareness IEC                                 1.00                 0.05
  11                Sea and River front Development                       100.00                5.47

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -190 -
Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



  Sl.No   Sec                       Projects                                                    %
          tor                                                     Total Funding( In Crore)
 B        Heritage Promotional Infrastructure
 1                                                                         4.00
                Security Measures in Shri Jagannath Temple
                and Heritage Places                                                            0.22
 2              Viewing Tower for Foreign Tourists                         5.00                0.27
 3              Development of Bicycle Lanes and Pedestrian                7.00
                Network                                                                        0.38
 4              Development of Heritage Circuits                           1.00                0.05
 5              Divine Discourse Convention Centre                        10.00                0.55
 6              Construction of Night Shelters (for 10000                 20.00
                Pilgrims)                                                                      1.09
 7              Urban Hatt & Amphitheater                                 10.00                0.55
 8              Heritage Gateway & Interpretation Centre                   2.00                0.11
 9              Street Furniture, City Beautification (signage,            1.00
                traffic lights, landscaping, etc)                                              0.05
 10             Provision of Public Toilets near Heritage Sites           3.00                 0.16
 11             Water Supply                                             450.00              24.62
 12            Major Roads / Bridges / Flyovers                          156.00               8.53
 13            Inner City Revitalization                                  60.00               3.28
 C        City Level Infrastructure
 1             Street lighting                                            10.00                0.55
 2              Municipal Roads                                           50.00
                                                                                               2.74
 3              Subways                                                   40.00                2.19
 4              Sewerage                                                  45.00                2.46
 5              Development of Storm Water Drain System                   90.00                4.92
 6              Social Infrastructure                                    100.00                5.47
 7              Animal Protection                                          8.00                0.44
 8              Slaughterhouse & Ghosala                                   2.00                0.11
 9              Upgradation of Town Hall                                   2.00                0.11
 D        Basic Services to Urban Poor                                     0.00                0.00
 1             Housing & Infrastructure                                   90.00                4.92
 2             Livelihood Support Programme                               40.00                2.19
 3             Economic Opportunity Complex                               10.00                0.55
 4             Social Amenities (Community Toilets, Halls                 25.00
               etc)                                                                            1.37
 E        Environment Infrastructure
 1             Green Infrastructure                                        5.00                0.27
 2             Environment Monitoring Infrastructure                      10.00                0.55
 3             Solid Waste Management                                     35.00
                                                                                               1.91
 F        Tourism Infrastructure                                           0.00                0.00
 1             Dev. of Bus & Truck Terminus                               25.00                1.37
 2             Development of Parking Lots                                20.00                1.09
 3             Development of Heritage (Urban) Villages                   22.00                1.20
 4             Beach Cleaning Mechanism                                    5.00                0.27
 5             Tourism Information Centre                                 15.00                0.82
 6             Eco Friendly Tourist Vehicle                                8.00                0.44
 7              Capacity    Building & Database Dev.                       2.00
                Information System                                                             0.11
 8              Water Sports & Maritime Aquarium &                       120.00
                Museum                                                                         6.56

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -191 -
Puri Municipality                                                              Puri City Development Plan



  Sl.No      Sec                               Projects                                                            %
             tor                                                                    Total Funding( In Crore)
 9                International Convention Centre                                           30.00                 1.64
 G           Urban Governance                                                                0.00                 0.00
 1                e-Governance                                                               3.00                 0.16
 2                  Capacity Building                                                        3.00                 0.16
 3                  Disaster Management Mechanism                                            4.00                 0.22
 4                  Research & Development                                                  10.00               0.55
                                                                                           1828.00             100.0
                    Total                                                                                         0
14.5.1.Sector Wise Estimates

59.88% of the total identified investment is proposed in the Heritage Promotional
Infrastructure sector. Some of the projects includes towards up-gradation, Inner City
Revitalization, new construction, widening and strengthening works, bridges, flyovers, traffic
management systems and junction improvements. Among the total investments 14.97%
accounts for Heritage Preservation. Some of the projects includes in this category are
Preservation of ancient temples, Mathas / Monasteries and other Built Heritage, Preservation
of ancient and sacred Water Bodies, Heritage Museum inside Shri Gundicha temple,
Upgradation & Development of the Heritage Garden (42acre )of Shri Jagannath Temple at
Jagannath Balav Matha, Development of Parikrama around Shri Jaganath Temple
complexes,        Development       of     Parikrama        around     Shri      Gundicha       Temple   complexes,
Landscaping around Heritage area, Development of Swargadwar, Heritage Awareness IEC
and Sea and River front Development.

Table 66:        Sector wise Investments
 Code         Sector                                                               Sector Total           %
    A         Heritage Preservation                                                       270.00          14.77
    B         Heritage Promotional Infrastructure                                         729.00          39.88
    C         City Level Infrastructure                                                   347.00          18.98
       D      Basic Serices to Urban Poor                                                 165.00           9.03
       E      Environment Infrastructure                                                   50.00           2.74
       F      Tourism Infrastructure                                                      247.00          13.51
       G      Urban Governance                                                             20.00           1.09
     (A-G)    Total                                                                      1828.00         100.00
Similalry                18.98%                                Tourism                                     Heritage
                                                                                    Urban
                                           Environment
investments accounts for                                    Infrastructure,       Governance,            Preservation,
                                          Infrastructure,
                                                                 13.51               1.09                    14.77
City level infrastructure.                      2.74

9.03%        of    the      total
investment is proposed for
Basic Services for Urban
Poor, involving urban poor
and          the          slums           Basic Serices                                                 Heritage
                                         to Urban Poor,        City Level                             Promotional
development.          Tourism                                Infrastructure,
                                              9.03                                                   Infrastructure,
Infrastructes      counts    for                                  18.98                                   39.88
13.51% and Environemnt
Infrastructure for 2.74%.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                        -192 -
Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



Table 67:         Sector wise Capital Investment Plan 2006-2013
 Sl.   Sector /                  Total
 No    Projects                  Funding
                                 ( In
                                 Crore)    06-07   07-08   08-09   09-10   10-11    11-12   12-13
 A     Heritage Preservation

 1     Preservation of ancient   100.00
       temples, Mathas /
       Monasteries and other
       Built Heritage                      5       15      15      15      15       20      15
 2     Preservation of ancient   30.00
       and sacred Water
       Bodies                              0       5       10      5       5        5
 3     Preservation of           18.00
       Community Owned
       Jagaghara, sacred
       water bodies and
       immovable heritage                          2.5     2.5     2.5     5        5       0.5
 4     Heritage Museum           5.00
       inside Shri Gundicha
       temple                              0       1       1       1       1        0.5     0.5
 5     Upgradation &             10.00
       Development of the
       Heritage Garden
       (42acre )of Shri
       Jagannatha Temple at
       Jagannatha Balav
       Matha                               0       4       2.5     1.5     1.5      0.5
 6     Development of            0.50
       Parikrama around Shri
       Jaganath Temple and
       Shri Gundicha Temple
       complexes                                   0.5
 7     Development of            0.50
       Parikrama around Shri
       Gundicha Temple
       complexes                                   0.5
 8     Landscaping around        3.00
       Heritage area                       0.5     0.5     1       1
 9     Development of            2.00
       Swargadwar                                  1       1
 10    Heritage Awareness        1.00
       IEC                                 0.2     0.2     0.2     0.1     0.1      0.1     0.1
 11    Sea and River front       100.00
       Development                         0       10      20      25      25       10      10
 B     Heritage Promotional
       Infrastructure
 1     Security Measures in      4.00
       Shri Jagannath Temple
       and Heritage Places                         2       2
 2     Viewing Tower for         5.00
       Foreign Tourists                                    2.5     2.5
 3     Development of Bicycle    7.00
       Lanes and Pedestrian
       Network                                     2.5     2.5     2
 4     Development of            1.00
       Heritage Circuits                           0.5     0.5

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -193 -
Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 Sl.   Sector /                   Total
 No    Projects                   Funding
                                  ( In
                                  Crore)    06-07   07-08   08-09   09-10   10-11    11-12   12-13
 5     Divine Discourse           10.00
       Convention Centre                            5       5
 6     Construction of Night      20.00
       Shelters (for 10000
       Pilgrims)                                    5       10      5
 7     Urban Hatt &               10.00
       Amphitheater                                 1.5     2.5     2.5     2.5      1
 8     Heritage Gateway &         2.00
       Interpretation Centre                        1       1
 9     Street Furniture, City     1.00
       Beautification (signage,
       traffic lights,
       landscaping, etc)                    0.1     0.2     0.2     0.3     0.2
 10    Provision of Public        3.00
       Toilets near Heritage
       Sites                                        1       1       1
 11    Water Supply               450.00    5       50      50      100     100      100     45
 12    Major Roads / Bridges      156.00
       / Flyovers                           5       20      20      31      30       30      20
 13    Inner City                 60.00
       Revitalization                               10      10      10      15       15
 C     City Level
       Infrastructure
 1     Street lighting            10.00     1       5       2       2
 2     Municipal Roads            50.00
                                            1       10      10      10      10       9
 3     Subways                    40.00             10      10      10      10
 4     Sewerage                   45.00     1       10      10      10      10       4
 5     Development of Storm       90.00
       Water Drain System                           10      20      20      20       10      10
 6     Social Infrastructure      100.00            20      20      20      20       10      10
 7     Animal Protection          8.00              2       3       2       1
 8     Slaughterhouse &           2.00
       Ghosala                                      0.5     0.5     0.5     0.5
 9     Upgradation of Town        2.00
       Hall                                         0.5     0.5     1
 D     Basic Services to Urban    0.00
       Poor
 1     Housing &                  90.00
       Infrastructure                       2.5     15      25      25      15       7.5
 2     Livelihood Support         40.00
       Programme                            2       10      5       5       5        8       5
 3     Economic Opportunity       10.00
       Complex                                      5       5
 4     Social Amenities           25.00
       (Community Toilets,
       Halls etc)                                   2.5     10              5        5       2.5
 E     Environment
       Infrastructure
 1     Green Infrastructure       5.00              0.5     0.5     1.5     1.5      0.5     0.5
 2     Environment                10.00
       Monitoring
       Infrastructure                       0.5     2.5     2       1       1        1       2

