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					                                                           Cnr. Spencer & Hildon Court, Nerang 4211

                                                          Tel: 07 5578 1822




                                                                                          ®




Discover your true potential
with the correct fitting saddle.
Have Nerang Saddleworld do
your saddle fit and discover the
difference today


                               Saddle fitting the world’s best brands




The only Saddleworld store on the Gold Coast            w w w. n e ra n g sa d d l e w orl d . com. a u
                                                                       Windsor Saddles
        Exceptional Saddles                                                                  • Handmade in England using
                                                                                               English leather and spring trees
          Exceptional Prices                                                                 • Hand flocked using 100%
                                                                                               English wool
                                                                                             • All Windsor Saddles carry a
                                                                                               5 year guarantee on tree



                                                                       NEW!
                                                                       Windsor Sovereign Saddle
                                                                       • Unique deep seat/short panel design gives excellent fit on wider/short
                                                                         backed horses
                                                                       • Half gussets allow close contact helps prevents “Bridging” on wider horses
                                                                       • Larger knee rolls
                                                                       • Extended stirrup bars
                                                                       • “Straight Split” flap allows close contact behind knee roll
                                                                       • Black and Brown available in sizes 15½, 16 and 16½ inch
                                                                       • Available in wide and extra wide gullet



                                                    $2995

                                                  Windsor Royal Saddle                                                                  Windsor Esquire
                                                  • Very deep seat                                                                      Show Saddle
                                                  • Extended Stirrup bars                                                               • Optional front point strap
                                                  • Broad flat panel                                                                    • Superb fit and stability on
                                                  • Medium knee roll                                                                      wider ponies/galloways
                                                  • Black and Brown available in                                                        • Low cantle and straight flap
                                                    sizes 16½, 17 and 17½ inch                                                            to enhance pony’s outline
                                                  • Available in medium to extra                                                        • Covered buttons fully
                                                    wide gullet                                                                           stitched
                                                                                                                                        • Black and Brown available in
                                                                                                                                          sizes 13½ - 17 inch
                                                                                                                                        • Available up to number 6 fit
                                                                                                                                          double extra wide
                   $2995                                                                              $2695

