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					                                   APES REVIEW
                               119+ WAYS TO GO APE

1) Ionizing radiation:        enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of
    causing cancer (gamma-Xrays-UV)
2) High Quality Energy: organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (fossil fuel &
3) Low Quality Energy: disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
4) First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted
    from one form to another
5) Second Law of Thermodynamics: when energy is changed from one form to another, some
    useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
6) Natural radioactive decay: unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta
7) Half life: the time it takes for ½ the mass of a radioisotope to decay
8) Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level:
    approximately 10 half-lives
9) Nuclear Fission: nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
10) Nuclear Fusion: 2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they
    fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
11) Ore: a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
12) Organic fertilizer: slow acting & long lasting because the organic remains need time to be
13) Best solution to Energy shortage: conservation and increase efficiency
14) Surface mining: cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
15) Humus: organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
16) Leaching: removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
17) Illuviation: deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)
18) Loam: perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt, clay
19) Conservation: allows the use of resources in a responsible manner
     Preservation: setting aside areas & protecting them from human activities
20) Parts of the hydrologic cycle: evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation,
21) Aquifer: any water bearing layer in the ground
22) Cone of depression: lowering of the water table around a pumping well
23) Salt water intrusion: near the coast, overpumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into
    the acquifer
24) ENSO: El Nino Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the South Pacific
25) During an El Nino year: trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to South America
    During a Non El Nino year: Easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the
    western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America
26) La Niña: opposite of El Niño. Characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures –in US,
    wettern than normal in pacific Northwest and dryer and warmer-than normal in southern states
    – more hurricanes & heavier monsoons in India and Southeast Asia
27) Effects of El Nino: upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters, SW US
    has increased rainfall, less Atlantic Hurricanes
28) Nitrogen fixing: because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be
    converted into ammonia by bacteria (rhizobium)
29) Ammonification: decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
30) Nitrification: ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
31) Assimilation: inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids &
32) Denitrification: bacteria convert ammonia back into N
33) Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N because: it does not exist as a gas, but is released by
    weathering of phosphate rocks
34) Sustainability: the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of
    future generations to meet their needs
35) Excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems by: runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer,
    discharge of sewage
36) Photosynthesis: plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose
37) Aerobic respiration: oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down
    complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
38) Largest reservoirs of C: carbonate rocks first, oceans second
39) Biotic/abiotic: living & nonliving components of an ecosystem
40) Producer/Autotroph: photosynthetic life
41) Fecal coliform/Enterococcus: : indicator of sewage contamination
42) Energy flow in food webs: only 10% of the usable energy is transferred because usable energy
    lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch
43) Chlorine: (good>disinfection of water)( bad>forms trihalomethanes)
44) Primary succession: development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by
    life (lava)
    Secondary succession: life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest, fire)
45) Cogeneration: using waste heat to make electricity
46) Mutualism: symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
47) Commensalism: symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected
48) Parasitism: relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
49) Biome: large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
50) Carrying capacity: the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
51) R strategist: reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring
    K strategist: reproduce late, few, cared for offspring
52) Positive feedback: when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the
    changing condition (EX: warmer Earth - snow melts - less sunlight is reflected & more is
    absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
53) Natural selection: organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next
54) Malthus: said human population cannot continue to increase..consequences will be war, famine
    & disease
55) Doubling time: rule of 70       70 divided by the percent growth rate
56) Replacement level fertility: the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves
    (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
57) World Population is: 6 1/2 billion
    US Population: 300 million
58) Preindustrial stage: birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
59) Transitional stage: death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
60) Industrial stage: decline in birth rate, population growth slows
61) Postindustrial stage: low birth & death rates
62) Age structure diagrams: (broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negative growth)(uniform
    shape, zero growth)
63) 1st & 2nd most populated countries: China & India
64) Most important thing affecting population growth: low status of women
65) Ways to decrease birth rate: family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties
66) Percent water on earth by type: 97.5% seawater, 2.5% freshwater
67) Salinazation of soil: in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
68) Ways to conserve water: (agriculture, drip/trickle irrigation)(industry,recyling)(home, use gray
    water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures)
69) Point vs non point sources: (Point, from specific location such as pipe)(Non-point, from over an
    area such as runoff)
70) BOD: biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to
    break down organic materials
71) Eutrophication: rapid algal growth caused by an excess of N & P
72) Hypoxia: when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants,
    the DO drops & the water cannot support life
73) Minamata Disease: mental impairments caused by mercury
74) Primary air pollutants: produced by humans & nature (CO,CO2,SO2,NO,hydrocarbons,
75) Negative feedback: when a changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the
    changed condition (EX: warmer earth - more ocean evaporation - more stratus clouds - less
    sunlight reaches the ground - therefore cooler Earth)
76) Particulate matter (source,effect,reduction): (burning fossil fuels & diesel exhaust) (reduces
    visibility & respiratory irritation) (filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy)
77) Nitrogen Oxides: (Source: auto exhaust) (Effects: acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation,
    leads to smog & ozone) ( Equation for acid formation: NO + O2 = NO2 + H2O = HNO3)
    (Reduction: catalytic converter)
78) Sulfur oxides: (Source: coal burning) (Effects: acid deposition, respiratory irritation, damages
    plants) (Equation for acid formation: SO2 + O2 = SO3 + H2O = H2SO4) (Reduction: scrubbers,
    burn low sulfur fuel)
79) Carbon oxides: (Source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion) (Effects: CO binds to
    hemoglobin reducing bloods ability to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming) (Reduction:
    catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit)
80) Ozone: (Formation: secondary pollutant, NO2+UV=NO+O O+O2=O3, with VOC’s) (Effects:
    respiratory irritant, plant damage) (Reduction: reduce NO emissions & VOCs)
81) Radon: radioactive gas, formed from the decay of Uranium, causes lung cancer and is a
    problem in the Reading Prong
82) Photochemical smog: formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NO, VOC,O)
83) Acid deposition: caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
84) Greenhouse gases: (Examples: H2O, CO2, O3, methane (CH4), CFC’s) (EFFECT: they trap
    outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing earth to warm
85) Effects of global warming: rising sealevel (thermal expansion), extreme weather, droughts
    (famine), extinctions
86) Ozone depletion caused by: CFC’s, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl
    bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone
87) Effects of ozone depletion: increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
88) Love Canal, NY: chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth
    defects & cancer
89) Municpal solid waste is mostly: paper and most is landfilled
90) True cost / External costs: harmful environmental side effects that are not reflected in a
    products price
91) Sanitary landfill problems and solutions: (leachate, liner with collection system) (methane gas,
    collect gas and burn) (volume of garbage, compact & reduce)
92) Incineration advantages: volume of waste reduced by 90% & waste heat can be used
93) Incineration disadvantages: toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride—dioxin), scrubbers &
    electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal (contains heavy metals)
94) Best way to solve waste problem: reduce the amounts of waste at the source
95) Keystone species: species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others, ex sea
96) Indicator species: species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged ex
    trout, frogs, coral
97) Most endangered species: have a small range, require large territory or live on an island
98) In natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by: predators, diseases,
99) Major insecticide groups and examples: (chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT) (organophosphates,
    malathion) (carbamates, aldicarb)
100) Pesticide pros: saves lives from insect transmitted disease, increases food supply, increases
    profits for farmers
101) Pesticide cons: genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence,
    bioaccumulation, biological magnification
102) Natural pest control: better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural
    enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
103) Electricity is generated by: using steam (from water boiled by fossils fuels or nuclear) or
    falling water to turn a generator
104) Petroleum forms from: microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by heat &
    pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons
105) Pros of petroleum: cheap, easily transported, high quality energy
      Cons of petroleum: reserves depleted soon, pollution during drilling, transport and refining,
      burning makes CO2
106) Steps in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
107) Major parts of a nuclear reactor: core, control rods, steam generator, turbine, containment
108) Two most serious nuclear accidents: (Chernobyl,Ukraine) (Three Mile Island, PA)
109) Alternate energy sources: wind, solar, waves, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells
110) LD50: the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
111) Mutagen, Teratogen, Carcinogen: causes hereditary changes, Fetus deformities, cancer
112) Endangered species: North spotted Owl (loss of old growth forest), Bald Eagle (thinning of
    eggs caused by DDT), Piping Plover (nesting areas threatened by development)
113) LI Exotic species: gypsy moth, Asian Long Horned Beetle
114) Garret Hardin & The Tragedy of the Commons: Freedom to breed is bringing ruin to all.
    Global commons such as atmosphere & oceans are used by all and owned by none
115) Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur: at plate boundaries (divergent, spreading, mid-ocean
    ridges) (convergent, trenches) (transform, sliding, San Andreas)
116) Sources of mercury: burning coal, Compact Fluorescent bulbs
117) Major source of sulfur: burning coal
118) Threshold dose: the maximum dose that has no measurable effect
119) VOCs : Volatile organic compounds – organic compounds that exist as gases in the air. Most
    are hydrocarbons.
Grouped by topic.

1. Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act: requires coal strip mines to reclaim the land
2. Madrid Protocol: Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 years in Antarctica

3. Safe Drinking Water Act: set maximum contaminant levels for pollutants in drinking water that
may have adverse effects on human health
4. Clean Water Act: set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged
into waterways..aim to make surface waters swimmable and fishable
5. Ocean Dumping Ban Act: bans ocean dumping of sewage sludge & industrial waste in the ocean

6. Clean Air Act: Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
7. Kyoto Protocol: controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for
developed countries
8. Montreal Protocol: phaseout of ozone depleting substances

9. Resource Conservation & Recovery Act: controls hazardous waste with a cradle to grave system
10. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation & Liability Act: Superfund, designed
to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites
11. Nuclear Waste Policy Act: US government must develop a high level nuclear waste site (Yucca

12. Endangered Species Act: identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, and puts their
protection ahead of economic considerations
13. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: lists species that cannot be
commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products
14. Magnuson- Stevens Act: Mangaement of marine fisheries
15. Food Quality Protection Act: set pesticide limits in food, & all active and inactive ingredients
must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects

16. National Environmental Policy Act: Environmental Impact Statements must be done before any
project affecting federal lands can be started
17. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants: Seeks to protect human health from
the 12 most toxic chemicals (includes 8 chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides / DDT can be used for
malaria control)
Case Studies
1) Cherynobyl 1986 – Explosion in a nuclear power plant sent higly radioactive debris throughout
    northern Europe. Estimates run as high as 32,000 deaths, and 62,000 squire miles remain
    contaminated. About 5000,000 people were exposed to dangerous levels of radiation. Cost estimates
    run as high as $400 billion. The cause was determined to be both design and human error.
2) Tsunami 12/26/2005 - The death toll from the earthquake-generated tsunami in Asia and east Africa
    made 2004 the deadliest year for earthquakes in five centuries. A magnitude 9.3 earthquake struck off
    the Northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The resulting wave may have been as high as
    25 meters (80 feet) tall and killed nearly 300,000 people. At least 11 countries, including the
    Maldives, Myanmar, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and
    Indonesia's Sumatra
3) Peppered Moth -
4) India / China family planning
5) Aral Sea 1970 – was 4th largest inland water body in the world located in Russia. It has decreased
    75% in volume and its salinity has increased 30% due to demand for irrigation of cotton. Agricultural
    irrigation of it two main in-flowing rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya are the cause of the
    decreased water volume and the increased salinity.
6) Aswan Dam, Egypt – Completed in the 1970’s The Dam was built to supply irrigation water. The
    available water is only ½ water was expected due to evaporation and seepage losses in unlined canals.
    Other problems include, 1) elimination of nutrients onto farmlands now requires the use of expensive
    fertilizers. 2) the depletion of nutrients into the to Mediterranean caused a decline in certain fish
    catches. 3) large amounts of standing water caused a proliferation of snails that resulted in a disease
    known as schistosomiasis (some areas having infection rates of 80%)
7) Colorado River – Diversion of water from the Colorado River has led to water right disputes between
    California, Arizona, and Mexico. Dams on the Colorado River trap large quantities of silt and reduce
    nutrient levels in farmlands below the dam. As a result, more fertilizer is required. Farm irrigation
    has resulted in high levels of odium chloride in the alkaline soils to become incorporated in
    agricultural runoff. Millions of acres of once-valuable farmland are now useless due to the salt
    buildup in soil (salinization)
8) Ogallala Aquifer – Underlies eight states from Texas to North Dakota. It is used to hold more