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Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 Sl.   Sector /                  Total
 No    Projects                  Funding
                                 ( In
                                 Crore)    06-07    07-08    08-09   09-10    10-11    11-12    12-13
 3     Solid Waste               35.00
       Management                          1        8        5       5        10       6
 E     Tourism                   0.00
       Infrastructure
 1     Dev. of Bus & Truck       25.00
       Terminus                                     10       10      5
 2     Development of Parking    20.00
       Lots                                         10       5       5
 3     Development of            22.00
       Heritage (Urban)
       Villages                                     5        5       5        3        2        2
 4     Beach Cleaning            5.00
       Mechanism                                    2.5      1       1.5
 5     Tourism Information       15.00
       Centre                                       2.5      2.5     2.5      2.5      2.5      2.5
 6     Eco Friendly Tourist      8.00
       Vehicle                                      2        2       2        2
 7     Capacity Building &       2.00
       Database Dev.
       Information System                           0.5      0.5     0.2      0.2      0.3      0.3
 8     Water Sports &            120.00
       Maritime Aquarium &
       Museum                                       20       30      20       20       20       10
 9     International             30.00
       Convention Centre                            5        10      10       5
 F     Urban Governance          0.00
 1     e-Governance              3.00      0.5      0.5      0.5     0.5      0.5      0.5
 2     Capacity Building         3.00      0.5      0.5      0.5     0.5      0.5      0.25     0.25
 3     Disaster Management       4.00
       Mechanism                           0.2      0.5      1       2        0.3
 4     Research &                10.00
       Development                         0.5      1        1       2        4        1        0.5
       Total                     1828.00   26.5     310.4    357.9   374.6    347.3    274.65   136.65

Although discussion were held to dropdown each investments into more detailed action but
all executing stekholders felt it would be more of hypothetical than practical. Therefore it was
accepted to detail out to be done after preparation of Detailed Project Reports.

14.5.2.Institution wise Investment Estimates
The total estimated investment required for providing efficient services to the present
population and future population of Puri city by the year 2031 is about Rs. 1828 Crores at
present prices. The table below presents the identified Institution wise Investment Estimates
of the projects. Of the total invest JnNURM share is 80%, Govt. of Orissa 8.33%, Puri
Municipality 2.63%, Jagannath Temple Administration 1.09%, OTDC / Dept. Tourism /
Culture 0.71%, PHEO 2.71%, National Highway 0.22%, Works Dept. 0.91%, Industries Dept.
0.05% and Peoples Public Private Patnership (PPPP-P4) will have share of 3.35%. P4 will
basically substitute the stae Govt and certain institions investments in total share i.e Water
Sports & Maritime Aquarium & Museum, International Convention Centre etc.



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -195 -
Puri Municipality                                                          Puri City Development Plan



Table 68:   Institution wise Investments
 Funding Source                                                       Investment in
                                                                          Crore                       %
 JNNURM                                                                  1462.40                    80.00
 GOO                                                                      152.20                    8.33
 Puri Municipality                                                         48.10                     2.63
 Jagannath Temple Trust                                                    20.00                     1.09
 OTDC / Dept. Tourism / Culture                      13.00                                          0.71
 PHED                                                49.50                                          2.71
 National Highway                                     4.00                                          0.22
 Works Dept.                                         16.60                                          0.91
 Industries Dept.                                     1.00                                          0.05
 PPPP                                                61.20                                          3.35
 Total Funding                                      1828.00                                        100.00
Table 69:     Agency wise Capital Investment Plan 2006-2013
  Agency            06-07       07-08           08-09        09-10         10-11        11-12    12-13      Total
 Puri
 Municipality            9.5             97.4    114.9          92.9           84.1      62.35    19.85         481
 Jagannath
 Temple Trust            5.5             39.5          55            36        22.5         26      15.5        200
 OTDC / Dept.
 Tourism /
 Culture                    0            18.5          27       31.7           28.2       12.3      12.3        130
 PHED                       6              60          60        110            110        104        45        495
 National
 Highway                    0             10           10            10         10           0        0          40
 Works Dept.                5             30           20            31         30          30       20         166
 Industries
 Dept.                      0             1.5       2.5              2.5        2.5          1         0         10
 PPPP                     0.5            53.5      68.5             60.5         60         39        24        306
 Total                    26      256.9          289.4         314.1          287.3     235.65   112.65        1828
The    Capital    Investment
                                                        Year wise capital utilisastion
Plan      (CIP)   has    been
prepared for a period of 7               400                                   374.6
                                                                      357.9
                                                                                         347.3
years (FY 2006-07 to FY                  350
                                                            310.4
2012-13). The phasing has
                                         300                                                     274.65
been worked out based on
                                         250
the priorities assigned by
                                 Funds




the    stakeholders      and             200

preparedness       of     the            150                                                               136.65
service providing agencies
                                         100
to prepare the DPR and
initiate implementation of                50    26.5

the proposals. The chart                   0
                                                2006-       2007-     2008-     2009-    2010-   2011-     2012-
besides       provides     an
                                                 07          08        09        10       11      12        13
insight into the year-wise                                                      Ye ar
utilization of the capital during the Plan period.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                    -196 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



14.6.Strategy for Project Funding

 As specified earlier, priority actions identified by the stakeholders, discussed and finalized for
 achieving the vision. The below listed policy framework and priority actions have been
 identified based on evaluations, discussions and priority actions as required and mutually
 agreed upon by the pertinent mission stakeholders:

 14.6.1.Broad Reforms Measure

    o Innovations both at policy and project levels to speedup the process.

    o Reforms measures to encourage participation of stakeholders at the planning level.

    o Follow the indicators of Good Governance as Transparency, Accountability and
       Participatory.

    o Institutional strengthening with scope for involvement of professional in city
       management.

    o Capacity building to improve the performance level in project execution and
       management including financial.

    o Capacity building to be an integral part of the reform measures.

    o Areas of Reform Measures includes conversion of existing Holding Tax to Property Tax
       with self assessment, Double Entry Accounting, Annual Audit, Municipal Services
       Performance Measurement, Public Private Partnership, Public People Community
       Partnership and Auditing etc.

    o Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement

 14.6.2.Holding Tax (Property Tax)

    o Bringing transparency and uniformity in the taxation policies i.e. from rental based to
       Area based method

    o Tax policy and operational procedures should be simple and clear, i.e. Self
       Assessment.

    o Development of templates for property tax (for self-assessment) to increase tax
       collection

    o Mapping of properties and developing GIS enabled property tax management system
       for enhancing the property tax net/coverage and better administration.

    o Collection of arrears through innovative ideas and approaches using tools for
       community participation and fast track litigation solving methods.

    o Decentralized methods of collection system for Property Tax etc.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -197 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



14.6.3.Accounting and Auditing
   o Accounting Reforms - shifting from single entry cash based accounting system to
        accrual based double entry accounting system through legislative changes in the
        accounting systems and rules in Orissa Municipal Act.

   o Accounting manual: Standardized recognition norms for municipal assets and
        revenues – list of accounts, budget codes, forms and formats, etc.

   o Auditing of Accounts should be carried out effectively and regularly to promote
        transparency and accountability.

14.6.4.Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement

In February 2006 City Managers’ Association Orissa organized a workshop on Municipal
Resource Mobilization. In this workshop urban local bodies of Orissa and Govt. of Orissa
discussed various options of resource mobilization. Govt. of Orissa is in the process of
finalizing a Revenue Enhancement Action Plan (REAP) for the Urban Local Bodies of Orissa.
The REAP will help Puri Municipality to improve its financial base in coming years.

As of now Puri Municipality have not taken visible reforms agenda to improve its financial
base. However, the experience of City Managers’ Association Orissa on improving Resource
Mobilization strategy of Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation has shown positive results.
Similarly we believe Puri Municipality will able to improve its financial base to sustain the
projects under JNNURM.

14.6.5.Streamlining         and    Strengthening       of   Revenue      Base     of   the      Puri
       Municipality

Strengthen the fiscal powers of Puri Municipality to fix tax rates, fee structure and user
charges through specific guidelines and notifications, which should find a place in the
Municipal Rules.

   •    Puri Municipality shall publish an annual report on Municipal Service Performance
        for the tax payers of the city.

   •    Implementation of MIS to provide relevant information on accounts, commercial and
        operating systems for better decision making and information dissemination to
        citizens.

   •    Application of e-governance is equally important for municipal finance.

14.6.6.UNDP-Government             of     India   Project    on    “Capacity      Building       for
       Decentralised Urban Governance” (2005-2007).

The project aims to support decentralized urban governance and the empowerment of cities
as the third governmental tier, which is critical for the emergence of cities that are inclusive,
transparent, pro-poor and gender-centric. At the same time, this project will address the need
for cities to be efficient in equitable service delivery, ensuring a decent quality of life for all


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -198 -
Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



their citizens, in partnership with city stakeholders allowing space and voice especially to the
poor and women.