Australian Distributor    Victorian Agent        N.S.W Agent            Q.L.D Agents                                         Tasmnian Agent              WA Agent
Trailrace Pty Ltd         Mal Byrne              Saddleworld Wyong      Horse & Rider Saddlery    Saddleworld Nerang         Saddleworld Launceston      Saddles Plus
1/11 Mildon rd Tuggerah   Performance Saddlery   1/11 Mildon rd         CNR Currie and Price st   CNR Spencer rd & Hilldon   77-79 Elizabeth St          861 South West Highway
02 4353 1922              Werribee Park          Tuggerah 2259          Nambour QLD 4560          CRT                        Launceston TAS 7250         Byford WA 6122
sales@trailrace.com.au    Equestrian Centre      02 4353 1922           07 5441 4445              Nerang QLD 4211            03 6331 4257                08 9526 2292
                          03 9974 2344           sales@trailrace.com    katrina@horseandrider-    07 5578 1822               saddleworld@vision.net.au   info@saddlesplus.com.au
                          malbyrne@bigpond.com                          saddlery.com.au           saddlery@hotkey.net.au
                                                                                                                                                    Photos: Sandy Morphett, Furdography
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                                                           SADDLE FITTING
                                                 EVERYTHING THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!
  1. Is is essential that you have the correct information when saddle fitting. Your saddle, new or second-hand, should be fitted by a Qualified Saddle Fitter.
  When choosing your saddle the first consideration should always be the horse. This means that you should keep an open mind and that you need to adjust any
  preconceived ideas you may have about your own preferences in relation to make and design.
  2. If you use a numnah or gel pad the saddle fitter must be informed at the time of the original enquiry - and always before the saddle is fitted. Adding a numnah or
  gelpad under a saddle which fits well without it is akin to putting thick insoles into shoes that fit perfectly without them.
  3. Each horse should have its own saddle. Just as a pair of shoes adapts to the wearer’s foot, so the saddle adopts the contours of the horse to enable best
  performance and maximum comfort.
  4. It may be possible to adjust your existing saddle to fit your new horse - but the advice of a qualified saddle fitter should always be sought.Check with your local
  Saddleworld store and arrange a saddle fitting with one of their experienced saddle fitters to get it right.
  5. Your horse changes shape regularly. The frequency of these changes will relate to his age, training, feed, paddock terrain, management and so on. Try to develop
  an eye to recognise these changes. Viewed on a daily basis, the changes may seem inconsequential but over a period of just a week or so they can be surprisingly
  substantial. Have your saddle checked - and any necessary adjustments made - regularly. Saddles are like cars in that they need to have a service, call in to your local
  Saddleworld store and check out their 15 point saddle safety check.
  6. ‘Feed’ your saddle carefully. Insufficiently treated the leather will dry out. Fed too much, the dressing will not be absorbed and the saddle will be unpleasantly
  sticky - possibly marking your clothes, or worse, causing the saddle stitching to rot. The regularity with which the saddle requires ‘dressing’ relates to usage, weather
  conditions and so on. Talk to the team at Saddleworld to see which product best suits your saddle whether it be oil or crème.
  7. The young horse must be fitted especially carefully. His - or her - back is delicate and very precious. Great care must be taken to avoid any damage that may
  cause problems later in life. Young horses should never be lunged in any old saddle (‘it doesn’t matter - no-one is going to ride in it’). The young back is particularly
  vulnerable and a swinging/bouncing saddle that doesn’t fit anyway - and may even be damaged - can be the cause of veterinary problems that may be irreversible.
  Recognize, too, that some young horses develop at a substantial rate and the saddle that fitted well only a short time previously may need adjustment. Discuss these
  important details with your saddle fitter.
  8. The standard general purpose saddle is a compromise and can never fulfill the needs of individual disciplines as well as saddles designed specifically for dressage
  and show jumping.
  9. Unevenness, even slight, in your horse’s gait - especially behind - can cause the saddle to move/gyrate thus possibly exacerbating the existing problem so make
  sure that your horse is healthy before the saddle fitter visits you.
  10. Smart caring horse riders use mounting blocks. Mounting from a mounting block should not be restricted to the less-than-athletic! It is infinitely better for the
  horse’s back and guards against the saddle tree becoming twisted and the offside saddle panel being flattened and the nearside stirrup bar being bent - quite easy to
  happen if the saddle is regularly used as a lever.
  11. For maximum comfort for horse and rider when mounting the rider’s weight should always be lowered gently into the saddle - never ‘thump’ or ‘bang’
  12. If you insist on mounting from the ground be aware that the stirrup leathers should be changed from side to side regularly to avoid the near-side leather
  becoming longer/stretched.
  13. Saddles should be carefully stored on a well-made saddle horse or rack. Never position saddles where they can be knocked off the rack. Appreciate that lifting a
  saddle onto a very high rack can damage your own back - and often results in the saddle being stored lop-sided. Make sure that the saddle rack doesn’t dig in to the
  saddle panels so as to leave an imprint.
  14. Great attention must always be played to the condition of the saddle flocking. Irregular/uneven/lumpy flocking can cause pressure points that may seriously
  damage the horse’s back. Severe irregularity in the flocking can cause the saddle to sit to one side. Correct flocking provides a cushioning effect that helps to reduce
  trauma. Over stuffed, the saddle will be hard, will not adapt to the horse’s back and may cause pressure sores or sensitivity. If you are unsure get your saddle fitter to
  check it out on your horse.
  15. The saddle must always be level when viewed from the side. Anything else compromises the horse’s comfort and welfare. ‘Up-hill’ the rider will sit too far back.
  ‘Down-hill the rider will be encouraged onto the fork.
  16. When viewed from the front and rear the saddle gullet must always provide adequate clearance from the base of the gullet to the top of the wither - both before
  and after the horse is exercised. Adequate clearance varies depending on whether the saddle is jumping or dressage.
  17. Most equine insurance can be extended to include theft of tack. Some policies even include accidental damage. Important considerations - but do read the small
  print ‘exclusions’ carefully before signing up.


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  18. It is important to ask the saddler to check any saddle in use when a horse falls. ‘Hidden’ damage may be substantial - broken/cracked trees can be difficult to
  detect. Likewise, if the saddle falls from the saddle rack or is dropped it should be checked over by a qualified saddler. This is the chance to get your Sdddleworld
  store to check your saddle with their 15 point saddle safety check!
  19. The size of the stirrup irons should be checked when a different rider exercises the horse. Irons that are either too small or too large can be the cause of
  serious accidents. When the stirrup iron is too tight the boot may become wedged,if the stirrup iron is too loose then the riders boot may slip through the iron. We
  recommend the use of Toe stoppers as they prevent the chance of the boot slipping through! We have them in all our stores.
  20. Weak or defective stitching on any part of the saddle should be repaired instantly. Saddles should be checked every time they are used; equal attention should
  be paid to girths and leathers.


