The Village of Malta by pengxiuhui



Ohio’s SWAP Program
The expansion of source water protection to all public water systems was initiated as a result of
the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The amendments specifically require that
each state submit a Source Water Assessment Plan and conduct a source water assessment of
every public water system (over 6,100 systems) within the state. This source water assessment
includes the following three steps for each system: 1) delineation of the protection area, 2)
inventory of potential contaminant sources, and 3) susceptibility to contamination determination
for public water systems. The assessments are intended to be used as a basis to determine
appropriate protection programs to prevent contamination.

During Ohio’s development of its Source Water Protection Program the technical advisory
committee recommended that Public Water Systems (PWSs) within karst regions of the state
should have a different delineation approach than PWSs in other geologic settings. Karst regions
are more vulnerable to contamination because of the
shallow depth to bedrock, the presence of sinkholes
(sinkholes provide a direct conduit for contamination to
enter the ground water), and the rapid flow of groundwater
(up to 500ft/day, which minimizes reaction time to a
contamination event). Because of this vulnerability, a
regional approach was suggested. Ohio decided to select
one of the primary karst regions within the state that has
had contamination problems in the past to conduct a
regional source water assessment pilot study.

Great Lakes RCAP of WSOS Community Action
Commission, Inc. partnered with U.S. and Ohio EPA to
develop a regional delineation and inventory for the area.
Throughout the project RCAP also facilitated the formation of the coalitions necessary to develop
and implement the institutional framework for a regional source water protection plan and move
the public water systems within the delineated area toward more unified management strategies.

                                    Formation of the Stakeholder Committee
                                     Given the complexity of planning across multiple jurisdictions
                                     and varied interests, a stakeholder committee representing
                                     all parties was needed to guide and ultimately implement the
                                     plan. In forming the stakeholder committee, RCAP first met
                                     with the four county Commissioner’s offices. At these
                                     meetings RCAP discussed the project and its main
objectives. The Commissioners appointed a contact for the project. A meeting was then held for
the area public water systems within the karst area to discuss Ohio’s SWAP program along with
the karst project and the direct benefits of participating. A follow up meeting to brainstorm
potential stakeholders was held. The public water systems provided a list of individuals and
agencies. RCAP then contacted these individuals by telephone to discuss the project and request
their participation.

Once all the identified stakeholders were contacted, a full stakeholder, including public water
suppliers, meeting occurred. At this meeting the project goals and objectives were discussed. In
addition, a subcommittee was formed for completing the inventory. As the project proceeded
additional stakeholders became involved relative to particular project related events. The
stakeholder committee met throughout the planning process and will continue to be active in the
implementation and evaluation phase. See Appendix I and II for a list of public water suppliers
within the karst area as well as a list of stakeholders.

                                THE PROTECTION AREA


This source water assessment was completed for public water systems that utilize the karst
region of Sandusky, Seneca, Erie, and Huron Counties as their source of drinking water. Karst
features, including sinkholes, disappearing streams, and caves are most prevalent in the
Devonian Aged Columbus and Delaware Limestone (See Figure 1).1 The karst features located
in the Devonian deposits were thought to have formed in part as the result of collapse due to the
dissolution of underlying anhydrite and gypsum beds.2 The less abundant karst features in
western Seneca and Sandusky Counties represent isolated reef deposits. This source water
assessment focused on the Devonian karst region.

    Pavey, Richard R. et al. 1999. Known and Probable Karst in Ohio.        Ohio Department of Natural
          Resources DCMS Map No. 24. Columbus, Ohio.
    Hull, Dennis N. 1999. “Mapping Ohio’s Karst Terrain” in Ohio Geology 1999, No. 2. Ohio Department of
           Natural Resources. Columbus, Ohio.

Figure 1

The Devonian carbonate bedrock in this area is capable of yielding up to 1000 gallons per minute
and serves as the principal aquifer for the region.3 Regional ground water flow directions were
determined based on U.S. Geological Survey potentiometric maps4, and township scale
potentiometric maps from a Bowling Green University Master’s thesis5. The dominant ground
water flow direction in the four county study area is towards the northeast (Lake Erie), although
localized flow directions vary. Dye trace analysis conducted in Thompson Township near
Bellevue, Ohio has yielded ground water flow rates up to 500 feet/day.6 Water levels in wells in
Thompson Township and in Seneca Caverns are reported to rapidly fluctuate in response to
precipitation events. In most of the karst region, the glacial deposits that overlie the carbonate
aquifer are generally thin, less than 25 feet thick (See Figure 2).

    Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 1986a. Ground Water Resources in Erie County. Columbus,

    Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 1986b. Ground Water Resources in Huron County. Columbus,

    Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 1982. Ground Water Resources in Seneca County. Columbus,

    Ohio Department of Natural Resources.       1980.     Ground Water Resources in Sandusky County.
         Columbus, Ohio.
    Breen, Kevin J. and Denise H. Dumouchelle. 1991. Geohydrology and Quality of Water in Aquifers
           in Lucas, Sandusky, and Wood Counties, Northwestern Ohio. United States Geological
           Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4024. Columbus, Ohio.

    Hanover, Robert H. 1994. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow Along a Regional Flow Path of the Midwestern
         Basins and Arches Aquifer Systems in Ohio. United States Geological Survey Water-Resources
         Investigations Report 94-4501. Columbus, Ohio.
    Tintera, John J. 1980. The Identification and Interpretation of karst Features in the Bellevue-Castalia
           Region of Ohio (Master of Science Thesis). Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green, Ohio.
    Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 1994. Impact of Best Management Practices on Surface Runoff
          and Ground Water Quality in a Solutioned Limestone Area, Thompson Township, Seneca County,
          Ohio. Columbus, Ohio.

Figure 2

   Delineation Method Selection
   Groundwater in karst regions move via large fractures and conduit (turbulent) flow, and therefore
   Darcy’s law does not apply.7 Ground water flow models assume laminar flow conditions within a
   porous media and cannot be applied to karst regions. Since travel times in the study area are
   high, the flowpaths are complicated, and the region is vulnerable, Ohio EPA felt that the entire
   region contributing water via the karst system should be delineated as a source water protection
   area. The aquifer mapping techniques that were used to delineate the protection area are
   discussed in the following section.

   Ohio EPA delineated the karst area based upon geological conditions within the area as follows:

                The northern boundary was determined by the location of discharge points
                  (Springs) and the Columbus Escarpment.

                 The eastern boundary was based on the contact between the Delaware Limestone and
                  the Olentangy Shale. However, in one area this boundary was moved farther to the
                  east due to potential errors in the bedrock geology map.

            The western boundary was determined based upon the contact between the Bass
                  Islands group (pinches out) or the Columbus Limestone with the Salina group.
                  This contact is perpendicular to the potentiometric contours on the maps that were
                   evaluated, and helped support the use of the contact as the western boundary.