It seeks to support the Government of India, State Governments, Cities and urban
stakeholders to evolve suitable urban governance strategies, enhance institutional and
human capacities and bring about good urban governance. Towards this end, the
development objective of this project is to provide support to the financial and administrative
empowerment of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).

The project will work with ULBs in sixteen Class-I medium sized cities (excluding
corporations) in four states. The deliverables of the project fit into two broad components:

•   Technical assistance in improving the financial processes of ULBs with the aim of
    improved credit worthiness and more efficient delivery of civic services.

•   Capacity building of ULBs for improved financial management, gender-centric planning,
    equity, transparency and accountability with the aim of increased good urban
    governance.

In pursuit of these deliverables, the project is expected to achieve the following specific
outputs:

•   Accrual-based financial accounting and management adopted by ULBs.

•   Credit rating by reputed credit-rating agency obtained.

•   Computerized inventory of assets with a view to optimizing asset utilization achieved by
    ULBs.

•   Review and re-engineering of internal business processes with a view to improving service
    delivery, information sharing and grievance redressal undertaken by ULBs.

•   Action plans for resource mobilization from the GoI reform package (such as National
    Urban Renewal Mission) prepared by ULBs.

•   Capacities of elected representatives and officials to undertake             better financial
    management; development and preparation of bankable/ public-private partnership
    projects; civic engagement and improved service delivery – built in ULBs.

•   Budgets analysed from gender, poverty and environment perspective and suitable
    recommendations made for ULBs.

•   Mechanisms     for   regular   government-citizen   interaction   for   problem-solving    and
    information-sharing established in ULBs.

14.6.7.Municipal Services Performance Measurement Programme

The Municipal Services Performance Measurement Program is an initiative designed to
improve Municipal services performance over time and taxpayers with useful information on
service delivery. The MSPMP will help Local Governments to measure and report to taxpayers
on their service delivery performance. The MSPMP System has two outcomes first the


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -199 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan



Municipal Services Performance Report and Municipal Services Citizens Report. The
objectives of the program are:

   •   To provide a tool to assess how well municipal services are delivered

   •   To improve services performance

   •   To strengthen accountability to taxpayers

   •   To provide an information resource that allows municipal government to share
       strategies and learn new and or better practices from one another.

The MSPMP will able to help the Puri Municipality to measure performance and compare with
other cities. The report produced will allow:

       •    Benchmarking of key indicators in Municipal Services i.e. expenditure in
            Streetlights, Solid Waste Management etc.

       •    Performance & Efficiency assessments of staffs i.e. Per capita Revenue Income,
            Expenditure, operating ratio, expenditure in establishments etc.

       •    Comparisons with other municipalities.

       •    Establishment of Performance standards through detailed technical studies.

       •    Trend analysis of municipal services.

       •    Research into client needs in the form of surveys, consultative panels, focus
            groups, etc.

       •    Performance measures are also a starting point for the identification of municipal
            best practices.

14.6.8.Urban Environment Management

The costs of maintaining a healthy urban environment needs to be recovered through various
municipal taxes and user charges following the “Polluter Pays” principle. For this, the
functional role of the ULB as envisaged in Item 8, 12th Schedule of the Constitution have to
be resolved keeping in view the role of State Pollution Control Board, Orissa and the
organizational and fiscal strength of the Puri Municipality.

14.6.9.Access of Urban Services to the Poor

Since “Ability-to-Pay” for the full cost of environmental infrastructure services’ provision is
the important criterion, cross-subsidization of tariffs, innovative project structuring and
user/ community participation are the means towards ensuring access of these services to
the poor.

Again the functional and financial role of Puri Municipality with respect to the items 10 and
11 of 12th Schedule of the Constitution against those of central and state government
agencies need to be resolved. In addition to above, the GoI has formulated a Reform Agenda.
An adherence to this Reform Agenda and Timeline is mandatory for accessing funds under
the proposed JNNURM. A brief note on the above, preparedness of the Govt. of Orissa and
City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -200 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



Puri Municipality and broad timeline is given in next chapter of this report has been prepared
based on the consultation held with the stakeholders, Puri Municipality and Govt. of Orissa..

The City Managers’ Association Orissa is also providing necessary technical assistance to the
Govt. of Orissa and Puri Municipality for implementing above reform initiatives both at the
State level and City level. Puri Municipality will also get benefited from the UNDP-
Government of India Project on “Capacity Building for Decentralised Urban Governance”
(2005-2007).




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -201 -
 Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan




                              15.Reform Agenda and Timeline

15.1.Agenda for Reform

 As stated earlier, the GoI has formulated a Reform Agenda to access financial assistance
 under the proposed JNNURM. An adherence to this Reform Agenda and Timeline is
 mandatory for accessing funds under the proposed JNNURM. This section provides a brief
 note preparedness of the Govt. of Orissa and Puri Municipality and broad timeline.

 The main thrust of the revised strategy of urban renewal is to ensure improvement in urban
 governance and Heritage Preservation so that ULBs become financially sound with enhanced
 credibility and ability to access market for undertaking new programmes and expansion of
 services. In this improved environment, there would be greater possibility of public-private
 participation in provisioning of various services leading to more investment into the sector
 and better delivery of urban services. To achieve this objective, the State Governments and
 Urban Local Bodies will be required to accept implementation of an agenda of reforms. The
 reforms spelt out under JNNURM fall under two categories, viz. mandatory and optional. In
 order to accomplish the desired reform agenda and to provide an holistic approach, it is
 proposed to initiate various state level and city level reforms (termed as general reforms) to
 facilitate smooth and effective implementation of all reforms identified/specified under the
 JNNURM Guidelines.

 Accordingly, suggestive reform agenda has the following set of reforms:

 o General Reforms - State Level Reforms (Reform Initiatives A.1 to A.3).

 o Mandatory Reforms - State Level Reforms (Reform Initiatives B.1 to B.7).

 o General Reforms - Urban Local Body Level Reforms (Reform Initiatives C.1 to C.5)

 o Mandatory Reforms - Urban Local Body Level Reforms (Reform Initiatives D.1 to D.5)

 o Optional Reforms (Reform Initiatives E.1 to E.10)

15.2.Agenda for Reform

 The main thrust of the revised strategy of urban renewal is to ensure improvement in urban
 governance so that ULBs become financially sound with enhanced credit rating and ability to
 access market capital for undertaking new programmes and expansion of services. In this
 improved environment, there would be greater possibility of public-private participation in
 provisioning of various services leading to more investment into the sector and better delivery
 of urban services. To achieve this objective, the State Governments and Urban Local Bodies
 will be required to accept implementation of an agenda of reforms. The reforms spelt out
 under JNNURM fall under two categories: mandatory and optional.



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -202 -
Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



15.2.1.Mandatory Urban Reforms

State-Level Reforms

   (a) Implementation of decentralization measures as envisaged in 74th Constitution
       Amendment (CA) Act

       The Government of Orissa (GOO) amended the Orissa Municipal Act in 1994 as per
       74th CA. As per these acts, GOO constituted municipal corporations, municipalities
       and municipal councils. It also reserved seats for women, SCs, and STs. It also
       constituted District Planning Committees. At present, there are no metropolitan areas
       in the State, and Metropolitan Planning Committees (MPC) need not be formed.
       Functions specified in Schedule 12 have been incorporated into the municipal acts.
       However, the functions of town planning, regulation of land use and construction of
       building, water supply and sewerage have not yet been actually transferred to the
       ULBs. Operationalization of this would be required through suitable institutional
       changes, executive orders and some legal actions.

   (b) Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act

       This Act is repelled in the State.

   (c) Reform of Rent Control Laws

       There is no Rent Control Act in the State.

   (d) Rationalization of Stamp Duty to bring it down to no more than 5% within next
       seven years

       At present the stamp duty in the State is 8%. Some states like Maharashtra and
       Karnataka have reduced their stamp duty. The experience is very positive with stamp
       duty revenues increasing due to better compliance. The Government of Orissa
       considering for reduction of the stamp duty.

   (e) Enactment of Public Disclosure Law

       Public Disclosure of municipal budget proposals, performance, service levels and
       other information of ULBs required by citizens on six monthly basis through
       appropriate methods like display at ward/zonal offices, newspapers, web page, etc.
       will increase transparency of the ULBs and bring in efficiency. Govt. of Orissa is in the
       process   of   institutionalizing    Municipal   Services   Performance   Measurement
       Programme (MSPMP). The MSPMP will publish annual and monthly key information of
       the all urban local bodies in Orissa. However, Govt. of Orissa is keen on enacting
       Public Disclosure Law in Orissa Municipal Act and Orissa Municipal Corporation Act
       after receiving draft law from Govt. of India.

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -203 -
Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



   (f) Enactment of Community Participation Law

       Institutionalizing citizen participation in municipal affairs through community
       participation in different aspects of municipal administration will improve the
       municipal citizen interface and enhance effectiveness of administration. Ward
       committee provision will involve community participation in municipal affairs of the
       city. However, Govt. of Orissa is keen on enacting Community Participation Law in
       Orissa Municipal Act and Orissa Municipal Corporation Act after receiving draft law
       from Govt. of India.

   (g) Associating elected ULBs with City Planning and Civic Service functions

       Suitable action suggested as per point number (a) given above.

