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					VII. Cities & Urban Land Use Patterns (Kyle, Parth, Ramil)

    Agglomeration - the action or process of regions or areas collecting in a mass usually for certain advantages.
           Significance: Many regions agglomerate usually to receive either political or             economic benefits. Examples
           include the United Nations and the European Union.

    Barriadas – another name for squatter settlements that are residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned
    nor rented by its occupants.
             Significance: Many LDC’s can’t house their poor due to overpopulation and other factors and therefore the poorest in
             the area create residential developments for      them to stay there until they are able to improve their own situation.

    Bid-rent theory – a geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the
    CBD increases.
             Significance: Many people live at a location from the CBD depending on their        economic situation and stay
             somewhere where they feel balance between the services offered by the CBD and the price they are paying at a certain

    Blockbusting – a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of
    fear that black families will soon move into the
              Significance: Blockbusting occurs often in inner city areas and is done to have a   diverse population of nationalities
              and cultures.

    CBD (central business district) – The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
           Significane: The CBD is one of the most busiest areas in a city where there is a            high population density. As stated
           in the definition there are a lot of buildings and retail offices that are often a high rising due to the high price of land in
           this region.

    Census tract – An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census
    tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
              Significance: These statistics collected by the government help reflect the status            of those living in
              urbanized areas around the country and compare different regions.

    Centrality – the functional dominance of cities within an urban system.

    Centralization – is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become
    concentrated within a particular location and/or group.

    Central-place theory – a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of
    market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger
    number of people who are willing to travel farther.

    Christaller, Walter – created the Central Place theory which displayed the ideas that central places would provide services and
    goods to the surrounding areas. This theory shows how to use space and distribute services and goods efficiently in a urbanized

    City – conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Many
    activities and services are offered in an urbanized area such as a city.

    Cityscapes - the urban equivalent of a landscape. The cityscape lets you look at the layout of the city and see how how it is
Colonial City- Compared to older cities, colonial cities typically contain wider streets and public squares, larger houses
surrounded by gardens, and much lower density. Colonial cities also followed standardized plans.
Significance: When Europeans gained control of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, they expanded existing cities to provide
colonial services, such as administration, military command, and international trade, as well as housing for Europeans who settled
in the colony.

Commercialization- the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of
economic activity
Significance: Commercialization is occurring in many places to boost economy.

Commuter Zone- the fifth ring in the concentric zone model that is beyond the continuous built-up area of the city
Significance: Some people who work in the center nonetheless choose to live in small villages that have become dormitory towns
for commuters.

Concentric Zone Model- a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
Significance: Helps explain where different types of people tend to live in an urban area.

Counterurbanization- Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Significance: Presently, many people are moving to rural areas to get away from the city lifestyle.

Decentralization-the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action
Significance: Used to study mass decision making by groups.

Deindustrialization- a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industry in a country or
region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

Early Cities- Cities of the ancient world (-3500 to -1200). Early cities help geographers study how cities or society in general has
evolved over time.

Economic Base- a community’s collection of basic industries. Knowing an area’s basic industries may help geographers
distinguish successful cities from non-successful cities.

Basic Industries- Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement. This shows us that
industries try to sell to a certain type of consumers not necessarily everyone. Basic industries are found in almost all cities

Non-basic Industries- Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community. This shows us that industries
try to sell to a certain type of consumers not necessarily everyone.

Edge City- A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
        Significance: Edge cities originated as suburban residences for people who
        Worked in the central city, and then shopping malls were built to be near the
        Residents. Now edge cities contain manufacturing centers spread out over a
        Single story for more efficient operations and office parks where producer
        Services cluster.

Emerging Cities- City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate. These cities have a rapid increase in
population and become more urban in the process as well.

Employment Structure- Employment structure means how the workforce is divided up between the three main employment
sectors - primary, secondary and tertiary. This shows us what sector each job belongs to and helps us understand a job’s position
in the economy.

Entrepot- A place where goods are stored or deposited and from which they are distributed. This is where international trading
takes place.

Ethnic Neighborhood- A neighborhood in which the people who live there share physical, mental, and cultural traits. This can
help us identify the areas in which ethnicities are concentrated.

Favela- The Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city. These are the areas in
which poor squatter settlements are located.
Female-Headed Household- A household in which the most powerful individual is a female. These are most commonly found in
lesser-developed countries.

Festival Landscape- a landscape of cultural festivities

Gateway City- A city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation. These cities
help link and connect different ethnicities.

Gender- the social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex. This helps
us see the dividing line between men and women.

Gentrification- The invasion of older, centrally located working class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the
character and convenience of less expensive and well located residences. This is a major problem that is taking place in cities

Ghetto- During the middle ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section
of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure. This is where many
underclass citizens call home and many legal issues occur.

Globalization- The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic,
environmental, political, and cultural change. The earth is experiencing rapid globalization right now more than it ever has.

Great Cities-

High-Tech Corridors- made up of thousands of high tech businesses and industries, employing many more thousands of high tech
workers. These corridors show that in an urban area exist industries, which require people both on the lower and higher end of the
skill continuum.

Hinterland (Market Area)- The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and
services. The Hinterland is an area that is where many people are attracted to due its usefulness to humans. Businesses use this
information when deciding where to be located.