         The Crawford County line was used as the preliminary southern boundary
                     because karst features do not occur in the Devonian carbonates in Crawford
                     County, and because the glacial deposits exceed 25 feet in Crawford County.
                     This boundary will be reevaluated as part of a study being conducted by the
                     University of Akron.

In addition, since some wells located just outside the preliminary karst area had large voids indicated
on their well logs and paleokarst features may be present under the shale unit, Ohio EPA delineated
a 1- mile buffer around the entire protection area (See Figure 3).

       Fetter, C. W. 1988. Applied Hydrogeology. Merrill Publishing Company. Columbus, Ohio.

Figure 3


Inventory Process

The Ohio EPA provided RCAP with a map of the delineated karst area and regulated list of
potential sources of contamination (i.e. leaking underground storage tanks, landfills, cemeteries,
and Class V injection wells). These were compiled through a regional database search of over
30 databases, including BUSTR for underground storage tanks, ODNR for oil and gas well logs,
transmission lines, and other regulated potential sources.

RCAP interviewed local officials concerning the inventory for the community water systems. A
windshield survey was also conducted within the municipal boundaries. Interviews with
representatives of the non-community public water systems were also conducted to inventory
sources within their property boundaries.

For the remaining rural area RCAP formed a sub-committee of
the stakeholder group to obtain input on how to inventory for
contaminants located outside municipal boundaries. At the
meeting it was decided that the local township trustees would
be very knowledgeable about the area and its history,
therefore, RCAP met with all of the township trustees to solicit
their assistance in conducting windshield surveys and
obtaining historical land use data. Both RCAP and trustees,
with assistance from other stakeholders, conducted the
windshield surveys for the rural unincorporated areas.

Other local miscellaneous data including land use, agricultural
statistics, and sewered/unsewered information was provided by other members of the
stakeholder committee.

Potential Contaminant Sources

Potential contaminant sources identified within the delineated source protection area are located
in Appendix IV. Maps revealing the location of each contaminant are contained in Appendix V.

A summary of the potential sources, which includes the number of occurrences and why they are
a potential threat, follows in Table 1.

                             Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                              Source Inventory Summary

            Sources               # Of Sources      Potential Pollution Substances
Airport/Abandoned Airfield        7              Jet fuels; deicers; diesel fuels; chlorinated
                                                 solvents, auto wastes; heating oil;
                                                 building wastes
Auto Repair/Body Shops            53             Waste oils; solvents; acids; paints; auto
                                                 wastes; miscellaneous cutting oils
Barber/Beauty Shops               19             Perm solutions; dyes; miscellaneous
                                                 chemicals contained in hair rinses
Car/Boat Dealerships              3              Auto wastes; waste oils; solvents;
                                                 miscellaneous wastes
Car Washes                        9              Soaps, detergents, waxes; miscellaneous
Carpet/Tile Stores                4              Glues and other adhesives; fuels from
                                                 storage tanks if forklifts are used
Dry Cleaners                      2              Solvents (perchlorethylene, petroleum
                                                 solvents, freon); spotting chemicals
Equipment Rental/Repair           9              Waste oils, gasoline, miscellaneous
Shops                                            wastes
Fleet/Truck/Bus Terminals         5              Waste oil, solvents, gasoline, diesel fuel
                                                 from storage tanks and vehicles; fuel oil,
                                                 other auto waste
Food Processor                    1
Funeral Services &                5              Formaldehyde; wetting agents;
Crematories                                      fumigants; solvents
Furniture Repair/Finishing/Man.   3              Paints; solvents; degreasing and solvent
Shops                                            recovery
Gas Stations (existing and        25             Oils, solvents, miscellaneous wastes
Golf Courses                      6              Fertilizers; herbicides; pesticides
Hardware/Lumber/parts Stores      7              Hazardous chemical products in
                                                 inventories; heating oil & fork lift fuel from
                                                 storage tanks; wood-staining and treating
                                                 products such as creosote
Heating Oil Companies             2              Heating oil; wastes from truck
                                                 maintenance areas
Hospitals                         1              X-ray developers and fixers; infectious
                                                 wastes; radiological wastes; biological
                                                 wastes; disinfectants; asbestos;
                                                 beryllium; dental acids; miscellaneous
Junk yards (scrap & auto)         15             Any wastes from businesses and
                                                 households, oils, auto wastes
Landscaping Firms                 5              Herbicides; insecticides; fungicides,
                                                 and other pesticides
Laundromats                       1              Detergents, bleaches, fabric dyes
Lawn/Farm Stores                  1              Pesticides, Herbicides
                          Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                           Source Inventory Summary

           Sources            # Of Sources       Potential Pollution Substances
Medical/Dental                21             X-ray developers and fixers; infectious
Offices/Clinics                              wastes; radiological wastes; biological
                                             wastes; disinfectants; asbestos;
                                             beryllium; dental acids; miscellaneous
Paint Stores                                 Paints; paint thinners; lacquers;
                                             varnishes; other wood treatments
Print Shops/Photo Shops       6              Solvents; inks; dyes; oils;
                                             photographic chemicals
Railroad Yards/Maintenance    7              Diesel fuel; herbicides for rights-of-
Area                                         way; creosote for preserving wood
Veterinary Offices            6              Solvents; vaccines; drugs;
                                             disinfectants; X-ray developers and
                                             fixers; miscellaneous chemicals
Welding Shops                 1              Oxygen, acetylene
Construction Companies                       Solvents; asbestos; paints; glues &
                                             other adhesives; waste insulation;
                                             lacquers; tars; sealants; epoxy waste;
                                             miscellaneous chemical wastes
Campground                                   Septage; gasoline; diesel fuel from
                                             boats; pesticides; household
                                             hazardous wastes
Other                         10

Asphalt/Cement/Concrete       6              Petroleum derivatives
Foundries/Metal Fabricators                  Paint wastes; acids; heavy metals;
                                             metal sludges; plating wastes; oils;
                                             solvents; explosive wastes
Gravel Pits & Quarries        7
Machine/Metalworking          4              Solvents; metals; miscellaneous
Shops                                        organics; sludges; oily metal
                                             shavings; lubricant and cutting oils;
                                             degreasers; metal marking fluids;
                                             mold release agents
Metal Finishing/Plating       2              Heavy metal wastewater treatment
                                             sludge; pickling liquor; waste oil;
                                             ammonia scrubber liquor; acid tar
                                             sludge; alkaline cleaners; degreasing
                                             solvents; slag; metal dust

                            Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                             Source Inventory Summary

          Sources              # Of Sources       Potential Pollution Substances
Auto Manufacturing
Petroleum Product             3                Hydrocarbons; oil-field brines (highly
Production & Storage                           mineralized salt solutions)
Plastics/Synthetics           1
Paint/Coating                                  Paint products; thinners; etc.
Other Industrial Sources      24