15.2.2.Reforms at ULB Level

   (a) Adoption of modern, accrual-based double entry system of accounting in ULBs

       At present Puri Municipality maintain accounts on cash based system. This is not
       sufficient to get information on the financial health of Puri Municipality to improve
       financial management. GOI and CAG developed National Municipal Accounting
       Manual (NMAM). There is need to introduce modern, accrual-based double entry
       system of accounting in the ULBs. As a first step, a State-Level Municipal Accounting
       Manual should be prepared based on the NMAM. The new system should be
       introduced in all municipal corporations of the State. Based on this experience, it may
       be introduced in other ULBs of the State in a phased manner. The Orissa Municipal
       Act will be amended for introduction of the new accounting system.

   (b) Introduction of system of e-governance in ULBs

       Introduction of e-Governance in Puri Municipality to improve delivery of services and
       help them to create citizen-centric and business-centric environments for good
       governance. This will be also in line with the proposed e-Governance project of the
       Government of India.

   (c ) Reform of Property Tax in Puri Municipality

       Introduction of objective based property tax system such as unit area and self
       assessment systems will help rationalize the tax base. Moreover, introduction of MIS
       and GIS based mapping will help to bring all properties in the tax system and
       increase the tax collection. Similar provisions are to be introduced in the Orissa
       Municipal Act. Based on experience of other states we may examine whether any
       changes in the O.M. Act is needed.




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -204 -
  Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan



     (d) Levy of reasonable user charges by ULBs to recover full cost of operation and
         maintenance

         At present cost recovery from urban water supply and sewerage services is about 30%
         of O&M costs. Low cost recovery is one of the reasons for poor efficiency of the
         services. It is necessary that user charges for these services reflect the actual costs
         and recover at least O&M costs.

         (e) Provision of basic services to urban poor

         Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable
         prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuing delivery of other
         already existing universal services of the Government for education, health and social
         security to be provided.


15.3.Issues placed for Approval of Govt. of Orissa

     In this context, approval is sought from the Government on the following issues:

         (1) Town Planning: Views of the ULBs should be incorporated in the town planning
         and regulation of land use and building construction. In cities with development
         authorities, the Chairperson should be made a member development authority. In
         case of municipal councils, the town planning department should form a consultation
         committee to review town plans. Similarly, Municipal Commissioners / Executive
         officer should be made members of committees giving approvals to large size layouts
         and building constructions. Provisions may be made for obtaining the views of
         Municipal Councils/Corporations on the Development Plans. Size of building (by use)
         and layout plan will be decided from time to time through a Government Order.
         Necessary changes may be made in the town planning Act and rules.

         (2) Water Supply and Sewerage: At present Public Health Engineering Department is
         responsible for delivery of these services. Consequent to the 74th CAA, the ULBs are
         responsible for ensuring these services to the citizens. It is planned to undertake a
         phased restructure of PHEO so as to devolve the responsibilities to ULBs. Different
         options of management of services either by the ULB or by a corporatized PHEO, or
         through a management contract with ULBs or outsourcing are to be explored.
         Necessary amendments should be carried out in the Municipal and Public Health
         Engineering Acts and rules. Moreover, the State should prepare an Urban Water
         Supply policy.

         (3) Reduction in Stamp Duty: The duty to be reduced to 5% from the existing 8%
         over coming seven years at the rate of 0.50% per year. The Finance Department may
         initiate the necessary action in this regard.


  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                 -205 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



        (4) Public Disclosure: The existing Municipal Acts may be amended to incorporate a
        provision for public disclosure of budgets, capital projects, revenue and expenditure,
        level of services, etc. The type, periodicity and method of disclosure will be as per
        rules made from time to time under these provisions in the Acts.

        (5) Increasing Community Participation: The Municipal Acts may be amended to
        enable formation of area committees in municipal corporations and ward committees
        in municipal councils. Number and manner of selection of members, and functions of
        the area/ward committees will be as per rules framed under these provisions in the
        Acts from time to time.

        (6) Accounting System: Amend the Municipal Act to enable introduction of accrual-
        based double entry accounting system. Prepare a State-Level Municipal Accounting
        manual based on NMAM.        The new system should be introduced in all municipal
        corporations of the State.

        (7) e-Governance: It should be introduced in ULBs of the State. It should cover
        following functions in the first phase: (a) Registration and issue of births/deaths
        certificates; (b) Payment of property tax, utility bills; (c) Grievances and suggestions;
        (d) Building approvals; (e) Procurement and monitoring of projects; (f) Health
        programs; (g) Accounting system; and (h) Personnel information system.

        (8) Property Tax: The Sate Municipal Act should be amended to introduce unit area
        and self-assessment system for property tax. Rules for introduction of the unit area
        and self-assessment system for property tax to be introduced in Orissa Municipal Act.

        (9) User Charges: PHED should prepare an information system that provides data on
        O&M of water supply and sewerage services in municipal corporations and other
        ULBs. Pricing of water supply and sewerage services should reflect the costs and
        should cover O&M costs over five years. The State Government will provide support to
        ULBs to implement this reform.

        (10) Delivery of Services to Poor: The State Government will support ULBs to extent
        basic services to the urban poor. A policy paper on this subject should be prepared.


15.4.State Preparedness

 Govt. of Orissa is very much keen on reforming the functioning urban governance in Orissa.
 Before and after the launching of JNNURM, Govt. of Orissa have taken various steps to
 improve resource mobilisastion, performance measurement, project management unit,
 association of city managers, committee to draft Municipal Law etc. The below are some of
 the explanatory on major areas of urban reforms in Orissa.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -206 -
Puri Municipality                                               Puri City Development Plan



15.4.1.Resource Mobilization and Revenue Enhancement

In February 2006 City Managers’ Association Orissa organized a workshop on Municipal
Resource Mobilization. In this workshop urban local bodies of Orissa and Govt. of Orissa
discussed various options of resource mobilization. Govt. of Orissa is in the process of
finalizing a Revenue Enhancement Action Plan (REAP) for the Urban Local Bodies of Orissa.
The REAP will help ULB’s to improve its financial base in coming years. The below table
explains the options discussed in the workshop on Revenue Enhancement Action Plan

Concept note on Revenue Enhancement Action Plan

1. Tax and Non Tax

Source Type                Explanation

Holding    or   Property   •    Introduce Ward inventory Map of Tax & Non Tax Payer and
Tax:                           Detection of un-assessed & under assessed properties,

                           •    Publish list of Defaulters list in prominent places of the city.
                               (Use local Media)

                           •    Revision of tax to the buildings where expansions have taken
                               place/ change of use.

                           •    Introduce Self-Assessment of Holdings / Properties.

Hoarding Tax:              •    Identify more space for hoarding by developing Bus Shelters,
                               Public Toilets, Information Kiosks and Street Infrastructure.


Street Tax / Fee:          •    Municipal Corporation in Orissa may levy street tax to help
                               finance a plan to improve traffic and public transportation from
                               users from vehicle owners other than non polluter i.e Bicycle.

Green Tax:                 •    In principle Polluter must pay system introduce fees from
                               personalized vehicle, three wheelers, car, bus (excluding Public
                               Transport System) and sewerage generation.

                           •    Taxes on use of water through boring for commercial and
                               private use.

View Tax                   •    Levy View taxes on properties other than ULB’s used for
                               hoarding / advertisements, etc


Vacant Land Tax:           •    Introduced Vacant Land tax from owners using land for
                               marriage, exhibition, parking and other commercial purpose.


High   Rise     Building   •    Introduce taxes or fees in respect of 1 plus 3 (ground floor + 3
                               floors and above) buildings used for residential purposes a

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                      -207 -
Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan




Source Type                 Explanation

Fee or Tax:                     congestion tax at the rate of 10% of Holding / Property tax may
                                be levied.

                            •    In respect of 1 + plus 2 (ground + 2 floors and above)
                                constructions used for commercial / industrial purposes, a
                                congestion tax or fees at the rate of 20% of Holding / property
                                tax or fee may be levied.

                            •    Wherever buildings are subjected to service charges the
                                congestion levy to the extent of 10% may be imposed for
                                buildings with 1+ 3 (Ground + 3 floors) and above.

2.       Fess and User Fees

Source Type                 Explanation

Congestion Fees:            • Congestion Fees may be levied on vehicles entering into
                                congested roads of the city.

                            • The tax will be useful not only to help city authority in solving
                                traffic problems but also to generate revenue.

                            • The revenue may be used in the Cities Traffic Infrastructure.

Solid Waste Fees:           • Levy solid waste fees for the use of public places based on the
                                amount of waste generated. Particularly from the organizers of
                                private functions in the city’s marriage halls, debris from
                                construction sites, informal hawkers, hotels & restaurants and
                                commercial establishments.

Cable Tv Fees:              • Cable TV Fees may be introduced for the use of public property
                                based on per kilometer of cable and per connection.


Parking Fees:               • Introduce pay and park scheme for vehicle parking except Cycle
                                and public transport system

                            • Parking fees are to be based on the duration of parking.

                            • Monthly parking fees to be collected from the Auto & Taxi for
                                parking in a particular location.

Tatkal     &     Priority   • Introduce Tatakal & Priority service for faster delivery of
Service Fee:                    Municipal Services such as issuing of birth and death
                                certificates and taxation etc with additional fees

Fees for Gardens:           • Levy user fees on the persons using Gardens & parks.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -208 -
Puri Municipality                                                 Puri City Development Plan




Source Type               Explanation

                          • Fees are to be collected at the entrance of the garden but
                           regulars can obtain a monthly pass.

                          • Cities may introduce incentive pass on the basis of areas, city
                           pas and annual entry pass etc.

