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					NIST Technical Note 1545


Attenuation of Radio Wave Signals
Coupled Into Twelve Large Building
Structures


C.L. Holloway
W.F. Young
G. Koepke
K.A. Remley
D. Camell
Y. Becquet
NIST Technical Note 1545

Attenuation of Radio Wave Signals
Coupled Into Twelve Large Building
Structures
L. Holloway
C.L. Holloway
W.F. Young
G. Koepke
K.A. Remley
D. Camell
Y. Becquet1

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305

1. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden


August 2008




U.S. Department of Commerce
Carlos M. Gutierrez, Secretary

National Institute of Standards and Technology
James Turner, Deputy Director
                         Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be
                      identified in this document in order to describe an experimental
                       procedure or concept adequately. Such identification does not
                                         imply recommendation or endorsement by the
                          National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it
                                         imply that the entities, materials, or equipment
                                     are necessarily the best available for the purpose.




National Institute of Standards and Technology Technical Note 1545
Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech. Note 1545, 240 pages (August 2008)
                                                   CODEN: NTNOEF




                                                      U.S. Government Printing Office
                                                                  Washington: 2008

       For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
             Internet bookstore: gpo.gov Phone: 202-512-1800 Fax: 202-512-2250
                                      Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001
                                                                  Contents


Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................... iv
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
2. Frequency Bands ....................................................................................................................... 2
3. Transmitters .............................................................................................................................. 4
4. Receiving Antenna and Measurement System ....................................................................... 5
5. Building Structure Descriptions and Experimental Set-up .................................................. 6
   5.1 New Orleans, LA Apartment Building ............................................................................. 6
   5.2 Philadelphia, PA Sports Stadium ...................................................................................... 7
   5.3 Phoenix, AZ Office Building .............................................................................................. 8
   5.4 Colorado Springs, CO CO Hotel Complex ....................................................................... 9
   5.5 Boulder, CO Grocery Store ............................................................................................. 10
   5.6 Gaithersburg, MD Office Building .................................................................................. 10
   5.7 Bethesda, MD Shopping Mall .......................................................................................... 11
   5.8 Silver Spring, MD Office Building .................................................................................. 12
   5.9 Washington, DC Convention Center .............................................................................. 12
   5.10 Boulder, CO Apartment Building ................................................................................. 13
   5.11 Commerce City, CO Oil Refinery ................................................................................. 14
   5.12 NIST Boulder, CO Laboratory...................................................................................... 15
6. Experimental Results .............................................................................................................. 16
   6.1 New Orleans, LA Apartment Building Results .............................................................. 18
   6.2 Philadelphia, PA Sports Stadium Results....................................................................... 19
   6.3 Phoenix, AZ Office Building Results............................................................................... 19
   6.4 Colorado Springs, CO, CO Hotel Complex Results ...................................................... 19
   6.5 Boulder, CO Grocery Store Results ................................................................................ 20
   6.6 Gaithersburg, MD Office Building Results .................................................................... 20
   6.7 Bethesda, MD Shopping Mall Results............................................................................. 20
   6.8 Silver Springs, MD Office Building Results ................................................................... 21
   6.9 Washington, DC Convention Center Results ................................................................. 21
   6.10 Boulder, CO Apartment Building Results .................................................................... 21
   6.11 Commerce City, CO Oil Refinery Results .................................................................... 22
   6.12 NIST Boulder, CO Laboratory Results ........................................................................ 22
7. Summary of Results and Conclusions ................................................................................... 22
8. References ................................................................................................................................ 34
9. Figures...................................................................................................................................... 34




                                                                        iii
Executive Summary

This is the fourth in a series of NIST Technical Notes (TN) on propagation and detection of radio
signals in large building structures (apartment complex, hotel, office building, sports stadium,
shopping mall, etc.). The first, second, and third NIST Tech Notes (TN 1540, TN 1541, and TN
1542) described experiments for radio propagation in a structure before, during, and after
implosion. The data in these reports give first responders and system designers a better
understanding of what to expect from the radio-propagation environment in disaster situations.
The goal of this work is to create a large, public-domain data set describing the attenuation of
radio signals in various building types in the public safety and cellular telephone bands.

With the above goal in mind, measurements were carried out on 12 different large building
structures. Frequencies near public safety and cell phone bands as well as ISM and wireless LAN
bands (approximately 50 MHz, 150 MHz, 225 MHz, 450 MHz, 900 MHz, 1.8 GHz, 2.4 GHz,
and 4.9 GHz) were chosen for these experiments. We carried out these “radio-mapping”
experiments to provide data on how radio signals at the different frequencies coupled into the
different building structures. Radio transmitters similar to those used by first responders were
used, as well as specially designed transmitters for the higher frequencies. These different
transmitters were carried throughout various large building structures, while the received signal
was recorded at a fixed receive site located outside the large structures. From this we determined
the field-strength variability throughout the structures. Transmitters were also carried around the
perimeter of the structures with a fixed receiving site on the outside. The results of these signal-
strength measurements and the statistical analysis of the data for these radio-mapping
experiments are presented here.

Beside plots of the raw datasets, a series of tables that summarize the processed data by
frequency bands are presented in this report. This enables easier comparisons between results
from different building or structure types. (Note that the exact frequencies are provided in each
of the individual site discussions.) Table entries include a building or structure identifier, the
actual frequency tested, the specific reference level used to normalize that particular data set, and
then median, mean, and standard deviation results for the normalized data.

Differences in building types make it difficult to make very strong general statements based on
the collected data. However, we do observe some general trends in the data. First, examination of
the standard deviation yields some interesting insights. In particular, if we exclude the first
receiver site for the NIST laboratory in Boulder, we see that the average standard deviation for
the six lower frequency bands ranges from 11.8 dB to 13.4 dB. Limited data were collected for
the upper two frequencies; but if we include those results, the upper limit of the range increase to
14.9 dB. Across all eight frequency bands, the range of maximum standard deviation covers 16.8
dB to 22.3 dB, with 22.3 dB occurring at 900 MHz. The minimum standard deviation values
range from 3.9 dB to 12.1 dB, with 3.9 dB occurring at 1.8 GHz.

Second, in almost all cases, the median value for the power received is less than the average
power received. The typical difference is between 2 dB to 3 dB. This suggests that median value
may be a better measure for representing the general behavior of the building, or at least a more
conservative performance measure.



                                                 iv
Third, the histograms (which approximate probability density functions, PDFs) and the empirical
cumulative density functions (CDFs) do not appear to follow any typical density function. To
some extent, each individual test case will generate a unique density. However, the data do not
seem to suggest an obvious average or best approximate density function that could be used as a
collective representation of the buildings.

The data presented in this report aid in understanding the issues faced with first responders
communicating into and within large building structures. For example, the large amount of
attenuation for the signals coupling into the different structures indicates to system designers
what a communication link must overcome in order to provide a reliable system. In addition, the
measured signal variability indicates the dynamic environment these different buildings present
to a communication system.

The results in this report are the fourth in a series of reports detailing experiments performed by
NIST in order to provide better understanding of the first responder’s radio propagation
environment. The first three reports cover implosion experiments that were performed in three
different building structures: an apartment building in New Orleans, LA, a large sports stadium
(the “Veterans Stadium”) in Philadelphia, PA, and a convention center in Washington, DC.
Looking ahead, other experiments at different frequencies in other building structures are being
performed and will be published separately. We will are also performing measurements to
simulate and test the performance of adhoc networks in various building structures; the results of
these experiments will also be published separately.




                                                v
           Attenuation of Radio Wave Signals Coupled Into Twelve Large
                                Building Structures



          Christopher L. Holloway, William F. Young, Galen Koepke, Kate A. Remley
                              Dennis Camell, and Yann Becquet

                                   Electromagnetics Division
                         National Institute of Standards and Technology
                              325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305


In this report, we describe our investigation of radio communication problems faced by
emergency responders (firefighters, police, and emergency medical personnel) in disaster
situations. A fundamental challenge to communications into and out of large buildings is the
strong attenuation of radio signals caused by losses and scattering in the building materials and
structure. Besides attenuation, another challenge is the large amount of signal variability that
occurs throughout these large structures. We designed experiments in various large building
structures in an effort to quantify radio-signal attenuation and variability faced by emergency
responders. We carried RF transmitters throughout these structures and placed receiving
systems outside the structures. The transmitters were tuned to frequencies near public safety, cell
phone bands, and Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands, including wireless Local Area
Network (LAN) frequencies. This report summarizes the experiments, performed in large
building structures. We describe the experiments, detail the measurement system, show primary
results of the data collected, and discuss some of the interesting propagation effects we observed.

Key words: attenuation; building shielding and coupling; emergency responders; radio
communications; radio propagation experiments; signal variability; weak-signal detection


1. Introduction

When emergency responders enter large structures (e.g., apartment and office buildings, sports
stadiums, stores, malls, hotels, convention centers, warehouses, etc.) communication to
individuals on the outside is often impaired. Cellular telephones and mobile-radio signal strength
is reduced due to (a) attenuation caused by propagation through the building materials, and (b)
scattering by the building geometry [1-8]. Also, the large amount of signal variability
throughout the structures causes degradation in communication systems.

Here, we report on a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) project to
investigate communications problems faced by first responders (firefighters, police and
emergency medical personnel) in disaster situations involving large building structures. As part
of this effort, we are investigating the propagation and coupling of radio waves into large
building structures. This report covers experiments that utilized a single-frequency, unmodulated
carrier, whereas a companion report, NIST Technical Note 1546 [9], describes measurements


                                                1
that support increased understanding of modulated signal transmissions for the public-safety
sector.

The experiments reported here were performed in 12 different large building structures and are
essentially measurements of the reduction in radio-signal strength caused by propagation through
the structures. These structures include four office buildings, two apartment buildings, a hotel, a
grocery store, a shopping mall, a convention center, a sports stadium, and an oil refinery. In
order to study the radio characteristics of these structures at the various frequencies of interest to
first responders, frequencies near public-safety and cell phone bands, as well as ISM and
wireless LAN bands (approximately 50 MHz, 150 MHz, 225 MHz, 450 MHz, 900 MHz, 1.8
GHz, 2.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz) were chosen. A detailed description of the transmitters we used is given
in detail in Section 3.

The experiments performed here are referred to as “radio mappings.” This involved carrying
transmitters (or radios) tuned to various frequencies throughout the 12 structures while recording
the received unmodulated signal at a site located outside the building. The reference for these
data was a direct, unobstructed, line-of-sight signal-strength measurement with the transmitters
external to the different structures and in front of the receiving antennas. The purpose of the
radio-mapping measurements was to investigate how the signals at the different frequencies
couple into the structures, and to determine the field-strength variability throughout the
structures. A detailed description of the measurement system and antennas is given in Section 4.

This report is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the frequencies used in these
experiments. Section 3 discusses the transmitters, and Section 4 describes the automated
measurement system used in the radio-mapping and propagation measurements. In Section 5, we
describe the different structures and detail our experimental procedures for each structure. In
Section 6, we present the data collected at various stages of the experiment. Finally, in Section 7,
we summarize the results of these experiments and discuss some of the interesting propagation
effects observed.


2. Frequency Bands

An overview of the frequencies used by the public-safety community nationwide (federal, state,
and local) is given in Table 1, which shows a broad range of frequencies ranging from 30 MHz
to 4.9 GHz. The modulation scheme has historically been analog FM, but this is slowly changing
to digital as Project 25 radios come online [10]. The modulation bandwidth in the VHF and UHF
bands has been 25 kHz, but due to the need for additional communications channels in an
already crowded spectrum, most new bandwidth allocations are 12.5 kHz. The older bandwidth
allocations will gradually be required to move to narrow bandwidths to increase the user density
even further. The crowded spectrum and limited bandwidth are also pushing the move to higher
frequency bands in order to support new data-intensive technologies. The cellular phone bands
are summarized in Table 2.




                                                  2
As shown in Table 1, frequencies currently used by public safety and other emergency
responders and cellular telephones are typically below 2 GHz. New frequency allocations and
systems, including higher frequencies (e.g., around 4.9 GHz), will become increasingly
important in the future. We chose eight frequency bands below 5 GHz, from about 50 MHz to
4.9 GHz. These include four VHF bands typically used for analog FM voice, one band used for
multiple technologies (analog FM voice, digital trunked FM, and cellular telephone), one band
near the digital cellular telephone band, and wireless LAN bands.

                        Table 1. Public safety community frequencies.

     Frequency band                                  Description
         (MHz)
          30-50            Used mainly by highway patrols for long-distance propagation;
                                             currently being phased out
         150-174           Local police and fire. Lower frequency preferred because of its
                                      better long-distance propagation quality
         406-470                         Used by federal officers and others
         700-800                                  Used in urban areas
         800-869                                Primarily urban usage
          4900              A newly allocated band with 50 MHz bandwidth for sending
                                             images and broadband data



                            Table 2. Cellular Phone Frequencies

     Frequency band                                  Description
         (MHz)
           800           AMPS or analog systems, migrating to digital trunked and point-to-
                                             point communications
          1900                               PCS or digital system


In designing an experiment to investigate the signal penetration characteristics into large
buildings at these different frequency bands, we chose frequencies very close, but not identical,
to the above bands. If frequencies were chosen in the public safety or commercial land-mobile
bands, interference to the public safety and cellular systems could possibly occur. Conversely,
these existing systems could interfere with our experimental setup. In addition, obtaining
frequency authorizations in these bands for our experiments would have been problematic due to
the intense crowding of the spectrum. To circumvent these issues, we were able to receive
temporary authorization to use frequencies in the U.S. Government frequency bands adjacent to
these public safety bands. Table 3 lists the frequency bands that were used in the experiments.
The lower four bands correspond to the frequencies used by the public-safety community; 902
MHz can be associated with several services including both public safety and cellular phones;
the highest frequency is near the digital cellular phone and wireless LAN bands. The exact

                                               3
frequencies varied depending on which city the experiments were performed. Section 5 describes
the different structures and the exact frequencies used in each experiment.


                      Table 3. Frequency bands used in the experiments.

     Frequency band                                   Description
         (MHz)
            49                               Simulate a public safety band
           162                               Simulate a public safety band
           226                               Simulate a public safety band
           448                               Simulate a public safety band
           902                      Simulate a public safety or cellular phone band
          1830                              Simulate a cellular phone band
          2450                                      Wireless LAN
          4900            Recently allocated with 50 MHz bandwidth for sending images and
                                                   broadband data


3. Transmitters

The design requirements for the transmitters used in the experiments discussed here were that
they should: (1) transmit an unmodulated carrier at the frequencies listed in the tables above, (2)
operate continuously for several hours, and (3) be portable.

To accomplish this, two different types of transmitters were chosen. For the four lower frequency
bands (the VHF/UHF public-safety bands), off-the-shelf amateur radios were modified. The
modifications included: (1) reprogramming the frequency synthesizer to permit transmitting at
government frequencies, (2) disabling the transmitter time-out mode in order to allow for
continuous transmission, and (3) connecting a large external battery pack. The specifications of
these modified radios then had to be reported to the National Telecommunications and
Information Administration (NTIA) frequency coordinator in order to obtain approval for use in
government frequency bands. With the larger battery packs, the modified radios could transmit
continuously for 12 h to 18 h at an output power of 1 W. The extended transmitting time
required us to provide additional cooling since the radios were designed for typical
communications, that is, to transmit intermittently with cooling time between transmissions. This
was accomplished with cooling fans.

The stability and radiated power from these inexpensive radios was measured over a 24 h period.
The modified radios and battery packs were placed in durable orange plastic cases for mobility.
The antennas could be mounted either inside or outside the plastic cases. For these
measurements, the antennas were mounted on the outside of the cases.
Figure 1 shows the final arrangement of modified transmitters used for the lower four frequency
bands. This figure shows one modified transmitter placed in an orange plastic case.



                                                4
Commercial transmitters were available for the higher frequency bands (900 MHz, 1800 MHz,
2.4 GHz, and 4.9 GHz). These off-the-shelf transmitters were already in plastic protective cases
and could transmit continuously for 12 h. Figure 2 shows these transmitters. Note that the cases
for the higher-frequency transmitters were not orange, but grey.

4. Receiving Antenna and Measurement System

The receiving system is sketched in Figure 3. We assembled four antennas on a 4 m mast, as
illustrated. The radio-frequency output from each antenna was fed through a 4:1 broadband
power combiner. This arrangement gave us a single input to our portable spectrum analyzers,
which could then scan over all the frequencies of interest without switching antennas. The four
antennas were chosen to be optimal (or at least practical) for each of the frequency bands we
were measuring. The selected antennas were an end-fed vertical omnidirectional antenna for
50 MHz, a log-periodic-dipole-array (LPDA) for the 160 MHz, 225 MHz, and 450 MHz bands,
and Yagi-Uda arrays for 900 MHz and 1830 MHz. Horn antennas were used for the 2.4 GHz
and 4.9 GHz frequency bands. This assembly could then be mounted on a fixed tripod at one of
the listening sites, or it could be inserted into a modified garden cart for portable measurements
(see Figure 4 and Figure 5). The receiving sites contained, in addition to the antenna system, a
generator, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), spectrum analyzer, global positioning system
(GPS) receiver, computer, and associated cabling. Photos of the antenna assembly mounted on a
tripod and mounted on the mobile cart are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.

