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					A good objective should be: SMART
• Specific: for conditions the project seeks to change • Measurable: quantitative indicators (precise, can be aggregated, and further statistically processed), but quantification may be difficult. Use also qualitative indicators! • Attainable: at reasonable costs and method • Relevant: to the management information needs

• Timely: collected and reported

• General Objective – what are the wider problems, which your project will help resolve? • Specific Objectives – what are the intended immediate effects on the project area and the target group, what improvements or changes will the project bring about?

General objectives
• To improve the health status of women in kaski districts by end of 2009

Specific objectives
• “To improve the health condition of pregnant or delivered women” • “To reduce delivery related complications” • “To improve nutritional status of pregnant women” • “To ensure, proper health care during and after delivery” • “To increase contraceptive prevalence rate”

Specific objectives
• To change the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding exclusive breast feeding”

• “To change the practices regarding breastfeeding in recently delivered mothers”

Activity
A combination of purposefully designed actions that transforms the various inputs into specific outputs.

• Input

• Output

• Impact

Input
All resources (Human, financial and other) that are allocated to specific activities. Eg: (health workers, educators, organizatoin,etc)

Output
Combination of short term results that are immediate, visible, concrete and tangible consequences of completed project activities. Eg: (trainings, medical checkups, vaccination, treatment, supplement nutrition)

Outcome
Medium-term developmental results benefiting an identified target population that are achievable within the time frame of the project and are the logical consequence of achieving a specified combination of short-term results (outputs). Eg: (normal delivery, fully immunized children, no complications)

Impact
Broader, higher level, long-term effects or consequences of the project. Long-term results usually reach society as a whole and are the logical consequence of achieving a series of medium and short term results. Eg:

•Reduced morbidity •Reduced mortality •Increased in ANC visits •Increased in CPR

Objectives and Targets are expressed in terms of expected values of indicators by the reference time of the plan / programme”

IMR, MMR, literacy rate,

Evaluating action

Exploration

Process
Action Interaction with community leaders Thinking what can be investigated and where (objectives) Planning the survey and questionnaire

Planning action and health program Feedback to relevant individuals & groups and obtain their interpretation Writing report

Training interviewers Pre-testing Reworking survey instruments

Analysis of data and thinking out the implication
Executing survey

STEPS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSIS

First step
• Introduce yourselves: – Who you are – What you plan to do – Present your letter of introduction – Obtain permission from concerned authority • Build rapport – Enlist local resources – Recognise the community support and cooperation during the course of field work – Begin informal collection of information including significant history of VDC, community norms, security situation and safety plan etc. • Arrange logistics – Work out arrangement for food and lodging • Finalize your group work plan and daily schedule

Second step
• Prepare Social Map of VDC (Participatory method) • Observe and note – Topographical features, landmarks (river, mountain, roads, trails, tap, schools etc.) – Administrative offices – Health facilities: Hospitals, Medical halls, Health post, Sub health post, Outreach clinics EPI centres etc. • Get information on – Health personals- both formal and non-formal • Identify the clusters of population • Obtain location and numbers of houses and population from VDC office

Third step
• Refine your questionnaires to make it appropriate for the local context
– Use households which will not be in your formal survey

• Discuss with each other
• Revise questionnaire as needed

Fourth step
• Obtain secondary data you need for planning survey
– Vital statistics – Population – Total, Ethnicity, no. of households, geographic distribution – Age, sex if available – Migration data – Births and deaths

• Define catchments area population for VDC for health post or sub health post

Fifth step (or later)
• Visit all health facilities, both formal and non-formal to collect – Morbidity data- 10 most common conditions – Mortality data- Most serious diseases • Use this information to – Compare data from formal and non-formal sources • Are they seeing the same patients? Why? Is there competition? Collaboration? Why not? – Later, compare the above secondary data with morbidity and mortality data collected during formal household survey to estimate or calculate health service utilization rates. – Are some ethnic groups left out? Why? Geography ? Poor? Marginalised groups?
Use Morbidity/ mortality data from all sources, use it along with your primary data for prioritisation of for health problems

Sixth step
• Carry out survey (Data collection) • Check your data every night and correct error

Seventh step
• Do preliminary data analysis

Eighth step
– First community presentation: Sharing of findings with key stakeholders of the community – Prioritize problems with community – Plan for micro health project with the participation of community/stakeholders

Ninth step
Micro- Health Project – Planning, – Implementation evaluation and – Report

Tenth step
Final community presentation: Sharing of experiences and major findings of the CD exercise Suggestions to the community for health promotion Vote of thanks

Eleventh step presentation
Twelfth step Finalise written report


				
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posted:7/27/2009
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