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					To act consistently with the group’s behavior,
   Kelsey changes what she was doing. This
   illustrates:
   a) hindsight bias
   b) conformity
   c) stereotyping
   d) obedience to authority
   e) belief perseverance


                       Answer: B
Which of the following approaches
  emphasizes the importance of people’s
  feelings and views human nature as
  naturally positive and growth seeking?
  a) humanistic
  b) biological
  c) psychodynamic
  d) behavioral
  e) sociocultural


                       Answer: A
Children are most likely to grow up more
   competent and responsible when they are
   raised by parents who behave in a manner
   considered:
   a) authoritarian
   b) authoritative
   c) permissive
   d) very strict
   e) low key
                             Answer: B
Rather than use a shortcut to find out various
possible combinations of alleles that could result
from fertilization of an egg with particular genes by
a sperm with particular genes, Candace lists every
single possible combination to determine the
probability that the baby will show a certain set of
traits. Candace is solving the problem by use of:
     a) the representativeness heuristic
     b) the availability heuristic
     c) trial and error
     d) an algorithm
     e) functional fixedness
                                  Answer: D
Miranda could barely detect sweetness in a sip
   of water from a pitcher in which one
   quarter of a teaspoon of sugar was mixed
   into a half gallon of water. For taste, this
   is Miranda’s:
   a) absolute threshold
   b) just noticeable difference
   c) subliminal stimulation
   d) Weber’s Law
   e) accommodation

                                 Answer: A
Extinction occurs when the conditioned
   stimulus
   a) precedes the unconditioned stimulus
   b) succeeds the unconditioned stimulus
   c) evokes the conditioned response
   d) no longer evokes the conditioned
   response
   e) causes a previously conditioned
   response to reappear

                              Answer: D
Free association and dream interpretation
   frequently characterize which of the
   following treatments
   a) psychoanalysis
   b) behavior therapy
   c) humanistic therapy
   d) cognitive therapy
   e) eclectic therapy

                              Answer: A
Because Nick doesn’t care how well he does at school,
   but does care about having enough money to pay
   for a car, Nick’s mother gives him money for
   every “A” and “B” he earns on school tests and
   projects. For which of the following theories is the
   mother’s behavior an exemplary application?
   a) Cannon-Bard
   b) Incentive
   c) Drive reduction
   d) Instinct
   e) Overjustification effect
                                   Answer: B
In a cartoon, an angel is perched on one shoulder and a
     devil is perched on the other shoulder of a character
     who needs to decide whether to give money to a
     homeless man or not. The devil says, “Don’t give
     him anything, you’ll make better use of the money
     than he will.” The angel says, “Give him the money
     because he needs it more than you do.” The angel
     represents the character’s
     a) libido
     b) id
     c) reality principle
     d) superego
     e) ego
                                           Answer: D
What is the mode of the following set of
  scores: 70, 70, 80, 80, 60, 60, 50, 90, 90,
  90?
  a) 90
  b) 74
  c) 40
  d) 75
  e) 60


                                   Answer: A
The AP Psychology exam given by the
   College Board in May exemplifies which
   of the following types of tests?
   a) aptitude
   b) projective
   c) intelligence
   d) achievement
   e) personality

                            Answer: D
Which of the following drugs is classified as a
  stimulant?
  a) marijuana
  b) nicotine
  c) alcohol
  d) heroin
  e) barbiturate

                             Answer: B
Which schedule of reinforcement is followed by
  Anugh, who answers every e-mail message
  his friend sends?
  a) variable interval
  b) fixed interval
  c) continuous
  d) variable ratio
  e) fixed ratio

                              Answer: C
Before Bryan could take an airplane flight, he needed to
    overcome his fear of flying. His therapist taught him
    relaxation exercises, which he practices while first
    looking at pictures of airplanes, then seeing them
    take off at the airport, then going into an empty plane
    that would not take off, then finally taking a short
    flight. Which of the following treatments did he
    undergo?
    a) cognitive therapy
    b) psychoanalysis
    c) humanistic therapy
    d) behavior therapy
    e) psychodynamic therapy
                                         Answer: D
The most widely used self-report inventory for
   personality assessment is the:
   a) MMPI
   b) WAIS
   c) Rorschach
   d) TAT
   e) SAT