As shown in Figure 3, the measurement system consists of a portable spectrum analyzer, GPS
receiver, and a laptop computer. The data collection process was automated by use of a
graphical programming language. This software was designed to control the analyzer, and to
collect, process, and save data at the maximum throughput of the equipment. The software
controlled the spectrum analyzer via an IEEE-488 interface bus and the GPS receiver via a serial
interface. The GPS information was used to record the position of the receiving sites during the
measurements.

The software was written to maximize throughput of the data collection process and to run for an
undefined time interval. This was achieved by running as parallel processes the collecting,
processing, and saving of the data for post-collection processing. The data were continuously
read from the spectrum analyzer at its optimal settings and stored in data buffers. These buffers
were read and processed for each signal and displayed for operator viewing. The processed data
were then stored in additional buffers to be re-sorted and saved to a file on disk.

The initial setup of the parameters for the spectrum analyzer determined the quality of
optimization for this process. There were several instrument parameters that were critical during
the setup, including the analyzer sweep time, resolution bandwidth, and frequency span of the
spectrum analyzer trace. The number and spread of the test frequencies in a particular band
influenced the allowed range of adjustment for these parameters. These two factors also
influenced the number of traces necessary to cover all the test frequencies. Interference from
signals in the adjacent spectrum influenced the instrument setup and data collection speed by
forcing smaller resolution bandwidths. The reference level for each trace was also checked and



                                                5
adjusted during the measurement to improve the resolution and accuracy of the power level
reading. All of these factors had some effect on the sampling rate.

The sampling rate of the complete measurement sequence was the major factor in how much
spatial resolution we had during walk-through or field-mapping experiments (we also had some
flexibility in our walking speed) and the time resolution for recording the signals.

We used three different models of spectrum analyzers, each having a different sampling rate
ranging from about 0.5 s to 7 s, to measure all 20 frequencies in the 6 frequency bands. The
frequencies were spaced such that we could utilize one spectrum analyzer trace for each band.
The reason for the relatively large sampling range is that the first four experiments (New Orleans
through the Colorado Springs, CO hotel complex) collected data for all frequencies during a
single walk-through. For the remaining eight experiments, only a single frequency was collected
during each walk-through, i.e., each frequency required a walk-through. These rates were
achieved only after optimizing the instrument control and data transfer processes mentioned
above. The data from the spectrum analyzer trace were saved in binary format to disk (to allow
us to reprocess the raw data at a later time if needed); they were then processed to extract the
signals at each particular frequency. These results were then put into a spreadsheet file and
saved with other measurement information. The sampling rates were sufficient for the field-
mapping experiments (if we did not walk too fast).


5. Building Structure Descriptions and Experimental Set-up

This section briefly describes the 12 different large building structures used in these experiments
and details the experimental set-up. These structures include four office buildings, two apartment
buildings, a hotel, a grocery store, a shopping mall, a convention center, a sports stadium, and an
oil refinery.

5.1 New Orleans, LA Apartment Building

The building for this set of radio propagation experiments was a 13-story apartment complex
located in a suburb of New Orleans, LA (Figure 6), specifically, the William J. Fisher building
on Whitney Ave. We performed the radio-mapping measurements prior to the scheduled
implosion of the structure. We also performed measurements before, during, and after the
implosion of this structure; and details of these implosion measurements are reported in
Reference [5].

The 13 stories included a ground-level commons area and parking, and 12 floors with 14
efficiency apartments on each floor. The individual apartments on each level opened to a
common outside hallway on the west side of the building. There was an elevator control and
maintenance room in a penthouse on the roof of the building. This space was accessed by a metal
spiral staircase on the top floor. There were two internal passenger elevators and one external
freight elevator near the center of the building. Two external stairwells near each end of the
building accessed all floors. There was no basement in this building.



                                                6
The building was constructed of reinforced concrete, steel, and standard interior finish materials.
Significant demolition was already completed when we arrived; all plumbing fixtures, most glass
windows and doors, and the contents of the apartments had been removed. The reinforced
concrete walls on the lower two levels had been cut away, leaving only support columns
remaining. The ground level commons area structure had been demolished and the debris in the
area removed. Material had been judiciously removed from certain structural parts of the lower
levels, including stairwells and elevator shafts to facilitate a proper collapse during the
implosion. Figure 7 shows a few photos of the building interior as it existed during the
experiments. The pre-implosion preparation and partial demolition on the lower levels is visible
in several of the photos. Figure 8 shows a drawing of the structure.

The purpose of these measurements was to investigate how signals at the different frequencies
couple into the building and to determine the field strength variability throughout the building.
For the radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled
on the northeast side of the building (see Figure 8), approximately 30 m from the northeast
corner of the building. During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the
building and the received signal levels were recorded. As the received signal was recorded, the
location of the transmitters in the buildings was also recorded. The frequencies used in the
experiment are shown in Table 4.


    Table 4. Frequencies used in the New Orleans, LA apartment building experiments.

 Frequency band                                  Description
    49.60 MHz                           Simulate a public safety band
  162.00 MHz                            Simulate a public safety band
  225.375 MHz                           Simulate a public safety band
   448.60 MHz                           Simulate a public safety band
   902.60 MHz                   Simulate a public safety or cellular phone band
  1832.50 MHz                          Simulate a cellular phone band


5.2 Philadelphia, PA Sports Stadium

The next structure for the radio propagation experiments was Veterans Stadium, a large sports
arena in Philadelphia, PA (see Figure 9). We performed the radio-mapping measurements prior
to the scheduled implosion of the structure. We also performed measurements before, during,
and after the implosion of this structure, and details of these implosion measurements are
reported in Reference [7].

The nearly circular stadium was constructed of reinforced concrete, steel, and standard interior
finish materials. Figure 10 show details of the original stadium and some of the preparations and
partial demolition of the different sections of the stadium. As shown in these figures, the stadium
had multiple levels with large open areas. The exterior perimeter of the stadium was
approximately 805 m (1/2 mi). Since this structure was also scheduled for implosion, significant

                                                7
demolition had already been completed when we arrived; all plumbing fixtures, most glass
windows and doors, and other contents had been removed. Material had been judiciously
removed from certain structural parts of the lower levels including stairwells and elevator shafts
to facilitate a proper collapse during the implosion. Figure 11 shows a plan of the structure and
approximate locations of the transmitter and receive instruments.

The purpose of these measurements was to investigate how signals at the different frequencies
couple into the stadium and to determine the variability in field strength throughout the stadium.
Also, by carrying the transmitters around the exterior perimeter of the stadium the amount of
signal blockage caused by the stadium from one side to the other could be investigated. For the
radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled on the
southwest perimeter of the stadium (see Figure 11), approximately 53 m from Column #10.
During this experiment, the transmitters were carried (and at times, driven aboard an all-terrain
vehicle or ATV) throughout the stadium and the received signal levels were recorded.
Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in both the horizontal and
vertical direction (with respect to the ground). As the received signal was recorded, the location
of the transmitters in the buildings was also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are
shown in Table 5.

         Table 5. Frequencies used in the Philadelphia sports stadium experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                            Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                             Simulates a public safety band
    225.30                             Simulates a public safety band
    448.50                             Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                     Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1832.00                            Simulates a cellular phone band



5.3 Phoenix, AZ Office Building

The building was an eight-story office building located in Phoenix, AZ at 2375 East Camelback
Rd.(Figure 12). There were two sub-basements in the building. The building was constructed of
steel with a large number of windows and standard interior-finish materials. The building was
fully furnished with office furniture. Measurements were performed during daytime hours. As a
result, people were moving throughout the building during the experiments. Figure 13 shows
some interior photos of the office building.

For the radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled
on the west side of the office building (see Figure 14), approximately 50 m from the front door.
During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the building, including the roof
and the two sub-basements, and the received signal levels were recorded. Measurements were

                                                8
performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the vertical direction. As the received signal
was recorded, the location of the transmitters in the office buildings was also recorded. The
frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 6.

         Table 6. Frequencies used in the Phoenix, AZ office building experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
     154.07                              Simulates a public safety band
     765                                 Simulates a public safety band
     867                                Simulates a cellular phone band


5.4 Colorado Springs, CO, CO Hotel Complex

The building was a 14-story hotel complex located in Colorado Springs, CO, CO (Figure 15). At
the time of the measurements, the complex was referred to as the Antlers: Adam’s Mark Hotel.
The complex had three sub-level parking garages. The complex also had a small conference
facility and stores located in the structure. The building was constructed of reinforced concrete
and standard interior-finish materials. The building was fully furnished during the experiments.
Measurements were performed during daytime hours and, as a result, people were moving
throughout the building during the experiments. Figure 16 shows some interior photos of the
hotel complex building.

For the radio-mapping experiments, two fixed receiving sites (as described above) were
assembled on the outside of the structure (see Figure 17). One was approximately 50 m from the
front door, and a similar receiving site was set up in a parking lot near the southwest corner of
the building, approximately 30 m from the corner of the building. During this experiment, the
transmitters were carried throughout the complex, including the three sub-level parking garages,
and the received signal levels were recorded. Measurements were performed with the receiving
antennas polarized in both the vertical and horizontal directions. As the received signal was
recorded, the location of the transmitters in the hotel was also recorded. The frequencies used in
the experiment are shown in Table 7.


  Table 7. Frequencies used in the Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel complex experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                            Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                             Simulates a public safety band
    225.30                             Simulates a public safety band
    448.50                             Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                     Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                            Simulates a cellular phone band

                                                9
5.5 Boulder, CO Grocery Store

The building was a one-story grocery store located in Boulder, CO (Figure 18). This was the
King Soopers grocery store located at Table Mesa Dr. and Broadway St. The grocery was
constructed of brick and steel. The store was fully furnished during the experiments.
Measurements were performed during daytime hours and, as a result, people were moving
throughout the store during the experiments. Figure 19 shows some interior photos of the
building.

For the radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled
on the northwest side of the store building (see Figure 20), approximately 30 m from front door.
During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the store as well as around the
outside perimeter. Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the
vertical direction. As the received signals were recorded, the location of the transmitters in the
store was also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 8.

          Table 8. Frequencies used in the Boulder, CO grocery store experiments.

 Frequency band                                      Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                             Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                              Simulates a public safety band
    225.30                              Simulates a public safety band
    448.50                              Simulates a public safety band
    902.75                      Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                             Simulates a cellular phone band



5.6 Gaithersburg, MD Office Building

The building was a ten-story office building at the NIST facility in Gaithersburg, MD (Figure
21). The building was constructed of reinforced concrete. The building was fully furnished
during the experiments. Measurements were performed during daytime hours and, as a result,
people were moving throughout the structure during the experiments.

For the radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled
on the southeast side of the store building (see Figure 22), approximately 60 m from the front
door. During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the building.
Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the vertical direction. As
the received signals were recorded, the location of the transmitters in the store was also recorded.
The frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 9.




                                                10
      Table 9. Frequencies used in the Gaithersburg, MD office building experiments.

 Frequency band                                    Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                           Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                            Simulates a public safety band
    226.40                            Simulates a public safety band
    448.30                            Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                    Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                           Simulates a cellular phone band


5.7 Bethesda, MD Shopping Mall

The Montgomery Mall was a two-level shopping mall in Bethesda, MD (Figure 23). The
building was constructed of reinforced concrete and brick. The building was fully furnished
during the experiments. Measurements were performed during daytime hours and, as a result,
people were moving throughout the structure during the experiments. Figure 24 shows some
internal photos of the mall complex.

For the radio-mapping experiments, two fixed receiving sites (as described above) were
assembled on both the east and west sides of the mall (see Figure 25), approximately 60 m from
the two entrances. During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the mall.
Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the vertical polarization.
As the received signal was recorded, the location of the transmitters in the store was also
recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 10. This is a two-level
facility and during the walk-throughs we stopped at predetermined locations on both the upper
and lower levels. An internal floor plan with these locations is shown in Figure 26. The green
arrows in the figure represent the actual paths that were walked.

       Table 10. Frequencies used in the Bethesda, MD shopping mall experiments.

 Frequency band                                    Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                           Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                            Simulates a public safety band
    226.40                            Simulates a public safety band
    448.30                            Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                    Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                           Simulates a cellular phone band




                                              11
5.8 Silver Spring, MD Office Building

The building was the 11-story Discovery office building in Silver Spring, MD (Figure 27). The
building was constructed of concrete, steel, and glass. The building included a three-level
underground parking garage. The building had been recently built and most rooms were
furnished with cubicle dividers and typical office furniture, while some were essentially empty.
As in earlier measurements, there were people moving about in the structure during the tests in
the occupied sections of the building. Figure 28 shows some internal photos of the office
building. This structure consisted of two adjoining units or buildings. While walking through the
building, we stopped at the various locations on each floor and as well as at the corridor
adjoining the two buildings. Each stop is labeled with letters A-I in Figure 29 and on the curves
in the next section.

For the radio-mapping experiments, one fixed receiving site (as described above) was assembled
on the east side of the building (see Figure 30), approximately 20 m from the main entrance.
During this experiment, the transmitters were carried throughout the building, including the
three-level underground parking garage. Measurements were performed with the receiving
antennas polarized in the vertical direction. As the received signals were recorded, the location
of the transmitters in the store was also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are
shown in Table 11.


Table 11. Frequencies used in the Silver Spring, MD Discovery office building experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                            Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                             Simulates a public safety band
    226.40                             Simulates a public safety band
    448.30                             Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                     Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                            Simulates a cellular phone band



5.9 Washington, DC Convention Center

The structure in the experiment was the old Washington, DC Convention Center (see Figure 31).
We performed these radio-mapping measurements prior to the scheduled implosion of the
structure. We also performed measurements before, during, and after the implosion of this
structure, and details of these implosion measurements are reported in Reference [8].

This massive two-level structure was constructed of reinforced concrete, steel, and standard
interior finish materials. Figure 32 shows some internal photos of the convention center. As
shown in Figure 31, the convention center had two large levels with three levels of offices. This

                                               12
structure was scheduled for demolition and significant demolition had already been completed
when we arrived; all plumbing fixtures, most glass windows and doors, and other contents had
been removed.

Figure 33 shows the locations of the three receive sites for the experiments. These three fixed
receiving sites were assembled on the perimeter of the convention center. Receiving site RX 1
was placed approximately 23 m (75 ft) from the northwest perimeter of the convention center.
Receiving site RX 2 was placed approximately 23 m (75 ft) from the northeast perimeter of the
convention center. Receiving site RX 3 was placed approximately 15 m (50 ft) from the
southeast perimeter of the convention center. During these experiments, the transmitters were
carried throughout the convention center, and the received signal levels were recorded.
Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the vertical direction
(with respect to the ground). As the received signals were recorded, the locations of the
transmitters in the convention center were also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment
are shown in Table 12.


     Table 12. Frequencies used in the Washington DC convention center experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
      49.60                            Simulates a public safety band
    162.09                             Simulates a public safety band
    226.40                             Simulates a public safety band
    448.30                             Simulates a public safety band
    902.45                     Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.00                            Simulates a cellular phone band



5.10 Boulder, CO Apartment Building

The building was the 11-story Horizon West apartment building in Boulder, CO (Figure 34). The
building was constructed of reinforced concrete, steel, and brick with standard interior-finish
materials. The building was fully furnished and occupied during the experiments. Measurements
were performed during daytime hours and, as a result, people were moving throughout the
building during the experiments. Figure 35 and Figure 36 show the two receiver setups at
Horizon West, while Figure 37 displays internal photos of the apartment building.

For the radio-mapping experiments, two fixed receiving sites (see Figure 35) were assembled on
the east side and north side of the apartment building, approximately 60 m and 80 m from the
apartment building. During these experiments, the transmitters were carried throughout the
building. Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized in the vertical
direction. As the received signal was recorded, the location of the transmitters in the apartment
building was also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 13.

                                               13
      Table 13. Frequencies used in the Boulder, CO apartment building experiments

 Frequency band                                      Description
      (MHz)
     162.075                            Simulates a public safety band
    230.0                               Simulates a public safety band
    439.25                              Simulates a public safety band
    908.0                       Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.0                              Simulates a cellular phone band
   2445.0                                 Simulates a wireless LAN
   4900.0                               Simulates a public safety band



5.11 Commerce City, CO Oil Refinery

The facility was the SUNCOR Energy oil refinery in Commerce City, CO (Figure 38). The
refinery was basically an outdoor facility with several intricate piping systems. Measurements
were performed during daytime hours and, as a result, people were moving throughout the
refinery. During these experiments, the transmitters were carried throughout the refinery. There
were two paths chosen for these tests, one through the center of the processing section with
dense piping, and the other around the cluster of large metal storage tanks. During the
measurements, the transmitters were carried throughout the dense piping system and driven
around the large storage tanks. Figure 39 and Figure 40 show some photos of the refinery
complex in which the transmitters were carried, while Figure 41 shows the driven section of the
refinery during the data collection process.

