Dessler HRM Chapter 16

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					                                                   Chapter 16: Employee Safety and Health


Chapter 16: Employee Safety and Health

Multiple Choice

1.    In most countries, safety and health laws are enforced by the following
      methods:
      a. inspection of the workplace
      b. imposing fines for non-compliance
      c. persuasion
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; moderate)

2.    Accidents can be prevented by doing the following:
      a. reducing accident causing conditions
      b. reducing accident-causing acts
      c. telling employees to work safely
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; easy)

3.    Managers can help to prevent accidents by:
      a. being involved in safety activities
      b. showing commitment
      c. giving top priority to safety measures
      d. providing safety training to workers
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

4.    White collar employees working in office buildings may experience all of the
      following health and safety problems except _____.
      a. carpal tunnel syndrome
      b. respiratory illness
      c. stress
      d. headaches
      e. all of the above are possible problems for white collar employees
      (e; easy)

5.    The basic purpose of the occupational safety and health rules is to _____.
      a. set and enforce the safety and health standards at the workplace
      b. assure every person is safe and healthy
      c. provide safe and healthful working conditions to self-employed persons
      d. to ensure government agencies provide a healthy and safe working
          environment for all public employees
      e. to prevent the occurrence of occupational illnesses among all employees
      (a; moderate)




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6.      What term is used to describe any abnormal condition or disorder caused by
        exposure to environmental factors associated with employment?
        a. occupational injury
        b. workers’ compensation
        c. chronic illness
        d. occupational illness
        e. work-related disease
        (d; easy)

7.      All of the following are basic causes of workplace accidents except _____.
        a. chance occurrences
        b. unsafe conditions
        c. unsafe behavior by employees
        d. weather-related accidents
        e. all of the above
        (d; easy)

8.      According to safety managers, people cause accidents by:
        a. using unsafe procedures
        b. lifting objects improperly
        c. throwing materials
        d. a and b
        e. a, b and c
        (e; easy)

9.      Accidents can be prevented if employees do the following:
        a. reduce unsafe conditions
        b. reduce unsafe acts
        c. have a break every hour
        d. a and b
        e. a, b and c
        (d; easy)

10.     Accidents can be prevented if employees:
        a. are provided with personal protective equipment
        b. are trained to use the equipment
        c. buy their own protective equipment
        d. a and b
        e. a, b and c
        (d; easy)

11.     Improperly guarded equipment, defective equipment, hazardous procedures,
        and improper ventilation are all examples of _____.
        a. chance occurrences
        b. unsafe conditions
        c. unsafe behavior by employees
        d. weather-related accidents
        e. all of the above
        (b; easy)



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12.   Supervisors can help to reduce accidents by:
      a. be a good example by following safety rules
      b. remind employees of safety activities
      c. link bonus to safety record of employees
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; easy)

13.   Which of the following factors contributes to accidents at work?
      a. unsafe conditions
      b. the job itself
      c. the work schedule
      d. the psychological climate of the workplace
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

14.   Through what means does providing high quality work improve safety-
      conscious behavior?
      a. increasing employee learning
      b. strengthening problem solving skills
      c. promoting preventive action
      d. enhancing job satisfaction
      e. all of the above
      (e; moderate)

15.   Which of the following is the basis for reducing and preventing accidents at
      work?
      a. reducing unsafe conditions
      b. reducing unsafe acts
      c. training employees
      d. distributing safety literature
      e. both a and b
      (e; moderate)

16.   In most large companies, who is responsible for reducing unsafe working
      conditions and reducing unsafe acts by employees?
      a. Chief Executive Officer
      b. Chief Safety Officer
      c. Occupational Safety and Health Officer
      d. Head Nurse
      e. Chief Operations Officer
      (b; easy)

17.   Unsafe acts can be reduced through all of the following methods except
      a. job rotation
      b. screening
      c. training
      d. incentive programs
      e. responding to employee suggestions
      (a; moderate)


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18.     When managers identify a trait associated with work-place accidents and then
        use this trait as part of the selection process for new hires, they are using
        _____ to reduce unsafe acts.
        a. job rotation
        b. screening
        c. training
        d. incentive programs
        e. responding to employee suggestions
        (b; moderate)