    freshwater than all freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers on Earth. Due to pumping of this
    groundwater for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses, many locations are experiencing water
9) 3 Gorges Dam – In 1949, China had no large reservoirs and only 40 small hydroelectric stations. By
    1985, there were 80,000 reservoirs and 70,000 hydroelectric stations. The Three Gorges Dam
    required relocation of 1.2 million people.
10) BST - bovine somatotropin (bST). When the product is injected into dairy cows they will increase the
    production of milk. The hormone bST is involved in normal growth and development of the
    mammary gland and normal milk production and is a protein, not a steroid, and is biologically
    inactive in humans.
11) GMF’s – Genetically Modified Foods - Pros – May require less water and fertilizer, higher crop
    yields, less spoilage, more resistant to disease, drought, frost and insects, may be able to grow in
    saltier soils, faster growth which leads to greater productivity. Cons – Unknown ecological effects,
    less biodiversity, May harm beneficial insects, may result in mutations with unknown consequences,
    may cause pesticide-resistant strains, may pose allergen risk.
12) Bhopal India 1984 – Occurred on the night of 2/3 December 1984, at a pesticide plant owned by the
    Union Carbide Corporation in Bhopal, India. 45 tons (100,800 lb) of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas
    escaped from two underground storage tanks between 10 p.m. (2 December) and 1.30 a.m. (3
    December). The surrounding population was asleep in slum "hutments" that are densely packed
    together in this part of Bhopal. Leaked gases were trapped under a nocturnal temperature inversion in
    a shallow bubble that blanketed the city within five miles of the plant. Next morning, over 2,000
    people were dead and 300,000 were injured. Another 1,500 people died in subsequent months owing
    to injuries caused by the accident. At least 7,000 animals perished but damage to the natural
    environment remains largely unassessed.
13) DDT 1939 - In 1939, a chemist in Switzerland, Paul Muller demonstrated that DDT killed the
    Colorado potato beetle, a pest that was ravaging the potato crops across America and Europe. DDT
    quickly became the new "wonder insecticide" and was credited with saving thousands of human lives
    in World War II by killing typhus-carrying lice and malaria-carrying mosquitoes. It was the first
    "organic" chemical insecticide, meaning that it is a carbon-based molecule. DDT was eventually
   banned, but it opened up a long line of new organic chemical insecticides that would change agriculture
14) Silent Spring/Rachel Carson – In 1962 – made the connection between DDT and nontarget
    organisms by direct and indirect toxicity. DDT persisted in the environment through bioaccumulation
    (increase concentration up the food chain) and biomagnifications (accumulate in tissues). DDT was
    found to decrease the eggshell thickness of various species of birds, nearly wiping out bald eagles and
    peregrine falcons. DDT was beginning to show up in native people of the arctic, seals and human
    breast milk. It was pulled off the US market and is now being manufactured in Indonesia.
15) Love Canal – William T. Love started to dig a canal near Niagra Fallsas part of a planned community
    – in 1910 it went bankrupt before it was finished. In the 1920s the canal was turned into a municipal
    and industrial chemical dumpsite. In 1953, the Hooker Chemical Company, then the owners and
    operators of the property, covered the canal with earth and sold it to the city for one dollar. In the late
    '50s, about 100 homes and a school were built at the site. On August 1, 1978 the story broke in the
    NewYork Times of 82 different compounds, 11 of them suspected carcinogens, percolating upward
    through the soil, their drum containers rotting and leaching their contents into the backyards and
    basements of 100 homes and a public school built on the banks of the canal. A very high % of birth
    defects and high white cell counts (precursor of leukemia). About 221 families had to be moved out of
    the area at a cost of over $7 million.
16) Minamata – Twenty-seven tons of mercury-containing compounds from industrial processes were
    dumped into Minamata Bay in Japan between 1932 -1968. The mercury collected in fish and shellfish
    caught from the bay. Minamata disease symptons included blurred vision, hearing loss, loss of