For the radio-mapping experiments, two fixed receiving sites (as described above) were
assembled on the south side and north side of the refinery complex (see Figure 42),
approximately 100 m and 30 m from the piping structures. The green arrows in the figure
represent the actual paths that were walked. Measurements were performed with the receiving
antennas polarized in the vertical direction. As the received signals were recorded, the location of
the transmitters in the refinery complex was also recorded. The frequencies used in the
experiment are shown in Table 14.




                                                14
 Table 14. Frequencies used in the Commerce City, CO oil refinery complex experiments.

 Frequency band                                       Description
      (MHz)
       49.85                            Simulates a public safety band
     162.075                            Simulates a public safety band
    230.0                               Simulates a public safety band
    439.25                              Simulates a public safety band
    908.0                       Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
   1830.1                              Simulates a cellular phone band
   2445.0                                 Simulates a wireless LAN
   4900.0                               Simulates a public safety band



5.12 NIST Boulder, CO Laboratory

This building was the main building (referred to as the Radio Building) at the NIST laboratories
in Boulder, CO (see Figure 43). The building is constructed of reinforced concrete and is
basically a four-story building. However, the building is built on a hillside, and consequently,
some locations in the building are below ground level. Measurements were performed during
daytime hours and, as a result, people were moving throughout the building during the
experiments.

For the radio-mapping experiments, two fixed receiving sites (as described above) were
assembled on the south side of the laboratory building (see Figure 44 and Figure 45). The
receive site at Wing 4 was located on the landing dock, while the receive site at Wing 6 was
approximately 10 m from the building. During these experiments, the transmitters were carried
throughout the laboratory. Measurements were performed with the receiving antennas polarized
in the vertical direction. As the received signals were recorded, the location of the transmitters in
the buildings was also recorded. The frequencies used in the experiment are shown in Table 15.




                                                 15
         Table 15. Frequencies used in the NIST Boulder laboratory experiments.

 Frequency band                                     Description
     (MHz)
      49.8                             Simulates a public safety band
     162.075                           Simulates a public safety band
     230.0                             Simulates a public safety band
     439.25                            Simulates a public safety band
     908.0                     Simulates a public safety or cellular phone band
    1830.0                            Simulates a cellular phone band
    2445.0                               Simulates a wireless LAN
    4900.0                             Simulates a public safety band



6. Experimental Results

In this section the measured data are presented from several perspectives. The section is divided
into subsections, with each subsection discussing a different set of building structure
measurements. Plots of the walk-through data, normalized to a reference point, are provided for
the investigated frequencies, and the appropriate figure numbers are indicated in the subsection
discussions. Plots of the walk-through data statistics are also included. General descriptions of
the experimental setups for the various sites were provided earlier in Sections 4 and 5. Any
unique features of a site that appear to impact the collected data are pointed out in the
appropriate results subsection. The common acronyms and abbreviations used in the labeling of
the walk-through figures and statistical plots are provided in Table 16.




                                               16
Table 16. Common abbreviations used in the statistic tables and data igures

            Acronym or Abbreviation                            Meaning
                    Apmt.                                     Apartment
                   Approx.                                   Approximate
                     Col.                                       Column
                  Fl., FL, fl.                                   Floor
                     Freq.                                    Frequency
                    Horiz.                                    Horizontal
                     LOS                                      line-of-site
                       Lx                    Level x or floor x, where x is a number
                       N                                         North
                     N.E.                                      Northeast
                     N.W.                                     Northwest
                     Ref.                               Reference signal level
                    Polar.                                   Polarization
                       S                                         South
                   Std. dev.                              Standard deviation
                      S.E.                                     Southeast
                     S.W.                                     Southwest
                     Vert.                                      Vertical



The collected data are plotted as a power level versus the sample number, where the sample
number corresponds to different locations in the building structure. The power level is
normalized to a reference signal, which is collected at a location with line-of-sight to the
receiver. Note that the reference level was not always the strongest measured signal level. Also,
in a few cases, a line-sight-sight reference was not available, and an average of near-maximum
values was utilized as the reference value instead. This difference in reference level does not
affect the variability of the signal level, but does impact the median and the mean. The
histograms are created by use of a bin width of 1 dB, and are based on normalized received
signal power levels. Median, mean, and standard deviation statistics are also calculated based on
the normalized decibel values of the measured data.

We will present the data collected for each building in the chronological order in which it was
collected. The data are presented in two forms. First, we present the received power levels versus
location in the particular building structure. Second, we present the data in a statistical manner
using histograms and cumulative density functions (CDFs). After we have presented all the data
for each building, the next section summarizes the data from all 12 buildings as a whole, and we
draw a few conclusions.




                                               17
6.1 New Orleans, LA Apartment Building Results

The apartment building in New Orleans, LA provided the first set of data collected (in
chronological order). Plots of the signal power versus sample number are provided for the six
lower-frequency bands in Figure 46 to Figure 51. Corresponding histograms and empirical
cumulative density functions (CDFs) are found in Figure 52 and Figure 53. In these experiments,
approximately 500 samples were collected for each frequency over the complete building walk-
through, and the time between samples was approximately 6 s. The reference level for the six
frequencies is much higher than that used in most subsequent experiments, which suggests a
starting location quite close to the receiver site. As we will see, the standard deviation results are
quite similar to results from the other buildings. Also, this particular building had been prepared
for demolition, and thus did not contain material such as window glass. This removal of
substantial portions of building material, as well as internal content, may have impacted the data.
We also performed measurements before, during, and after the implosion of this structure and
details of these implosion measurements are reported in Reference [5].


6.2 Philadelphia, PA Sports Stadium Results

A large sports stadium was the second structure investigated. The data collected consisted of a
walk-through within the stadium and around the exterior of the stadium for both horizontal and
vertical antenna polarizations at the receiver. A sampling rate of approximately 6 s per frequency
resulted in small numbers of samples corresponding to a large geographic area or path length.
The limited number of sample points over a long path distance does not provide a high resolution
of the signal power behavior. Also, the data shown are normalized to a 0 dBm reference level
(all other results do not utilize a normalized reference level). The data for both the interior and
exterior of the stadium are given in Figures 54 through 92.

The walk-through plots for the interior of the stadium are found in Figure 54 to Figure 59
(horizontal polarization), Figure 62 to Figure 67 (horizontal polarization), and Figure 70 to
Figure 75 (vertical polarization). Statistical plots corresponding to these three sets of figures are
found in Figure 60 and Figure 61, Figure 68 and Figure 69, and Figure 76 and Figure 77. Note
that the two inside walk-throughs with horizontal polarization do not directly concatenate, but in
general, the combination of the two walk-throughs covers the same path as the single vertical
polarization inside walk-through.

Stadium exterior walk-through plots are found in Figure 78 to Figure 83 (horizontal
polarization), and Figure 86 to Figure 91 (vertical polarization). The corresponding statistical
plots are shown in Figure 84 and Figure 85 and Figure 92 and 93, respectively.

The most noticeable difference between the five cases is that for all frequencies above 50 MHz,
the median of the outside walk with the vertical polarization is at least 3.9 dB worse than the four
other walks. The standard deviation is also greater than 18.4 dB for all frequencies for the
vertical polarization outside walk. We also performed measurements before, during, and after
the implosion of this structure, and details of these implosion measurements are reported in
Reference [7].


                                                 18
6.3 Phoenix, AZ Office Building Results

Three frequencies were measured at the Phoenix office building experiments described in
Section 5.3. Walk-through plots are provided in Figure 94 through Figure 96, and the
corresponding statistical plots are shown in Figure 97. As noted on the walk-through plots, a
line-of-sight to the receiver location was possible only for the 154 MHz case. However, this did
not appear to significantly alter the overall statistics in Figure 97, which depicts both a higher
reference value and a larger standard deviation for the 154 MHz case, as compared to either the
765 or 867 MHz cases.


6.4 Colorado Springs, CO, CO Hotel Complex Results

The Colorado Springs, CO measurements consisted of a walk-through with a vertically polarized
receive antenna, and a walk-through with a horizontally polarized receive antenna. Data were
collected at two different receive locations as described in Section 5.4. Six frequencies were
measured at the Colorado Springs, CO hotel, and the data is presented in Figures 98 through 129.
The highest frequency, 1830 MHz, did not provide meaningful statistics, as is evident by the
walk-through plots in Figure 103, Figure 111, Figure 119, and Figure 127. Hence, no statistics
are provided for the 1830 MHz case. Note that this indicates that at 1830 MHz, the building
essentially attenuated the transmitted signal below the detection threshold of the spectrum
analyzer.

Figure 98 though Figure 103 show the walk-through results for a vertically polarized receiver at
site 1, with the corresponding statistics for the five lowest frequencies displayed in Figure 104
and Figure 105. Frequencies of 162 MHz, 225 MHz, 449 MHz, and 902 MHz behave quite
similarly, as is evident by both the walk-through and statistics figures. However, the 49 MHz
case demonstrates an increase in the reference signal level of greater than 16 dB compared to
those four frequencies.

The site 1 horizontally polarized receive antenna results in Figure 106s through Figure 111, with
corresponding statistics in Figure 112 and


Figure 113, show some differences when compared to the site 1 vertically polarized receiver
results. The basic shape of the histogram now illustrates a normal distribution (instead of an
exponential), and the standard deviation decreases by at least 6.5 dB for all five frequencies.

The walk-through results at receive site 2 with a vertically polarized receive antenna for the six
frequencies are shown in Figure 114 to Figure 119, with the corresponding statistics shown in
Figure 120 and Figure 121. In comparison to the case for site 1, the most noticeable difference is
a decrease of at least 7.5 dB in the standard deviation across all five frequencies. The shapes of
the histograms approximate exponential distributions, which is consistent with the site 1 results.

Figure 122 through Figure 127 show the results for a horizontally polarized receive antenna at
site 2, with corresponding statistics results displayed in Figure 128 and Figure 129. In
comparison with the results for site 1, the shapes of the histograms, except for the 49 MHz case,

                                               19
are tending toward a normal distribution. Interestingly, the standard deviations for all five
frequencies are within 1.1 dB for this polarization at site 2, which represents the smallest spread
in standard deviation for all four polarization and locations combinations.


6.5 Boulder, CO Grocery Store Results

The walk-through results for six frequencies tested in the Boulder grocery store are provided in
Figure 130 through Figure 135. Due to the openness of both the entrance and the floor space of
the building, the walk-through plots depict a clear geometrical distance dependency between the
transmitter and the receiver for all frequencies. For example, see the section in the figures where
the transmitter was carried back and forth along the aisles. The histogram shapes appear to
follow a normal distribution, and the data exhibit similar statistical values for all frequencies (see
Figure 136 and Figure 137). The openness of the facility is most likely responsible for this fairly
close agreement across all frequencies.


6.6 Gaithersburg, MD Office Building Results

Figure 138 through Figure 143 depict the walk-through data for the office building in
Gaithersburg, MD. The corresponding statistics are shown in Figure 144 and Figure 145. An
interesting observation is that while all the walk-through results show the same general trends,
the case of 1830 MHz clearly shows the received signal falling into the noise region when the
transmitter is in the basement. Also, the shape of the histograms for 226 and 448 MHz does not
mimic those for the other four frequencies, which have a significant number of samples that are
either near or below the noise floor.


6.7 Bethesda, MD Shopping Mall Results

The both the walk-through data and the statistics data are presented in Figures 146 through 161.
Walk-through data for receive sites 1 and 2 are plotted in
Figure 146 through Figure 151, and Figure 154 through Figure 159, respectively. The
corresponding statistics plots for site 1 are shown in Figure 152 and Figure 153, while the
statistics for site 2 are shown in Figure 160 and Figure 161. The results for site 1 are quite similar
across all six frequencies, with the most noticeable difference occurring at 1830 MHz. At this
frequency, the received signal is either below or near the noise floor for many of the samples.
This shows up in the sharp rise in the CDF at approximately -34 dB for the 1830 MHz plot in
Figure 151. The first five frequencies do not exhibit this step-function-like behavior.

At the second receiver site, the walk-through data again show very similar general behavior, such
as the clear peaks when there is a line-of-sight at the Sears location. Also, the same step-
function-like behavior shows up in the CDF of the 1830 MHz results.




                                                 20
6.8 Silver Springs, MD Office Building Results

Figure 162 to Figure 167 show the walk-through data for the Silver Springs office building. The
number/letter pairs refer to a floor and location, see Figure 29. Note that the transmitters were
carried into the lobby, transported by the elevator to the ninth floor, carried through several
floors, into the basement, and then finally back to the lobby. The corresponding statistics plots
are presented in Figure 168 and Figure 169.

As in the shopping mall discussed above, the CDF of the 1830 MHz case resembles a step
function. The standard deviation is approximately half the value compared to the other
frequencies, as well.


6.9 Washington, DC Convention Center Results

Three receiver sites collected data at the Washington, DC convention center. The both the walk-
through data and the statistics data for all three sites are presented in Figures 170 through 193.
The corresponding walk-through data results for receiver sites labeled 1, 2, and 3 are provided in
Figure 170 through Figure 175, Figure 178 through Figure 183, and Figure 186 through Figure
191, respectively. The statistics plots for receiver sites 1, 2, and 3 are found in Figure 176 and
Figure 177, Figure 184 and Figure 185, and Figure 192 and Figure 193, respectively.

The walk-through data plots depict very similar behavior for all frequencies at the three receiving
sites. At 162 MHz, the standard deviation spread between sites is 3.2 dB, which is the maximum
spread. It is interesting to note that the 1.8 GHz band demonstrates the lowest average standard
deviation (approximately 11.8 dB), which is consistent with the rapid rise on the slope of the
empirical CDFs. We also performed measurements before, during, and after the implosion of
this structure, and details of these implosion measurements are reported in Reference [8].


6.10 Boulder, CO Apartment Building Results

Two receive sites were used to collected data at the Boulder apartment building. The walk-
through results for site 1 are shown in Figure 194 through 200, with the statistics plots provided
in Figure 201 through 203. Site 2 results are shown in Figure 204 through 210, with the
corresponding statistics plotted in Figure 211 through 213.


6.11 Commerce City, CO Oil Refinery Results

The oil refinery results from a walk-through of the plant come from two receive sites, north and
south. The both the walk-through data and the statistics data for both receive sites are presented
in Figures 214 through 235. Figure 214 through Figure 221 represent the south site data while
Figure 225 through Figure 232 show the north site data. The corresponding statistics data plots
are Figure 222 to Figure 224, and Figure 233 to Figure 235, respectively.



                                                21
Comparison between the collected data for the walk-through reveals that the median and mean
for south site are in general lower than for the north site. The standard deviations are quite
similar; the greatest difference (3.4 dB) occurs at 50 MHz. Examination of the individual walk-
through data plot shows that position 4 creates the strongest signal at the south receive site. The
top of the tower location presents a much stronger relative signal at the north site than at the
south site.

Data at the oil refinery were also collected along a road located among the large storage tanks.
The collected data at the north site only are shown in Figure 236 through Figure 243, with the
corresponding statistics plots provided in Figure 244 to Figure 246.


6.12 NIST Boulder, CO Laboratory Results

Building 1 (or the Radio Building) at the NIST laboratory in Boulder, CO represents the final
data collection site. One receiver site was located at the end of Wing 4 of the building (site 1),
but still within the building structure. The second receiver location (site 2) was located outside
off of Wing 6. Note that the data for site 1 contain only the walk-throughs to point D, or the
farthest point, but not the return walk-through data. The both the walk-through data and the
statistics data for both receive sites are presented in Figures 247 through 268.

Figure 247 through Figure 254 and Figure 258 through Figure 265 show the walk-through plots
for receiver sites 1 and 2, respectively. The corresponding statistics plots are provided in Figure
255 and Figure 257, and Figure 266 and Figure 268, respectively.

The most significant difference between the two results shows up in the standard deviation.
Across all frequencies, results for site 1 indicate a deviation at least 7.4 dB greater than results
for site 2. This discrepancy is possible due to the close proximity of the path taken to receive site
1 during the walk-through, which created a much larger dynamic range for receive site 1 than for
site 2. The discrepancy can also be due to the tunnel effect for the receiver inside the building,
while the outside site had standard building penetration rather than waveguide below cutoff
behavior.


7. Summary of Results and Conclusions

The following tables, Tables 17 through 28, present summaries of the processed data by
frequency bands. This enables easier comparisons between results from different building or
structure types. (Note that the exact frequencies are provided in each of the individual site
discussions.) Table entries include a building or structure identifier, the actual frequency tested,
the specific reference level used to normalize that particular data set, and then median, mean, and
standard deviation results for the normalized data.