Composting Yard Waste         1
Dinking Water Treatment       2                Chemicals
Garages (municipal)           10               Used oils, antifreeze, solvents, other
                                               auto waste
Landfills                     1                Leachate, Hazardous &
                                               Nonhazardous Wastes,
Salt Storage Areas            5                Sodium and calcium chloride,
                                               anticaking additives, and
Recycling Facilities          1                Residential and commercial solid
                                               waste residues
Schools (bus areas/garages)   13               Pesticides; acids; waste oils.
                                               Solvents, gasoline, diesel fuel from
                                               vehicles and storage tanks; fuel oil,
                                               other auto waste, general building
Wastewater Treatment          1                Municipal wastewater; sludge;
Plants                                         treatment chemicals
Other Municipal Sources       10

Waste Disposal:
Abandoned Dumps                                Organic & inorganic chemicals;
                                               metals; oils; wastes from households
                                               & businesses
Inactive/Closed Landfills     3                Organic & inorganic chemicals;
                                               metals; oils; wastes from households
                                               and businesses
Industrial Landfills                           Hazardous; nonhazardous wastes

                          Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                           Source Inventory Summary

          Sources             # Of Sources         Potential Pollution Substances
Above Ground Storage          59                Fuel oil, fertilizers, pesticides,
Tanks                                           herbicides
Residential                   Numerous *        *Some of the residential homes within
                                                the area rely on fuel oil as a source of
                                                heating; the tanks can be located
                                                underground, above ground, or in
Chemical /Petroleum                             Chemicals; petroleum
Chemical Drums/Storage        3                 Various chemicals
Gas lines                     4                 Natural gas
Sewer Lines                   *                 *Municipalities except Republic have
                                                sanitary sewer; a few outlying areas
                                                are connected to the municipalities;
                                                some of the PWS have own package
                                                plants w/lines
Lagoons/Ponds/Pits            11                Hazardous and nonhazardous liquid
                                                wastes; seepage; sludge
Material Stockpiles           5                 Acid drainage; other
                                                hazardous/nonhazardous wastes
Septic Systems                Numerous          Septage; coliform and noncoliform
                              throughout area   bacteria; viruses; nitrates; heavy
Discharging                   1 on-site at      metals; synthetic detergents; cooking
                              PWS               and motor oils; bleach; pesticides;
Leachfields                   5 on-site at      paints; paint thinners; photographic
                              PWS               chemicals; swimming pool chemicals;
                                                septic tank cleaner chemicals;
                                                elevated levels of chloride, sulfate,
                                                calcium, magnesium, potassium, and
Storm Drains                  Multiple          Runoff; gasoline; oil; other petroleum
                                                products; road salt; microbial
Surface Impoundments          11                Septage (Lagoons), other
Underground Storage Tanks     3                 Diesel; gasoline
(unknown status)
Underground Injection Wells   990               Multiple sources of waste including
– Class V                                       household, septage, storm water, etc.
                                                Sinkholes, storm water drainage
                                                wells, etc.

                             Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                              Source Inventory Summary

           Sources              # Of Sources         Potential Pollution Substances
Wells; Oil and Gas                                Metals; acids; minerals; sulfides; other
                                                  hazardous and nonhazardous
Wells; Abandoned               8                  Surface runoff; effluents from
                                                  agriculture; gasoline; used motor oil;
                                                  road salt

Regulated Facilities:
Leaking Underground            157                Gasoline, diesel, etc.
Storage Tanks
Cemeteries                     55                 Leachate; lawn and garden
                                                  maintenance chemicals
SSTS Sites                     7                  Pesticide producing establishments
RCRA Sites                     70                 Hazardous waste handlers
Old Landfills                  8                  Hazardous waste handlers
NPDES Sites (PCS)              9                  Leachate; organic & inorganic
                                                  chemical contaminants; wastes from
                                                  households and businesses
Docket Sites                   4                  Sites w/ environmental violations
Federally owned treatment,     1                  Miscellaneous, dependent upon
storage, disposal fac.                            facility
Master Sites List              3                  Dependent upon facility
Pads Sites                     4                  PCBs
TRI Sites                      15                 Toxic Chemicals released
Hazardous waste site w/        1                  Hazardous Waste
groundwater monitoring
AIRS/AFS                       22                 Air emissions

Above Ground Storage           Often several      Diesel/gas/fertilizer
Tanks                          tanks per farm
Crops                          The majority of    Pesticides, fertilizers, gasoline, motor
Corn                           the crops within   oils from chemical applicators
Soybean                        the project area
Wheat                          are corn,
Oats                           soybeans, &
Hay                            wheat
Orchards                       1                  Pesticides, fertilizers, gasoline, motor
                                                  oils from chemical applicators
Dairy Facility                 1                  Livestock sewage wastes, nitrates,
                                                  phosphates, chloride

                             Table 1: Potential Contaminant
                              Source Inventory Summary

         Sources                # Of Sources        Potential Pollution Substances
Drainage Canals/Tiles          Most of the crop   Pesticides, fertilizers, bacteria
                               land has
                               drainage tiles
Farm Chemical Distributor:     2                  Pesticides, fertilizers
Licensed Pesticide Dealers
Licensed Applicators
Farm Machinery Repair          Many farmers       Automotive wastes; welding wastes
Areas                          work on their
                               own machinery
Pesticide, Fertilizer,         8                  Pesticide & fertilizer residues
Petroleum Storage &
Transfer Areas
Animal Burial Areas            1                  Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates;
                                                  phosphates; chloride; chemical sprays
                                                  and dips for controlling insects, etc.;
                                                  coliform and noncoliform bacteria;
Animal Feedlots                3                  Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates;
                                                  phosphates; chloride; chemical sprays
                                                  and dips for controlling insects, etc.;
                                                  coliform and noncoliform bacteria;
Animal Waste                   2                  Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates
Confined Animal Feedlots       1                  Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates;
                                                  phosphates; chloride; chemical sprays
                                                  and dips for controlling insects, etc.;
                                                  coliform and noncoliform bacteria;
Greenhouse/Nurseries                              Pesticides, Herbicides
Pasture                        Numerous in        Livestock waste
Silage Storage (bulk)          Numerous in
Other Agricultural             2

Prior to the inventory’s completion, RCAP facilitated a perception exercise during one of the
stakeholder meetings. Stakeholders were requested to rank what they thought were the top three
categories of potential contaminants within the following categories: 1) on-site, 2) commercial,
3) industrial, 4) agricultural, & 5) municipal. Pesticides and Fertilizers ranked the highest
perceived risk at seventy-four percent within the agriculture category. Within the on-site category,
individuals ranked septic systems the highest at fifty percent of the total responses. The highest
ranked potential contaminant within the industrial category was landfills at fifty percent and within
the municipal category were historical dumps at forty percent. Thirty-two percent of the
participants perceived gas stations as a high priority concern for potential commercial threats.
(See Results in Appendix VI.)