                          • Children, person on ground of Health and senior citizens are to
                           be exempted.

Informal Traders Fees     • Levy fees on informal traders within the city limits

Pay & Use Toilets         • Outsource maintenance of the public toilets for Pay & Use
                           purpose


3.      Service Contract and Administration

Source Type              Explanation

Service Outsourcing      • Outsource     some     of   the    municipal         services   and      office
                          administration     to    Pvt.    sector      for   Resource      saving      i.e.
                          maintenance       of    street     lights,    solid     waste     (collection,
                          transportation,    disposal),      Grievance       Redresal      Cell,    letter
                          despatch (Use Courier), use Banks to collect Tax & fees and etc.

Asset      Management    • Outsource     the maintenance         of small markets            (including
Outsourcing               collection of fees), Kalayan Mandap, Libraries, Computer etc.



Resource                 • Use e-mail for communication, enable use of the EPBX Phone
Mobilisation in Office    for   internal    communication,          hire     photocopier     (Contract
Administration            Machine with man power)

                         • Use contract pool Vehicle, take steps for energy saving measure
                          in use of AC, Fan, Lights etc.

Open Space Market        • Identify Open spaces with market potentiality for development
(Weekly)                  with public sector participation (PSP).

E-Governance             • Introduce Municipal information system for smooth functioning
                          of the ULBs.

                         • Convert all accounting and financial information into computer
                          database.

Collection of Taxes /    • Set up ‘efficient’ enforcement squad, tax adalatas (Tax Courts


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -209 -
Puri Municipality                                              Puri City Development Plan




Source Type                 Explanation

Fees                           to solve disputes at the ULB’s level) and Special drive for
                               collection of Tax.

                            • Involve Residential Welfare association and Local NGO & Media
                               in all indicatives.

Annual       Report   to    • Publish annually with key indicators on how Municipal
Citizens                       Government is function Based on the Municipal Services
                               Performance Report.

                            • This will make Tax Payers and Citizens to know how its Rupees
                               are being spent and Accountability.

15.4.2.Municipal Services Performance Measurement Programme

The Municipal Services Performance Measurement Program is an initiative designed to
provide ULB’s with a tool to improve their services over time and taxpayers with useful
information on service delivery. The MSPMP will help Local Governments to measure and
report to taxpayers on their service delivery performance. The MSPMP System has two
outcomes first the Municipal Services Performance Report and Municipal Services Citizens
Report. The objectives of the program are:

   •     To provide a tool to assess how well municipal services are delivered
   •     To improve services performance
   •     To strengthen accountability to taxpayers
   •     To provide an information resource that allows municipal government to share
         strategies and learn new and or better practices from one another.

The MSPMP will able to help the city manger with measuring performance and comparing
with other cities. The report produced by the system will allow:

         •   Benchmarking of key indicators in Municipal Services i.e. expenditure in
             Streetlights, Solid Waste Management etc.

         •   Performance & Efficiency assessments of staffs i.e. Per capita Revenue Income,
             Expenditure, operating ration, expenditure in establishments etc.

         •   Comparisons with other municipalities.

         •   Establishment of Performance standards through detailed technical studies.

         •   Trend analysis of municipal services.

         •   Research into client needs in the form of surveys, consultative panels, focus
             groups, etc.

         •   Performance measures are also a starting point for the identification of municipal
             best practices.


City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -210 -
Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



15.4.3.New Municipal Law

Govt. of Orissa has formed a committed to review and draft new Municipal in light of Model
Municipal Law. The committee is in the process of reviewing the existing other states
Municipal Act.

15.4.4.City Managers’ Association Orissa

Govt. of Orissa has formed City Managers’ Association Orissa (CMAO) for initiating
professional development in Orissa urban sector. CMAO provides need based support to
urban institutions and leaders on latest innovations in urban governance across the world.
The capacity building programmes of the CMAO is very much useful for the Officials and
elected representatives.

15.4.5.Annual Awards

In order to nurture excellence in urban management Annual Awards are instituted to
felicitate cities and officials for there performance.

15.4.6.Municipal Accounting

Govt. of Orissa is in the process of reforming present practice of Cash base to Double entry
accrual base accounting system. This includes drafting of state municipal accounting manual
and implementation.

15.4.7.Reform Agenda

It is worthwhile to mention that adherence to the above reform agenda and efficient
performance, especially, the city level reforms, would go long way in improving the credibility
of the Puri Municipality and enhancing the sustainability level for the proposed investments.
Based on the above, a suggestive timeline for the reform agenda has been evolved in close
consultation with the Housing & Urban Development Department of the GoO and the Puri
Municipality and is furnished below:




City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -211 -
Puri Municipality                                                           Puri City Development Plan



Table 70:          Tentative Timeline for the Reform Agenda
 Sl.             Particulars/Items                  2006-   2007-   2008-    2009-   2010-   2011-     2012-
                                                     07      08      09        10     11      12        13

 A.    GENERAL REFORMS - STATE
       LEVEL REFORMS

A.1    Implementation of State Water
       Sector Reforms

       Organize Reform Workshop

       Review Present Policies

       Strengthen Legislative Framework

       Review Institutional Structure

       Review Regulatory Arrangements

       Prepare          Roadmap               for
       Implementation

       Implement the Roadmap

A.2    Review     the   Orissa       Municipal
       Act, 1950 / Municipal Law

       Review     of   Law    in    context    of
       JNNURM

       Link with Town Planning Law

       Legal basis for DPC

       Provision for Area Committee

       Provision for Disclosure

       Procedure        Compliance            for
       Amendment to Municipal Law

       Amendment to Municipal Law

A.3    Development           of      Municipal
       Accounting Manual

       Preparation of State Accounting
       Manual as per NMAM

       State      Municipal         Accounting
       Manual



 B.    MANDATORY             REFORMS            -
       STATE LEVEL REFORMS

B.1    Implementation                         of
       Decentralization           Measures    as
       envisaged in 74th CAA, 1992 of
       the GoI

       Review Present Policies

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                                  -212 -
Puri Municipality                                     Puri City Development Plan



      Strengthen Legislative Framework

      Review Institutional Structure

      Review Regulatory Arrangements

      Prepare           Roadmap               for
      Implementation

      Implement the Roadmap

B.2   Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling                  ALREADY REPEALED
      and Regulation Act

B.3   Reform of Rent Control Laws                    NOT RELEVANT

B.4   Rationalization of Stamp Duty
      to bring it down to less than 5
      percent

      Preparation      and        Approval     of
      Cabinet   Note     on       Stamp    Duty
      Rationalization

      Implementation                         and
      Rationalization to bring it down to
      less than 5 percent

      Accomplishing                    desired
      Rationalization        as      per      the
      JNNURM Guidelines

B.5   Enactment of Public Disclosure
      Law (as part of Reform Initiative
      A.2)

B.6   Enactment         of        Community
      Participation Law (as part of
      Reform Initiative A.2)

B.7   Associate elected ULBs - City
      Planning & Civic Services (as
      part of Reform Initiative A.2)



 C.   GENERAL REFORMS - URBAN
      LOCAL BODY LEVEL REFORMS

C.1   Enhancement                              of
      Creditworthiness        of     the     Puri
      Municipality

      Review of Income and Expenditure

      Identification of Steps to Increase
      Revenue

      Finalization of Rules for Property
      Tax Assessment

      Survey and GIS of Properties for

City Managers’ Association Orissa                                         -213 -
Puri Municipality                                 Puri City Development Plan



      Property Tax Assessment

      Implementation                         of
      Resource/Revenue           Mobilization
      Measures

C.2   Improvement          of        Financial
      Management                in        Puri
      Municipality

      Appoint Local CA as Consultant

      Training of Employees on new
      Accounting System

      Opening Balance Sheet

      Parallel Accounting System

      Shift to New System

      Improved                   Expenditure
      Management

      Improved Financial Management

      Introduce Improved Audit System

C.3   Water and Sanitation Charges

      Financial Diligence (PHEO)

      Measures      to     Improve        Cost
      Recovery

      Energy Savings Plan

      Prepare Implementation Plan

      Implement Improvement Plan

C.4   Development of E-Governance
      System

      Assess existing IT Initiatives

      Develop Options to Introduce E-
      Governance System

      Develop Service Delivery Strategy

      Assessment          of         Functional
      Requirement

      Develop Technical Options

      Project Management Framework

      Implementation Framework

      Explore PPP Options

      Initiate   and/or        Upgrade     City
      Website



City Managers’ Association Orissa                                     -214 -
Puri Municipality                                    Puri City Development Plan



C.5    Devolution of Functions to Puri
       Municipality

       City   /   Town      Planning     and
       Building Approvals

       Water Supply and Sewerage



 D.    MANDATORY            REFORMS        -
       URBAN      LOCAL     BODY     LEVEL
       REFORMS

D.1    Accrual-based        Double     Entry
       Accounting System (as part of
       Reform Initiative C.2)

D.2    Introduction of System of E-
       Governance (as part of Reform
       Initiative C.4)

D.3    Reform of Property Tax in
       Urban Local Bodies (as part of
       Reform Initiative C.1)

D.4    Levy Reasonable User Charges -
       recover Full O&M Cost (as part
       of Reform Initiative C.3)

D.5    Provision of Basic Services to              ALREADY IN PLACE
       Urban Poor



 E.    OPTIONAL REFORMS

E.1    Revision of Bye-Laws - Building
       Approval Process

E.2    Simplification -   Conversion
       Agriculture to Non-Agriculture
       Use