                                                 22
                           Table 17. 50 MHz frequency band.

                                                  Ref.                     Std.
                                       Freq.      level   Median   Mean    Dev.
          Structure/Location          (MHz)      (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)    (dB)
   New Orleans, LA apartment            50          3.7     35.9    37.5   13.1
 Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
   First inside walk; horiz. polar.    50         0.0       34.0    29.5   15.5
  Second inside walk; horiz. polar.    50         0.0       44.4    42.8    8.8
       Inside walk; vert. polar.       50         0.0       36.8    32.8   14.2
     Outside walk; horiz. polar.       50         0.0       32.8    27.8   15.5
     Outside walk; vert. polar.        50         0.0       41.8    36.0   18.4
         Phoenix, AZ office
 Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel
               complex
 First walk-through, Receive site 1    50         23.7      62.8    58.0   17.6
Second walk-through, Receive site 1    50         29.2      58.2    56.2   11.1
 First walk-through, Receive site 2    50         57.6      14.9    12.3    5.3
Second walk-through, Receive site 2    50         31.5      62.9    57.8   12.4
  Grocery Store (Boulder, CO)          50         35.4      45.1    43.1   12.0
 NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)        50         21.3      68.6    62.1   16.5
  Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
            Receiver site 1            50         47.3      49.4    47.2    5.9
            Receiver site 2            50         48.9      44.4    42.2    9.7
 Discovery office (Silver Spring,
                 MD)                   50         21.6      64.2    63.7   11.4
Washington, DC convention center
            Receiver site 1            50         19.1      63.9    62.3   12.5
            Receiver site 2            50         26.3      50.6    49.8   14.4
            Receiver site 3            50         13.3      67.4    65.3   15.5
Horizon West Apartment (Boulder)
            Receiver site 1
            Receiver site 2
Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
  Walk-through, south receive site     50         30.2      57.1    55.9   13.2
  Walk-through, north receive site     50         25.6      52.6    50.3   16.6
   Road drive, north receive site      50         27.5      51.9    51.2    7.3
 NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
            Receiver site 1            50         29.6      64.4    50.2   24.3
            Receiver site 2            50         54.1      40.1    35.0   11.9

                                            23
                             Table 18. 150 MHz frequency band.

                                                    Ref.                     Std.
                                        Freq.       level   Median   Mean    Dev.
           Structure/Location          (MHz)       (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)    (dB)
    New Orleans, LA apartment            162          2.5     28.2    27.9   11.8
  Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
    First inside walk; horiz. polar.    162          0.0      37.4    34.2   15.0
   Second inside walk; horiz. polar.    162          0.0      34.3    35.6   10.6
        Inside walk; vert. polar.       162          0.0      42.5    39.2   15.8
      Outside walk; horiz. polar.       162          0.0      32.1    28.9   14.8
      Outside walk; vert. polar.        162          0.0      53.2    47.7   19.2
          Phoenix, AZ office            154         12.8      62.3    60.9   18.4
    Colorado Springs, CO Hotel
               Complex
  First walk-through, Receive site 1    162         43.9      39.5    37.6   15.5
Second walk-through, Receive site 1     162         40.5      41.4    41.7    8.7
  First walk-through, Receive site 2    162         52.0      17.5    15.4    7.8
Second walk-through, Receive site 2     162         32.8      48.2    46.6   11.8
   Grocery store (Boulder, CO)          162         36.5      38.6    36.0   11.8
  NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)        162         41.9      42.8    41.6   12.5
  Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
            Receiver site 1             162         48.7      48.6    46.5    5.8
            Receiver site 2             162         55.2      38.0    35.8    8.1
Discovery office (Silver Spring, MD)    162         30.9      57.9    55.7   10.3
Washington, DC convention center
            Receiver site 1             162         26.3      61.9    59.9   12.1
            Receiver site 2             162         21.3      65.0    61.1   15.3
            Receiver site 3             162         16.9      68.9    66.0   14.4
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                CO)
            Receiver site 1             162         17.0      25.9    24.9   10.4
            Receiver site 2             162         24.4      27.8    27.4   10.1
 Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
   Walk-through, south receive site     162         20.4      51.2    47.9   13.8
   Walk-through, north receive site     162         25.0      35.5    33.7   13.9
    Road drive, north receive site      162         25.7      48.3    44.8   13.7
  NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
            Receiver site 1             162         12.5      73.1    54.8   33.7
            Receiver site 2             162         41.0      59.9    50.8   14.6

                                              24
                           Table 19. 225 MHz frequency band.

                                                     Ref.                     Std.
                                       Freq.         level   Median   Mean    Dev.
          Structure/Location          (MHz)         (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)    (dB)
   New Orleans, LA apartment            225            9.3     34.5    33.1   11.2
 Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
   First inside walk; horiz. polar.    225            0.0      34.4    29.1   14.4
  Second inside walk; horiz. polar.    225            0.0      37.6    38.9    9.6
       Inside walk; vert. polar.       225            0.0      36.3    34.2   13.5
     Outside walk; horiz. polar.       225            0.0      38.0    34.0   18.3
     Outside walk; vert. polar.        225            0.0      53.3    49.5   20.3
         Phoenix, AZ office
 Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel
               complex
 First walk-through, Receive site 1    225           40.0      42.0    39.5   16.1
Second walk-through, Receive site 1    225           43.7      36.3    36.8    9.1
 First walk-through, Receive site 2    225           50.9      19.3    16.8    7.6
Second walk-through, Receive site 2    225           37.0      46.8    44.9   11.4
   Grocery store (Boulder, CO)         225           32.6      45.8    43.0   14.5
 NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)        226           30.6      44.7    44.1   14.7
 Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
            Receiver site 1            226           41.7      51.6    49.9    7.1
            Receiver site 2            226           45.6      41.7    39.8   11.1
 Discovery office (Silver Spring,
                 MD)                   226           21.7      61.3    60.3   11.1
Washington, DC convention center
            Receiver site 1            226            9.1      65.3    64.1   13.3
            Receiver site 2            226           15.8      58.8    56.8   14.6
            Receiver site 3            226            7.5      64.2    62.3   15.4
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                 CO)
            Receiver site 1            230           12.9      26.8    25.9   10.4
            Receiver site 2            230           29.2      19.3    19.0    9.5
Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
  Walk-through, south receive site     230           17.7      49.0    47.3   14.9
  Walk-through, north receive site     230           23.2      34.8    34.1   14.5
   Road drive, north receive site      230           25.8      47.5    50.1    5.9
 NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
            Receiver site 1            230           35.0      52.6    43.3   28.7
            Receiver site 2            230           44.0      50.7    44.2   16.7

                                               25
                          Table 20. 450 MHz frequency band.

                                                   Ref.
                                       Freq.       level    Median   Mean    Std. Dev.
          Structure/Location          (MHz)       (dBm)      (dB)    (dB)      (dB)
   New Orleans, LA apartment            449           3.2     42.6    39.7     10.3
 Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
   First inside walk; horiz. polar.    449           0.0      35.9    32.4     15.1
  Second inside walk; horiz. polar.    449           0.0      35.7    35.9      8.9
       Inside walk; vert. polar.       449           0.0      29.8    28.7     11.3
     Outside walk; horiz. polar.       448           0.0      37.9    32.5     16.0
     Outside walk; vert. polar.        448           0.0      53.8    44.8     20.7
         Phoenix, AZ office
 Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel
               complex
 First walk-through, Receive site 1    449          45.1      31.9    30.0     17.6
Second walk-through, Receive site 1    449          34.0      37.8    39.1     10.3
 First walk-through, Receive site 2    449          46.3      22.7    20.3      8.4
Second walk-through, Receive site 2    449          42.9      38.7    36.3     12.1
   Grocery store (Boulder, CO)         449          34.6      30.7    29.2     11.7
 NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)        448          30.1      46.7    46.9     14.1
 Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
            Receiver site 1            448          41.8      54.7    52.8      5.6
            Receiver site 2            448          52.4      39.9    35.7     12.2
 Discovery office (Silver Spring,
                 MD)                   448          29.6      52.6    52.4     11.2
Washington, DC convention center
            Receiver site 1            448          18.6      56.2    54.7     14.0
            Receiver site 2            448          18.2      58.1    56.9     13.4
            Receiver site 3            448          14.3      58.9    57.3     15.1
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                 CO)
            Receiver site 1            439          13.6      27.2    25.4     11.0
            Receiver site 2            439          33.3      17.9    18.7      9.6
Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
  Walk-through, south receive site     439          23.8      47.6    45.3     14.6
  Walk-through, north receive site     439          23.9      38.5    37.8     14.6
   Road drive, north receive site      439          26.6      48.4    45.3     13.6
 NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
            Receiver site 1            439          36.5      48.4    37.9     28.2
            Receiver site 2            439          60.0      37.1    30.7     13.9

                                             26
                           Table 21. 900 MHz frequency band.

                                                    Ref.
                                        Freq.       level   Median   Mean    Std. Dev.
           Structure/Location          (MHz)       (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)      (dB)
    New Orleans, LA apartment            903          1.0     34.8    34.2     13.8
  Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
    First inside walk; horiz. polar.    902          0.0      40.7    35.8     15.3
   Second inside walk; horiz. polar.    902          0.0      49.8    50.2     15.8
        Inside walk; vert. polar.       902          0.0      27.5    27.2     11.3
      Outside walk; horiz. polar.       902          0.0      44.2    37.2     17.0
      Outside walk; vert. polar.        902          0.0      53.9    46.6     22.3
          Phoenix, AZ office            867         34.4      38.3    37.9     13.5
  Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel
                complex
  First walk-through, Receive site 1    902         42.2      37.8    34.1     18.8
 Second walk-through, Receive site 1    902         34.3      42.7    42.8     10.4
  First walk-through, Receive site 2    902         49.1      21.1    20.3      8.4
 Second walk-through, Receive site 2    902         41.3      44.9    42.2     11.3
    Grocery store (Boulder, CO)         903         27.9      35.3    33.8     12.3
  NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)        902         21.8      59.7    57.7     14.1
  Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
             Receiver site 1            902         49.0      47.2    44.6      6.3
             Receiver site 2            902         41.1      54.5    50.4     11.2
Discovery office (Silver Spring, MD)    902         16.0      72.1    70.4     10.5
Washington, DC convention center
             Receiver site 1            902         16.5      63.8    61.8     14.5
             Receiver site 2            902         23.5      55.4    54.0     13.7
             Receiver site 3            902          9.4      68.5    66.4     14.1
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                  CO)
             Receiver site 1            908         23.1      27.8    27.0     10.9
             Receiver site 2            908         39.4      21.2    21.4      9.5
 Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
   Walk-through, south receive site     908         31.6      47.2    44.8     14.8
   Walk-through, north receive site     908         25.7      44.8    42.7     17.0
    Road drive, north receive site      908         30.0      51.0    45.6     13.6
  NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
             Receiver site 1            908         39.1      32.4    28.9     25.1
             Receiver site 2            908         45.4      50.1    44.1     15.6


                                              27
                            Table 22. 1.8 GHz frequency band.

                                                    Ref.
                                        Freq.       level   Median   Mean    Std. Dev.
           Structure/Location          (GHz)       (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)      (dB)
    New Orleans, LA apartment           1.83         15.8     37.0    34.0     13.1
  Philadelphia, PA sports stadium
    First inside walk; horiz. polar.   1.83          0.0      44.9    40.4     14.3
   Second inside walk; horiz. polar.   1.83          0.0      22.0    20.9      8.4
        Inside walk; vert. polar.      1.83          0.0      26.9    26.5      9.5
      Outside walk; horiz. polar.      1.83          0.0      45.6    39.4     17.1
      Outside walk; vert. polar.       1.83          0.0      49.5    42.8     19.6
          Phoenix, AZ office
  Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel
                complex
  First walk-through, Receive site 1
 Second walk-through, Receive site 1
  First walk-through, Receive site 2
 Second walk-through, Receive site 2
    Grocery store (Boulder, CO)        1.83         34.2      40.8    39.3     12.0
  NIST office (Gaithersburg, MD)       1.83         30.6      59.9    55.6     12.2
  Shopping mall (Bethesda, MD)
             Receiver site 1           1.83         62.2      34.1    33.3      3.9
             Receiver site 2           1.83         55.0      41.0    37.7      8.5
Discovery office (Silver Spring, MD)   1.83         25.9      69.5    67.2      5.7
Washington, DC convention center
             Receiver site 1           1.83         27.5      60.8    57.9     11.4
             Receiver site 2           1.83         25.5      60.1    58.0     11.8
             Receiver site 3           1.83         24.6      60.7    58.2     12.1
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                  CO)
             Receiver site 1           1.83         32.4      26.2    25.6     12.8
             Receiver site 2           1.83         44.0      25.6    25.6     10.2
 Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
   Walk-through, south receive site    1.83         31.2      50.3    49.4     12.3
   Walk-through, north receive site    1.83         29.9      41.6    39.7     15.1
    Road drive, north receive site     1.83         43.7      42.0    40.1     11.6
  NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
             Receiver site 1           1.83         56.8      41.5    26.0     22.2
             Receiver site 2           1.83         38.3      60.8    52.9     13.8




                                              28
                              Table 23. 2.4 GHz frequency band.

                                                       Ref.
                                          Freq.        level   Median   Mean     Std. Dev.
         Structure/Location              (GHz)        (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)       (dB)
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                CO)
           Receiver site 1                2.445        55.6      17.9     17.5      12.0
           Receiver site 2                2.445        61.0      25.6     24.8       9.6
Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
 Walk-through, south receive site         2.445        32.0      52.0     48.3      16.1
 Walk-through, north receive site         2.445        28.5      43.1     41.1      17.5
   Road drive, north receive site         2.445        39.3      43.8     41.8      12.1
 NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
           Receiver site 1                2.445        18.4      61.9     62.7      21.1
           Receiver site 2                2.445        52.4      46.3     39.1      13.7




                             Table 24. 4.9 GHz frequency band.

                                                       Ref.
                                          Freq.        level   Median   Mean     Std. Dev.
         Structure/Location              (GHz)        (dBm)     (dB)    (dB)       (dB)
Horizon West apartment (Boulder,
                CO)
           Receiver site 1                 4.9         44.8      37.6     36.3      13.6
           Receiver site 2                 4.9         55.9      30.8     29.9      10.3
Oil refinery (Commerce City, CO)
 Walk-through, south receive site          4.9         33.6      54.8     50.4      16.6
 Walk-through, north receive site          4.9         23.8      50.1     48.5      16.8
   Road drive, north receive site          4.9         36.5      51.4     48.2      11.4
 NIST laboratory (Boulder, CO)
           Receiver site 1                 4.9         21.7      61.9     59.9      21.3
           Receiver site 2                 4.9         59.3      40.9     37.3       9.0


The next two tables provide insight into some overall behavior trends. Table 25 lists the overall
statistics computed on the standard deviation results from all the building measurements. For
example, the second row contains the median values of the standard deviation computed for all
the buildings across all the measured frequencies. The similar values of these overall statistics
indicate that the standard deviation behaves in a very similar fashion across all the frequencies.

                                                 29
         Table 25. Statistics of the standard deviation behavior for all the buildings.
   Frequency           50        150       225          450     900     1.8       2.4       4.9
   Band:              MHz       MHz       MHz          MHz     MHz     GHz        GHz      GHz
   Median             13.10     12.30     13.30        12.20   13.65   12.00     13.70     13.60
   Mean               12.67     12.65     12.72        12.72   13.44   11.77     13.50     12.95
   Maximum            18.40     19.20     20.30        20.70   22.30   19.60     17.50     16.80
   Minimum             5.30      5.80      5.90         5.60    6.30    3.90      9.60      9.00
   Std. Dev.           3.71      3.31      3.66         3.24    3.50    3.66      2.92      3.07



For a rough insight into the attenuation behavior, we examine mean values for eleven of the
scenarios (see Table 26). Each scenario uses the receive site that typically provided the greatest
dynamic range so as to reduce the impact of the limited dynamic range of the test equipment.
Table 27 shows the mean values of the various frequencies for eleven scenarios listed in Table
26. Values in Table 27 were computed in decibels after subtracting the reference level.

Note that the combination of the reference level and the dynamic limitations of the test
equipment can skew the statistics. The approximate noise floor provides an approximate value
for the useable dynamic range. To obtain a rough idea of how close the mean signal is to the
noise floor, we compute the difference between the mean signal level and the noise floor. The
results for the eleven scenarios are shown in Table 28. In general, a greater difference implies
less impact on the statistical results due to measured values at or below the noise floor. For
example, the results for scenario six indicate mean signal levels very near the approximate noise
floor, as indicated by a difference of less than 10 dB for all the frequencies. In contrast, scenario
10 indicates at least a 23 dB separation between the mean signal level and the noise floor for all
frequencies.



        Table 26. Test scenarios used in examination of structure/building shielding.

                                    Selected test scenarios
            1. New Orleans, LA apartment
            2. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium: inside walk; vertical polarization
            3. Colorado Springs, CO, CO hotel complex: first walk-through;
            receive site 1
            4. Grocery store, Boulder, CO
            5. NIST office, Gaithersburg, MD
            6. Shopping mall, Bethesda, MD: receive site 1
            7. Discovery office, Silver Spring, MD
            8. Washington, DC convention center: receive site 3
            9. Horizon West apartment, Boulder, CO: receive site 1
            10. Oil refinery, Commerce City, CO: walk-through, north receive site
            11. NIST laboratory, Boulder, CO: receive site 1

                                                  30
   Table 27. Mean values of scenarios used for structure/building attenuation statistics.

              50        150        225        450        900        1.8       2.4
 Scenario    MHz        MHz        MHz        MHz        MHz        GHz       GHz      4.9 GHz
    1         37.5       27.9       33.1       39.7      34.2       34.0       NA        NA
    2         32.8       39.2       34.2       28.7      27.2       26.5       NA        NA
    3         58.0       37.6       39.5       30.0      34.1       NA         NA        NA
    4         43.1       36.0       43.0       29.2      33.8       39.3       NA        NA
    5         62.1       41.6       44.1       46.9      57.7       55.6       NA        NA
    6         47.2       46.5       49.9       52.8      44.6       33.3       NA        NA
    7         63.7       55.7       60.3       52.4      70.4       67.2       NA        NA
    8         65.3       66.0       62.3       57.3      66.4       58.2       NA        NA
    9         NA         24.9       25.9       25.4      27.0       25.6       17.5      36.3
    10        50.3       33.7       34.1       37.8      42.7       39.7       41.1      48.5
    11        50.2       54.8       43.3       37.9      28.9        26        62.7      59.9




    Table 28. Difference in dB between the mean signal level and the noise floor for the
               scenarios used in the structure/building attenuation statistics.