                         Answer: A
Although a man watched in horror as his wife
   and children were killed by a speeding truck
   as they crossed the street, he has no memory
   of the event and gets upset when people tell
   him he must remember. The man is most
   likely suffering from
   a) panic disorder
   b) posttraumatic stress disorder
   c) bipolar disorder
   d) dissociative amnesia
   e) depression
                          Answer: D
According to the Law of Effect, behaviors
   followed by negative consequences
   a) occur more frequently
   b) occur less frequently
   c) will never be performed again
   d) will be performed more forcefully
   e) the amount of the behavior will not
   change
                              Answer: B
The pastry chef ordinarily makes 15 apple
   turnovers in 15 minutes, but when culinary
   arts students are watching him, he makes
   20 apple turnovers in 15 minutes. This
   exemplifies
   a) foot-in-the-door phenomenon
   b) social loafing
   c) social facilitation
   d) the bystander effect
   e) door-in-the-face phenomenon
                                     Answer: C
Which part of the neuron receives incoming
  messages?
  a) cell body
  b) dendrite
  c) axon
  d) myelin sheath
  e) terminal buttons



                               Answer: B
According to Erickson, those who look back at
   the end of their lives with regrets and the
   feeling that their lives have lacked fulfillment
   illustrate unsuccessful resolution of the
   challenge of
   a) intimacy vs. isolation
   b) identity vs. role confusion
   c) integrity vs. despair
   d) generativity vs. stagnation
   e) autonomy vs. doubt
                                       Answer: C
Which of the following is the most reliable
  indicator of emotions across all cultures?
  a) hand gestures
  b) body posture
  c) voice intonation
  d) facial expressions
  e) verbal expressions

                                Answer: D
The more difference shown by the behavior of
   identical twins raised apart, the more the
   differences in their behavior can be
   attributed to their
   a) heritability
   b) genetic traits
   c) coincidence
   d) nurture
   e) nature

                               Answer: D
Ashley is a fifth grader who tries to listen to the teacher,
  but has difficulty focusing. She looks around the
  classroom while the teacher is talking and then does
  not know what to do when others are starting their
  assignments. Her symptoms are characteristic of
  which of the following?
  a) panic disorder
  b) attention deficit disorder
  c) bipolar disorder
  d) antisocial personality
  e) conversion disorder
                                           Answer: B
Elaine believes strongly in capital punishment. After
    discussing capital punishment with other people who
    believe in capital punishment in a chat room, Elaine is
    most likely to
    a) believe more strongly in capital punishment
    b) not want to discuss capital punishment any more
    c) believe less strongly in capital punishment
    d) not have changed her views at all
    e) change when she believes capital
      punishment should be given

                                            Answer: A
Answering multiple-choice questions is often
   easier than answering fill-in or completion
   questions, because multiple choice
   questions
   a) provide more retrieval cues
   b) enhance retention of information
   c) are easier to encode than completion
   questions
   d) are definitional rather than conceptual
   e) require recall rather than recognition
                                  Answer: A
A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned
   stimulus will begin to produce a response that
   anticipates and prepares for the conditioned
   stimulus during:
   a) acquisition
   b) generalization
   c) systematic desensitization
   d) extinction
   e) spontaneous recovery
                                     Answer: A
According to Jean Piaget, egocentrism and
  lack of conservation are characteristic of
  the stage of development known as:
  a) preoperational
  b) sensorimotor
  c) concrete operational
  d) formal operational
  e) preconvential

                                Answer: A
Blinking, sneezing, flinching, and coughing
    are examples of the type of behavior
    called the
    a) thought
    b) instinct
    c) habit
    d) action
    e) reflex
                                Answer: E
Daniel is going through his second divorce. He
   thinks that no woman will ever love him
   again. His therapist points encourages Daniel
   to correct his irrational thinking. Which of
   the following therapies is the therapist
   employing?
   a) client-centered
   b) systematic desensitization
   c) behavioral
   d) psychoanalysis
   e) rational emotive therapy
                                    Answer: E
Bilan was accepted to both University of Virginia
    and James Madison University and is having
    difficulty choosing which school to attend.
    With which of the following conflicts is she
    faced?
    a) frustration-aggression
    b) intrinsic-extrinsic
    c) approach-avoidance
    d) approach-approach
    e) avoidance-avoidance
                                   Answer: D
A psychologist focusing on whether
   development occurs in stages is most
   interested in which of the following
   controversies?
   a) stability v. change
   b) individualism v. collectivism
   c) nature v. nurture
   d) continuity v. discontinuity
   e) development v. stagnation