E.3    Property     Title     Certification
       System

E.4    Earmarking 20-25% Lands for
       EWS Housing

E.5    Computerization of         Land    &    NOT POSSIBLE TO INTRODUCE
       Property Registration

E.6    Bylaws - Rainwater Harvesting
       Mandatory

E.7    Byelaws - Reuse of Recycled
       Water

E.8    Administrative    Reforms           -
       Reduction in Establishment

E.9    Structural Reforms

E.10   Encouraging           Public-Private
       Partnerships


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 Puri Municipality                                         Puri City Development Plan




                              16.Implementation                       Framework
16.1.Govt. of Orissa Reform Agenda

 The matter relating to adoption of reform programmes has been approved by the Cabinet
 which is communicated in the Memo of the Parliamentary Affairs Department No.7409, dated
 the 21st September, 2006. The State Government has decided to commit to undertake the
 reforms within the Mission period as indicated below:

 Table 71:    Govt. of Orissa Resolution on Reforms
 Mandatory Reforms
 Sl.No.      Reforms required to be                  Decision of Government
                   Undertaken
   1.   Urban Planning including Town     Complete transfer along with requisite
        Planning function.                personnel to ULBs during 2008-09.
   2.   Regulation of land use and        The function would be transferred to ULBs
        constructions of Building.        during 2008-09.
   3.   Planning for economic and social  ULBs will continue to discharge this function.
        development.
   4.   Roads & Bridges.                  The functions of management and control
                                          would be transferred to ULBs along with
                                          personnel on deputation basis in 2010-11.
   5.   Water Supply for domestic,        The operation, maintenance of the water
        industrial and commercial         supply system and collection of water tariff
        purposes.                         would be transferred to ULBs along with
                                          personnel on deputation basis in 2009-10.
   6.   Public Health, Sanitation,        ULBs will continue to discharge these
        Conservancy and Solid Waste       functions.
        Management.
   7.   Fire Services.                    The District Fire Officer will also report to ULBs
                                          within the jurisdiction. This will be transferred
                                          in 2007-08.
   8.   Urban Forestry, protection of the Forest and Environment Department would
        environment and promotion of      transfer these functions to the ULBs in 2007-
        ecological aspects.               08 along with personnel on deputation basis.

   9.    Safeguarding the interest of        The DSWO will report to the concerned Urban
         weaker section of society,          Local Body. For the programmes under ICDS in
         including the handicapped and       the ULB area, the field staff would be deputed
         mentally retarded.                  to ULBs by W & C.D. Deptt. by 2006-07.
  10.    Rationalization of Stamp Duty.      This has to be reduced to 5% during 2007-08.
  11.    Public Disclosure Law               Public Disclosure of income and expenditure
         Enactment.                          (ward wise) would be put to place in the 2nd
                                             year (2006-07) after receiving the guideline of
                                             Government of India.
  12.    Community Participation             No formal mechanism exists. This can be done
         Enactment Law.                      in 2007-08 as per the guidelines of Govt. of
                                             India.
  13.    Associating elected ULBs with       Full transfer of such functions in
         City Planning function.             2008-09.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                -216 -
 Puri Municipality                                                Puri City Development Plan



 Optional Reforms
 Sl.No.              Reforms Undertaken                             Recommendations/Commitment
   1.   Revision of bye-laws to streamline the building                       2007-08
        approval process.
    2   Simplification of legal and procedural                                2006-07
        frameworks for conversion of agriculture land
        for non-agriculture purpose.
   3.   Introduction of property Title Certification                          2008-09
        System in ULBs.
   4.   Earmarking at least 20-25 per cent of                                 2008-09
        developed land in all housing projects (both
        Public and Private Agencies) for EWS/LIG
        category with a system of cross subsidization.
   5.   Introduction of computerized process of                               2008-09
        registration of land and property.
   6.   Revision of bye-laws to make rain water                               2006-07
        harvesting mandatory in all buildings and
        adoption of water conservation measures.
   7.   Bye-laws on reuse of recycled water.                                  2011-12

   8      Administrative Reform i.e. reduction in                             2009-10
          establishment by bringing out voluntary
          retirement schemes, non-filling up of posts
          falling vacant due to retirement etc., and
          achieving specified milestones in this regard.
    9.    Structural reforms.                                                 2009-10
   10.    Encouraging public private partnership.                             2006-07


16.2.Heritage Cell

 Puri being an important city for heritage, it is proposed to set up a City Heritage Cell within
 the Municipalities to build awareness among the citizens about heritage, culture and
 conservation. The Heritage cell would comprise of representation from various institutions i.e.
 Puri Municipality, Puri Konark Development Authority, Temple Administration, Sate
 Archeology, Archeological Survey of India, Conservation Architect and NGO’s etc with the
 chairmanship of Chairperson Puri Municipality and Executive officer Puri as Member
 Convener. The role of the Heritage Cell would be to coordinate among various institutions for
 smooth protection and promotion of Heritage 7 Culture of Puri.

16.3.Puri City Development Council

 It is understood that Management of Puri city is a vested with various institutions. However,
 coordination between these institutions exists only during festivals. But there is a need for a
 City Development Council (CDC) to coordinate among various stakeholders. The CDC will
 have    representation   from   various   institutions    i.e.   Puri   Municipality,   Puri   Konark
 Development Authority, Temple Administration, Revenue Divisional Commissioner, District
 Administration, Govt. of Orissa and NGO’s etc with the chairmanship of RDC Central
 Division and Executive officer Puri as Member Convener. The role of the CDC would be to



 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                         -217 -
 Puri Municipality                                                   Puri City Development Plan



 coordinate among various institutions for smooth functioning city of life i.e. public transport,
 solid waste management, sanitation, water supply and grievance redresal etc.

16.4.Centre for Excellence
 It is proposed to set up centre for excellence within the existing City Managers’ Association
 Orissa. CMAO a Network of Local Government & Authorities for Sustainable Urban
 Management & Human Settlement is a, non-profit organization formed to address the
 changing needs of local government managers & leaders of the Local Government &
 Authorities by helping them keep up to date with appropriate skills and knowledge, by raising
 the profile of management in local government, and by promoting high standards.

 The centre will support cities with a platform in which to learn and explore in great detail
 about key aspects of urban management. The objectives are to advance knowledge and
 understanding of the City Managers on broad range of urban issues and to present the tools
 they need to plan, manage and govern their cities.

 The centre will explore networking with national international level institutions in promoting
 & building professional city managers within the state. It will conduct various activities to
 strengthen the urban governance in Orissa through various programmes i.e. best practices,
 performance measurement, technology dissemination, resource mobilization, solid waste
 management, municipal accounting, environmental management and publishing survey
 research, workshop, study tour, professional development programs etc.

16.5.Project Formulation & Management

 Pursuant to identification of the required investments, development of the Detailed Project
 Reports is an important activity that will essentially jump-start the pre-implementation
 process. Govt. of Orissa and Puri Municipality are presently designing to setup a project
 management unit to supervise the progress and ensure effective project formulation. The
 project management unit will look after the progress of both Jn NURM cities from Orissa i.e.
 Bhubaneswar and Puri. The PMU would be a single window system composed of Senior
 Engineers from the departments, boards and experts who are involved in related planning,
 engineering, research and development activities with deliverables. The PMU will keep
 coordination   with       political,   executive   and   citizens   stakeholders   of     the   city,    while
 implementing project.

 There will sub management committee, which will ensure efficient and reliable data sharing
 between the several entities that are involved in preparation of the projects for subsequent
 implementation. This measure is intended to mitigate and possibly prevent future rework. It
 is also recommended that the aforementioned committee be involved in the implementation
 stage to ensure that the design intent is conveyed into system implementation, operation and
 maintenance.        The    Project     Management    Consultant      unit   will   have     the    following
 responsibilities:

    •   Overall project management including financial (specific to project related investment)
        management

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                               -218 -
 Puri Municipality                                          Puri City Development Plan



    •   Field coordination of capital works between the Client, Contractor and Design
        Consultant to ensure that the approved design intent is conveyed into implementation
        and that system operation reflects the same

    •   Quality control and specification compliance in all spheres of equipment, labor,
        material and construction methods

    •   Verification and provision of critical decision making support and recommendations
        on change orders and/or physical contingencies

    •   Facilitate approvals from pertinent authorities for implementation, commissioning
        and licenses to operate

    •   Enforcement of stringent adherence to Environmental Management Plan that should
        be developed specific to each project/sectoral improvement

    •   Facilitate creation and operation of a “Project Implementation & Commissioning
        Database” which shall contain at a minimum, the following information:
            o   All information from the Central Design Database
            o   Documentation pertaining to the present project
            o   Design
            o   Specifications
            o   Drawings
            o   Change Orders
            o   As-built drawings
            o   Communication/Correspondence files

    •   It is also imperative for the PMU to perform the aforementioned responsibilities to the
        highest degree of quality since this database will be the ultimate living proof of the
        project for future upgrades/modifications

    •   Specific attention needs to be paid to documentation/correspondence files since these
        files will provide an eye-opener in the future to the past chronology of events, issues,
        resolutions and other relevant information

 The PMC must also facilitate and assist in implementing a system of sequentially and
 chronologically appending future modifications to the database, so that all changes made are
 accurately reflected and available for future reference

16.6.State Water Sector Reform

 Govt. of Orissa have resolved to transfer the water supply to urban local bodies. In this
 regard a road map is under process. In the mean time H&UD Department prepared a
 memorandum for Govt. approval to initiate innovative measure for improving water sector
 particularly NRW components. The major objective of these reforms includes:

    •   Develop Urban water and sanitation policy;
    •   Strategy for reform of water and sanitation services;


 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                  -219 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



    •   Legislative reform to enable service improvements and to comply with the provisions
        of 74th CAA;
    •   Improve efficincency in collection system including use of e-Governance;
    •   Performance based Incentive to reduce NRW supply with sharing of resources.
    •   Simplification in new collection procedure i.e. payment through installments;
    •   Mechanism for delivery of service to urban poor with 24/7 coverage and
    •   Institutional restructuring plan including enabling framework for outsourcing service
        delivery.
 It is proposed international agencies having experience in Water Sector must come forward to
 support Puri Municipality and State Govt. One of the important supports could be used on
 Institutional restructure and NRW Supply reduction strategy.

