vowels tongue

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The difference between vowels and consonants –
  common view – vowels are sounds where there is
  no obstruction to the flow of air as it passes the
  larynx to the lips.
The main difference is in their distribution of sounds.

In what ways are vowels different from each other?
- the shape of the tongue
- The position of the tongue
       Shape and position of the tongue

The vertical distance between the upper surface of
  the tongue and the palate.
The part of the tongue, between the front and back,
  which is raised the highest.

Example: i:        see - the tongue is held up close
  to the roof of the mouth
             ae cat - more space btw surface of
  the tongue and palate
       Front – back      &   close - open
~ difference between i: and ae is the difference
  of tongue height.
• i: is a relatively close vowel and ae is a
  relatively open vowel

~ in i: and ae front part of the tongue is raised,
   :-comparatively front vowels
~ in a: calm the back of the tongue is the
   highest point :- back vowel (refer trans 1 & 2)
   Cardinal vowels – a standard reference system
 primary cardinal vowels – the vowels that are most
           familiar to European speakers.
(refer trans 2)
 [i] as close and as front as possible to make a
   vowel without obstructing the flow of air

 [a] the most open and back vowel

 [u] fully close and back
Another variable of vowel quality is lip rounding.

 1. Rounded ~ where the corners of the lips are
 brought towards each other and the lips are pushed
 forward [u]
 2. Spread ~ the corners of the lips move
 away from each other, like smiling [i]
 3. Neutral ~ lips stay neutral. Like saying “er”
          Tutorial activities
• Discuss English short vowels as presented
  in the cardinal charts on pages 15 & 16
• Exercises on page 18.
• Discuss English long vowels as presented in
  the charts on pages19 & 20
• What are “tense” & “lax” vowels?
• Exercises on page 26

• A movement of vowels ~ glide ~ from one vowel
  to another
• The first part is much longer and stronger than the
• Example :         ai    eye, I :- a is
  pronounced much longer and stronger than I
• Total number of diphthongs are 8. (refer trans 3)
            Three groups of diphthongs

• Centring ~ the centring diphthongs glide towards
  the [ ] (schwa) vowel (which is in the centre of
  the cardinal chart)
• The closing diphthongs end with a glide towards a
  closer vowel ~ a glide from a relatively more open
  towards a relatively more close vowel.
• ending in i
• ending in u (diff. Sym!)
• Most complex vowel type
• A glide from one vowel to another and then toa
  third, all produced rapidly without interruption.
• Example hour
• Triphthongs ~ composed of the 5 closing
  diphthongs with the [] schwa added to the end.
  (refer trans 4)
** the middle of the triphthongs can hardly be
  heard, thus causing confusion smts.

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