                               Answer: D
The collective unconscious, archetypes, and
   personality concepts like judging and
   thinking are most closely associated with
   a) Sigmund Freud
   b) Carl Jung
   c) Karen Horney
   d) Alfred Adler
   e) Matina Horner


                                   Answer: B
Which of the following is a symptom of bipolar
  disorder?
  a) thinking you are President of the United
  States
  b) being sure that your boss is out to get you
  c) feeling extraordinarily happy and agitated
  for a time, then extraordinarily depressed for
  another period of time
  d) smelling things that are not actually there
  e) staying a state of extreme depression


                                 Answer: C
Gwen remembered the order of the planets
  from the Sun by recalling the sentence,
  “My very educated mother just served us
  noodles.” For Gwen, this sentence is a
  a) serial position effect
  b) peg system
  c) chunking strategy
  d) an example of proactive interference
  e) mnemonic device

                          Answer: E
Which of the following is caused by a
  teratogen?
  a) Tay-Sachs disease
  b) Klinefelter’s syndrome
  c) Fetal alcohol syndrome
  d) Down syndrome
  e) Huntington’s disease


                                  Answer: C
In classical conditioning the unconditioned
    stimulus leads to
    a) an unconditioned response
    b) a punishment
    c) a conditioned response
    d) a conditioned stimulus
    e) neutral stimulus



                                  Answer: A
According to Seyle’s GAS theory, of the
   following stages, we are most susceptible
   to disease during
   a) resolution
   b) extinction
   c) exhaustion
   d) alarm
   e) fight


                               Answer: C
Michael locked the front door, then checked it by
   turning the knob. He checked it a second
   time. After walking halfway down the path
   to the street, Michael went back to the door
   and checked to make sure that it was locked.
   His behavior appears to be
   a) compulsive
   b) obsessive
   c) manic
   d) psychotic
   e) antisocial
                               Answer: A
43) Hunger, thirst and sex are most closely
   associated with stimulation of the
   a) cerebellum
   b) hypothalamus
   c) temporal lobes
   d) Wernicke’s Area
   e) Broca’s Area


                                Answer: B
For which of the following disorders might a
   psychiatrist prescribe a selective serotonin
   reuptake inhibitor such as Prozac or Paxil?
   a) antisocial personality
   b) disorganized schizophrenia
   c) dissociative identity disorder
   d) post traumatic stress disorder
   e) clinical depression

                                    Answer: E
Philip Zimbardo believes the type of music one listens to
    affects memory recall as shown by scores on a memory
    test. The type of music is the ___ and the test scores
    are the ____.

    a)   control group; experimental group
    b)   experimental group; control group
    c)   independent variable; dependent variable
    d)   dependent variable; independent variable
    e)   random variable; independent variable



                                       Answer: C
In class, Katie’s teacher tells her that she will give her the
     coin and bill for each picture she can correctly
     identify on the face of the penny, nickel, dime,
     quarter, half-dollar, dollar bill and five-dollar bill.
     Katie cannot identify any of them although she has
     been handling money for 17 years. Her inability to
     remember the pictures most likely results from
     a) failure to reconstruct
     b) deep processing
     c) failure to encode
     d) repression
     e) anterograde amnesia
                                             Answer: C
Stranded in a deserted area after a boating accident, Ryan was
    able to survive by eating leaves and insects, and drinking
    water he boiled in a fire he made. According to
    Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Ryan
    displayed a high level of which of the following
    intelligences?
    a) spatial
    b) interpersonal
    c) verbal-linguistic
    d) naturalistic
    e) musical

                                       Answer: D
Menopause occurs at about age

   a)   12 in males only
   b)   12 in both sexes
   c)   50 in females only
   d)   12 in females only
   e)   50 in males only


                                Answer: C
Luiza wants to do an experiment on only 100
    subjects but her population is 5000. What
    procedure should she use to ensure all 5000
    people have an equal and fair opportunity to
    be selected?
 a)   double-blind procedure
 b)   random sampling
 c)   informed consent
 d)   random assignment
 e)   single-blind procedure
                                  Answer: B
Homer suffered a stroke last week and cannot
   recognize his children or grand-children by
   looking at them. Of the following structures,
   his brain lesion is most likely in the
  a) cerebellum
  b) left cerebral cortex
  c) right cerebral cortex
  d) amygdala
  e) Reticular formation