16.7.Poverty           Alleviation         and        Community             Development
 Programmess

 Slum upgrading and improving the quality of life of the urban poor in general and slum
 dwellers in particular, is integral part of the Poverty Alleviation. During various stakeholders
 consultation it was understood that slums are not a major issue and nor required
 rehabilitation. Rather it requires more of economic opportunity improve urban poors access
 to quality of life. As most of the slum dwellers are belongs to fishing community of Andhra
 Pradesh and West Bengal. Normally they stay for six month in Puri and rest in other places.
 Taking this as background it was proposed to provide basic infrastructure including housing
 to improve there quality of life. Similarly it was posed to set up various economic opportunity
 complexes within the city. These economic opportunity complexes will provide urban poor
 with proper infrastructure to markets its product at a proper price.

 Further it was proposed in consultation with State Govt. a policy on Slum and Economic
 Opportunity for Urban Poor may be prepared to begin the task. Similarly Best practices and
 Strategies of other cities may be initiated including women community development model
 from Hyderbad-Vishakpatnam, slum networking of Ahmedabad- Indore, Kudumbashree from
 Kerla and integrate all the programmes with various state & central funded projects.

16.8.Solid Waste Management

 Puri being the heritage city and attraction for tourism, it is important to depend upon a
 sustainable solid waste management system. The city will implement the Seven Step Solid
 Waste Management. Seven steps Solid Waste Management is a tool, which divides the entire
 solid waste management programme into seven steps. In each step various options and
 actions would be executed both by users (citizens, industry), Govt. and Pvt Players etc. On
 the other side it will have an information system to monitors all subjects’ links to Solid Waste
 Management.

 The waste information system would help cities in providing information such as Database
 on waste, comparative views with other cities, Annual reports, NGO’s Participation, Costs

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -220 -
 Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan



 involved, Solid Waste Management Infrastructure, Training Programmes, Modules on seven
 steps, Success stories, Best Practices, projection for future development, Networking
 opportunity, and present position (standing) of respective cities in terms seven steps.

16.9.Local Government HIV/AIDS Programme

 Although Puri City is not having major problems of HIV/AIDS but the experience of
 international cities perticularly Tourist driven cities are prone to such incidents. It is
 therefore proposed the Puri Municipality must take steps immidietly to keep the city from
 HIV/AIDS. Interventions through the State AIDS Control Societies, national and international
 NGOs, and private business initiatives have been implemented to increase general awareness
 of HIV/AIDS issues in the past and are ongoing. It is clear that Puri Municipality as Local
 Governments could play a key role in the fight against HIV/AIDS because they are the closest
 to communities and have a mandate to ensure that their cities are healthy and sustainable.
 Health and public safety are local government issues. Indeed city governments are a critical
 (but underutilized) partner central to a pragmatic and effective response. The following
 reassures the importance of city governments in combating HIV/AIDS:

    •   Elected officials have the ability to shape locally acceptable HIV/AIDS strategies by
        using their position and knowledge of the community.
    •   Local government officials often have a greater ability to fight stigma and facilitate
        open community discussion about the real/immediate impacts of HIV/AIDS.
    •   City governments have the mechanisms/ vehicles, infrastructure and mandate to
        deliver HIV/AIDS prevention programs.
    •   Primary health, slum upgradation and poverty alleviation are obligatory and
        complementary functions of city governments in India and they are already equipped
        with the necessary staffing, facilities and equipment.
    •   Local Governments also have the experience to work with local communities and
        integrate specific health programs including pulse polio, malaria and tuberculosis
        with their ongoing health care and community development programs.

 The local government must evolve strategy of stoping & combating HIV/AIDS in a process to
 keep Puri as healthy and sustainable all the way.

16.10.City Level Disaster Management Plan

 The disaster management plan should have institutional support so as to facilitate its
 implementation on a long-term basis. It is proposed to set up a Disaster Management Center
 within local government, instead of in academic institutions. Such center could be opened in
 various cities including Puri. Such Centre can help to prepare city disaster plans, develop
 information base and train the officials, coordinate with different departments of the state
 government, NGOs and others. Well-equipped emergency operation centers should be opened
 at the city hospitals & fire stations. This center can serve as nodal agency for directing all the
 operations in an emergency situation. Special communication network needs to be
 commissioned and will support centers at district or even at ward levels.
 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -221 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 The geographical Information System (GIS) will help for preparation of comprehensive
 information base at the block level, which would contain all the spatial and non- spatial data.
 The GIS will be also useful for risk assessment and vulnerability analysis as well as
 organizing response operation. There is an urgent need to have an extensive program of
 training for disaster preparedness and response. The training for officials can be organized by
 the Disaster Management Center. But there are need to take up community based disaster
 preparedness activities in the disaster prone areas of the state. NGOs can organize such
 activities at the local level.

 Disaster management may be considered as a process of Sustainable Development and
 part of Developmental Planning. The full implication of the relationship between natural
 disasters and economic and social development are rarely fully understood. More research is
 needed in framing economic strategies for disaster prone areas need to address the issues
 explicitly.

16.11.Participation in Clean Development Mechanism
 The Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol) allows Annex I countries
 to purchase emission reduction certificates through projects in non-Annex I countries. The
 peculiarity of the CDM is that, in contrast to other mechanisms, participation of the
 developing countries is provided for, meaning of the countries having no qualified emissions
 limitation or reduction commitments. For the developing countries, CDM therefore represents
 an important instrument for technology transfer and ought to contribute to sustainable
 development. Participation in CDM projects takes place by mutual agreement between the
 investor and home countries. It is suggested that Puri City to explore possibilities of carrying
 out a CDM project, with an Annex I country or an institution or enterprise in an emissions
 reducing project.


16.12.Networking
 Cities today in the world experience tremendous pressure in terms of management and
 operation of urban systems as well as service delivery to its residents. City-to-city cooperation
 is vital for exchanging, sharing and transferring technical know-how, expertise and
 experiences, and to explore the possibilities of cooperation among the various partners in the
 field of urban management. The city development plan of puri provides scope for creating
 partnership and networking with international cities in promotion of Heritage & Culture etc.


 The importance of cities to network among themselves stems from the fact that this will be an
 opportunity for Puri to learn from other's experiences and to be exposed to other countries,
 cultures and urban systems directly, circumventing limitations and restrictions of nationally-
 coordinated programmes and activities.


 The basic objective of a networking programme between cities is to strengthen the cities'
 capacity to deliver urban services to its residents, and develop effective urban governance
 and management structures by involving various urban stakeholders. A streamlined
 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                    -222 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 management and operational system - strengthened by knowledge gained from networking
 with other cities - can be used to mobilize local institutional and human resources to meet
 the growing and complex needs of cities. There are a number of city networks that have been
 established over the last few decades. Some of the different types include:


    •   Membership networks (CityNet, ICLEI etc.)
    •   Networks led by the United Nations and other international agencies (Kita Kyushu
        Initiative, Asia-Urbs by European Union, etc.)
    •   Networks based on a particular project or issue (Eco-partnership Initiative)
    •   Sister-City Networks
    •   City Links by ICMA / USAID
    •   National networks set up by ministries and local government agencies

16.13.Achieving the vision

 Puri Municipal Council understands that realising the vision will require the cooperation of
 all those who have a stake in the Puri’s future. Puri Municipal Council will develop and
 maintain strong relationships with Government of Orissa, the business and wider
 community, and other key stakeholders to take opportunities in achieving its vision. Puri
 Municipal Council will contribute by providing:

    o   Strong municipal governance;
    o   Leadership, support and education;
    o   Delivery of a range of key city services;
    o   Maintenance of city infrastructure and assets (for example, its heritage, parks,
        gardens, roads, and social infrastructure);
    o   An efficient and effective integrated regulatory environment;
    o   Marketing of the city’s culture, characteristics, advantages and abilities;
    o   Innovative and integrated strategic and corporate planning;
    o   Advocacy on the needs of the residential and business communities;
    o   Networks of businesses, agencies and community groups;
    o   Partnerships, agreements and alliances with key stakeholders; and
    o   Sponsorship of events, businesses, festivals and other initiatives.

 Puri Municipality will achieve the vision by delivering programs, services and daily activities,
 and by continuing to find ways to use sustainable products and processes in construction,
 maintenance and service programs

16.14.Triple bottom line accountability along with MDG

 While discussing with stakeholders and arriving at the Vision, it was understood that of Puri
 is aiming for international city. As the city will grow it is proposed to monitor Millennium
 Development Goal (MDG) Indicators. Thus it will help cities in show casing its international
 presence. Similarly Puri Municipal Council is committed to monitor the town’s economic,
 social and environmental performance to see how the town is working towards the vision of
 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                     -223 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 sustainability. Puri Municipality may apply triple bottom line approach by using several
 indicators to measure the town’s performance. For Puri Town, triple bottom line
 accountability means taking responsibility for achieving social, environmental and economic
 improvements through all its endeavors and reporting them openly and transparently.