19.     When managers reduce unsafe acts through selection, it means that they _____.
        a. identify a trait associated with work-place accidents and then screen
            candidates on this trait
        b. train employees on safety procedures
        c. rotate employees through different positions
        d. offer incentives to employee teams with low accident rates
        e. respond to employee suggestions to improve possible problem areas
        (a; easy)

20.     Safety programs that focus on identifying worker behaviors that contribute to
        accidents and then training workers to avoid these behaviors are called ____.
        a. behavior-based safety
        b. positive reinforcement safety
        c. strategic safety
        d. employee participation-based
        e. safety training
        (a; easy)

21.     When an employee has an accident at work, management should respond by
        _____.
        a. providing first aid
        b. getting a lawyer
        c. reminding the employee of written safety policies
        d. encourage the employee to get back to work
        e. all of the above
        (a; easy)

22.     One good solution for encouraging employees who are injured at work to
        return to work quickly is to _____.
        a. show indifference to the employee’s injury
        b. encourage the employee to seek work elsewhere
        c. make light-duty work available
        d. threaten dismissal
        e. minimize workers’ compensation benefits
        (c; moderate)




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23.   Which of the following is a type of workplace exposure hazard?
      a. chemicals
      b. excessive noise
      c. temperature extremes
      d. biohazards
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

24.   Workers who have traveled to areas with known SARS outbreaks in the last
      _____ may be at risk for developing the disease.
      a. 5 days
      b. 10 days
      c. 2 weeks
      d. 1 month
      e. 6 months
      (b; moderate)

25.   If an employer has workers returning from an area with known SARS
      outbreaks, he or she should consider _____ to protect other employees from
      being infected.
      a. dismissing the workers
      b. denying access to facilities for ten days following the workers’ return
      c. sending workers to a hospital
      d. offering employees a light-work option
      e. all of the above
      (b; moderate)

26.   Job stress may be caused by the following factor(s):
      a. overwork
      b. tight schedule
      c. difficult customers
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; easy)

27.   To the employee, job stress may cause the following:
      a. anxiety
      b. depression
      c. anger
      d. headache
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

28.   To the employer, job stress may cause the following:
      a. poor job performance
      b. high absenteeism
      c. more healthcare cost
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; easy)


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29.     Which of the following is a personal factor that can influence perceptions of
        stress?
        a. work schedule
        b. pace of work
        c. type A personality
        d. noise
        e. job security
        (c; moderate)

30.     Which of the following is an external factor that can lead to job stress?
        a. Type A personality
        b. pessimism
        c. locus of control
        d. job security
        e. tolerance for ambiguity
        (d; moderate)

31.     Which of the following is a possible consequence for an employee faced with
        serious levels of job stress?
        a. increased occurrence of headaches and other physical symptoms
        b. increased absenteeism
        c. increased grievances
        d. increased health care costs
        e. poor quality
        (a; difficult)

32.     Which of the following is not a consequence for an employer when employees
        experience high levels of job stress?
        a. increased occurrence of headaches and other physical symptoms
        b. increased absenteeism
        c. increased grievances
        d. increased health care costs
        e. poor work quality
        (a; difficult)

33.     Employees who wish to lower their job stress should follow all of the
        following suggestions except _____.
        a. build a supportive relationship with the supervisor
        b. put off dealing with distasteful problems
        c. request realistic deadlines for important projects
        d. limit interruptions
        e. find time each day to relax
        (b; difficult)




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34.   _____ is defined as the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused
      by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal.
      a. Depression
      b. Job stress
      c. An anxiety attack
      d. Burnout
      e. Work illness
      (d; easy)

35.   Burnout occurs in employees with high-stress at work _____.
      a. spontaneously
      b. immediately
      c. gradually over time
      d. immediately for those employees who are burnout-prone
      e. never for those employees who are not burnout-prone
      (c; easy)

36.   Burnout can be reduced by _____.
      a. taking a vacation
      b. hiring more employees
      c. removing the stressors that caused it initially
      d. managing stress on an ongoing basis
      e. both c and d
      (e; moderate)

37.   Employees at risk for burnout should consider taking time off for _____
      during the workday.
      a. physical exercise
      b. meditation
      c. napping
      d. reflective thinking
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

38.   In China, employers in the chemical industry must implement the following
      measure(s):
      a. shorten work hours from 8 to 6 hours a day
      b. give one day’s leave after working three successive days
      c. provide alternate jobs every one and a half months
      d. a and b
      e. a, b and c
      (e; easy)