                              Answer: D
The best definition of an action potential is
   a) an electrical charge that moves through the
   bloodstream
   b) an electrical charge that moves through
   neurons
   c) the release of various neurotransmitters into
   the synapatic gap
   d) the ability of a neuron to fire consistently
   e) the transfer of information between neurons
                                   Answer: B
Dr. Blake helped a company redesign its offices
    to raise morale and productivity of the
    employees. With which of the following
    subfields of psychology is Dr. Blake most
    likely affiliated?
    a) industrial/organizational
    b) counseling
    c) social
    d) developmental
    e) biological
                                 Answer: A
Liz cited Colin and Luke’s 100% math test scores
    in providing evidence that boys do better in
    math than girls. Her failure to recognize that
    seven girls in the class earned 100%, while only
    two boys earned that score, best illustrates
    a) hindsight bias
    b) confirmation bias
    c) proactive interference
    d) retroactive interference
    e) discrimination
                                   Answer: B
Which of the following usually increases with
  age in healthy adults between the ages of
  18 and 70?
  a) I.Q. scores
  b) g
  c) fluid intelligence
  d) crystallized intelligence
  e) s

                                 Answer: D
After she used address stickers sent by a charity
   in the mail, Joie felt obligated to mail a
   donation to the organization that sent the
   stickers. Joie’s behavior illustrates
   a) the fundamental attribution error
   b) the mere exposure effect
   c) the reciprocity norm
   d) groupthink
   e) foot-in-the-door phemonenon

                                     Answer: C
Light therapy, consisting of exposure to bright light
   in the morning, has been successful in relieving
   symptoms of:
   a) bipolar disorder
   b) clinical depression
   c) Alzheimer’s disease
   d) obsessive-compulsive disorder
   e) seasonal affective disorder


                           Answer: E
A comprehensive final examination to AP
   Psychology that consists of questions dealing
   solely with the motivation and emotion, social
   psychology, and biological basis of behavior
   units lacks
   a) content validity
   b) standardization
   c) a normal curve
   d) reliability
   e) equity
                                  Answer: A
In a team tug of war, CJ did not pull as hard
    as he would have if was pulling alone
    against one competitor. His behavior
    exemplifies
    a) deindividuation
    b) groupthink
    c) social facilitation
    d) bystander effect
    e) social loafing

                                Answer: E
Edras believes that getting a good grade on an
   AP exam is a matter of luck. He most
   likely has
   a) an internal locus of control
   b) an external locus of control
   c) achieved self-actualization
   d) high achievement motivation
   e) self-efficacy

                               Answer: B
Which of the following is not an anxiety
  disorder?
  a) panic disorder
  b) posttraumatic stress disorder
  c) agoraphobia
  d) antisocial personality
  e) obsessive-compulsive disorder

                     Answer: D
Which of the following is not considered a
  primary facial expression?
  a) love
  b) fear
  c) disgust
  d) surprise
  e) anger


                               Answer: A
Paul saw a horrific accident when he was small.
   He has since suffered blindness although
   physically there is nothing wrong with him.
   What does Paul have?
   a) Dissociative Identity Disorder
   b) Conversion Disorder
   c) Hypochondria
   d) Tourette’s Syndrome
   e) Dissociative Amnesia

                             Answer: B
In time-out, a disruptive boy who wants to stay with his
   class is removed from the classroom. He is told he can
   return if he stops being disruptive. Since we wish to
   decrease the chances of the behavior reoccuring, this is
   an example of:
   a) punishment
   b) positive reinforcement
   c) negative reinforcement
   d) classical conditioning
   e) observational learning


                                Answer: A
Which of the following do individuals
experience when their behavior is inconsistent
with their attitude?