              50        150        225        450        900        1.8       2.4
 Scenario    MHz        MHz        MHz        MHz        MHz        GHz       GHz      4.9 GHz
    1        21.5       19.1       17.9       12.3       30.8      16.0       NA        NA
    2        16.2       33.8       25.8       27.3       24.8      13.5       NA        NA
    3        18.0       18.4       19.5       24.0       21.9      NA         NA        NA
    4        22.9       28.0       25.0       36.8       36.2      23.7       NA        NA
    5        15.9       16.4       24.9       23.1       19.3      10.4       NA        NA
    6         4.8        3.5        8.1        3.2        4.4       1.7       NA        NA
    7        14.3       11.3       17.7       17.6       12.6       3.8       NA        NA
    8        20.7       18.0       29.7       27.7       22.6      13.8       NA        NA
    9        NA         66.1       69.1       67.6       57.0      48.4       27.5       8.5
    10       23.7       45.3       46.9       42.2       34.3      33.3       36.9      24.5
    11       16.8       33.2       24.7       28.1       35.1      19.0       20.3      20.1




Differences in building types make it difficult to provide clear general statements based on the
collected data. However, we can observe some general trends.



                                              31
First, examination of the standard deviation yields some interesting insights. In particular, if we
exclude the first receiver site for the NIST laboratory in Boulder, CO, we see that the average
standard deviation for the six lower frequency bands ranges from 11.8 dB to 13.4 dB. Limited
data were collected for the upper two frequencies; but if we include those results, the upper limit
of the range increases to 14.9 dB. Across all frequency bands, the range of maximum standard
deviation covers 16.8 dB to 22.3 dB, with 22.3 dB occurring at 900 MHz. The minimum
standard deviation values range from 3.9 dB to 12.1 dB, with 3.9 dB occurring at 1.8 GHz.

Second, in almost all cases, the median value for the power received is less than the average
power received. The typical difference is between 2 dB to 3 dB. This suggests that median value
may be a better measure for representing the general behavior of the building, or at least a more
conservative performance measure.

Third, the histograms (which approximate PDFs) and the empirical CDFs appear to follow no
typical density function. To some extent, each individual test case will generate a unique density.
However, the data seem not to suggest any obvious average or best approximation density that
could be used as a collective representation of the buildings.

The data presented in this report aid in understanding the issues faced with first responders
communicating into and within large building structures. For example, the large amount of
attenuation for the signals coupling into the different structures indicates to system designers
what a communication link must overcome in order to have a reliable system. In addition, the
measured signal variability indicates the dynamic environment these different buildings present
to a communication system.

The results in this report are the fourth in a series of reports detailing experiments performed by
NIST in order to better understand the first responder radio propagation environment. The first
three reports cover implosion experiments performed in three different building structures, an
apartment building in New Orleans, LA, a large sports stadium (the “Veterans Stadium”) in
Philadelphia, PA, and a convention center in Washington, DC. Other experiments at different
frequencies in other building structures are being performed and will published separately. We
are also performing measurement to simulate and test the performance of ad-hoc networks in
various building structures, and the results of these experiments will also be published
separately.

                                      —————————


Disclaimer: Mention of any company names serves only for identification, and does not
constitute or imply NIST endorsement of such a company or of its products.


                                      —————————

This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security through the Office of Law Enforcement Standards of NIST. We thank


                                                32
members of the technical staff of the Electromagnetics Division 818, who pulled together the
equipment, and Dennis Friday, Perry Wilson, and Mike Kelley for managerial support. Finally,
we thank the companies, owners, and individuals who allowed us access to the building
structures and for help during these experiments.




                                            33
8. References

[1]    Statement of Requirements: Background on Public Safety Wireless Communications,
       The SAFECOM Program, Department of Homeland Security, Vol. 1, March 10, 2004.

[2]    M. Worrell and A. MacFarlane, Phoenix Fire Department Radio System Safety Project,
       Phoenix Fire Dept. Final Report, October 8, 2004,
       http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/FIRE/radioreport.pdf.

[3]    9/11 Commission Report, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United
       States, 2004.

[4]    Final Report for September 11, 2001 New York World Trade Center terrorist attack,
       Wireless Emergency Response Team (WERT), October 2001.

[5]    C.L. Holloway, G. Koepke, D. Camell, K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, S. Schima, S.
       Canales, and D.T. Tamura, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During
       and After the Implosion of a Thirteen Story Apartment Building,” Natl. Inst. Stand.
       Technol., Technical Note 1540, May 2005.

[6]    C.L. Holloway, G. Koepke, D. Camell, K.A. Remley, and D.F. Williams, “Radio
       Propagation Measurements During a Building Collapse: Applications for First
       Responders,” Proc. Intl. Symp. Advanced Radio Tech., pp. 61-63, March 2005.

[7]    C.L. Holloway, G. Koepke, D. Camell, K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, S. Schima, and
       D.T. Tamura, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During and After the
       Implosion of a Large Sports Stadium (Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia),” Natl. Inst.
       Stand. Technol., Technical Note 1541, October 2005.

[8]    C.L. Holloway, G. Koepke, D. Camell, K.A. Remley, D.F. Williams, S. Schima, M.
       McKinely, and R.T. Johnk, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During
       and After the Implosion of a Large Convention Center,” Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.,
       Technical Note 1542, June 2006.

[9]    K.A. Remley, G. Koepke, C.L. Holloway, C. Grosvenor, D. Camell, J. Ladbury, D.
       Novotny, W.F. Young, M.D. McKinley, Y. Becquet, and J. Korsnes, “Propagation and
       Detection of Radio Signals Before, During and After the Implosion of a Large
       Convention Center,” Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Technical Note 1546, December 2007.

[10]   APCO International, APCO Project 25 Standards for Public Safety Digital Radio, August
       1995, http://www.apcointl.org/frequency/project25/information.html#documents.




                                             34
9. Figures




             Figure 1. Typical transmitters used for the four lower frequency bands.




                   Figure 2. Transmitters used for the higher frequency bands.

                                               35
                                                 50 MHz
                                               Vertical Whip




                      1830 MHz
                     Yagi Antenna

     900 MHz
    Yagi Antenna



                                                                               GPS Receiver


      120 - 1000 MHz
           LPDA


                                                       Wideband
                                                        Power
                                                       Combiner




                   Antenna Mast installed in
                     TRIPOD or CART

                                                               Portable Spectrum Analyzer




Figure 3. Schematic of the receiving system for the building penetration and field-mapping
                                       experiments.




                                                      36
   Figure 4. Antennas mounted on a tripod.




Figure 5. Antennas mounted on the mobile cart.




                     37
Figure 6. The New Orleans, LA Fisher apartment building.




                          38
Figure 7. Inside the New Orleans, LA apartment building.


                          39
                                                      NIST receiving site




                                                        Apartment Building




Figure 8. Receiver location and layout for the New Orleans, LA apartment building experiments.




                                             40
Figure 9. The Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia, PA.




                        41
Figure 10. Inside the Veterans Stadium.



                  42
Figure 11. Receiver location and layout for the stadium experiments.


                                43
Figure 12. The office building in Phoenix, AZ.


                     44
Figure 13. Inside the office building in Phoenix, AZ.


                         45
                                           NIST receiving site




Figure 14. Receiver location and layout for the Phoenix, AZ office building.




                                    46
Figure 15. The hotel complex in Colorado Springs, CO, CO.




                           47
Figure 16. Inside the hotel complex in Colorado Springs, CO, CO.


                              48
Figure 17. Receiver location and layout for the Colorado Springs, CO hotel complex.




                                        49
Figure 18. The grocery store in Boulder, CO.




                    50
Figure 19. Inside the grocery store in Boulder, CO.



                        51
                                    .
Figure 20. Receiver location and layout for the Boulder, CO grocery store.


                                   52
Figure 21. The NIST office building in Gaithersburg, MD.




                          53
Figure 22. Receiver location and layout for the NIST Gaithersburg, MD office building.




                                         54
Figure 23. The shopping mall in Bethesda, MD.




                     55
Figure 24. Inside the shopping mall in Bethesda, MD.




                        56
                                             NIST receiving site 2
     NIST receiving site 1




Figure 25. Receiver location and layout for the Bethesda, MD shopping mall.


                                    57
                                                         Start
                                                         1

                                   2
                                               11
                                                                  10




          13                  12
                                   3


                                       4        8                 9




                                   5       7


                                                6

                                                                             25   Return to



                                                                       24
                                                                                  23




                                                                  15
                                           14

                                                                                  22
                                                                      16    20                21




                                                                   17 19


                                                             18


Figure 26. Upper and lower level floor plan with the predetermined locations on both levels of
the shopping mall. The green arrows in the figure represent the actual paths that were walked.


                                                    58
Figure 27. The Discovery office building in Silver Springs, MD.



                              59
Figure 28. Inside the Discovery office building in Silver Springs, MD.


                                 60
Figure 29: Building layout and measurement locations for the Discovery building.




                                              61
      Receiving site




Figure 30. Receiver location and layout for the Discovery office building in Silver Springs, MD.

                                              62
Figure 31. The convention center in Washington, DC.


                        63
Figure 32. Inside the convention center in Washington, DC.


                           64
                                                         Three NIST receiving sites




Figure 33. Receiver location and layout for the convention center in Washington, DC.




                                        65
Figure 34. Horizon West apartment building in Boulder, CO.


                           66
Figure 35. Transmitter locations for Horizon West.




                       67
Figure 36. Receiver setups for Horizon West apartment building in Boulder, CO.


                                     68
Figure 37. Inside the Horizon West apartment building in Boulder, CO.



                                 69
Figure 38. Overview of the Inside the SUNCOR oil refinery in Commerce City, CO.




                                      70
Figure 39. The receiver locations at the SUNCOR oil refinery in Commerce City, CO.


                                       71
Figure 40. Inside the SUNCOR oil refinery in Commerce City, CO.



                              72
Figure 41. The driven section of the data collection process at the SUNCOR oil refinery.



                                          73
NIST North Site            12       11



                                              10

                                         9

                                               8
                                1


                                                       7        NIST South Site
                                          2
                                                   6
                                                            5

                                                                 4


                                                        3




   Figure 42. Receiver location and layout for the Commerce City, CO oil refinery.




                                         74
Figure 43. NIST main building (the Radio Building) in Boulder, CO.




                               75
Figure 44. The receiver setups for the NIST’s laboratories in Boulder, CO.



                                   76
                                                       Wing 4 receive site
                    Reference Location

                                                  A




                                 B
                                                      Wing 6 receive site


                                            C




                            D




Figure 45. Receiver location and layout for the Boulder, CO laboratories.

                                     77
             20




                                                                                                                            room on the roof
                    Floor 1




                                      Floor 12



                                                        Floor 1

                                                                  window FL 2

                                                                                window FL 4
                                                                                window FL 6
                                                                                              window FL 8
                                                                                              window FL 10
                                                                                                             window FL 12




                                                                                                                                                         Floor 12



                                                                                                                                                                          Floor 2

                                                                                                                                                                                     outside
             10

              0
                                                                                                                                                 roof
                       stairwell            stairwell
             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                  Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                  Ref. = -3.7 dBm
             -70
                                                  Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB
             -80
                        50       100             150          200                250    300   350                                               400     450         500             550
                                                                                sample number


                   Figure 46. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 49.60 MHz.

             20
                    Floor 1




                                      Floor 12



                                                        Floor 1

                                                                  window FL 2

                                                                                window FL 4
                                                                                window FL 6
                                                                                              window FL 8
                                                                                              window FL 10
                                                                                                             window FL 12

                                                                                                                             room on the roof




                                                                                                                                                         Floor 12



                                                                                                                                                                          Floor 2

                                                                                                                                                                                     outside
             10

              0
                          stairwell        stairwell                                                                                             roof
             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                  Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                  Ref. = -2.5 dBm
             -60
                                                  Approx. noise fl. = -47 dB

             -70
                        50       100             150          200                250    300   350                                               400     450         500             550
                                                                                sample number


                   Figure 47. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 162.00 MHz.

                                                                                              78
                  20




                                                                                                                                          room on the roof
                        Floor 1




                                              Floor 12



                                                                  Floor 1

                                                                              window FL 2

                                                                                              window FL 4
                                                                                              window FL 6
                                                                                                            window FL 8
                                                                                                            window FL 10
                                                                                                                           window FL 12




                                                                                                                                                                       Floor 12



                                                                                                                                                                                         Floor 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                      outside
                  10

                   0
                              stairwell             stairwell                                                                                                roof
             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                             Freq. = 225 MHz
                                                             Ref. = -9.3 dBm
             -60
                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -51 dB

             -70
                            50          100                 150         200                    250    300   350                                              400     450          500              550
                                                                                              sample number


                   Figure 48. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 225.375 MHz.

                  20
                                                                                                                                          room on the roof
                           Floor 1



                                                 Floor 12
                                                 Floor 12



                                                                   Floor 1

                                                                                window FL 2
                                                                                window FL 2

                                                                                              window FL 4
                                                                                              window FL 4
                                                                                              window FL 6
                                                                                                            window FL 8
                                                                                                            window FL 8
                                                                                                            window FL 10
                                                                                                            window FL 10
                                                                                                                           window FL 12


                                                                                                                                          room on the roof




                                                                                                                                                                      FL 1212
                                                                                                                                                                      Floor



                                                                                                                                                                                        Floor
                                                                                                                                                                                        FL 2 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                    outside
                                                                                                                                                                                                    outside
                  10

                   0

                                  stairwell          stairwell                                                                                                roof
                  -10
     Power (dB)




                  -20

                  -30

                  -40

                  -50
                                                              Freq. = 448 MHz
                  -60                                         Ref. = -3.2 dBm
                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -52 dB
                  -70
                                  50     100                150             200                250    300   350                                              400     450          500              550
                                                                                              sample number

                   Figure 49. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 448.60 MHz.


                                                                                                      79
                      20




                                    Floor 1




                                                        Floor 12



                                                                                 Floor 1

                                                                                                     window FL 2

                                                                                                                        window FL 4
                                                                                                                        window FL 6
                                                                                                                                           window FL 8
                                                                                                                                           window FL 10
                                                                                                                                                                     window FL 12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Floor 12



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Floor 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  outside
                                                                                                                                                                                                       room on the roof
                      10

                          0
                                         stairwell           stairwell                                                                                                                                                      roof
                      -10

                      -20
         Power (dB)




                      -30

                      -40

                      -50

                      -60

                      -70                                                Freq. = 902 MHz
                                                                         Ref. = -1.0 dBm
                      -80                                                Approx. noise fl. = -65 dB
                      -90
                                        50      100                 150                200                              250    300   350                                                                                   400       450               500                   550
                                                                                                                       sample number


                          Figure 50. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 902.60 MHz

                20
                                                                                                                                                                                    room on the roof
                              Floor 1




                                                 Floor 12



                                                                           Floor 1

                                                                                           window FL 2

                                                                                                                   window FL 4
                                                                                                                   window FL 6
                                                                                                                                      window FL 8
                                                                                                                                      window FL 10
                                                                                                                                                          window FL 12




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Floor 12



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Floor 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            outside
                10

                      0
                                    stairwell        stairwell                                                                                                                                                             roof
             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                                    Freq. = 1830 MHz
             -60                                                    Ref. = -15.8 dBm
                                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -50 dB
             -70
                                  50          100                  150           200                                250    300   350                                                                                      400      450                500             550
                                                                                                                   sample number
                          Figure 51. New Orleans, LA apartment building walk-through at 1832.50 MHz.



                                                                                                                                 80
    50                                                                                 1
    40          freq. = 49 MHz                                   median = -35.9 dB     0.8
    30          ref. = -3.7 dBm                                  mean = -37.5 dB       0.6
    20                                                           std. dev. = 13.1 dB   0.4
    10                                                                                 0.2
     0                                                                                  0
    -70       -60         -50     -40       -30       -20      -10           0         10

    50                                                                                 1
    40          freq. = 162 MHz                                  median = -28.2 dB     0.8




                                                                                             CDF
    30          ref. = -2.5 dBm                                  mean = -27.9 dB       0.6
N




    20                                                           std. dev. = 11.8 dB   0.4
    10                                                                                 0.2
     0                                                                                  0
    -70       -60         -50     -40       -30       -20      -10           0         10

    50                                                                                 1
    40          freq. = 225 MHz                                  median = -34.5 dB     0.8
    30          ref. = -9.3 dBm                                  mean = -33.1 dB       0.6
    20                                                           std. dev. = 11.2 dB   0.4
    10                                                                                 0.2
     0                                                                                  0
    -70       -60         -50     -40       -30       -20      -10           0         10
                                     Power (dB)


Figure 52. New Orleans, LA apartment building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                  walk-through data at 49.60, 162.00, and 225.375 MHz.