39.   In China, accidents involving serious injury or fatality must be reported to the
      following:
      a. government department in charge of the company
      b. local labor department
      c. public security department
      d. trade union of the company
      e. all of the above
      (e; easy)

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40.     In Japan, the Workers’ Accident Compensation Insurance provides the
        following benefit(s):
        a. medical compensation benefit
        b. disability compensation benefit
        c. survivors compensation benefit
        d. injury and disease compensation benefit
        e. all of the above
        (e; easy)

41.     In Malaysia, the main objectives of the Occupational Safety and Health Act
        are to:
        a. protect persons at the workplace
        b. promote a safe and healthy work environment
        c. improve the standards of safety and health
        d. a and b
        e. a, b and c
        (e; easy)


42.     In South Korea, under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act,
        the insurance plan covers the following:
        a. medical benefits
        b. disability benefits
        c. survivor’s benefits
        d. funeral expenses
        e. all of the above
        (e; easy)

True/ False

43.     It is the responsibility of employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace
        (T; easy)

44.     It is the responsibility of employees to comply with safe and healthy rules at
        the workplace (T; easy)

45.     It is the responsibility of employees to ensure their own safe and healthy rules
        at the workplace (T; easy)

46.     In most countries, there are laws to ensure the workplace is safe and healthy.
        (T; easy)

47.     In some Asian countries, safety and health laws may not be strictly enforced
        (T; moderate)

48.     Certain jobs are more dangerous than others. (T; easy)

49.     Tight schedules may increase accident rates. (T; easy)

50.     Fatigue is one of the causes of accident. (T; easy)

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51.   An occupational illness is any abnormal condition or disorder caused by
      exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. (T; easy)

52.   The cost of instituting safety programs is typically recouped quickly through
      the reduction in injuries and workers’ compensation. (T; moderate)

53.   Workplace accidents occur more often during night shifts than during other
      shifts. (T; moderate)

54.   Safety training should be bilingual in situations where employees speak
      English as a second language or are not fluent in English. (T; moderate)

55.   Safety posters may increase safe behavior at work by more than 20%. (T;
      moderate)

56.   Positive reinforcement programs identify the worker behaviors that lead to
      accidents and then train workers to avoid these behaviors. (F; moderate)

57.   Job stress originates solely from external factors such as work schedule, job
      security, and noise. (F; easy)

58.   A nice vacation once a year can eliminate burnout. (F; moderate)

59.   In China, the Labor Law has specific sections on occupational health and
      safety. (T; easy)

60.   In China, under the Labor Law, employers must comply with labor safety and
      hygiene procedures and standards. (T’ easy)

61.   In China, under the Labor Law, employers must educate their workers in labor
      safety and hygiene. (T’ easy)

62.   In China, under the Labor Law, employers must find ways to reduce
      occupational hazards. (T’ easy)

63.   In China, the government will provide workers with protection devices. (F;
      easy)

64.   In China, employers must conduct physical examinations regularly for all
      workers. (F; moderate)

65.   In China, employers must conduct physical examinations regularly for all
      workers engaged in operations in occupational hazard. (T; easy)

66.   In China, workers in the chemical industry work only 6 hours instead of 8
      hours a day. (T; moderate)

67.   In China, workers in the chemical industry are entitled to one day’s leave after
      working for three consecutive days. (T; moderate)


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68.     In China, workers in the chemical industry are entitled to have alternate jobs
        every three months. (F; moderate)

69.     In China, factories that fail to comply with safety regulations may be fined or
        asked to close. (T; moderate)

70.     In China, factory owners may be subject to criminal liabilities if their factories
        are involved in industrial deaths. (T; moderate)

71.     In China, in order to attract foreign investment, the government has exempted
        foreign companies from the requirement to conduct medical examinations of
        their employees. (F’ difficult)

72.     In Hong Kong, there are many accidents at construction sites. (T; easy)

73.     In Hong Kong, the enforcement of safety regulation by the Labor Department
        is not strict. (F; moderate)

74.     In Hong Kong, the Occupational Safety and Health Council is in charge of
        promoting industrial safety. (T; easy)