  A)   Approach-avoidance conflict
  B)   Cognitive dissonance
  C)   Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
  D)   The overjustification effect
  E)   Prejudice


                        Answer: B
After dealing kindly with several customers who
   acted very rudely toward her, Carla was
   impatient with her next customer. The tendency
   of that customer to think that Carla is a very
   impatient person rather than just having a bad
   day exemplifies
   a) the mere exposure
   b) stereotyping
   c) groupthink
   d) the fundamental attribution error
   e) overjustification effect
                               Answer: D
Using drugs to help patients with disorders is
known as the _________ approach


    A)   Cognitive
    B)   Psychoanalytic
    C)   Social-learning
    D)   Psychopharmacological
    E)   Eclectic

                                 Answer: D
According to trait theorists, such as Hans
   Eysenck, the basis for personality is
   a) stable sources of individual differences
   that characterize an individual, based on an
   interaction of nature and nurture
   b) conflicting sources of psychic energy
   c) the distinctive human ability to act
   purposefully and to shape our own destiny
   d) evolutionary adaptation
   e) inherited from our parents
                                  Answer: A
According to social learning theory, gender identity
   results primarily from
   a) chromosomal differences in the sex
   chromosomes
   b) labeling of a child as a boy or a girl
   c) resolution of the Oedipal complex resulting
   in identification with the same-sex parent
   d) observation and imitation of significant role
   models
   e) refusing to treat boys and girls differently

                                Answer: B
The position on the basilar membrane at
   which waves reach their peak depends on
   the frequency of a tone, according to
   which theory?
   a) opponent-process
   b) trichromatic
    c) place
   d) volley
   e) sensorineural

                             Answer: D
The left cerebral hemisphere is specialized for
   which of the following functions?
   a) spatial, musical, and identifying faces
   b) mathematical, spatial, and analytic
   c) verbal, analytic, and mathematical
   d) mathematical, spatial, and musical
   e) musical, mathematical, and spatial


                           Answer: C
Garcia’s work with rats showed that the strict
   laws of the classical conditioning psycho-
   logist ____ were not necessarily correct:

   a)   Skinner
   b)   Bandura
   c)   Pavlov
   d)   Thorndike
   e)   Rotter


                                 Answer: A
Azka is rewarded for the first response, then the
   3rd, then the 4th and then the 9th. Which
   schedule of reinforcement is she on?
   a) continuous
   b) fixed ratio
   c) fixed interval
   d) variable ratio
   e) variable interval


                              Answer: D
Two friends attribute their high math scores to
their high level of effort & ability in math &
their low Spanish scores to their teacher’s
subjective grading & favoritism. These
students are exhibiting:

 A)   the self-serving bias
 B)   scapegoating
 C)   equity
 D)   the halo effect
 E)   discrimination
                              Answer: A
Standardized tests are
   a) any examination given by your state or country
   b) all examinations with exactly the same
   directions
   c) tests for which a person’s performance can be
   compared with a pilot group
   d) tests with norms, which indicate average, high,
   and low scores for the test
   e) tests which evaluate the best way to administer
   future tests

                                 Answer: D
The most common somatic nervous system
   neurotransmitter to cause muscle contractions
   is
   a) acetylcholine
   b) dopamine
   c) endorphins
   d) epinephrine
   e) serotonin



                             Answer: A
According to gate-control theory, the
   manipulation of which type of muscle
   fibers tends to “close the gate”?
   a) large
   b) bottom
   c) small
   d) thin
   e) interneuron



                               Answer: A
The rooting reflex is characterized by neonates
   a) withdrawing from painful stimuli
   b) turning their heads toward stimuli when
   touched on their cheek
   c) grasping objects that press against their
   palms
   d) fanning their toes when their soles are
   stimulated
   e) looking for the source of a voice when
   someone speaks

                               Answer: B
Rahi can see objects better the farther away they
   are from her. She has:
   a) cataracts
   b) farsightedness
   c) dyslexia
   d) nearsightedness
   e) color blindness


                           Answer: B
Estel remembers vividly the first time she met
   the singer Iggy Pop. This is an example of
   what type of memory?
   a) fluid
   b) explicit
   c) procedural
   d) episodic
   e) semantic


                               Answer: D
The ability to choose specific stimuli to
learn about, while filtering out or ignoring other
information, is called
  A) change blindness
  B) subliminal perception
  C) time-sharing
  D) masking
  E) selective attention


                                 Answer: E
The human vestibular sense is most closely
associated with the:

  A) skin
  B) cochlea
  C) taste buds
  D) olfactory bulb
  E) semicircular canals

                              Answer: E
John Watson was a pioneer in which of the
  following perspectives in psychology?