Once the physical inventory was completed, the stakeholders met to conduct a final prioritization
of the major concerns for potential pollution. The stakeholders identified five main targeted areas
to initially focus control strategies. RCAP provided the Stakeholders with a summary of the
prioritization that occurred at the meeting, which is contained in Appendix VII. The sixteen public
water systems including community and non-community systems, are one of the primary targets
for concentrating implementation activities. If an event occurred on their site, the potential for
contamination would be great, thus posing an immediate threat to their drinking water supply.

                                              Due to the large rural area that encompasses the
                                              region the rural residential community and the
                                              potential contamination risk of waste disposal,
                                              septic maintenance, and fuel oil tanks were also
                                              targeted as a top priority. The land use map (See
                                              Appendix III) reveals that the majority of the area is
                                              mainly used for agricultural purposes; therefore, the
                                              farming community was also a priority.

                                               Another priority was the geographic areas with the
                                               highest concentration of Class V wells, which
include sinkholes and underground injection wells. These sinkholes and wells provide a direct
conduit for pollutants to flow from the surface directly to the ground water.

The final targeted interest concerns local government including county commissioners,
townships, cities, and villages. Local government needs to be kept apprised of the project’s
progress and provide their input on targeted implementation strategies that were chosen. They
may ultimately be asked for future implementation assistance for identified management
strategies of potential contamination sources.


The strategy for identifying best management practices also followed one of stakeholder input.
This included a series of meetings with interested and responsible parties for identifying and
implementing best management practices for source water protection activities. Note that the top
priorities in the source water protection plan are identified for a two-year time frame. As stated in
the previous section, the four prioritized potential contaminant sources are: 1) sources on-site for
the public water systems, 2) agricultural community, 3) rural residential sources, and 4) area with
the highest concentration of sink holes and underground injection wells (the City of Bellevue).

RCAP met with the representatives from the two community systems and held a group meeting
with the non-community systems. Those non-community systems unable to attend the group
meeting were contacted individually and site visits scheduled. Section one summarizes the
management control strategies identified by the public water systems as well as tasks and time
frames. The strategies themselves are not prioritized. Appendix VIII includes individual plans by
public water systems. The community systems chose voluntary public education approaches for
protection strategies. The non-community systems, since they own the property where their wells
are located, identified additional best management practices for implementation. Most, if not all,
of these systems are currently following regulations and have already implemented numerous
best management practices for source water protection.

In order to address the agricultural community, RCAP met with the Ohio Farm Bureau’s Board of
Directors in Sandusky, Seneca, and Erie Counties. RCAP also met with the President of the
Farm Bureau Board, staff and another member for Huron County. The strategies identified from
those meetings are demonstrated in Section Two, Tables 8 and 9. To summarize, they involve
working cooperatively with the Farm Bureau on education and the Soil and Water Conservations
Districts to promote current best management and cost share programs specifically targeting
funding for ground water quality improvement projects.

RCAP identified two methods for developing source control strategies for rural residential, one
was a series of four county wide public meetings and the second, a meeting with representatives
from the four health departments. The implementation plan for rural residential source control
strategies is outlined in Section Three, Table 10. A summary of the results of the public meetings
is contained in Appendix IX.

Another priority area targeted the heaviest geographic concentration of sinkholes and
underground injection wells, which happens to be the City of Bellevue. RCAP met with the City
Engineer and Fire Chief to identify the first phase of an implementation plan. Results of targeted
strategies are in Section Four, Table 11.

             Section One: Priority Area Public Water Suppliers

                                                 Table 2:
                          Strategy: Emergency Response & Spill Procedures
                               Source Control Implementation Schedule

                       Task                              Time       Party Responsible
Develop/maintain early response procedures             2001      Capital Aluminum &
for potential spills from AST and haulers on-site                Glass
and adjacent roadways; post contacts in case
of a spill in conspicuous place, notify highway
patrol, county sheriff’s office that the industry is
a public water system that needs contacted if
spill happens nearby.

Maintain existing procedures regarding storage         Ongoing
of absorption supplies near gas AST and oil
drums, and lacquer thinner storage within the
Contact local emergency planner, highway               2nd       Lindsey Funeral Home
patrol, local county sheriff’s office, and             quarter
Bloomville Fire Dept. and notify that the funeral      2001
home relies upon ground water for drinking, so
if there is a transportation or other related spill
nearby notify the funeral home
Develop/maintain early response procedures             2001      Flat Rock Care Center
for potential spills from AST and haulers on-site
and adjacent roadways; post contacts in case
of a spill in conspicuous place.

Notify local emergency planner, highway patrol,        2nd
county sheriff’s office that the center is a public    quarter
water system and to contact the center if spill        2001
happens nearby.
Develop & maintain early response procedures           2001      Sandusky Crushed Stone
for chemical and gas spills within contained and
non-contained areas
Develop/maintain early response procedures             2001      Truck Haven Restaurant
for spills within restaurant parking lot and on
adjacent highways; post contacts in case of a
spill in conspicuous place

Notify highway patrol county sheriff’s office that     2nd
the restaurant is a public water system and to         quarter
contact the restaurant if spill happens nearby.        2001

                                              Table 3:
                                Strategy: Underground Injection Wells
                               Source Control Implementation Schedule

                     Task                             Time          Party Responsible
Abandon Injection Well Use by purchasing           April 2001    Capital Aluminum & Glass
adjacent property to create a holding pond for
storm drainage; currently the drainage flows to
an injection well. Abandon and properly seal the
injection well
Maintain grate above injection well by             Bi-           Capital Aluminum & Glass
continuing to clean                                Annually
                                                   or more if
Monitor pit in basement, discontinue pouring       11/2000       Thompson Bible Institute
water used to clean equipment in basement pit
Switch to environmentally friendly cleaning        2001          Thompson Bible Institute
products to wash equipment, and other items
and pour down drain that runs to septic system
Maintain brine pit (enclosed in concrete) by       Annually      Flat Rock Care Center
continuing to clean and inspect                    or more if
Maintain grate above sinkhole by continuing to     Bi-           Flat Rock Care Center
clean                                              Annually
Talk to county about placing grates on drains      2nd quarter   EPA, RCAP
within Flat Rock                                   2001

                                            Table 4:
                             Strategy: Waste Disposal and Handling
                             Source Control Implementation Schedule