  SAFETY IN THE SADDLE
  For maximum safety in the saddle you need good quality saddlery, which is carefully selected, fits the horse well and is subsequently maintained to a high standard.
  Accidents occur when equipment fails as a result of neglect or misuse, or when the components and the process of manufacture is below an acceptable standard.
  A good safeguard is to purchase from established saddlers, where they have fully qualified saddlers that are committed to maintaining high standards in respect of
  materials and workmanship. Nonetheless, the responsibility for safety belongs as much to the consumer as it does to the manufacturer and/or retailer.

  THE SADDLE
  The saddle and its mountings - the leathers, stirrup irons and girth - are items of equipment which if cared for will last a long time. But there are points of potential
  failure which need to be checked regularly. On the saddle itself the most vulnerable area is concerned with the girth straps and their attachment. The stitching
  securing the girth straps to the webs passing round or over the tree, will wear or perish in time and will need to be replaced. Girth straps, however good the quality of
  the leather, are also subject to wear. When the holes stretch- and the leather is in danger of splitting between the holes new straps should be fitted.

  BUCKLES
  “A Stitch in Time” is a good maxim to observe when it comes to girths, leathers and bridles but when purchasing any of those items the buckles, and in the case of
  the bridle the hook stud fastenings, deserve particular scrutiny.
  Avoid the buckle which is obviously poorly finished with the edges left sharp and the tongues loose and perhaps bent. The former cut into the leather and the latter
  are likely to prove unreliable. Replace bent or loose hook studs immediately.

  STIRRUP LEATHERS
  Stirrup leathers receive the most wear at the point where they turn through the eye of the stirrup iron. It is for this reason that stirrup leathers are made with the
  tougher “grain” side (the outside) facing inwards, since the oil or crème makes it more resistant to friction. A wise precaution is to have leathers shortened every so
  often so as to move the point of contact with the iron. A better insurance is to replace leathers regularly with best quality new ones.
  Regular cleaning with a glycerin-based soap and reliable “leather food” preparation is essential if equipment is to be kept soft, supple and serviceable.
  When leather is neglected or is subjected to constant immersion in water (particularly hot water) or dried over heat, it becomes brittle and will snap in use.

  STIRRUP IRONS
  The best stirrup irons are made from stainless steel, nickel ones are cheaper and are liable to bend or
  break. If using a conventional pattern iron choose a heavy one big enough to slip off the foot in an emergency but not so big as to allow the whole foot to pass
  through and become trapped.
  Always wear riding boots or heavy shoes rather than flat-soled footwear.

  FIT FOR SAFETY
  The fitting of saddlery is as important an aspect of safety as is proper maintenance. Saddles and bridles, which for any reason cause the horse discomfort and inhibit
  his movement can create an unnecessary stress situation which inevitably leads to a lowering of the safety threshold. To ride safely it is always best to have a new
  saddle fitted by a qualified saddle fitter and to consult them about any subsequent adjustments to the fitting




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                                          FIT AND PLACEmENT FROm THE HORSE’S PERSPECTIvE.
  Spring presents you with a great means of checking your saddle fit and balance: as your horse sheds his winter coat, look for uneven patterns of shedding
  in the saddle area on your horse’s back and/or on the underside of your saddle pad or blanket. (Uneven sweating under the saddle can be a give-away,
  too.) The packing or stuffing in saddles with padded panels-English saddles, for example-shifts and settles with use, so you should have your saddle
  checked at least once a year, and perhaps twice a year if you ride a lot in that saddle and (like almost all of us) you are not perfectly even in the way you
  stand, sit, and use your body. When your saddle needs re-stuffing or repacking, it is common to see two roughly circular areas of greater shedding located
  directly under your seat bones, one on either side of the horse’s back. (And if you sit unevenly, then there may be just one of these spots, on the side to
  which you sit the heaviest.) Or you may simply see a couple of extra-hairy patches on the underside of your saddle pad which correspond to this same
  area on the horse’s back. These discrete areas of greater shedding indicate that your saddle is providing inadequate protection for the horse’s back under
  your seat bones. Uneven shedding of the winter coat under the saddle can also reveal other patterns of poor saddle fit, such as bridging, rocking, or tip-
  ping. Bridging means that there are points of contact at the front and back of the saddle, and little or no contact in between. You may be able to slip your
  fingers between the horse’s back and the panel of the saddle if there is substantial bridging. Rocking is the opposite pattern, where there is greater contact
  in the middle of the saddle than at both ends. The saddle can be rocked on the horse’s back from pommel to cantle when this problem is present.
  Tipping means that the saddle tips forward or back, so more of your weight is concentrated toward the front or back of the saddle, rather than being
  evenly distributed along the entire length of the tree.