A) Functionalism
B) Biological
C) Psychoanalytic
D) Behaviorism
E) Cognitive


                     Answer: D
Alex was able to roll over at 2 months, crawl
at 5 months, and walk at 10 months. This
sequence is most likely due to:

 A) egocentrism
 B) maturation
 C) attachment
 D) assimilation
 E) accommodation

                         Answer: B
The psychological effects of alcohol are
 powerfully influenced by the user’s:

    A) expectations
    B) agility
    C) intelligence quotient (IQ)
    D) brain dopamine level
    E) emotional quotient



               Answer: A
The Big Five Personality test is used by
psychologists from which perspective?

   A) Behavioral
   B) Trait
   C) Cognitive
   D) Humanistic
   E) Social-Cognitive


                                Answer: B
Each person has a body-fat level that remains
    fixed and resistant to change known as:


  A) transduction
  B) aphasia
  C) metabolism
  D) set point
  E) and match


                            Answer: D
Which component of the limbic system has an
essential role in the formation of new explicit
memories?

  A) Amygdala
  B) Pituitary Gland
  C) Hippocampus
  D) Thalamus
  E) Hypothalamus

                           Answer: C
Of the following research methods, which can
best establish a cause-and-effect relationship?


  A) Naturalistic observation
  B) A survey
  C) An experiment
  D) A case study
  E) correlational study

                              Answer: D
A person who has a brain injury is having difficulty
seeing and hearing. These symptoms indicate
damage has occurred in the:

     A) parietal and occipital lobes
     B) frontal and temporal lobes
     C) temporal lobe only
     D) occipital lobe only
     E) occipital and temporal lobes

                               Answer: E
The overall purpose of psychoanalytic therapy is
to:
 A) help the client in therapy get rid of
   irrational thoughts
 B) help the client in therapy gain new insight
   into himself or herself
 C) help the client in therapy reach his or her
   full potential
 D) change the behavior patterns of the client in
    therapy
 E) determine what medication the client needs

                             Answer: B
Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to
psychology was in the area of

  A) intelligence testing
  B) visual perception
  C) psychopathology
  D) classical conditioning
  E) personality testing



                              Answer: A
Which of the following is considered an
explanation of why bystander intervention is
less likely to occur if there is a large number
of witnesses to a crime?

 A) Prejudice
 B) Social facilitation
 C) Group polarization
 D) Diffusion of responsibility
 E) Legitimization of authority

                                        Answer: D
A schema can be described as:

   A) an outer layer of the eye
   B) Process by which we change our
     thinking to accept new information
   C) an optical illusion
   D) a fixed response to a particular
      stimulus
   E) a mental construct of how we see
      things
                                Answer: E
 John Garcia showed when rats ingested a
 novel substance before becoming nauseated
 from radiation or drugs, they acquired a
A) conditioned taste preference for the substance
B) generalized taste preference for similar
  substances
C) conditioned taste preference for any novel
  substance
D) conditioned taste aversion for the substance
E) Conditioned taste aversion for any substance
                             Answer: D
In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, living up to
one’s potential & striving for personal
fulfillment are referred to as:

 A) biological needs
 B) physiological needs
 C) belonging needs
 D) self-actualization needs
 E) security needs


                               Answer: D
The technique of assessing personality by asking a
person to make up a story based on a picture
presented by the researcher is an example of

A) a trait test
B) a projective test
C) a personality inventory
D) simulation
E) an intelligence test


                         Answer: B
Which of the following is considered the
fundamental building block of the nervous
system?

  A) nucleus
  B) neuron
  C) Synapse
  D) neurotransmitter
  E) hormone

                    Answer: B
The learning perspective in psychology suggests
that:
A) humans behavior is determined primarily by
nature
B) all humans are by nature good
C) self-actualization only occurs through therapy
D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and
suffering
E) most behavior can be explained by operant
conditioning principles


                                      Answer: E
The human brain differs from the brains of
most other animals by the relative amount of
brain mass devoted to which of the following

  A) the occipital lobe
  B) the cerebellum
  C) the pituitary gland
  D) the cerebral cortex
  E) reticular activating system


                              Answer: D
An individual who sees and feels imaginary
     spiders crawling on his arms and legs is
     experiencing:

  A) an obsession
  B) a fixation
  C) an illusion
  D) a phobia
  E) a hallucination


                           Answer: E
Which of the following is associated with
    schizophrenia?