  Social equity: Making decisions that lead to greater physical, cultural and financial access
                   and equity in services and justice. Strengthening cultural heritage, bonds
                   between people, increasing their willingness and ability to be come involved
                   in community life.

  Environmental quality: Not using more resources than required to deliver activities and
                   services. Improving overall amenity (including physical infrastructure) of the
                   town and reducing effects on nature. Practical steps include using energy
                   from renewable resources, maximizing resource and infrastructure use and
                   minimizing pollution and waste.

  Economic prosperity: Promoting development of jobs, business prosperity and market
                   growth in a sustainable manner.

16.15.The Way Forward

 A City Development Plan is essentially a road map to achieve a set of development objectives
 within a specific period. This City Development Plan for Puri has identified and articulated
 the needs and aspirations of the citizens of Puri through a comprehensive consultative
 process involving a broad set of stakeholders comprising representative from government,
 para-statal, non-government, citizen’s forums, institutions, commerce and related entities.
 The identified sectors under the Jn NURM Puri are listed below:

            o   Heritage Preservation
            o   Heritage Promotional Infrastructure
            o   City Level Infrastructure
            o   Basic Serices to Urban Poor
            o   Environment Infrastructure
            o   Tourism Infrastructure
            o   Urban Governance
 The onus is now on the nodal and implementing agencies to take the task forward and set
 the ball rolling towards a revitalized and invigorated Puri that can exceed the expectation of
 its residents and set the standard for other State Capitals to draw lessons and develop along
 the same lines.




 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -224 -
  Puri Municipality                                            Puri City Development Plan




              17.Overview of City Development Plan &
                                                                           Vision 2030
  Puri supports a population that allows us to maintain our environmental integrity together
  with our social quality and economic prosperity. People live in a city made up of compact
  urban core areas, surrounded by a rural landscape that includes productive family farms,
  hamlets and a continuous network of natural areas.
  We are an economically, socially and culturally diverse community that encourages
  opportunities for individuals, reduces inequities and ensures full participation for all in
  community life.

  We are a caring community that gives opportunity and support to all its citizens, including
  children, the aged, people with disabilities, immigrants and refugees and the disadvantaged.
  People live longer in good health.

  We are an environmentally conscious community where the existence of all living things is
  cherished and where all can breathe fresh air, swim in clean sea and rivers & ponds and
  have ample opportunity to observe and experience the wonders of the natural world.

  Finally, we are a vibrant community, which builds on existing strengths and attracts
  businesses that work in partnership with government and the community to create a diverse,
  sustainable economy. Economic growth incorporates businesses in new and existing sectors
  that are leaders in creating a competitive advantage through environmental and social
  responsibility. Business, government, labour and the community have great capacity for
  innovation in response to local and global change.

17.1.Quality of Life
  All of us achieve our full potential in a safe, non-violent environment. Everyone has adequate
  food, shelter, income and education. Everyone has a valued role to play in family, work and
  community. Healthy lifestyles, improved safety measures and quality healthcare have
  progressively reduced disease and disability. We have access to affordable and appropriate
  health care, regardless of geography, income, age, gender, or cultural background.

  Cultural institutions and the arts community are recognized, supported and celebrated for
  their contribution to community life and economic health. Cultural institutions reflect our
  historical development and the contributions of our diverse population. Our heritage
  buildings are conserved and re-used.

  All of us take responsibility for citizenship and public decision-making. As citizens, we are
  active participants in co-operative, community planning and we take action to ensure
  community     improvement.    Government     is   open,   accessible,   efficient,   effective,   and
  participatory. Policies, plans, strategies and operations implement sustainability.

  A well-educated, literate population is seen as a total community responsibility. Schools are
  leaders in effective learning and excellence in teaching. Lifelong learning is valued and

  City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                       -225 -
 Puri Municipality                                             Puri City Development Plan



 supported across the community. All citizens are knowledgeable about sustainable
 communities. Educational, cultural and business institutions and community groups
 advocate values consistent with sustainability. Citizens pursue sustainable lifestyles.

17.2.The Landscape
 The health and beauty of the countryside and townscapes is a source of great civic pride. Our
 quality of life is enriched by a protected system of natural areas that threads throughout the
 City, preserving and improving our natural heritage. A recreational costal belt gives residents
 access to this system of natural areas, in ways that do not threaten ecological processes.

 As a community, we cherish a clean, healthy environment. We work to prevent ecological
 degradation.   Waste-reduction,     energy-efficiency   and       respect   for   ecological   systems
 characterize all aspects of community life and public and private decision making. Citizens
 and businesses abide by environmental laws and regulations and help educate each other on
 ways of living in harmony with the natural world. They are leaders in environmental
 monitoring, protection and remediation. Puri is a model for other communities in the way in
 which we integrate short-term economic benefits, long-term environmental and social costs,
 and indirect economic costs in our evaluation of public and private initiatives.

17.3.Our Communities
 Rural and urban areas are designed in ways that maintain community character, respect our
 cultural and natural heritage, and satisfy people's needs and desires.

 Urban development occurs within firm boundaries. Green corridors bring nature into the city,
 giving people easy and convenient access to the open countryside, natural areas and
 continuous public open space along the Bay Shore and grand road. Architecture, green
 building technology and environmental design are commonly used to create neighbourhoods
 that are models of energy-efficiency, waste-reduction and respect for nature. Human needs
 for space, privacy, safety, and aesthetic appeal are fulfilled.

 We know our neighbours. People of all ages and walks of life live in neighbourhoods, not
 subdivisions. There is a full range of housing types and prices allowing people to live in their
 communities throughout their lives. Different kinds of compatible activities and land uses are
 mixed together, so that we can walk to meet our daily needs for work, recreation and other
 services. Neighbourhoods have a central gathering place where essential services such as
 shopping, health care, education and recreation are clustered around an attractive,
 pedestrian-oriented common open space. This gives everyone an opportunity to participate in
 all aspects of community life.

 Puri is a warm and friendly place where people actively care for their community and are
 concerned for one another's welfare. The streets and public areas are safe at all times.
 Neighbourhoods have strong local identity. Residents actively participate in community life,
 to a large extent, controlling the pace and design of change. The decision-making processes
 are easily understood and open to involvement by all. Politicians and public employees at all
 levels act cooperatively to achieve long-term plans developed with the community.

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                          -226 -
 Puri Municipality                                           Puri City Development Plan



 Employment opportunities are distributed among home-based businesses, central urban
 cores and neighbourhood gathering places, as well as industrial business parks that are
 accessible by public transit and a city-wide system of trails. Containing a range of activities
 and amenities, these areas serve the needs of workers, businesses and customers.

17.4.Getting Around
 We have many transportation choices. We are not dependent on automobiles and trucks. An
 integrated transportation system serves the entire city in an affordable, efficient, and
 accessible way. Our transportation system improves community health by reducing the need
 for automobile use and making it easy and attractive to walk or cycle.

 Public streets are designed and managed to safely and comfortably accommodate public
 transit, cyclists, pedestrians and automobiles as complementary forms of transportation. The
 integrated transportation system gives access to all basic needs. Public transit provides all
 citizens with easy access to activity areas. Most people can walk or cycle to work because
 jobs and housing are near one another.

 Rail service brings people to Puri for recreation and work, and makes travel to other cities
 and regions easy and affordable. Our regional transportation system supports both our
 economy and environment. Rail and marine services offer efficient movement of goods and
 services, giving our businesses and industries a competitive edge. Major roads have minimal
 noise and pollution impacts on adjacent lands, and follow routes that cause little damage to
 the natural and human environment.

17.5.Livelihood
 A stable, flexible economy is achieved through the effective use and development of all
 community resources. This means not only land, capital equipment, and community services,
 but the continued improvement and retention of a skilled workforce. Economic strategies, set
 through a cooperative process involving citizens, business, government, education and
 labour, include effective job-training and re-training programmes. All people can find
 employment opportunities in the city.

 New jobs are created in sustainable businesses that build on the community’s strong
 tourism, academic, commercial and cultural resources.

 Puri is home to a whole new economic sector based on the cultural and natural resources of
 the city. Puri city is a base for nature-oriented tourism and recreation. The sea beach is a
 vibrant centre piece for the community and is accessible and clean with diversity. Recreation
 co-exists with use of the coastal areas as essential sea front tourism in India. Puri’s heritage
 sites, farms and arts community complete the picture, drawing tourists and investment.

17.6.Cooperation
 We all have a role to play. Citizens, business, academic institutions and government form
 partnerships, work cooperatively and innovate to achieve the goals that will make our vision
 a reality.

 City Managers’ Association Orissa                                                   -227 -
              Puri Municipality                                       Puri City Development Plan




For Further information Contact us                 To know more about CMAO contact us
Executive Officer                                  Executive Director
Puri Municipality                                  City Managers’ Association Orissa
Puri, Orissa                                       C/o Vice Chairman,
E-mail: cmao@sancharnet.in                         Bhubaneswar Development Authority,
Ph: +91-675-2222122                                Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar – 751001
               City Managers’ Association Orissa   Orissa. E-mail – cmao@sancharnet.in     -228 -
                                                   http://www.orissa.gov.in/cmao
                                                   Ph: +91-674-2395614, Fax: +91-674-2390633

				
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