                      Task                             Time       Party Responsible
Continue to recycle empty oil drums through          Ongoing   York School
supplier and maintain clean up supplies near
sealed drums within building on concrete floor
Continue to manage settlement pond for waste         Ongoing   Sandusky Crushed Stone
water used in washing processes by dredging
and if needed, develop an additional settlement
Continue to keep applicable clean up supplies        Ongoing   Sandusky Crushed Stone
readily available near containments
Maintain existing practices which include: just in   Ongoing   Sleepy Hollow Golf Course
time delivery for most chemicals, bulk drums
not used, proper disposal of used batteries, and
oil recycling
Maintain existing containment and clean up           Ongoing   Lindsey Funeral Home
requirements per EPA regulations
EPA testing required periodically; chemicals are
stored in 5-gallon containers, which are stored
and disposed of per EPA regulations. The
containers are transported to the Village of
Bloomville’s sewer plant every few days
Keep absorption supplies near gas AST and            Ongoing   Flat Rock Care Center
within maintenance shop for miscellaneous
items (paint, insecticides, etc.)
Keep paint supplies/insecticides in original         Ongoing   Flat Rock Care Center
sealed containers stored in shop with concrete
Maintain the practice of discarding containers       Ongoing   Capital Aluminum and
properly after use, keeping thinner in caged                   Glass
storage room and oil drums, and lacquer
thinner storage within the facility

                                              Table 5:
                   Strategy: Above Ground and Underground Storage Tanks
                            Source Control Implementation Schedule

                     Task                                Time       Party Responsible
Contain above ground gas tank within                             Thompson Bible Institute
cemented area:

      Contact Ohio EPA for guidelines on              12/2001
      Construct containment
      Maintain material on-site for cleanup of        Ongoing
       potential spills

Register underground storage tank with                 2001      Thompson Bible Institute

If tanks >1,100 gallons must be regulated with

Contact BUSTR (614) 752-7938 to register

Maintain following:
     Documentation of use of corrosion
        protection equipment or an experts
        analysis of tank corrosion if corrosion
        protection equipment is not used
     Documentation of repairs
     Recent compliance with release
        detection requirements
     Results of the site investigation
        conducted at permanent closure
Removal of Potentially contaminated Soils on           2001      Truck Haven Restaurant
site from Previous USTs: Research potential
financial sources;
Contact Rural Water, EPA (319) etc. (RCAP)
Build containment for AST                              12/2001   Flat Rock Care Center
     Contact Ohio EPA for guidelines
     Construct containment

                                                   Table 6:
                                     Strategy: Pesticide, Herbicide &
                                           Fertilizer Management
                                 Source Control Implementation Schedule

                    Task                               Time          Party Responsible
Maintain existing practices of buffered areas        Ongoing      Sleepy Hollow Golf Course
near waterways, integrated pest management
and tracking usage via 3 year fertilizer log
Limit fertilizer applications                        Only once    Lindsey Funeral Home
                                                     or twice a
Minimize chemical usage on lawn                      2000-2001    Truck Haven Restaurant
Minimize chemical usage on lawn by using             Ongoing      Flat Rock Care Center
alternative green products

                                                Table 7:
                           Strategy: Increasing Awareness and Education
                                 Source Control Implementation Schedule

                       Task                             Time        Party Responsible
Educate staff and students regarding protection of    2001/02    York School
drinking water.                                       School
     Develop sign and post near kitchen sink         Year
         regarding no food into the drain.
     Safe Drinking Water Week w/ poster
         contest for students
     Inform students that flushing non-flushable
         items (pens, etc.) can harm drinking water
         due to septic system failure
     Become a test site for ground water
         monitoring program
Raise staff awareness on spill procedures and         2001       Sandusky Crushed Stone
emergency response by posting in targeted areas
Raise staff awareness on spill procedures and         2001       Truck Haven Restaurant
emergency response by posting in targeted areas
Raise Public Awareness of Flat Rock Residents.        4/2001     Flat Rock Care Center and
Provide brochures to residents regarding general                 RCAP
education of groundwater protection within karst
area. (The community’s storm drainage flows
directly to sinkhole on Center’s site)
Update the public on water quality and need to        As         Villages of Republic &
protect drinking water supplies in the Community      required   Bloomville
Confidence Reports
Local Schools: Meet with teachers, OWA Annual         2001/02    Bloomville & Republic with
Teacher Science Fair, Soil & Water Presentations      School     RCAP assistance, OWA,
                                                      Year       Soil & Water
Automotive Businesses: One-on-one meetings with       6-8/2001   Bloomville & Republic with
owners – give brochure and keep tracking log                     assistance from RCAP
(who, when, what)
Residents: Deliver Brochures door to door             10/2001    Bloomville & Republic with
                                                                 assistance from Boy/Girl
Growers: Speak to growers about containment           1/2001     Bloomville & Republic with
devices for above-ground storage tanks                           assistance from RCAP
Research potential for funding assistance
Fire Department: Meet with Fire chief to raise        2nd qtr.   Bloomville & Republic
awareness of area’s vulnerability, possibly improve   2001
spill response measures?

In addition to the above source control strategies, there are also strategies relating to on-site
septic operation and maintenance as well as properly sealing abandoned wells and regionalizing
systems. Six non-community systems specifically mentioned continuing to properly maintain and
operate their on-site septic systems. Most conduct annual pumping, a few have annual
inspections, and one has a back up leach bed. They all agreed that they will continue to pump
                                           tanks annually or more if needed. In addition, the
                                           Village of Republic plans to construct a centralized
                                           wastewater treatment system in 2002 and the Village of
                                           Bloomville currently has centralized wastewater

                                             During the site potential contamination inventory, two
abandoned wells were located in Republic. Republic plans to properly seal the well located
downtown when the sewer system is constructed in 2002. Another abandoned well was located
north of the old railroad tracks on private property. The Village will work with the private
landowner to encourage properly sealing the well. With respect to regionalization, a rural water
district has plans to expand lines close to at least one non-community system (Sleepy Hollow
Golf Course). The owner will connect to the system once the infrastructure is available. Other
non-community systems also expressed an interest in connecting to a larger community system,
but the infrastructure is not available or the cost is too prohibitive.