   A)   enlarged, fluid-filled areas in the brain
   B)   damage to the medulla
   C)   malfunction of the endocrine system
   D)   impairment of the spinal reflexes
   E)   nervous system malfunction



         Answer: A
Which of the following structures of the brain
regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing
rate and digestion?

  A)   reticular formation
  B)   hypothalamus
  C)   medulla
  D)   thalamus
  E)   hippocampus


                             Answer: C
Sigmund Freud once compared psychological
development to the migration of a population: “As
time passes most of the group moves on, but some
of the members remain at an earlier location”:
Which concept was Freud describing?
  A)   repression
  B)   regression
  C)   sublimation
  D)   fixation
  E)   projective
                             Answer: D
Which of the following treatments is most
frequently used to eliminate specific phobias?

  A) antidepressant drugs
  B) psychodynamic
  C) psychoanalysis
  D) aversion therapy
  E) systematic desensitization

                            Answer: E
The 2 components of Schachter and Singer’s
theory of emotion are:

A) love and anger
B) physiological arousal & cognitive
assessment
C) physiological arousal & behavior
D) instinct and motivation
E) physiological arousal and instinct

                                    Answer: B
Early behaviorists believed that psychology
should NOT focus on “the mind” because “the
mind” is

  A) too complex
  B) largely unconscious
  C) environmentally determined
  D) unobservable
  E) uncontrollable
                             Answer: D
Which of the following explains the behavior
   of normally law-abiding people who act
   destructively when they are part of a
   crowd?
    A)   group polarization
    B)   deindividuation
    C)   fundamental attribution error
    D)   the mere exposure effect
    E)   discrimination

                                    Answer: A
The practice of solving problems by using a
mental shortcut is an example of

  A) an insightful operation
  B) the use of a heuristic
  C) a confirmation bias
  D) the use on an algorithm
  E) schema



                               Answer: B
The minimum intensity at which a stimulus
can be detected at least 50% of the time is
known as the

 A) visual cliff
 B) just noticeable difference
 C) perceptual set
 D) absolute threshold
 E) Weber’s Law


                          Answer: D
Jessica remembers how to roller skate. This
involves which of the following types of
memory?

 A) semantic
 B) episodic
 C) procedural
 D) priming
 E) flashbulb
                            Answer: C
Prozac functions as an antidepressant
medication because it:

  A) enhances production of ach
  B) blocks the reuptake of serotonin
  C) produces a steady, mild state of euphoria
  D) inhibits frontal lobe activity related to
  depression
  E) increases the amount of norepinephrine


                                    Answer: B
Dr. Capeles studies the effects of brain lesions
in rats. This research study reflects which of
the following perspectives?

  A) Cognitive
  B) Biological
  C) Behavioral
  D) Humanistic
  E) Psychoanalytical


                                 Answer: B
Material that an individual cannot remember but is
on the “tip of the tongue” is

  A) in episodic memory, but not in semantic
  memory
  B) in short-term memory, but not in long-
  term memory
  C) available, but not accessible
  D) retrieved, but not encoded
  E) encoded, but not stored

                                   Answer: C
A teacher taught her students to take turns by
giving them stars to trade for snacks at the end
of the day. This technique is called

  A) systematic desensitization
  B) classical conditioning
  C) rational-emotive therapy
  D) token economy
  E) aversive conditioning


                                  Answer: D
Which Piagetian stage of cognitive
development is characterized by mastery of
conservation tasks?

  A) Sensorimotor
  B) Preoperational
  C) Concrete operations
  D) Formal operations
  E) Preconvential


                               Answer: C
When Trung practices the drums, he tends not to
hear the phone. Today he is expecting a call from a
record producer & answers the phone each time it
rings even when he is practicing the drums. Which
of the following explains why Trung hears the
phone today?
   A) Signal detection theory
   B) Accomodation
   C) Weber’s law
   D) Frequency theory
   E) Just noticeable difference
                                         Answer: A
Which of the following is the correct sequence
through which an auditory stimulus passes before it
is perceived as sound?
   A) cochlea, ossicles, eardrum, oval window,
   auditory canal
   B) Eardrum, cochlea, auditory canal, ossicles, oval
   window
   C) Oval window, auditory canal, eardrum,
   cochlea,ossicles
   D) Auditory canal, eardrum, ossicles, oval window,
   cochlea
   E) ossicles, eardrum, cochlea, oval window, auditory
   canal
                                        Answer: D
When Becca first had cable TV service installed,
PBS was on channel 9. Her cable company then
switched PBS to channel 16.
Becca now has trouble remembering that PBS is
on channel 16 & not on channel 9. This memory
problem represents:
    A) memory decay
    B) retrograde amnesia
    C) retroactive interference
    D) proactive interference
    E) anterograde amnesia
                                     Answer: D
All of the following are conditions that may
lead to conflict within organizations EXCEPT:


 A)   scarce resources
 B)   inequities in status
 C)   insufficient communication
 D)   superordinate goals
 E)   subordinate goals

                                   Answer: D
Which of the following assessment tools is
    LEAST likely to be used by a psycho-
    analytically oriented psychologist?
A) Rorschach Test
B) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
C) Draw-A-Person Test
D) Thematic Apperception Test
E) Free association

                   Answer: B
Which of the following neurotransmitters is
most directly associated with Alzheimer’s
disease?

  A) Dopamine
  B) Serotonin
  C) Acetylcholine (Ach)
  D) GABA
  E) Glutamate

                               Answer: C
Which of the following is characterized by a
periodic appearance of sleep spindles?

  A) Stage 1 Sleep
  B) Stage 2 sleep
  C) Stage 3 sleep
  D) Stage 4 sleep
  E) REM sleep


                                Answer: B
Which of the following is NOT a Gestalt
principle of perceptual organization?


 A) Intensity
 B) Proximity
 C) Similarity
 D) Closure
 E) Continuity


                         Answer: A
    Which of the following is an example of
             retrograde amnesia?
A) Lilly cannot recall the face of the thief she saw running
from the scene of the crime.
B) Morgan’s vivid memory of the explosion of the space
shuttle Challenger is not corroborated by those she was w/ at
the time.
C) Hatef is unable to remember anything since the accident
that destroyed portions of his hippocampus.
D) Erica cannot remember any details of what happened right
before her car accident.
E) Luisa cannot learn new information since receiving a head
injury
                                        Answer: D
Neurosurgeons cut the corpus callosum in the
brain disrupting communication between the
         right & left hemispheres to:

A) prevent the spread of epileptic seizures
B) reduce anxiety attack & phobic reactions
C) reduce the incidence of violent behaviors
D) treat schizophrenia
E) treat depression


                             Answer: A
Most New Yorkers remember where they
  were and what they were doing when they
  heard the World Trade Center was
  destroyed. Which of the following best
  identifies this type of memory?
  a) implicit memory
  b) flashbulb memory
  c) explicit memory
  d) déjà vu
  e) semantic memory
                             Answer: B
Aaron Beck suggested that negative beliefs cause
  depression. To help change these negative
   beliefs, Beck used which of the following
                   therapies?
 A) Cognitive
 B) Psychopharmacological
 C) Social-learning
 D) Psychoanalytic
 E) Behavioral


                                 Answer: A
Which of the following are most involved in the
action potential of a neuron?
  A) Calcium and sodium
  B) Sodium and potassium
  C) Potassium and calcium
  D) Chloride and calcium
  E) Chloride and sodium



                                Answer: B
Whose theory of cognitive development
  includes the Zone of Proximal Distance?
  a) Watson
  b) Bandura
  c) Piaget
  d) Skinner
  e) Vygotsky



                              Answer: E
After seeing his parents give his brother a dollar
     for cleaning his room, Kevin begins
     cleaning his own room. This is an example
     of
   A) Observational learning
   B) Spontaneous recovery
   C) Stimulus generalization
   D) Classical conditioning
   E) Operant Conditioning
                                 Answer: A
Which of the following best describes Charles Spearman’s g
   of intelligence?
   a) the g is measured by the speed with which one can
   process information
   b) a general intelligence that underlies success on a
   wide variety of tasks is g
   c) the internal validity of an intelligence test is g
   d) there are many factors that determine intelligence,
   but genetics is the most important one
   e) s is more important than g to determine success



                                      Answer: A
Two year old Andrew is frightened by a
small dog. A few weeks later he sees a cat
and becomes frightened. Andrew’s reaction
is most likely an example of which of the
following?

   A) Stimulus discrimination
   B) Stimulus generalization
   C) Priming
   D) Spontaneous recovery
   E) Extinction
                                Answer: B

				
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