75.     In Indonesia, all employers must provide a hygienic working environment for
        their workers. (T; easy)

76.     In Indonesia, the government provides workers with protective equipment. (F;
        moderate; 16/23).

77.     In Indonesia, all companies must have a policy on health and safety. (T;
        moderate: 16/23)

78.     In Japan, all companies, big or small, must have Workers’ Accident
        Compensation Insurance. (F; moderate)

79.     In Japan, there have been numerous death cases from overwork. (T; moderate)

80.     In Japan, there is agreement that compensation can be paid for death from
        overwork. (T; difficult)

81.     In Malaysia, under the Workmen’s Compensation Act, employers must buy
        insurance to cover their liabilities (T; easy)

82.     In Malaysia, under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employers must
        provide a safe and healthy workplace. (T; moderate)

83.     In Malaysia, under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employees are
        responsible for their own safety and health at the workplace. (T; moderate)

84.     In Malaysia, the Occupational Safety and Health Act ensures that workers do
        not die from overwork. (F; difficult).



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85.   In Malaysia, employers must buy insurance to cover their liabilities under the
      Workmen’s Compensation Act. (T; easy)

86.   At a typical Singapore construction sites, there are workers from several sub-
      contractors. This creates problems for enforcing safety rules. (T; moderate)

87.   In Singapore, the Workplace Safety and Health Act spells out the rights and
      duties of people working in factories and other workplaces. (T; moderate).

88.   In Singapore, under the Work Injury Compensation Act, all workers must buy
      insurance to cover themselves from injuries. (F; difficult, 16/27).

89.   In Singapore, all employers must buy insurance under the Work Injury
      Compensation Act. (T; easy)

90.   In South Korea, the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act covers
      all companies. (F; moderate)

91.   In South Korea, the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act covers
      companies with five or more employees. (T; easy)

92.   In South Korea, under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act,
      the insurance plan pays only medical benefits. (F; moderate).

93.   In South Korea, under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act,
      the insurance plan pays only medical and disability benefits. (F; moderate).

94.   In Thailand, under the Labor Protection Law, employees may claim
      compensation when they suffer work-related injury. (T; easy)

95.   In Thailand, under the Labor Protection Law, dependants of workers who died
      from work-related injuries may compensation for five years. (T; moderate)

Essay/ Short Answer

96.   What are the three basic causes of workplace accidents? Explain. (easy)

      Answer: The three basic causes of workplace accidents are chance
      occurrences, unsafe conditions, and unsafe acts on the part of employees.
      Chance occurrences are not under the management’s control so safety
      programs focus on unsafe conditions and unsafe acts by employees.

97.   Why should employers involve employees in designing their safety programs?
      (easy)

      Answer: There are two main reasons for employee participation in designing
      safety programs. First, employees are often the best source of information
      regarding potential problems and safety hazards. Second, involving employees
      should increase employee acceptance and commitment to the safety program.



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98.     What three actions can help to reduce unsafe working conditions? (moderate)

        Answer: These actions can help to reduce unsafe conditions: 1) identify and
        eliminate unsafe conditions, 2) use administrative means such as job rotation,
        3) use personal protective equipment.

99.     List five actions that can help to reduce unsafe acts at work. (easy)

        Answer: Some possible actions include 1) emphasizing the commitment of
        top management to safety, 2) establishing a safety policy, 3) reducing unsafe
        acts through selection, 4) providing safety training, 5) using posters, 6) using
        positive reinforcement, 7) using behavior-based safety programs, 8) encourage
        worker participation, and 9) conducting safety and health inspections regularly.

100.    What basic steps are involved in a basic industrial hygiene program?
        (moderate)

        Answer: The process is basically one of recognition, evaluation, and control.
        First, the facility’s health and safety officers must recognize possible exposure
        hazards. Doing so typically involves conducting plant/ facility walk around
        surveys, employee interviews, records reviews, and reviews of government
        and nongovernmental standards regarding various occupational exposure
        hazards. Then, the evaluation phase involves determining how severe the
        hazard is. This usually requires measuring the exposure, comparing the
        measured exposure to some benchmark and determining whether the risk is
        acceptable. Finally, the control phase involves taking steps to eliminate or
        reduce the hazard so that it no longer ranks as dangerous.

101.    List the four major sources of occupational respiratory diseases. (easy)

        Answer: The four major sources of occupational respiratory diseases are
        asbestos, silica, lead, and carbon dioxide.




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