Section Two: Priority Area Agricultural Community

                                                  Table 8:
                                  Strategy: Working Cooperatively with the
                                              Ohio Farm Bureau
                             Increasing the Awareness of Growers Regarding the
                           Karst Region and the Protection of Groundwater Drinking
                               Supplies Source Control Implementation Schedule

               Tasks                    Timeframe                 Responsible Parties
 Prepare educational materials          Summer 2000    RCAP/Local farm bureaus in Erie, Huron,
 (brochures) for growers and            and future     Sandusky, & Seneca Counties
 create a display for the local fairs   summers

 As opportunities arise speak with On-going
 local farmers about the                               Local farm bureaus in Erie, Huron,
 vulnerability of the karst area and                   Sandusky, & Seneca Counties
 refer to Soil & Water
 Conservation regarding
 protection measures that can be
 taken and possible funding

                                                              Table 9:
                                                Strategy: Working Cooperatively with
                                              Table 9: Water Conservation Districts &
                                                Soil &
                                               Natural Resource Conservation Services
                                               Source Control Implementation Schedule

 Strategies                           Tasks                           Time-       Responsible
                                                                      frame         Parties
Increasing       Promote input into annual work plan on             1/2001 and   RCAP/SWCD/
Awareness of     targeting projects in karst area to protect        ongoing      NRCS
Growers to       drinking water quality                             thereafter
Karst/Drinking   Provide annual report summary to RCAP for          12/2000 and SWCD/RCAP/
Water Quality    use in other public awareness campaigns in         annually    NRCS
Projects         karst area                                         thereafter

                 Integrate karst/groundwater quality issues in      2001 and     SWCD/NRCS
                 current marketing efforts                          ongoing
Improvement      Target at least X number of projects to install    2001 work    SWCD/NRCS
Projects         filter strips around sinkholes in each             plan         working with
                 respective county.                                              Growers
Policy           Support policy changes that acknowledge            Ongoing      SWCD/NRCS
Development      growers who are currently doing BMPs                            RCAP
                                                                                 Farm Bureau
                 Support policy changes that take away                           Stakeholder
                 barriers in continuous filter stripping (re:                    Committee
                 change from 319 to CRP)

                 Promote CREP program in karst area

                 Support policy changes to increase cost
                 share, ratings for karst, drinking water quality
                 improvements, promote making the karst
                 area a “priority area” in the state’s cost share

Section Three: Priority Area Rural Residential

                                                    Table 10:
                               Strategy: Working Cooperatively with County Health
                                     Source Control Implementation Schedule

   Strategies                       Tasks                  Timeframe        Responsible
Public Education     Develop list of partners including    1/2001       Seneca County Health
and Awareness        realtors, banks, septic and well                   Dept and RCAP
Campaign for         installers
Rural Residential
Households           Contact the above and define          2/2001       Seneca County Health
                     project, solicit their involvement                 Dept and RCAP
Note that we will
pilot in Seneca
County and then      Meet with other County Health         3/2001       Seneca, Sandusky,
replicate in other   Departments and targeted                           Erie and Huron County
three counties.      stakeholders to get their input on                 Health Departments
                     campaign strategy and materials                    and RCAP

                     Develop materials                     4-5/001      Seneca County Health

                     Implement Campaign                    6/2001 and   Seneca County Health
                                                           ongoing      Department

                     Revise and Replicate in other karst   2002         Sandusky, Erie and
                     areas                                              Huron County Health

Section Four: Priority Area Concentrations of Sink Holes and Class V
Injection Wells

                                                    Table 11:
                                           Strategy: City of Bellevue
                                     Source Control Implementation Schedule

                    Strategies                                     Tasks               Timeframe
Obtain GIS System                                       Research grant options         2001
                                                        and apply for GIS System
                                                        to locate sinkholes
Enhance existing spill procedures plan                                                 3/2001

Identification of sinkhole locations within the city    Hire intern to locate          3 – 6/2001
    Target SR and Railroad locations                   sinkholes within city limits   6 – 9/2001
    Target remaining areas

Enhance coordination and early notification             Meet with Sheriff’s Office &   4/2001
between sheriff and highway patrol offices and          Highway Patrol
fire dept.
Raise Public Awareness & Education:
      Commercial/Industry                              Meet with Chamber of           5/2001
                                                        Commerce and
                                                        Community Dev. Corp. and
                                                        distribute brochures

       Residents                                       Presentation at council        9/2001
                                                        meeting, distribution of
                                                        brochures through realtors
                                                        and banks

       Handlers                                        Meet with railroad reps,       10/2001
                                                        truck drivers? Contact
                                                        ODOT regarding available
                                                        funding for source water
                                                        protection area signs along
                                                        SR’s and RR’s then apply

Section Five: Potential 319 Projects

                                                Table 12:
                            Potential 319 Funding for Implementation Projects

Activities                                             Entity
Abandon Injection Well Use by working toward           Capital Aluminum & Glass
the purchase of adjacent property to create a
holding pond for storm drainage; currently the
drainage flows to an injection well. Abandon and
properly seal the injection well
Speak to county about placing grates on drains         Flat Rock Care Center, RCAP, EPA
within Flat Rock
Contain above ground gas tank within cemented          Thompson Bible Institute
     Contact Ohio EPA for guidelines on
     Construct containment
     Maintain material on-site for cleanup of
       potential spills
Removal of potentially contaminated soils on site      Truck Haven Restaurant
from previous USTs; Research potential
financial sources:
Contact Rural Water, EPA (319) etc. (RCAP)
Build containment for AST                              Flat Rock Care Center
     Contact Ohio EPA for guidelines to
       construct containment
Obtain GIS System                                      City of Bellevue

Enhance existing spill procedures plan

Identification of sinkhole locations within the city
    Target SR and Railroad locations
    Target remaining areas

Enhance coordination and early notification
between sheriff and hwy patrol offices and fire
Properly Sealing Abandoned Wells                       Village of Republic
Septic Upgrades/Demonstration projects                 Working with Health Departments
Buffer Strips around sinkholes                         Working with Soil and Water
                                                       Conservation Districts
The above sections represent the priority potential contaminants that the stakeholder
committee identified for this planning period. During the next plan update (see evaluation
section), the committee will determine the next set of priorities.

Educational Strategies

Voluntary action based on raising public awareness of the need to change behaviors is an
integral part of the tasks identified in the management plan. Many educational activities were
completed as part of the planning process. In addition, increasing public education and
awareness of the karst region and its susceptibility to contamination of groundwater supplies is an
integral theme in the identified source control strategies. Following is an overview of the
educational activities conducted to date as well as a summary of public education as part of the
management plan.

Activities to Date

RCAP and the stakeholder committee completed a number of public educational activities during
the planning process. These activities were conducted both to raise general public awareness as
well as to solicit public involvement and buy-in for the project. See Appendix X for a sample of
educational materials developed to date and used, in part, for meetings described below.

      As part of the stakeholder committee formation, RCAP met with 90% of the townships and
       the four county commissioners’ offices. RCAP also met with the Village of Castalia to
       conduct the inventory. The purpose of the meetings was to describe the project and
       Ohio’s source water assessment program. RCAP also had township trustees volunteer to
       work on the inventory and County Commissioners assign a contact for the stakeholder

      RCAP also conducted a presentation to three of the County Farm Bureaus. RCAP met
       with Sandusky, Seneca and Erie County Farm Bureaus to present information on the
       unified source water protection planning project as well as to solicit the Farm Bureaus
       involvement in the project. RCAP also met with staff of the Farm Bureau for Huron
       County, who then conducted the presentation for the Huron County Farm Bureau. All
       county Farm Bureaus appointed a contact for the stakeholder committee. In Sandusky
       and Seneca Counties the Farm Bureau hosted a display on the karst project and drinking
       water quality at the county fairs.