    muscular coordination, and reproductive disorders.
17) Montreal Protocol - Designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. The treaty was originally
    signed in 1987 and substantially amended in 1990 and 1992. It stipulates that the production and
    consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere – chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
    halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform – were to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl
18) Kyoto Protocol 1997 – An agreement among 150 nations requiring greenhouse gas reductions. US
    did not sign – the US felt that the protocol held developed nations responsible for meeting the cuts but
    did not apply the same standards to developing nations. Reasons: a) the cost of meeting the emission
    targets would be too high b) the time frame was too short for implementation and c) there was no
    evidence of a correlation between greenhouse gases and global warming.
19) John Audubon - John James Audubon (1785-1851) for half a century he was the dominant wildlife
    artist. His seminal Birds of America, a collection of 435 life-size prints is still a standard against which
    20th and 21st century bird artists are measured. The Audubon Society was founded in his name and
    it’s mission is to conserve and restore natural ecosystems, focusing on birds, other wildlife, and their
    habitats for the benefit of humanity and the earth's biological diversity.
20) John Muir John Muir (1838-1914) was America's most famous and influential naturalist and
    conservationist. His words and deeds helped inspire President Theodore Roosevelt's innovative
    conservation programs, including establishing the first National Monuments by Presidential
    Proclamation, and Yosemite National Park by congressional action. In 1892, John Muir and other
    supporters formed the Sierra Club "to make the mountains glad." John Muir was the Club's first
    president, an office he held until his death in 1914. Muir's Sierra Club has gone on to help establish a
    series of new National Parks and a National Wilderness Preservation System.
21) Gifford Pinchott - was an important American forester and conservationist around the turn of the
    century. He left a significant mark on the world of conservation through his belief that conservation
    meant "the greatest good to the greatest number for the longest time". He is also known primarily for
    his work as first chief of the U. S. Forest Service.
22) Theodore Roosevelt - "The conservation of our natural resources and their proper use constitute the
    fundamental problem which underlies almost every other problem of our national life," he told
    Congress in 1907. This sentiment underscored the message of Roosevelt's conservation record in
    office. In 1902 he established the first national park at Crater Lake, Oregon and went on to create four
    more (Wind Cave National Park, SD; Sully's Hill, ND; Platt National Park, OK; and Mesa Verde
    National Park, CO). During his tenure as president from 1901 to 1909 he created 51 wildlife refugees,
    passed the Antiquities Act (which led to the creation of 18 national monuments), and created the
    National Park Service.

Other people to know: Hugh Bennett, Ansel Adams, Paul Erlich, Garrett Hardin, Lois-Marie Gibbs,
Aldo Leopold, Upton Sinclair.

Buzz Words – define the following
(On the exam - If you use them – you have to define them)

   Bioaccumulate                         Reduce
   Biomagnify                            Greenhouse Gases
   Fugitive Emissions                    1 st and 2 nd laws of
   Birth Dearth                                 thermodynamics
   LD 50                                 NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard)
   Synergistic effects                   Point Source
   Green Revolution                      Sustainable
   Blue Revolution                       IPM
   Effluent                              NonPoint Source
   Chronic                               BMP
   Acute                                 Exotic Organism
   Influent                              Strategic metals and
   Pandemic                              minerals
   Endemic                               Grasshopper effect
   Oxygen sag                            Primary and secondary air
   Emmergent                             standards
   Commons                               POP’s
   GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)
   GMF (Genetically Modified Food)
   Criteria pollutant
   Ambient air

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