                                            81
      50                                                                                  1
      40 freq. = 448 MHz                                            median = -42.6 dB     0.8
      30 ref. = -3.2 dBm                                            mean = -39.7 dB       0.6
      20                                                            std. dev. = 10.3 dB   0.4
      10                                                                                  0.2
        0                                                                                  0
       -70       -60         -50      -40        -30    -20       -10           0         10

      50                                                                                  1
      40           freq. = 902 MHz                                  median = -34.8 dB     0.8




                                                                                                CDF
      30           ref. = -1.0 dBm                                  mean = -34.2 dB       0.6
  N




      20                                                            std. dev. = 13.8 dB   0.4
      10                                                                                  0.2
        0                                                                                  0
       -70       -60         -50      -40        -30    -20       -10           0         10

      50                                                                                  1
      40           freq. = 1830 MHz                                 median = -37.0 dB     0.8
      30           ref. = -15.8 dBm                                 mean = -34.0 dB       0.6
      20                                                            std. dev. = 13.1 dB   0.4
      10                                                                                  0.2
        0                                                                                  0
       -70       -60         -50      -40      -30      -20       -10           0         10
                                        Power (dB)


Figure 53. New Orleans, LA apartment building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                 walk-through data at 448.60, 902.60, and 1832.50 MHz.




                                            82
             20




                                                                                                                         L700, col.10
                     ramp into stadium
                                         level 300


                                                          level 400

                                                                      level 500

                                                                                  level 600
                                                                                              level 700




                                                                                                                                         level 700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                               level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                     level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                           level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        level 700, col.15
             10

               0

             -10
Power( dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                                                                                         Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                                                                                         Ref. = 0.0 dBm
             -60
                                                                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -48 dB

             -70
                                                     20                      40                                  60         80                                                                    100                                                    120                                                                140
                                                                                                                   sample number
             Figure 54. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium first inside walk at 49.60 MHz; horizontal
                                                  polarization.
             20
                                                                                                          L700, col.10
                    ramp into stadium
                                         level 300


                                                          level 400

                                                                      level 500

                                                                                  level 600
                                                                                              level 700




                                                                                                                                          level 700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                                 level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                       level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                              level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 700, col.15
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                                                                                         Freq. = 162 MHz
             -60                                                                                                         Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB
             -70

             -80
                                                     20                      40                                    60         80                                                                         100                                             120                                                                    140
                                                                                                                     sample number
             Figure 55. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium first inside walk at 162.09 MHz; horizontal
                                                  polarization.

                                                                                                                                        83
               20




                     ramp into stad.
                                       level 300


                                                        level 400

                                                                       level 500

                                                                                      level 600
                                                                                                      level 700


                                                                                                                       L700, col.10


                                                                                                                                                      L700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                                                   level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      level 700, col.15
               10

                0

               -10

               -20
Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60                                                                                                     Freq. = 225 MHz
                                                                                                                       Ref. = 0.0 dBm
               -70                                                                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB

               -80
                                                   20                         40                                      60         80                                                                                             100                                                                        120                                                                                            140
                                                                                                                        sample number
         Figure 56. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium first inside walk at 225.30 MHz; horizontal
                                              polarization.


                20
                             ramp into stadium
                              level 300


                                                           level 400

                                                                          level 500

                                                                                          level 600
                                                                                                          level 700


                                                                                                                             level 700, col.10


                                                                                                                                                              level 700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                                                              level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                                                              level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     level 700, col.15
                10

                 0

               -10

               -20
  Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60
                                                                                                                            Freq. = 448 MHz
               -70                                                                                                          Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                                            Approx. noise fl. = -61 dB
               -80
                                                   20                              40                                  60         80                                                                                                        100                                                                              120                                                                                         140
                                                                                                                         sample number
         Figure 57. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium first inside walk at 448.50 MHz; horizontal
                                              polarization.

                                                                                                                                                 84
                 20


                        ramp into stadium
                                                level 300


                                                                   level 400

                                                                                 level 500

                                                                                                  level 600
                                                                                                                level 700


                                                                                                                               L700, col.10


                                                                                                                                                       level 700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                                                 level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                                          level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          level 700, col.15
                 10

                  0

                 -10

                 -20
  Power (dB)




                 -30

                 -40

                 -50

                 -60
                                                                                                                               Freq. = 902 MHz
                 -70                                                                                                           Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -61 dB
                 -80
                                                            20                          40                                    60         80                                                                             100                                                           120                                                                     140
                                                                                                                                sample number
                 Figure 58. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium first inside walk at 902.45 MHz; horizontal
                                                      polarization.
                  20
                            ramp into stadium
                                                  level 300


                                                                     level 400

                                                                                   level 500

                                                                                                    level 600
                                                                                                                  level 700


                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.10


                                                                                                                                                            level 700, col.100

                                                                                                                                                                                      level 700, col.85


                                                                                                                                                                                                               level 700, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        level 700, col.65


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 700, col.45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 700, col.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      level 700, col.25

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                level 700, col.15
                  10

                   0

                 -10

                 -20
    Power (dB)




                 -30

                 -40

                 -50

                 -60
                                                                                                                                 Freq. = 1830 MHz
                 -70                                                                                                                  = -1.6 dBm
                                                                                                                                 Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                                                 Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
                 -80
                                                              20                             40                               60         80                                                                                   100                                                     120                                                                           140
                                                                                                                                sample number
Figure 59. Philadelphia sports stadium first inside walk at 1832.00 MHz; horizontal polarization.

                                                                                                                                                      85
    20                                                                                      1
    16           freq. = 49 MHz                                         median = -34.0 dB   0.8
    12           ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -29.5 dB     0.6
     8                                                                  std. dev. = 15.5 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -70       -60        -50      -40         -30      -20       -10          0            10

    20                                                                                      1
    16           freq. = 162 MHz                                        median = -37.4 dB   0.8




                                                                                                  CDF
    12           ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -34.2 dB     0.6
N




     8                                                                  std. dev. = 15.0 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -70       -60        -50      -40         -30      -20       -10          0            10

    20                                                                                      1
    16           freq. = 225 MHz                                        median = -34.4 dB   0.8
    12           ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -29.1 dB     0.6
     8                                                                  std. dev. = 14.4 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -70       -60        -50      -40         -30      -20       -10          0            10
                                         Power (dB)

Figure 60. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for first
        inside walk data at 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz; horizontal polarization.




                                              86
    20                                                                                          1
    16          freq. = 448 MHz                                             median = -35.9 dB   0.8
    12          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                              mean = -32.4 dB     0.6
     8                                                                      std. dev. = 15.1 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                          0.2
     0                                                                                           0
    -70       -60         -50      -40         -30        -20         -10          0            10

    20                                                                                          1
    16          freq. = 902 MHz                                             median = -40.7 dB   0.8




                                                                                                      CDF
    12          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                              mean = -35.8 dB     0.6
N




     8                                                                      std. dev. = 15.3 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                          0.2
     0                                                                                           0
    -70       -60         -50      -40         -30        -20         -10          0            10

    20                                                                                          1
    16          freq. = 1830 MHz                                            median = -44.9 dB   0.8
    12          ref. = -1.6 dBm                       ref = 0.0 dBm         mean = -40.4 dB     0.6
     8                                                                      std. dev. = 14.3 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                          0.2
     0                                                                                           0
    -70       -60         -50      -40         -30        -20         -10          0            10
                                         Power (dB)

Figure 61. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for First
       inside walk data at 448.50, 902.45, and 1832.00 MHz; horizontal polarization.




                                               87
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Figure 63. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 162.09 MHz; horizontal
                                                                                                          Figure 62. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 49.60 MHz; horizontal
                                                                                      400




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         400
 out of the stadium
                                                                                                                                                                                                    out of the stadium
 leaving center of the field
                                                                                      350




                                                                                                                                                                                                        leaving center of the field
 center of the field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         350
                                                                                                                                                                                                        center of the field
                                                                                      300




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         300
 level 100, col.30
                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -52 dB
                                                                                                                                                                                                    level 100, col.30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A p p rox. n ois e fl. = -6 3 d B
                                                                                                    250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              250
                                                                                      sample number

                                                                                                                                                polarization.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           polarization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sa m p le n u m b er
 level 100, col.31                                     Freq. = 49 MHz




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   F req . = 1 6 2 M H z
                                                       Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                                                                                                                    level 100, col.31




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   R ef. = 0 .0 d B m




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              88
                                                                                         200
 level 100, col.25




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              200
                                                                                                                                                                                                    level 100, col.25
 moving from field to level 100                                                                                                                                                                     moving from field to L100
 field, col.10                                                                                                                                                                                      field, col.10




                                                                                      150




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         150
 field, col.55                                                                                                                                                                                      field, col.55
 field, col.80                                                                                                                                                                                      field, col.80
 moving to field                                                                                                                                                                                    moving to field




                                                                                      100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         100
 level 100, col.87                                                                                                                                                                                  level 100, col.87
 level 100, col.100                                                                                                                                                                                 level 100, col.100




                                                                                      50
 level 100, col.3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                                                                                                    level 100, col.3
 level 100, col.8                                                                                                                                                                                   level 100, col.8
20

      10

             0

                      -10

                               -20

                                     -30

                                           -40

                                                 -50

                                                                 -60

                                                                                    -70




                                                                                                                                                                                                   20

                                                                                                                                                                                                            10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -2 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -3 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -4 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -5 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -6 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -7 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -8 0
                            Power (dB)                                                                                                                                                                                            Power (dB)
                                                                                                            Figure 64. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 225.30 MHz; horizontal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Figure 65. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 448.50 MHz; horizontal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              400
                                                                                        400




                                                                                                                                                                                                       out of the stadium
 out of the stadium
                                                                                                                                                                                                       leaving center of the field
 leaving center of the field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              350
                                                                                                                                                                                                       center of the field
                                                                                        350




 center of the field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              300
                                                                                        300

                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -60 dB
 level 100, col.30
                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -61 dB




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            250
                                                                                                      250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sample number
                                                                                                                                                   polarization.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         polarization.
                                                                                        sample number




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.31
                                                         Freq. = 225 MHz




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ref. = 0.0 dBm
 level 100, col.31




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            89
                                                         Ref. = 0.0 dBm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 200
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.25



                                                                                           200
 level 100, col.25
 moving from field to L100                                                                                                                                                                             moving from field to L100
                                                                                                                                                                                                       field, col.10
 field, col.10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              150
                                                                                        150
                                                                                                                                                                                                       field, col.55
 field, col.55
                                                                                                                                                                                                       field, col.80
 field, col.80
                                                                                                                                                                                                       moving to field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100
 moving to field




                                                                                        100
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.87
 level 100, col.87
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.100
 level 100, col.100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.3




                                                                                        50
 level 100, col.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level 100, col.8
 level 100, col.8




                                                                                                                                                                                                      20

                                                                                                                                                                                                           10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -40

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -50

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -60

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -70

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -80
20

     10

            0

                     -10

                           -20

                                 -30

                                       -40

                                             -50

                                                   -60

                                                                  -70

                                                                                      -80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Power (dB)
                            Power (dB)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 67. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 1832.00 MHz; horizontal
                                                                                                            Figure 66. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium second inside walk at 902.45 MHz; horizontal
                                                                                            450




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4 50
                                                                                            400




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     400
 out of the stadium                                                                                                                                                                                        out of the stadium
 leaving center of the field                                                                                                                                                                               leaving center of the field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3 50
                                                                                            350




 center of the field                                                                                                                                                                                       center of the field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30 0
                                                                                            300




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A p prox. n oise fl. = -30 dB
                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB
 level 100, col.30                                                                                                                                                                                         level 100, col.30




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sam ple num ber
                                                                                            sample number


                                                                                                                                                   polarization.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              polarization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               25 0
                                                                                                     250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Freq. = 1 830 M H z
                                                             Freq. = 902 M Hz




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90
                                                                                                                                                                                                           level 100, col.31




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                R ef. = 0.0 dB m
 level 100, col.31

                                                             Ref. = 0.0 dBm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20 0
                                                                                            200
 level 100, col.25                                                                                                                                                                                         level 100, col.25
 moving from field to level 100                                                                                                                                                                            moving from field to L100
 field, col.10                                                                                                                                                                                             field, col.10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     150
                                                                                            150
 field, col.55                                                                                                                                                                                             field, col.55
 field, col.80                                                                                                                                                                                             field, col.80
 moving to field                                                                                                                                                                                           moving to field




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1 00
                                                                                            100
 level 100, col.87                                                                                                                                                                                         level 100, col.87
 level 100, col.100                                                                                                                                                                                        level 100, col.100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                                                                                                           level 100, col.3




                                                                                            50
 level 100, col.3
 level 100, col.8                                                                                                                                                                                          level 100, col.8




                                                                                                                                                                                                      20


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 10


                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    -1 0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            -2 0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -3 0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                -4 0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -5 0
20

     10

           0

                 -10

                       -20

                               -30

                                     -40

                                           -50

                                                 -60

                                                       -70

                                                                      -80

                                                                                          -90
                             Power (dB)                                                                                                                                                                                             Power (dB)
      50                                                                                      1
      40          freq. = 49 MHz                                       median = -44.4 dB      0.8
      30          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                       mean = -42.8 dB        0.6
      20                                                               std. dev. = 8.8 dB     0.4
      10                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                     0
       -80      -70       -60       -50      -40        -30   -20     -10         0          10

      50                                                                                      1
      40          freq. = 162 MHz                                      median = -34.3 dB      0.8




                                                                                                    CDF
      30          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                       mean = -35.6 dB        0.6
 N




      20                                                               std. dev. = 10.6 dB    0.4
      10                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                     0
       -80      -70       -60       -50      -40        -30   -20     -10         0          10

      50                                                                                      1
      40          freq. = 225 MHz                                      median = -37.6 dB      0.8
      30          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                       mean = -38.9 dB        0.6
      20                                                               std. dev. = 9.6 dB     0.4
      10                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                     0
       -80      -70       -60       -50      -40     -30      -20     -10         0          10
                                          Power (dB)

Figure 68. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
          inside walk data at 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz; horizontal polarization.




                                                   91
       50                                                                                      1
       40         freq. = 448 MHz                                       median = -35.7 dB      0.8
       30         ref. = 0.0 dBm                                        mean = -35.9 dB        0.6
       20                                                               std. dev. = 8.9 dB     0.4
       10                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                     0
        -80      -70      -60           -50      -40     -30   -20    -10          0          10

       50                                                                                      1
       40              freq. = 902 MHz                                  median = -49.8 dB      0.8




                                                                                                     CDF
       30              ref. = 0.0 dBm                                   mean = -50.2 dB        0.6
   N




       20                                                               std. dev. = 15.8 dB    0.4
       10                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                     0
        -80      -70      -60           -50      -40     -30   -20    -10          0          10

       75                                                                                      1
       60                                                                                      0.8
                  freq. = 1830 MHz                                      median = -22.0 dB
       45                                                                                      0.6
                  ref. = 0.0 dBm                                        mean = -20.9 dB
       30                                                                                      0.4
                                                                        std. dev. = 8.4 dB
       15                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                     0
        -80      -70      -60           -50     -40      -30   -20    -10          0          10
                                              Power (dB)

Figure 69. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
        inside walk data at 448.50, 902.45, and 1832.00 MHz; horizontal polarization.




                                                   92
              20


                    level 700, col.20


                                          level 700, col.65


                                                                     level 700, col.104




                                                                                                    level 600
                                                                                                                  level 300

                                                                                                                                level 100
                                                                                                                                             field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                               field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                 field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                   level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   col.8
              10

               0

              -10
Power (dB)




              -20

              -30

              -40

              -50
                                                                                             Freq. = 49 MHz
              -60                                                                            Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -49 dB
              -70
                                                                50                          100                    150                                         200                                                                      250                300
                                                                                                                 sample number
             Figure 70. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 49.60 MHz; vertical polarization.

               20
                      level 700, col.20


                                            level 700, col.65


                                                                       level 700, col.104




                                                                                                     level 600
                                                                                                                   level 300

                                                                                                                                 level 100
                                                                                                                                               field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                                 field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                   field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                     level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   col.8
               10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70
                                                                                             Freq. = 162 MHz
              -80                                                                            Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -73 dB
              -90
                                                                50                          100                    150                                          200                                                                          250           300
                                                                                                                 sample number
       Figure 71. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 162.09 MHz; vertical polarization.



                                                                                                                               93
             20


                    level 700, col.20


                                         level 700, col.65


                                                                                  level 700, col.104




                                                                                                               level 600
                                                                                                                            level 300

                                                                                                                                             level 100
                                                                                                                                                          field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                                           field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                            field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                             level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           col.8
             10

               0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                                                                        Freq. = 225 MHz
             -70                                                                                        Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -60 dB
             -80
                                                             50                                        100                   150                                          200                                                                        250           300
                                                                                                                           sample number
Figure 72. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 225.30 MHz; vertical polarization.