      In addition and as part of the input for
       management planning, RCAP conducted
       four county community meetings. The
       results of those meetings as well as a
       copy of the presentation are contained in
       Appendix IX and X, respectively.

      RCAP also met with the Sandusky River
       Watershed Coalition to provide an
       overview of the project and encourage the
       Coalition to include groundwater concerns
       in their management planning process.
       (Note that the Coalition endorsed the submission of a 319 proposal to incorporate the two
       subwatersheds where karst topography occurs into the Coalition’s planning activities.)

      In addition, RCAP worked with the media using public announcements and articles to
       educate the general public on the project. (See Appendix X.)

Future Educational Activities

Incorporated in the management action plan, educational activities are targeted as part of the
source control strategies. The activities are summarized below.

      Community Wide Public Awareness Campaigns: For the Villages of Bloomville, Republic
       and the City of Bellevue a community wide public awareness campaign was identified to
       target schools, local businesses and residents. RCAP will work with the stakeholder
       contacts from the above entities to develop the materials needed for implementation.
       Tools identified to date include: 1) a general brochure on karst and drinking water
       protection, 2) replication of the New Carlisle posters for distribution, and 3) general slide
       presentation that the above contacts can use in their respective communities.

      Youth Awareness: Schools were one target in the above public awareness campaign. In
       addition, the school non-community public water suppliers are interested in developing an
       educational program for youth in their schools. RCAP will work with teachers to identify
       current curriculum available and then revise for the karst project. Teachers then will have
       the tools to implement in their respective

      RCAP and the stakeholder committee
       will continue to work with the Farm
       Bureau in providing educational
       opportunities to their members which
       may include continued displays at the
       county fairs as well as presentations to
       their members at Board meetings.

      Many of the public water suppliers want
       to further educate their employees as
       well as agencies responsible for
       emergency and spill response actions.
       This will include general postings at work sites as well as meeting with agency contacts to
       discuss the need to notify drinking water suppliers when accidents occur. General
       educational materials will also be provided.

      The participating health departments and RCAP will work with bankers and realtors to
       develop a package of educational materials to distribute to future and current
       homeowners in the karst area. The materials will address best management practices for
       potential sources of contamination associated with rural residential units.

   Table 13 identifies tools to be developed for educational activities.

                                         Table 13: Educational Tools

                              General Public Awareness Campaign
        Brochures
        Reproduce New Carlisle posters: one for agriculture, business, and residential. They will be
         revised to reflect susceptibility of karst topography and protecting drinking water supplies.
        General slide presentation for communities. Contacts can use for civic clubs and other
         community wide presentations.
        Presentation/demonstration for local schools. Work with a group of teachers to design the
         curriculum; teachers can use in their corresponding classrooms.
        Rural residential packet to include brochures and posters specific to residential issues as well as
         other materials identified by health department, bankers and realtors.
        Continue to update and use display on drinking water protection at county fairs and other
         community wide educational events.
                   Awareness Campaign for Spill/Emergency Response
        Develop a poster to be displayed in prominent place for employees at non-community systems
        Brochure and poster to be distributed to emergency response/agency personnel

Public Involvement

Public involvement is always critical to the successful implementation of source water protection
planning. This is especially true for the karst unified source water project, given that there are 27
jurisdictions covering the delineated area. The introduction described the stakeholder formation
process and involving varied interests in the planning process. Implementation cannot occur
without the interests represented on the stakeholder committee and the public water suppliers
taking responsibility to carry out the plan. To summarize, these interests include:

        Public water systems including community systems as well as non-community systems
         comprised of schools, churches, restaurants, golf courses, and other rural businesses
         and industries
        Local elected officials
        City and Village personnel
        Nonprofits
        Parks
        Interested citizens
        Farm Bureau
        Emergency Planning
        Planning Commission
        Soil and Water Conservation Districts
        County Extension
        Local Business Owners
        Health Departments
        Other interested parties

The public water suppliers and the stakeholder committee will continue to encourage public
involvement throughout the plan’s implementation. It is expected that during the implementation
of the educational components of the plan, additional interests and parties will become involved in
working to protect the quality of their drinking water supplies.


The Village of Bloomville and the Village of Republic have written water supply contingency
plans on file to ensure the provision of safe drinking water under emergency conditions. The
contingency plans contain provisions that are relevant to the Unified Source Water Protection
Plan and identifies alternative water sources and distribution sites in the event of future
contamination. Notification systems are in place along with emergency contact phone
numbers of village and county officials, EPA, news media, contractors, etc. (See Appendix

The non-community public water suppliers would also have to obtain water from a different
source in the event of contamination. The existing well site would be shut down and water
would need to be hauled from the nearest source. The system would then analyze available
options including drilling a new well. In addition, if water would become available through a
regional source, the system would more than likely connect and abandon its existing well
whether it is contaminated or not.

                     GROUNDWATER MONITORING

Water Quality Analysis

Water quality data for the sixteen (16) public water supplies (PWS’s) in the karst area were
evaluated using the drinking water compliance database. The Ohio EPA has a high confidence
level in drinking water data collected since 1990. Samples collected at the public water supplies
in the karst area since 1990 resulted in detectable concentrations of contaminants of concern in
seven (7) of the sixteen (16) PWSs. (See Table 14.) All of the PWSs with detectable volatile
organic compounds or pesticides are well below 50% of the Maximum Contaminant Levels
(MCL). The PWSs with nitrate levels at or above the concentration of concern (2 mg/L) are below
the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L). Because sampling requirements are for treated water,
contaminants may be present at higher levels in the aquifer (source of water). This determination
is limited by the sampling that is performed for the water system.

In addition, a couple of studies were conducted in the late 1980’s in Sandusky and Seneca
Counties. Appendix XII contains a dye trace study within Thompson Township in Seneca and
Sandusky Counties. A nitrate screening program for private wells in selected Ohio Counties,
including Seneca and Sandusky, was also conducted by the Water Quality Laboratory at
Heidelberg College in Tiffin, Ohio. A total of 183 private wells were tested in Sandusky
County and 231 in Seneca County. Approximately 84% of the wells had a nitrate level of <.3
mg/L, 9% had a range of .3<3.0 mg/L, 6% were at a level of 3.0-<10 mg/L, and 1% were at
10 or more mg/L.

The City of Bellevue is making a concentrated effort to locate all Class V wells within the city.
The University of Akron included the location of these wells within a 319 grant proposal to
the Ohio EPA, which was funded.