                                                            BASICS OF GOOD SADDLE FIT
  Good saddle fit is essential for good performance. A poorly fitted saddle is uncomfortable for the horse, and at the very least it causes a protective bracing
  response in the muscles along the back which extends forward into the lower part of the neck and all the way back to the pelvis and sacrum. This bracing
  alters the horse’s gait, balance, evenness, efficiency, and ability. Over time, poor saddle fit can even contribute to lameness and persistent behavioral
  problems. Furthermore, it makes it difficult for you to be comfortable, balanced, relaxed, and effective in the saddle. Following is a brief primer on saddle
  fit, from the horse’s perspective. (That’s the most important and usually the hardest part of the whole equation; there is no saddle that will work well for
  you if it doesn’t also work well for the horse.) For more detail, “The Horse’s Pain-free Back and Saddle-Fit Book” by Dr. Joyce Harman.

  These are the fundamentals of good saddle fit:
  •	        		Width-the	saddle	must	be	wide	enough	for	the	individual	horse	
  •	        		positioning-the	saddle	must	be	placed	correctly	on	the	horse’s	back	
  •	        		Clearance-the	saddle	must	be	clear	of	the	horse’s	spine	along	its	entire	length	
  •	        		Length-the	saddle	must	be	of	appropriate	length	for	the	individual	horse’s	back	
  •	        		Weight	distribution-the	saddle	must	spread	the	rider’s	weight	evenly	over	a	wide	area	
  •	        		Balance-the	saddle	must	be	well	balanced	so	that	the	rider	can	be	well	balanced,	too	


                                                                            WIDTH
  Perhaps the most important aspect of saddle fit, in terms of the horse’s comfort, is that the angle of the tree at the front of the saddle must be wide
  enough to clear the horse’s rib cage (see Figure 1). The front of the tree on an English saddle is an inverted U-shaped structure. The angle of the U,
  or the distance between the tips (or points), determines the width of the tree.




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  Figure 1.                                                                                Figure 2.
  Cross-sectional view at the front of the saddle, just behind the wither, showing         A saddle whose tree is too narrow for the horse puts pressure on the muscles
  the shape of the horse’s rib cage. The angle of the saddle tree (in black) must          overlying the top of the rib cage, causing pain, bruising, and eventually muscle
  be wide enough that the points or ends of the tree do not put pressure on the            wasting.
  top of the horse’s rib cage. The tops of the horse’s ribs curve inward as they           A narrow saddle is a punishment to the horse! It is better to use a saddle that
  come up to meet the spine. (That’s actually what you sit on when you ride a              is a little wider than needed, especially in a young horse (whose shape will
  horse: the “shelf” created by the tops of the ribs, and the pad of muscles which         continue to change as he matures and training progresses). You can use saddle
  overlies it.) It is essential that the angle of the U at the front of the saddle tree    pads if necessary to ensure that the saddle doesn’t put any pressure on the
  is wide enough that the points clear the rib cage entirely.(At the same time, it         spine. Just make sure that no new pressure points are created by padding up
  must not be so wide that the saddle rests on the tops of the bony spinous proc-          this poorly fitting saddle. Trying to make a badly fitting saddle fit better by us-
  esses of the wither. The channel or gullet of the saddle must clear the wither           ing thick or strategically placed saddle pads is like you trying to improve the fit
  with plenty of room to spare when the rider’s weight is in the saddle.) A saddle         of ill-fitting shoes by wearing thick socks or using sole inserts. These measures
  that is too narrow for the horse puts pressure on the muscles overlying the tops         are a poor substitute for finding a pair of shoes that fit your feet well. Call the
  of the ribs (see Figure 2). It causes pain, bruising, and eventually muscle wast-        team at your Saddleworld store and talk to one of their qualified saddle fitters
  ing (hollowing) in that area just behind and below the wither.                           to get it right!