             20
                   level 700, col.20


                                        level 700, col.65
                                                             level 700, col.104




                                                                                                               level 600
                                                                                                                            level 300

                                                                                                                                             level 100
                                                                                                                                                         field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                                          field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                           field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           col.8
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60                                                                                        Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                                        Ref. = 0.0 dBm
             -70                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB

             -80
                                                             50                                        100                   150                                          200                                                                   250                300
                                                                                                                           sample number
Figure 73. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 448.50 MHz; vertical polarization.


                                                                                                                                        94
                 20


                       level 700, col.20


                                                 level 700, col.65


                                                                                level 700, col.104




                                                                                                                    level 600
                                                                                                                                   level 300

                                                                                                                                                   level 100
                                                                                                                                                                   field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                                                        field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                                             field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       col.8
                 10

                  0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                                                                             Freq. = 902 MHz
             -60                                                                                             Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -52 dB
             -70
                                                                           50                               100                   150                                                   200                                                                                250                   300
                                                                                                                                sample number
    Figure 74. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 902.45 MHz; vertical polarization.

                 20
                             level 700, col.20


                                                       level 700, col.65


                                                                                       level 700, col.104




                                                                                                                       level 600
                                                                                                                                      level 300

                                                                                                                                                       level 100
                                                                                                                                                                        field, col.65
                                                                                                                                                                                             field, col.35

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  field, col.98
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        level 100, col.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  level 100, col.90


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         col.8
                 10


                  0


                 -10
    Power (dB)




                 -20


                 -30


                 -40
                                                                                                              Freq. = 1830 MHz
                 -50                                                                                          Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -40 dB
                 -60
                                                                           50                               100                      150                                                     200                                                                                 250             300
                                                                                                                                   sample number
 Figure 75. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium inside walk at 1832.00 MHz; vertical polarization.


                                                                                                                                                  95
     25                                                                                                  1
     20                                                                                                  0.8
     15              freq. = 49 MHz                            median = -36.8 dB                         0.6
                     ref. = 0.0 dBm                            mean = -32.8 dB
     10                                                                                                  0.4
                                                               std. dev. = 14.2 dB
      5                                                                                                  0.2
       0                                                                                                 0
      -80      -70      -60       -50         -40        -30        -20         -10           0         10

     20                                                                                                  1
     16         freq. = 162 MHz                                                       median = -42.5 dB 0.8




                                                                                                                CDF
     12         ref. = 0.0 dBm                                                        mean = -39.2 dB    0.6
 N




      8                                                                               std. dev. = 15.8 dB 0.4
      4                                                                                                  0.2
       0                                                                                                 0
      -80      -70      -60       -50         -40        -30        -20         -10           0         10

     20                                                                                                  1
     16                   freq. = 225 MHz                                            median = -36.3 dB 0.8
     12                   ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -34.2 dB     0.6
      8                                                                              std. dev. = 13.5 dB 0.4
      4                                                                                                  0.2
       0                                                                                                 0
      -80      -70      -60       -50         -40     -30           -20         -10           0         10
                                            Power (dB)


Figure 76. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for inside
              walk data at 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz; vertical polarization.




                                                    96
     20                                                                                     1
     16                  freq. = 448 MHz                               median = -29.8 dB 0.8
     12                  ref. = 0.0 dBm                                mean = -28.7 dB      0.6
     8                                                                 std. dev. = 11.3 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -80      -70      -60       -50        -40        -30   -20    -10         0           10

     20                                                                                     1
     16                  freq. = 902 MHz                               median = -27.5 dB 0.8




                                                                                                  CDF
     12                  ref. = 0.0 dBm                                mean = -27.2 dB      0.6
 N




     8                                                                 std. dev. = 11.3 dB 0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -80      -70      -60       -50        -40        -30   -20    -10         0           10

     20                                                                                     1
     16                  freq. = 1830 MHz                              median = -26.9 dB 0.8
     12                  ref. = 0.0 dBm                                mean = -26.5 dB      0.6
     8                                                                 std. dev. = 9.5 dB   0.4
     4                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                      0
     -80      -70      -60       -50         -40    -30      -20    -10         0           10
                                           Power (dB)

Figure 77. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for inside
             walk data at 448.50, 902.45, and 1832.00 MHz; vertical polarization.




                                                  97
                   20



                             column 10



                                                  column 100



                                                                    column 90




                                                                                         column 80

                                                                                                         column 70

                                                                                                                         column 60

                                                                                                                                         column 50

                                                                                                                                                              column 40

                                                                                                                                                                               column 30

                                                                                                                                                                                               column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                                               column 10
                   10

                    0

                   -10
      Power (dB)




                   -20

                   -30

                   -40

                   -50
                                                                                  Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                                                  Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                   -60
                                                                                  Approx. noise fl. = -44 dB

                   -70
                                         10                20    30             40                 50     60                                         70                   80                90               100           110
                                                                                                 sample number
Figure 78. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 49.60 MHz; horizontal polarization.


                   20
                         column 10



                                              column 100



                                                                column 90




                                                                                     column 80

                                                                                                     column 70

                                                                                                                     column 60

                                                                                                                                     column 50

                                                                                                                                                          column 40

                                                                                                                                                                           column 30

                                                                                                                                                                                           column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                                           column 10
                   10

                    0

               -10

               -20
  Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60
                                                                                 Freq. = 162 MHz
               -70                                                               Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                 Approx. noise fl. = -62 dB
               -80
                                         10           20        30              40            50     60                                          70                       80               90              100             110
                                                                                            sample number
Figure 79. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 162.09 MHz; horizontal polarization.

                                                                                                             98
                20


                      column 10



                                         column 100



                                                           column 90




                                                                              column 80

                                                                                            column 70

                                                                                                               column 60

                                                                                                                             column 50

                                                                                                                                                column 40

                                                                                                                                                               column 30

                                                                                                                                                                               column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                             column 10
                10

                 0

                -10

                -20
 Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60
                                                                          Freq. = 225 MHz
                                                                          Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                -70                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -57 dB

                -80
                                    10           20        30            40            50     60                                           70                 80               90            100           110
                                                                                     sample number
Figure 80. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 225.30 MHz; horizontal polarization.

                 20
                        column 10



                                           column 100



                                                             column 90




                                                                                column 80

                                                                                              column 70

                                                                                                                 column 60

                                                                                                                               column 50

                                                                                                                                                  column 40

                                                                                                                                                                   column 30

                                                                                                                                                                                 column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                               column 10
                 10

                  0

                -10

                -20
   Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60
                                                                          Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                          Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                -70                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB

                -80
                                    10                20   30            40                 50     60                                      70                 80               90            100           110
                                                                                          sample number
Figure 81. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 448.50 MHz; horizontal polarization.


                                                                                                          99
                   20

                            column 10



                                                 column 100



                                                                   column 90




                                                                                           column 80

                                                                                                            column 70

                                                                                                                             column 60

                                                                                                                                              column 50

                                                                                                                                                                    column 40

                                                                                                                                                                                           column 30

                                                                                                                                                                                                             column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               column 10
                   10

                    0

                   -10

                   -20
      Power (dB)




                   -30

                   -40

                   -50

                   -60
                                                                                    Freq. = 902 MHz
                   -70                                                              Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -60 dB
                   -80
                                        10                20    30              40                  50     60                                             70                     80                       90                  100           110
                                                                                                  sample number
Figure 82. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 902.45 MHz; horizontal polarization.
                   20
                         column 10



                                             column 100



                                                               column 90




                                                                                      column 80

                                                                                                       column 70

                                                                                                                        column 60

                                                                                                                                         column 50

                                                                                                                                                               column 40

                                                                                                                                                                                     column 30

                                                                                                                                                                                                       column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                                                         column 10
                   10

                    0

               -10

               -20
  Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60
                                                                                Freq. = 1830 M Hz
                                                                                Ref. = 0.0 dBm
               -70
                                                                                Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
               -80
                                        10           20        30              40              50     60                                             70                         80                     90                100               110
                                                                                             sample number
                   Figure 83. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 1832.00 MHz; horizontal
                                                       polarization.


                                                                                                               100
      20                                                                                     1
      16          freq. = 49 MHz                                         median = -32.8 dB   0.8
      12          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -27.8 dB     0.6
       8                                                                 std. dev. = 15.5 dB 0.4
       4                                                                                     0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70        -60       -50       -40       -30       -20       -10          0            10

      20                                                                                     1
      16          freq. = 162 MHz                                        median = -32.1 dB   0.8




                                                                                                   CDF
      12          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -28.9 dB     0.6
 N




       8                                                                 std. dev. = 14.8 dB 0.4
       4                                                                                     0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70        -60       -50       -40       -30       -20       -10          0            10

      20                                                                                     1
      16          freq. = 225 MHz                                        median = -38.0 dB   0.8
      12          ref. = 0.0 dBm                                         mean = -34.0 dB     0.6
       8                                                                 std. dev. = 18.3 dB 0.4
       4                                                                                     0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70        -60       -50       -40       -30       -20       -10          0            10
                                        Power (dB)



Figure 84. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for outside
             walk data at 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz; horizontal polarization.




                                              101
     20                                                                                      1
     16             freq. = 448 MHz                                      median = -37.9 dB   0.8
     12             ref. = 0.0 dBm                                       mean = -32.5 dB     0.6
      8                                                                  std. dev. = 16.0 dB 0.4
      4                                                                                      0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70         -60          -50    -40         -30       -20    -10          0            10




                                                                                                         CDF
      N




     20                                                                                      1
     16             freq. = 902 MHz                                      median = -44.2 dB   0.8




                                                                                                   CDF
     12             ref. = 0.0 dBm                                       mean = -37.2 dB     0.6
 N




      8                                                                  std. dev. = 17.0 dB 0.4
      4                                                                                      0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70         -60          -50    -40         -30       -20    -10          0            10

     20                                                                                      1
     16     freq. = 1830 MHz                                             median = -45.6 dB   0.8
     12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                               mean = -39.4 dB     0.6
      8                                        Power (dB)                std. dev. = 17.1 dB 0.4
      4                                                                                      0.2
       0                                                                                      0
      -70         -60          -50    -40         -30       -20    -10          0            10
                                            Power (dB)



Figure 85. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for outside
            walk data at 448.50, 902.45, and 1832.00 MHz; horizontal polarization




                                                 102
             20




                    column 10




                                        column 100


                                                        column 90
                                                                      column 80

                                                                                    column 70

                                                                                                  column 60

                                                                                                               column 50

                                                                                                                                 column 40

                                                                                                                                             column 30


                                                                                                                                                         column 20

                                                                                                                                                                     column 10
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                          Freq. = 49 MHz
             -70                                          Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -54 dB
             -80
                    10             20   30              40                 50     60                                        70               80           90               100
                                                                        sample number
  Figure 86. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 49.60 MHz; vertical polarization.


              20
                       column 10




                                           column 100


                                                          column 90
                                                                        column 80

                                                                                      column 70

                                                                                                   column 60

                                                                                                                column 50

                                                                                                                                 column 40

                                                                                                                                             column 30


                                                                                                                                                         column 20

                                                                                                                                                                     column 10
               0



              -20
Power (dB)




              -40



              -60



              -80

                                                             Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                             Ref. = 0.0 dBm
             -100                                            Approx. noise fl. = -85 dB
                     10            20   30              40                   50     60                                      70               80           90              100
                                                                          sample number
Figure 87. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 162.09 MHz; vertical polarization.



                                                                                    103
                 20




                       column 10




                                          column 100


                                                         column 90
                                                                       column 80

                                                                                       column 70

                                                                                                     column 60

                                                                                                                   column 50

                                                                                                                                      column 40

                                                                                                                                                    column 30


                                                                                                                                                                  column 20

                                                                                                                                                                                column 10
                  0



                 -20
 Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                                           Freq. = 225 MHz
                                                           Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -80 dB
                -100
                       10            20   30             40                50     60                                             70                 80            90                 100
                                                                        sample number
Figure 88. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 225.30 MHz; vertical polarization.

                  20
                         column 10




                                            column 100


                                                           column 90
                                                                         column 80

                                                                                         column 70

                                                                                                       column 60

                                                                                                                     column 50

                                                                                                                                        column 40

                                                                                                                                                      column 30


                                                                                                                                                                    column 20

                                                                                                                                                                                  column 10
                   0



                 -20
   Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                                             Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                             Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -76 dB
                -100
                       10            20   30             40                  50     60                                           70                 80               90                 100
                                                                          sample number
Figure 89. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 448.50 MHz; vertical polarization.



                                                                                     104
                      20




                            column 10




                                               column 100


                                                             column 90
                                                                          column 80

                                                                                        column 70

                                                                                                       column 60

                                                                                                                       column 50


                                                                                                                                             column 40

                                                                                                                                                               column 30


                                                                                                                                                                                  column 20


                                                                                                                                                                                                      column 10
                       0



                  -20
Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80                                           Freq. = 902 MHz
                                                                Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                                Approx. noise fl. = -74 dB

             -100
                            10            20   30           40              50      60                                              70                       80                        90                   100
                                                                         sample number
    Figure 90. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 902.45 MHz; vertical polarization.

                      20
                              column 10




                                               column 100


                                                            column 90
                                                                         column 80

                                                                                      column 70

                                                                                                    column 60

                                                                                                                   column 50

                                                                                                                                        column 40

                                                                                                                                                         column 30


                                                                                                                                                                           column 20

                                                                                                                                                                                              column 10
                      10

                       0

                      -10

                      -20
         Power (dB)




                      -30

                      -40

                      -50

                      -60

                      -70
                                                              Freq. = 1830 MHz
                      -80                                     Ref. = 0.0 dBm
                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -67 dB
                      -90
                            10            20   30           40                  50      60                                         70                    80                 90                     100
                                                                              sample number
 Figure 91. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium outside walk at 1832.00 MHz; vertical polarization.



                                                                                      105
       20                                                                                      1
       16     freq. = 49 MHz                                             median = -41.8 dB     0.8
       12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -36.0 dB       0.6
        8                                                                std. dev. = 18.4 dB   0.4
        4                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                      0
        -80      -70       -60     -50      -40      -30      -20      -10         0           10

       20                                                                                      1
       16     freq. = 162 MHz                                            median = -53.2 dB     0.8




                                                                                                     CDF
       12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -47.7 dB       0.6
   N




        8                                                                std. dev. = 19.2 dB   0.4
        4                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                      0
        -80      -70       -60     -50      -40      -30      -20      -10         0           10

       20                                                                                      1
       16     freq. = 225 MHz                                            median = -53.3 dB     0.8
       12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -49.5 dB       0.6
        8                                                                std. dev. = 20.3 dB   0.4
        4                                                                                      0.2
         0                                                                                      0
        -80      -70       -60     -50     -40      -30       -20      -10         0           10
                                         Power (dB)

Figure 92. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for outside
               walk data at 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz; vertical polarization.




                                              106
        20                                                                                      1
        16     freq. = 448 MHz                                            median = -53.8 dB     0.8
        12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -44.8 dB       0.6
         8                                                                std. dev. = 20.7 dB   0.4
         4                                                                                      0.2
          0                                                                                      0
         -80      -70       -60     -50      -40      -30      -20      -10         0           10

        20                                                                                      1
        16     freq. = 902 MHz                                            median = -53.9 dB     0.8




                                                                                                      CDF
        12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -46.6 dB       0.6
    N




         8                                                                std. dev. = 22.3 dB   0.4
         4                                                                                      0.2
          0                                                                                      0
         -80      -70       -60     -50      -40      -30      -20      -10         0           10

        20                                                                                      1
        16     freq. = 1830 MHz                                           median = -49.5 dB     0.8
        12     ref. = 0.0 dBm                                             mean = -42.8 dB       0.6
         8                                                                std. dev. = 19.6 dB   0.4
         4                                                                                      0.2
          0                                                                                      0
         -80      -70       -60     -50     -40      -30       -20      -10         0           10
                                          Power (dB)

Figure 93. Philadelphia, PA sports stadium statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for outside
              walk data at 448.50, 902.45, and 1832.00 MHz; vertical polarization




                                              107
                20




                                                                                                                                                                  Outside building
                                   Into Building
                                                   entering stairwell




                                                                                LOS on the roof
                10
                                                                                                                             Freq. = 154 MHz
                      0                                                                                                      Ref. = -12.8 dBm
                                                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -87 dB
             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70

             -80

             -90
                                  100                                   200               300                      400        500            600          700               800
                                                                                                                sample number


                                Figure 94. Phoenix, AZ office building walk-through at 154.07 MHz.

                          20




                                                                                                                                                                           Outside building
                                   Into Building
                                   entering stairwell




                                                                                          at roof (not LOS)




                                                                                                                           Freq. = 765 MHz
                          10
                                                                                                                           Ref. = -39.5 dBm
                                                                                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB
                           0

                          -10
             power (dB)




                          -20

                          -30

                          -40

                          -50

                          -60

                          -70
                                             100                          200                                 300        400      500           600         700                               800
                                                                                                                    sample number


                                 Figure 95. Phoenix, AZ office building walk-through at 765 MHz.
                                                                                                                     108
             20




                                                                                                                                      Outside building
                   Into Building


                                         entering stairwell




                                                                    at roof (not LOS)
             10
                                                                                                   Freq. = 867 MHz
              0                                                                                    Ref. = -34.4 dBm
                                                                                                   Approx. noise fl. = -64 dB
             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70
                                   100                        200                       300         400       500         600   700
                                                                                              sample number



                           Figure 96. Phoenix, AZ office building walk-through at 867 MHz.