Plans to research funding availability for additional testing, including dye testing, and
targeted monitoring wells for public water systems and rural residential wells will also be a
goal during the implementation phase of the project. One of the area public water systems,
York School, has shown an interest in conducting monitoring with students performing the

                             Table 14: List of public water supplies
                                 with contaminants of concern

            PWS Name             Date                Contaminant Name   Result   Unit
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE    3.50    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE    5.50    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        ETHYLBENZENE              1.00    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        M-XYLENE                  1.10    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        N-PROPYLBENZENE           1.70    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        P-XYLENE                  1.10    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        TOLUENE                   1.70    ug/L
Vlg of Bloomville              01/14/91        TOTAL XYLENES             2.20    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       01/12/98        TETRACHLOROETHYLENE       0.60    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       10/28/93        TOLUENE                   1.00    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       01/17/94        TOLUENE                   2.70    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       04/12/94        TOLUENE                   1.60    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       01/12/98        TOLUENE                   1.40    ug/L
Capitol Aluminum & Glass       04/10/00        TOLUENE                   1.50    ug/L
Ebenezer Un. Meth Church       05/05/99        NITRATE (AS N)            3.20    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        1,2,3-TRICHLOROBENZENE   15.00    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE    2.90    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        ETHYLBENZENE              6.00    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        M-XYLENE                 18.20    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          08/18/97        METRIBUZIN (SENCOR)       0.19    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          01/07/85        NITRATE (AS N)            2.17    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/13/87        NITRATE (AS N)            7.59    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          01/18/91        NITRATE (AS N)            9.07    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          10/27/93        NITRATE (AS N)            0.52    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          08/17/94        NITRATE (AS N)            1.28    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/30/96        NITRATE (AS N)            3.84    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          07/18/96        NITRATE (AS N)            4.58    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          09/02/97        NITRATE (AS N)            2.27    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          08/10/98        NITRATE (AS N)            4.06    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          09/16/99        NITRATE (AS N)            0.12    mg/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        O-XYLENE                 10.80    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        TOLUENE                   2.10    ug/L
Flat Rock Care Center          04/11/91        TOTAL XYLENES            29.00    ug/L
                                               NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Lindsey Olds Funeral Home                      CONCERN
Melmore Elem School            07/12/96        1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE       2.00    ug/L
Melmore Elem School            07/01/97        1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE       1.60    ug/L
                                               NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Melmore United Meth Church                     CONCERN
                                               NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Mt. Carmel Meth Church                         CONCERN
                                               NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Noba Inc.                                      CONCERN
Parkerton Restaurant           02/25/00        NITRATE                   9.82    mg/L
Parkerton Restaurant           01/14/87        NITRATE (AS N)            2.14    mg/L
Parkerton Restaurant           01/14/98        NITRATE (AS N)            3.60    mg/L
                                               NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Village of Republic                            CONCERN
                            Table 14: List of public water supplies
                                with contaminants of concern

           PWS Name            Date               Contaminant Name    Result   Unit
                                              NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Sandusky Crushed Stone                        CONCERN
                                              NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Sleepy Hollow Golf Course                     CONCERN
Thompson Bible Inst           04/19/99        DICHLOROMETHANE          0.60    ug/L
                                              NO CONTAMINANTS OF
Truck Haven Restaurant                        CONCERN
                                              NO CONTAMINANTS OF
York Elementary School                        CONCERN

                              SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS

The aquifer that supplies the drinking water to the sixteen (16) public water supplies in
the karst area of Seneca, Sandusky, Erie and Huron Counties is susceptible to
contamination. The karst topography in this area has sinkholes and collapse features
that provide pathways for a large amount of recharge from the surface to the aquifer.
Precipitation (rain and snowmelt) runs off the land surface and into sinkholes instead of
draining into streams leading from the area. Any contaminants that spill or leak on the
surface can be quickly carried into the aquifer along with the recharge. Once
contaminants have reached the karst aquifer, they can move very quickly (in some areas
up to 500 feet/day); therefore, wells can be impacted by potential contaminant sources
that are a great distance away. Some of the karst area is overlain by glacial till, which
provides some protection against contaminant transport from the surface to the aquifer.
In the past the old city wells within Bellevue and private wells within the northern region
have had contamination problems, confirming the vulnerability of the area.8 Much of the
northern portion of the karst area has a thin to nonexistent glacial till and are much more
susceptible to local potential contaminants entering the aquifer. The Public Water
Suppliers in these areas should be extremely concerned about land use activities and are
encouraged to implement emergency response procedures and best management
practices for the potential contaminant sources near their wells or intakes.

    Ohio Division of Water. 1961. Contamination of Underground Water in the Bellevue Area. Columbus, Ohio.

In addition, the karst stakeholder committee will be integrating with the Sandusky
River Watershed Coalition. Approval from the Coalition’s Steering Committee was
obtained on February 12, 2001. The Sandusky Watershed includes the majority of
the karst delineated assessment area. RCAP plans to contact core stakeholders to
participate within the coalition. Details regarding how the karst stakeholders will
integrate are currently being investigated (i.e. karst subcommittee, groundwater
subcommittee, public water supply subcommittee). This sub-committee, with
assistance from RCAP, would then be responsible for overseeing the implementation
stage of the project and evaluation of the progress.

RCAP will work with the sub-committee to conduct semi-annual evaluations of
implementation issues. Evaluation will center on the number of tasks completed for
the source control strategies, educational materials distributed, etc. RCAP and the
sub-committee will assess what worked, what did not work, and what needs revised
to work better. The potential contaminant source inventory will also be reviewed as
part of the evaluation.

Ongoing evaluation will also occur. As tasks are completed and/or revised, changes
to the plan are anticipated. The subcommittee will have the responsibility to refine
and revise the plan as it unfolds.


The management plan is the final element of the Karst Unified Source Water
Protection planning process. The project itself was unique within Ohio due to the
vastness and vulnerability of the project area. Following the source water delineation
conducted by Ohio EPA, the Great Lakes RCAP, public water suppliers, the Ohio
EPA, and Stakeholder Committee completed the potential contaminant source
inventory. The inventory, along with land use maps, were the main tools used to
identify and prioritize potential sources. Public Water Suppliers, the Agricultural
Community, Health Departments, and the City of Bellevue identified management
strategies to protect drinking water supplies. The stakeholders endorsed and/or
made suggested revisions to the plan. The plan itself encompasses the phases of
the project and how they were carried out from the delineation of the source water
protection area to the evaluation of the project. A contingency plan and monitoring
section are also included.

Public participation throughout the entire project was very important. The
implementation goals within the plan have a better chance of success if input comes
from the parties affected. Therefore, stakeholder, public, and agency meetings were
held throughout the entire project to provide education and receive input on feasible
control strategies that the participants believe will be successful in the protection of
the area’s valuable drinking water supply.


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