  And as with shoe sizes in people, it can be misleading to go by the saddle maker’s definition of tree width, as the actual dimensions vary among saddle brands.
  There are few standards in the saddle industry, so while a “medium” in one brand may fit your Thoroughbred nicely, a “medium” in another brand may be too
  narrow for this horse. Don’t go by your horse’s breed or height, either. The critical factor is the width of the rib cage just behind the wither, and that’s a highly
  individual thing. Bottom line: you must try the saddle on your horse to see if it fits.

  If you’re not sure where the tree is in your saddle and if your saddle is wide enough for your horse, place the saddle (without saddle pad) on the horse’s back, stand
  by the horse’s neck facing towards his hindquarters, and look at the angle made by the piping (the thin roll of leather) at the front of the saddle. If the inverted U
  shape made by this piping as it runs from one side of the saddle, over the front of the pommel, and back down the other side appears to clear the widest part of
  your horse’s back just below the wither, then you’re probably alright widthwise.

  Unfortunately, that doesn’t guarantee that the saddle is comfortable for your horse, though. The stuffing in the panels at the front of the saddle can create pressure
  points, too, if the panels are overstuffed to make up for hollowing (muscle atrophy) just behind/below the wither, are unevenly stuffed, or have become lumpy over
  time. To check the panels at the front of your saddle, stand in the same place as before and gently lift the front of the saddle away from the horse’s back an inch or
  so and eyeball the contour of the panel in relation to the contour of the horse’s body at that location. They should match down the entire length of the contact area.
  It’s also possible to tell if a saddle has been fitting comfortably just by feeling the skin and the tone of the muscles and fascia in the saddle area, checking for areas
  of unusual sensitivity, hot or cool spots, swellings or depressions, etc. Your saddle fitter can advise you with this or it may need the expertise of a Bowen therapist,
  chiropractor or any of the other equine therapists here in Australia.



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                                                                           POSITIONING
  The saddle should be positioned on the horse’s back such that the front of the saddle is behind the back of the horse’s shoulder blade (see Figure 3). It is important
  to leave room for the top of the shoulder blade to rotate back a little during the forward swing phase of the stride, otherwise the horse’s reach is restricted. Placing
  the saddle far enough back that the shoulder blades are free also puts your weight where it should be on the horse’s back (assuming that the saddle is well balanced
  and of appropriate length for that horse).




                                         Figure 3. The front of the saddle should be behind the back of the horse’s shoulder blade.

  With jumping saddles, the front of the flap and knee pad does extend forward over the horse’s shoulder blade. But provided the saddle is not placed too far forward,
  this part of the saddle does not restrict the horse’s movement, as the shoulder blades are free to move under the flap. Ensure that the saddle panels are soft and can
  contour around the top of the horses shoulder. It is the location of the tree and underlying panels which is the important factor, as these are the parts of the saddle
  that are girthed snugly to the horse’s body.

                                                                             CLEARANCE
  No part of the saddle should contact any part of the horse’s spine. The saddle must not put any pressure on the bony spinous processes at the wither; it should not
  even be close to touching the wither. Be sure to recheck this point with a rider in the saddle and, for jumping horses, when all of the rider’s weight is on the stirrups.
  If the saddle rides too low on the wither, then have a reputable saddler re-stuff or repack the saddle to suit, or replace the saddle with one that is more suitable.
  Don’t rely on saddle pads to protect the horse’s wither.
  The panels of the saddle must not rest on the horse’s spine, but rather on the muscles either side of the spine. To ensure adequate clearance on both sides of the
  spine, make sure there is a space at least 5 cm wide along the entire length of the channel or gullet (see Figure 4).




  Figure 4. View of the underside of an general purpose saddle. The channel or gullet should be at least 5cm wide along its entire length so that it clears the horse’s
  spine. The panels should apply even pressure over their entire contact area of the horse.




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                                                                                 LENGTH
  The weight-bearing portion of the saddle must not extend further back than the horse’s last or 18th rib or in the case of the Arab horse they have 16 ribs. The length
  of the horse’s rib cage (i.e. thoracic spine), not the length of his back as a whole, determines appropriate saddle length for that horse. The saddle depicted in Figure 3
  is of appropriate length for this horse’s back, even though it appears to extend further back than the last rib. Remember that the panel curves upward, away from the
  horse’s back at the cantle, so the weight-bearing portion of the panel is a little shorter than the actual length of the panel.