Hydraulic Civilization- any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed
waterworks. This shows us that around the world exist many different systems of completing one process.

Indigenous City-

In Filling- The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development. In filling shows the
possible influence of nearby urban areas but it not be such a positive because the land could be fertile for agriculture or other uses.

Informal Sector- it is economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that
government's Gross National Product (GNP). This shows us that the GNP and the GDP per capita might not be accurate
depending on how large the informal sector is in a certain region or area.

Infrastructure- the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication
systems, power plants, and schools.
         Significance: This is the base of a country, city, or area.

Inner City- residential neighborhoods that surround the CBD. Many inner city neighborhoods face many problems or obstacles
that hold them back.

Invasion and succession- A model of change used in urban ecology to represent the effects of immigration on the social structure
of an urban area. Invasion and succession involve a chain reaction, with each preceding immigrant wave moving outwards and
being succeeded by more recent, poorer immigrants

Lateral Commuting- Commuting between two suburbs

Medieval Cities- cities that existed the time frame of the middle ages. This helps historians discover how the modern concept of
cities differs from that of history.

Megacities- a recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people. This shows us certain areas
around the world in which urbanization has really impacted certain cities.
Megalopolis -An area of adjacent metropolitan statistical areas that overlap.
       Significance: Urban areas are visibly separated from each other, but at the
       Periphery of the urban areas, the boundaries overlap.

Metropolitan Statistical Area- In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is
located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city. This is one way
statistics of an area are calculated.

Multiple Nuclei Model- a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes
of activities. The multiple nuclei theory states that some activities are attracted to particular nodes, whereas others try to avoid

Multiplier Effect- The expansion of the money supply that results from a Federal Reserve System member bank's ability to lend
significantly in excess of its reserves.

Neighborhood- The area or region around or near some place or thing.
       Significance: Neighborhoods are often described to locate a point of interest.

Office Park- is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. All of the work that goes on is commercial,
not industrial or residential.

Peak Land Value Intersection- is the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually
located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail. Other
hallmarks indicating a PLVI are tall buildings (in order to maximise the use of land) and a relatively great number of pedestrians.

Planned Communities- or planned city or new town is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is
typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area.

Postindustrial City- a city in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based
economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization

Postmodern Urban Landscape-

Suburbanization- is a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities. It is one of the many causes of the
increase in urban sprawl.

Symbolic Landscape-landscape that depicts symbols. (twin towers; wealth and prosperity) (Cross in religion)

Tenement- A run-down and often overcrowded apartment house.
       Significance: Many inner cities have tenements.

Primate City- The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. The
primate city follows under the primate city rule and is usually the hub of a country’s economic and political activities.

Racial Steering- Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away
from certain neighborhoods based on their race. This causes single race neighborhoods to be formed.

Rank-Size Rule- A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest
settlement. This is rule that can help you estimate the population of cities within a country.

Redlining- A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within
boundaries. This is a form of discrimination against many inner-city families that has now been declared illegal

Restrictive Covenants-

Range – the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. This is one of the most prominent factors that a
service company would take into consideration when deciding a location.

Sector Model-

Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated)

Shopping Mall-


      heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing
Slum- A
and squalor
Social Structure –social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between diffent relationships. (teacher
student, child parent) Regulated through accepted norms and shared values.

Specialization – separation of tasks within a system. Specialization allows for workers to improve in a given area incraseing more
output of work.

Squatter Settlement – (look at barriadas)

Street Pattern (grid, dendrtic; access, control) -

Suburb - residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town. This shows us where many folks live due to the cheaper prices
of land compared to the areas located near the heart of the cities.

                building; especially : one meeting minimum standards of
Tenement- apartment
sanitation, safety
Threshold – the minimum number of people needed to support the service. Many se rvice countries when thinking of a location
will consider the threshold or the number of people that are needed for themt stay in business.


Underclass – a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a
more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics. Many of the underclass live in the inner cities
which face tough issues making it hard for them.

Underemployment - employed at a job that does not fully use one's skills or abilities. Since there is a competition for jobs in some
areas especially those that are highly urbanized means that there might be a fraction of people who are underemployed.

Urban growth rate – the rate at which an urban area grows. This is significant for geographers because it lets them now the fastest
growing urban areas and analyze their growth.

Urban function –

Urban hearth area – An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile River Valley where large cities first existed.

Urban heat island – is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas.

Urban hierarchy – a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions

Urban hydrology – study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it. (pollutiuon)

Urban morphology – the study of the physical form and structure of urban places

Urbanization – the process by which the population of cities grow. More and more areas have become urban over the course of
history. Now the United States is fairly split between rural and urban areas dividing the land mass of the nation.

Urbanized population – Population that lives in Urban areas. (cities)

World city – most important centers of economic power and wealth
Zone in transition – The second ring in the concentric zone model in which there are industries and poor-quality housing located.
Much of the land value in this region isn’t very high because of the pollution caused by the industries and because of that many of
the lower income families live in this zone.

Zoning ordinance – a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maxmum density of development in a community. This is
significant because it gives a limit to development meaning that areas under the law might not be as dveloped as the modern day
urban areas.

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