                                                                  WEIGHT DISTRIbUTION
  The tree and panels should apply even pressure all the way along the weight-bearing portion of the saddle. There should be no bows in the tree, no high/low spots
  in the panels, and the saddle should not rock or bridge, as these defects in fit cause areas of excess pressure on the horse’s back. Turn the saddle over and examine
  the panels with your eyes and hands, checking carefully for high or low spots, lumps, soft spots, and any other indicators that the saddle may not be placing even
  pressure along the horse’s back. Run your eyes and hands over the horse’s back, too.
  The greater the surface area of the panel, the less pressure there is on any one part of the horse’s back. (For the mechanically minded, that means fewer pounds per
  square inch.) So, when buying a saddle, try to choose one that has broad panels.

                                                                               bALANCE
  In addition to being stable and comfortable on the horse’s back (i.e. having a broad area of even panel contact), the saddle must allow the rider to sit evenly and be
  in balance; it must not tip the rider forward or back, or to one side or the other. A well-balanced saddle puts the rider in the right place on the horse’s back, allows the
  rider to be in balance, and applies even pressure over the horse’s back (see Figure 3, on page 4). A saddle that tips back shifts the rider’s weight too far back, tips
  the rider out of balance, and creates pressure points on the horse’s back (see Figure 5).




  Figure 5. A saddle that tips back shifts the rider’s weight too far back, tips the rider out of balance, and creates pressure points on the horse’s back.
  The saddle that tips forward shifts the rider’s weight too far forward, tips the rider out of balance, creates pressure points just behind/below the wither, and may
  interfere with movement of the horse’s shoulder blades (see Figure 6).




  Figure 6. A saddle that tips forward (with or without the aid of a wedged pad or riser) shifts the rider’s weight too far forward, tips the rider out of balance, creates
  pressure points just below the wither, and may interfere with movement of the horse’s shoulder blades.




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  And if you’re an uneven rider or not symmetrical , your saddle may develop a torque or twist over time. So, in addition to checking the panels for unevenness in the
  packing, eye the entire length of the saddle for subtle twisting. It can help to place the saddle on a saddle stand or on a drum (laid on its side), step back a few feet,
  and walk around it, comparing the symmetry of the panels and seat from the front, back, sides, and above. Often the most obvious place to see twisting is in the
  cantle; compare the height of the left and right sides from the back.

  Now you should be all fired up to go out and check your saddle and your horse’s back! We just can’t stress strongly enough how important it is for your horse’s
  well-being and performance that your saddle be comfortable for you both. Next time you go to the stable, give your saddle, saddle cloth, and horse’s back a close
  inspection. And after your next ride, pay attention to sweat and shedding patterns on your horse’s back and on the underside of the saddle pad. If anything seems
  amiss, call your local Sdddleworld store and arrange a time to see the qualified saddle fitter with you,your horse and saddle.




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                                                                              de OF THE FOREHAND
                                                                              mUSCLES
             MUSCLE / LIGAMENT             ORIGIN / WHERE THE MUSCLE              INSERTION POINT; WHERE THE                               ACTION                                COMMENT
                                                     STARTS                             MUSCLE STARTS

   Massester; cheek muscle                                                                                                Opens and closes the jaw. Allows
                                                                                                                          chewing.
   Brachiocephalicus Wide strap like     Base of the skull behind the jaw       Below the point of shoulder to the        Moves the head from side to side,        Well developed for good movement.
   muscle                                                                       humerus                                   pulls the scapula forward, raises        Too strong a rein contact stops free
                                                                                                                          it in collection, swings the foreleg     forward movement.
                                                                                                                          forward.
   Sternocephalic                        Jowl                                   Sternum˙                                  Moves the head and neck.                 Over developed in ewe or bull
                                                                                                                                                                   necked horses, difficult to get into a
                                                                                                                                                                   relaxed shape.
   Rhomboideus                           Nuchal ligament                        Scapula                                   Lifts shoulder and the forehand.
                                                                                                                          Pulls the scapula forward.
   Splenius                              Behind the poll                        Beginning of the Trapezius                Turns and extends the neck.              Makes up the top line if well
                                                                                                                                                                   developed.
   Trapezius; flat sheet like muscle.    Occipital bone                         Spines of the 7th cervical and all        Lifts shoulder and forehand              If this is well developed the horse is
                                                                                the Thoracic vertebrae                                                             working in a good outline.
   Nuchal ligament                       Poll                                   Withers                                   Helps muscles in the neck support
                                                                                                                          the head
   Deltoid                               Scapula                                Humerus                                   Flexes shoulder joint                    If over developed it wil load the
                                                                                                                                                                   shoulder
   Supraspinatus                         Below the Trapezius                    Point of shoulder                         Maintains the shoulder in extension
   Latissimus dorsi                      Lower Thoracic vertebrae               Back of the humerus                       Flexes the shoulder and pulls the
                                                                                                                          foreleg back.
   Triceps                                                                                                                Flexes the shoulder and extends
                                                                                                                          the elbow
   Biceps                                                                                                                 Flexes the elbow and extends the
                                                                                                                          shoulder
   Pectoral                                                                                                               Helps pull the foreleg foreward.
   Triceps Brachii                                                                                                        Extends the elbow joint
   Biceps Brachii                                                                                                         Flexes the elbow joint
   Extensor Carpus                                                                                                        Extend the knee
   Flexor Carpus                                                                                                          Flexes the knee
   Digital Extensor                                                                                                       Extends the toe and knee
   Digital flexor                                                                                                         Flexes the toe and knee and extend
                                                                                                                          the elbow.


                                                              MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK, bACK AND RIbS.
                                                    MUSCLES SUPPORT THE SPINE TOGETHER WITH 3 LIGAMENTS AND AbDOMINAL MUSCLES.
   Muscle or ligament                    Origin; where it starts                Insertion point; where it finishes        Action                                   Comment
   Spinalis Dorsi                        Beneath thoracic part of Trapezius     4th cervical vertebrae
   Lumbar muscles or Longissimus dorsi   Ilium                                  Vertebrae along the sine and the last 4   Extends the spine and raises and         Longest and strongest muscle, rider
                                                                                cerVical Vertebrae                        supports the head, neck . Main muscle    sits on them
                                                                                                                          used in rearing, kicking, jumping and
                                                                                                                          aids turning
   Intercostal muscles                   Spaces between ribs                                                              Aids breathing
   External and internal abodominal      Attach to ribs and pelvic bones                                                  Supports the internal organs
   oblique
   Supraspinous ligament                 Poll                                   Sacrum                                    Supports head and neck, traction force   Spreads out, attaching to spines of
                                                                                                                          aids support in weak thoracic lumbar     the cervical vertebrae, Called nuchal
                                                                                                                          area.                                    ligament in the withers and neck area.

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                                                             MUSCLES IN THE HINDqUARTERS.
         HINDqUARTERS ARE THE ENGINE OF THE HORSE, THEY SHOULD bE WELL DEVELOPED, STRONG TO MOVE THE HORSE FORWARD, PARTICULARLY IN THE COMPETITION HORSE.
   Muscle or ligament              Origin; where it starts           Insertion point; where it finnishes   Action                                   Comment
   Superficial gluteal             Croup                             Bottom of the hip attached to the     Flex and extend the hip, pulls hindleg   More developed in a dressage horse.
                                                                     sacrum                                toward the body, used for rearing,
                                                                                                           galloping and kicking
   Biceps femoris                  Behind gluteals                   Bottom of the high attached to the    Maintains hip joint in extension         Main muscles over the hindquarters,
                                                                     patella and tibia                                                              part of the hamstring group, well
                                                                                                                                                    developed in eventers, race horses.
   Semitendinosis                  Behind biceps femoris             Back of the hindquarters              Extends the hip and hock joints          Part of the hamstring group, well
                                                                                                                                                    developed in eventers and race horses.
   Semi membranosus                                                                                                                                 Part of hamstring group, well devel-
                                                                                                                                                    oped in race horses /eventers.
   Gastrocnemius                   Rear of the femur                 Point of hock                         Maintains hip extension

   Peroneus tertius                Femur                             Cannon bone                           With superficial digital muscle moves
                                                                                                           the stifle and hock.

   Achillies tendon                Gastrocnemius                     Over point of hock

   Sacrosciatic ligament           Sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae    Pelvic bone




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                                                    AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SKELETON OF THE HORSE
     THE SKELETON CAN bE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAIN SECTION, THE AxIAL SKELETON WHICH IS MADE UP OF THE SKULL, SPINE, RIbCAGE AND PELVIS AND THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
                                                             WHICH IS MADE UP OF THE bONES OF THE LIMbS.
   NAME                                 STUCTURE                                           FUNCTION                                                            NOTES
   SKULL                                A number of bones                                  Protection for brain, inner ear, parts of eye & nasal passages      Mandible ( lower jaw)

                                        Fused together.
                                                                                                                                                               Maxilla ( upper jaw0 both contain teeth. Nasal bones.
                                                                                                                                                               Zygomatic or supraorbital procees protects the eye. Occipital
                                                                                                                                                               bone forms back of skull and joins the top of neck.
   SPINE                                Collection of bones, vertebrae, lying one          Housing & protection for spinal cord. Attachments for muscles,      Cervical 7 vertebrea, atlas is the first bone inthe neck followed
                                        behind the other in a line from the base of        tendons and ligaments which support weight of the body.             by axis. Thoracic 18 vertebrae, conection with the ribs. Lumbar
                                        skul to tip of tail                                Connects head and limbs.                                            6 vertebrae. Sacral 5 fused vertebrae, part of hip girdle. Coc-
                                                                                                                                                               cygeal average 18 vertebrae forming tail
   RIBCAGE                              18 pairs of ribs each connecting to a thoracic     Protection for heart and lungs.                                     8 true ribs connected to sternum or breast bone directly, 10
                                        vertebrae                                                                                                              false pairs conected to sternum by cartilage.
   FORELIMBS
   Scapula                              Shoulder blade- one either side of the rib cage.   Connected to spine by muscle and ligaments, only allows             Horse has no collar bone, no fixed connection to the spine to
                                                                                           freedom of movement and absorbtion of concussion.                   forelimbs.Horses front part of ribcage and internal organs are
                                                                                                                                                               held in place by a muscular sling called the Thoracic Sling




   Humerus                              Upper end form point of shoulder                   Connection of shoulder blade to forelimbs                           Lower end joins forelimbs at the elbow
   Radius and Ulna                      Upper part of the foreleg                          Ulna a short bone forms point of elbow. Radius a long bone
                                                                                           stretches to the knee joint.
   Knee                                 Carpus bones and pissiform bones                   Joint allowing movement in the foreleg                              6 carpus, 3 on top of 3. Plane joint allows movement, pissiform
                                                                                                                                                               bone at the back.
   Cannon bone                          Bone of the lower leg                              Weight bearing bone, circumfrence of the cannon just under          Stretches from the knee joint to the fetlock joint.
                                                                                           the knee is a guide to the horse's abillity to bear weight and do
                                                                                           hard work, referred to as 9" bone etc.
   Splints                              Two bones either side of the cannon bones (        Help support some of the carpus bones of the knee, real             In length approx two thords of the cannon bone, vestiges of
                                        fore & hind)                                       function lost through evolution.                                    toes.Lost through evolution.

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                                                                               CONTINUED
   NAME                       STUCTURE                                         FUNCTION                                                           NOTES
   Sesamoids                  2 bones behind the fetlock joint.                Provide agroove to hold the tendons of the leg.
                                                                               Also acts as a pulley system for movement of the lower leg.
   Pastern                    2 bones in the lower leg and foot                Connection between the joints of the leg and leg.                  Long pastern found between fetlock and pastern joint, short
                                                                                                                                                  pastern found between pastern joint and the coffin joint.
   Pedal bone                 Hoof like shaped bone of the foot.               Attachment for tendons/ ligaments from muscles in the
                                                                               forearm.
   Navicular bone             Bone of the foot
   HIND LIMBS
   Pelvic girdle              3 fused bones called the ileum, ischium and      Tightly attached to the spine allowing transfer of propulsion to   Joined to the spine through the sacroileac joints, ischium forms
                              pubis.                                           hind legs. Protection of the uterus.                               the point of buttock.
   Femur                      Large bone of the hind limbs                     Connects with the pelvis at the hip joint and with the hind leg
                                                                               at the stifle joint.
   Tibia and fibula           Tibia is the larger of the two bones from the    Forms the upper part of the hind limb.
                              stifle to the hock, fibula is the smaller bone
                              that extends half the length of the tibia and
                              sits parallel to it.
   Patella                    Bone in the stifle joint                         Similar to the knee cap in humans.
   Hock                       Tarsus bones and tuber or os calcis.             Joint allowing movement of the hind leg.                           5 tarsus and tuber or os calsis at the back forming point of
                                                                                                                                                  hock.
   Hind leg below the hock.   Hind cannon with splint bones. Long and          Similar the fore limbs
                              short pastern, sesamoid bones, pedal bone
                              and navicular.




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                            SADDLE FITTING bY SADDLEWORLD

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              SADDLEWORLD ExCLUSIVE 15 POINT SADDLE SAFETY CHECK

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                          ExCLUSIVE 15 POINT SADDLE SAFETY CHECK


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