                                                                                                  109
    50                                                                                     1
    40         freq. = 154 MHz                                         median = -62.3 dB 0.8
    30         ref. = -12.8 dBm                                        mean = -60.9 dB     0.6
    20                                                                 std. dev. = 18.4 dB 0.4
    10                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                    0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50     -40   -30    -20     -10        0        10

    50                                                                                     1
    40         freq. = 765 MHz                                         median = -35.0 dB 0.8




                                                                                                 CDF
    30         ref. = -39.5 dBm                                        mean = -36.1 dB     0.6
N




    20                                                                 std. dev. = 14.4 dB 0.4
    10                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                    0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50     -40   -30    -20     -10        0        10

    50                                                                                     1
    40         freq. = 867 MHz                                         median = -38.3 dB 0.8
    30         ref. = -34.4 dBm                                        mean = -37.9 dB     0.6
    20                                                                 std. dev. = 13.5 dB 0.4
    10                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                    0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50     -40   -30    -20     -10        0        10
                                        Power (dB)




Figure 97. Phoenix, AZ office building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-
                        through data at 154, 765, and 867 MHz.




                                              110
                  20




                                 Into Building
                                                    walking south of elevators

                                                                                        summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                   outside for test


                                                                                                                                                entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                          exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                          entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                              waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    power off
                    0



                  -20
Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                            Freq. = 49.6 MHz
                            Ref. = -23.7 dBm
                            Approx. noise fl. = -76 dB
             -100
                           100       200                                                300                      400                          500    600                      700                       800                           900          1000
                                                                                                                                            sample number


                  Figure 98.Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                  20
                                    Into Building
                                                           walking south of elevators

                                                                                             summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                         outside for test


                                                                                                                                                      entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                              exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                              entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        power off
                  10

                   0

                  -10
     Power (dB)




                  -20

                  -30

                  -40

                  -50

                  -60       Freq. = 162 MHz
                            Ref. = -43.9 dBm
                  -70       Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
                           100       200                                                300                      400                          500    600                       700                      800                                  900   1000
                                                                                                                                            sample number


             Figure 99. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 1.


                                                                                                                                                           111
                    20




                                            Into Building
                                                                          walking south of elevators

                                                                                                                   summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                                                   outside for test


                                                                                                                                                                                    entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                               exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                                                               entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   power off
                    10

                        0

                    -10

                    -20
       Power (dB)




                    -30

                    -40

                    -50

                    -60
                               Freq. = 225 MHz
                    -70        Ref. = -40.0 dBm
                               Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB
                    -80
                             100             200                                                              300                      400                              500    600                               700                      800                                        900    1000
                                                                                                                                                                      sample number
         Figure 100. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 225.30 MHz; receiver at site 1

                20
                                   Into Building
                                                        walking south of elevators

                                                                                                       summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                                        outside for test


                                                                                                                                                                        entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                        exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                                                        entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             power off
                10

                    0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50
                             Freq. = 449 MHz
             -60
                             Ref. = -45.1 dBm
                             Approx. noise fl. = -54 dB
             -70
                            100    200     300       400                                                                                                     500    600                                  700                             800                           900                 1000
                                                                                                                                                           sample number


        Figure 101. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 448.50 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                                                                                                  112
                 20




                                   Into Building
                                                             walking south of elevators

                                                                                                summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                            outside for test


                                                                                                                                                        entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                                entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          power off
                 10

                  0

                 -10
    Power (dB)




                 -20

                 -30

                 -40

                 -50

                 -60     Freq. = 902 MHz
                         Ref. = -42.2 dBm
                 -70     Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
                       100          200                                                    300                      400                          500    600                      700                      800                                  900   1000
                                                                                                                                               sample number


   Figure 102. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                 20
                              Into Building
                                                   walking south of elevators

                                                                                          summit 3 ballroom



                                                                                                                      outside for test


                                                                                                                                                  entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                            exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                            entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       power off
                 10

                  0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                        Freq. = 1830 MHz
             -70        Ref. = -40.2 dBm
                        Approx. noise fl. = -57 dB
             -80
                       100     200                                                        300                       400                     500    600                       700                          800                          900           1000
                                                                                                                                          sample number


Figure 103. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                                                                    113
    100                                                                                         1
     80                                              freq. = 49 MHz      median = -62.8 dB      0.8
     60                                              ref. = -23.7 dBm    mean = -58.0 dB        0.6
     40                                                                  std. dev. = 17.6 dB    0.4
     20                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30      -20        -10        0           10

    100                                                                                         1
     80    freq. = 162 MHz                                               median = -39.5 dB      0.8
     60    ref. = -43.9 dBm                                              mean = -37.6 dB        0.6




                                                                                                      CDF
     40                                                                  std. dev. = 15.5 dB    0.4
N




     20                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30      -20        -10        0           10

    100                                                                                         1
     80    freq. = 225 MHz                                               median = -42.0 dB      0.8
     60    ref. = -40.0 dBm                                              mean = -39.5 dB        0.6
     40                                                                  std. dev. = 16.1 dB    0.4
     20                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30      -20        -10        0           10

                                      Power (dB)


Figure 104. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for first walk-
            through data with the receiver at site 1; 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz.




                                              114
     100                                                                                     1
      80    freq. = 449 MHz                                           median = -31.9 dB      0.8
      60    ref. = -45.1 dBm                                          mean = -30.0 dB        0.6




                                                                                                   CDF
 N




      40                                                              std. dev. = 17.6 dB    0.4
      20                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                      0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20      -10         0           10

     100                                                                                     1
      80    freq. = 902 MHz                                           median = -37.8 dB      0.8
      60    ref. = -42.2 dBm                                          mean = -34.1 dB        0.6
      40                                                              std. dev. = 18.8 dB    0.4
      20                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                      0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20      -10         0           10
                                      Power (dB)

Figure 105. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for first walk-
               through data with the receiver at site 1; 448.50 and 902.45 MHz.




                                               115
              20



                    Into Building


                                            level 9


                                                         passing elevators

                                                                               landing level 11


                                                                                                    passing elevator



                                                                                                                         waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                   entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                             entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    power off
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70
                                       Freq. = 49 MHz
              -80                      Ref. = -29.2 dBm
                                       Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB
              -90
                                      100              200                        300                           400     500    600                                              700                    800    900
                                                                                                                 sample number


   Figure 106. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 1.

               20
                      Into Building


                                             level 9


                                                           passing elevators

                                                                                 landing level 11


                                                                                                      passing elevator



                                                                                                                            waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                      entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                  entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                               entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     power off
               10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60
                                       Freq. = 162 MHz
              -70                      Ref. = -40.5 dBm
                                       Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB
              -80
                                      100              200                          300                           400     500    600                                            700                    800       900
                                                                                                                   sample number
Figure 107. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 1.


                                                                                                                         116
                 20




                          Into Building


                                                  level 9


                                                                   passing elevators

                                                                                            landing level 11


                                                                                                                    passing elevator



                                                                                                                                              waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                            entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  power off
                 10

                  0

                -10

                -20
   Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60                         Freq. = 225 MHz
                                            Ref. = -43.7 dBm
                -70                         Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
                                          100               200                                300                                400     500    600                                                  700                       800          900
                                                                                                                                   sample number


Figure 108. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 225.30 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                20
                      Into Building


                                                level 9


                                                              passing elevators

                                                                                       landing level 11


                                                                                                               passing elevator



                                                                                                                                        waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                     entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                power off
                10

                 0

                -10

                -20
Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60

                -70                        Freq. = 449 MHz
                                           Ref. = -34.0 dBm
                -80                        Approx. noise fl. = -65 dB
                                          100               200                           300                              400     500    600                                                         700                       800    900
                                                                                                                            sample number


Figure 109. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 448.50 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                                                       117
                 20




                          Into Building


                                                  level 9


                                                                   passing elevators

                                                                                            landing level 11


                                                                                                                    passing elevator



                                                                                                                                              waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                            entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  power off
                 10

                  0

                -10

                -20
   Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60
                                            Freq. = 902 MHz
                -70                         Ref. = -34.3 dBm
                                            Approx. noise fl. = -63 dB
                -80
                                          100               200                                300                                400     500    600                                                  700                       800          900
                                                                                                                                   sample number


Figure 110. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                20
                      Into Building


                                                level 9


                                                              passing elevators

                                                                                       landing level 11


                                                                                                               passing elevator



                                                                                                                                        waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                     entering fitness center

                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                power off
                10

                 0

                -10

                -20
Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50

                -60
                                           Freq. = 1830 MHz
                -70                        Ref. = -35.0 dBm
                                           Approx. noise fl. = -62 dB
                -80
                                          100               200                           300                              400     500    600                                                         700                       800    900
                                                                                                                            sample number


Figure 111. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                                                       118
    50                                                                                        1
    40                                             freq. = 49 MHz      median = -58.2 dB      0.8
    30                                             ref. = -29.2 dBm    mean = -56.2 dB        0.6
    20                                                                 std. dev. = 11.1 dB    0.4
    10                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                        0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40       -30      -20        -10         0          10

    50                                                                                        1
    40     freq. = 162 MHz                                             median = -41.4 dB      0.8
    30     ref. = -40.5 dBm                                            mean = -41.7 dB        0.6




                                                                                                    CDF
    20                                                                 std. dev. = 8.7 dB     0.4
N




    10                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                        0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40       -30      -20        -10         0          10

    50                                                                                        1
    40     freq. = 225 MHz                                             median = -36.3 dB      0.8
    30     ref. = -43.7 dBm                                            mean = -36.8 dB        0.6
    20                                                                 std. dev. = 9.1 dB     0.4
    10                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                        0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40       -30      -20        -10         0          10

                                     Power (dB)

    Figure 112. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
           walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz.




                                               119
     50                                                                                     1
     40     freq. = 449 MHz                                          median = -37.8 dB      0.8
     30     ref. = -34.0 dBm                                         mean = -39.1 dB        0.6




                                                                                                  CDF
     20                                                              std. dev. = 10.3 dB    0.4
N




     10                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40       -30     -20      -10        0           10

     50                                                                                     1
     40     freq. = 902 MHz                                          median = -42.7 dB      0.8
     30     ref. = -34.3 dBm                                         mean = -42.8 dB        0.6
     20                                                              std. dev. = 10.4 dB    0.4
     10                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40       -30     -20      -10        0           10

                                      Power (dB)




    Figure 113. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
               walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 448.50 and 902.45 MHz.




                                               120
             20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    waiting for elevator
                                                                                                                summit 3 ballroom
                                                                             walking south of elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                  entering parking garage
                                                                                                                                                                                                  exiting elevator
                                          Into Building




                                                                                                                                          outside for test




                                                                                                                                                                        entering elevator
             15

             10

               5

               0
Power (dB)




              -5

             -10

             -15

             -20            Freq. = 49.6 MHz
             -25            Ref. = -57.6 dBm
                            Approx. noise fl. = -18 dB
             -30
                          100                                                                             200                                        300       400                              500                           600
                                                                                                                                                     sample number


             Figure 114.Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 2.
              20
                                Into Building

                                                          walking south of elevators



                                                                                                                      summit 3 ballroom




                                                                                                                                                                                                    entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        waiting for elevator
                                                                                                                                               outside for test




                                                                                                                                                                                                    exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                            entering elevator




              15

              10

               5

               0
Power (dB)




              -5

             -10

             -15

             -20

             -25            Freq. = 162 MHz
             -30            Ref. = -52.0 dBm
                            Approx. noise fl. = -23 dB
             -35
                          100                                                                             200                                       300        400                              500                           600                              700
                                                                                                                                                     sample number
             Figure 115. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 2.




                                                                                                                                                                  121
              20




                                          walking south of elevators
                      Into Building




                                                                               summit 3 ballroom

                                                                                                     outside for test




                                                                                                                                entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                        exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                        entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                         waiting for elevator
              15

              10

               5

               0
Power (dB)




               -5

              -10

              -15

              -20

              -25    Freq. = 225 MHz
              -30    Ref. = -50.9 dBm
                     Approx. noise fl. = -24 dB
              -35
                    100                                                  200                                300       400                             500                          600                             700
                                                                                                            sample number


   Figure 116. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 225.30 MHz; receiver at site 2.

               20
                          Into Building




                                                                                 summit 3 ballroom

                                                                                                       outside for test




                                                                                                                                  entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                         exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                         entering parking garage




                                                                                                                                                                                            waiting for elevator
                                            walking south of elevators




               10



                0
 Power (dB)




              -10



              -20



              -30    Freq. = 449 MHz
                     Ref. = -46.3 dBm
                     Approx. noise fl. = -29 dB
              -40
                    100                                                  200                                  300        400                          500                          600                             700
                                                                                                               sample number


   Figure 117. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 448.50 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                          122
                     20




                                          Into Building
                                                                              walking south of elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  entering parking garage
                                                                                                                              summit 3 ballroom

                                                                                                                                                               outside for test




                                                                                                                                                                                                     entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  exiting elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              waiting for elevator
                     15

                     10

                         5

                         0
       Power (dB)




                     -5

                    -10

                    -15

                    -20

                    -25        Freq. = 902 MHz
                    -30        Ref. = -49.1 dBm
                               Approx. noise fl. = -25 dB
                    -35
                              100                                                                           200                                                       300        400                                      500                                600                                      700
                                                                                                                                                                       sample number


       Figure 118. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 2.
                20



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  waiting for elevator
                               Into Building
                                                          walking south of elevators


                                                                                                                 summit 3 ballroom

                                                                                                                                                  outside for test




                                                                                                                                                                                        entering elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           exiting elevator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering parking garage

                15

                10

                    5

                    0
Power (dB)




                    -5

             -10

             -15

             -20

             -25              Freq. = 1830 MHz
             -30              Ref. = -49.1 dBm
                              Approx. noise fl. = -25 dB
             -35
                             100                                                                           200                                           300        400                                                  500                                600                                      700
                                                                                                                                                          sample number


   Figure 119. Colorado Springs, CO hotel first walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                                                                                  123
     100                                                                                      1
      80    freq. = 49 MHz                                              median = -14.9 dB 0.8
      60    ref. = -57.6 dBm                                            mean = -12.3 dB       0.6
      40                                                                std. dev. = 5.3 dB    0.4
      20                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                       0
      -40     -35      -30     -25    -20     -15     -10      -5      0         5           10

     100                                                                                      1
      80    freq. = 162 MHz                                             median = -17.5 dB 0.8
      60    ref. = -52.0 dBm                                            mean = -15.4 dB       0.6




                                                                                                    CDF
 N




      40                                                                std. dev. = 7.8 dB    0.4
      20                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                       0
      -40     -35      -30     -25    -20     -15     -10      -5      0         5           10

     100                                                                                      1
      80    freq. = 225 MHz                                             median = -19.3 dB 0.8
      60    ref. = -50.9 dBm                                            mean = -16.8 dB       0.6
      40                                                                std. dev. = 7.6 dB    0.4
      20                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                       0
      -40     -35      -30     -25    -20     -15     -10      -5      0         5           10
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 120. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for first walk-
            through data with the receiver at site 2; 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz.




                                              124
    100                                                                                      1
     80 freq. = 449 MHz                                                median = -22.7 dB 0.8
     60 ref. = -46.3 dBm                                               mean = -20.3 dB       0.6




                                                                                                   CDF
N




     40                                                                std. dev. = 8.4 dB    0.4
     20                                                                                      0.2
     0                                                                                       0
     -40      -35      -30     -25   -20     -15     -10      -5       0        5           10

    100                                                                                      1
     80     freq. = 902 MHz                                            median = -21.1 dB 0.8
     60     ref. = -49.1 dBm                                           mean = -18.1 dB       0.6
     40                                                                std. dev. = 7.9 dB    0.4
     20                                                                                      0.2
     0                                                                                       0
     -40      -35      -30     -25   -20     -15     -10      -5       0        5           10
                                     Power (dB)


Figure 121. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for first walk-
               through data with the receiver at site 2; 448.50 and 902.45 MHz.




                                              125
              20




                    Into Building


                                           level 9

                                                     passing elevators

                                                                          landing level 11


                                                                                              passing elevator



                                                                                                                        waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                         entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           power off
                                                                                                                                                         entering fitness center
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70                     Freq. = 49 MHz
                                      Ref. = -31.5 dBm
              -80                     Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB
                                     100                       200                            300        400                                                                       500                         600               700
                                                                                                sample number
Figure 122. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 2.


              20
                                                                                                                                                entering fitness center
                     Into Building


                                           level 9

                                                      passing elevators

                                                                           landing level 11


                                                                                               passing elevator



                                                                                                                         waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                          entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           power off
              10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70                     Freq. = 162 MHz
                                      Ref. = -32.8 dBm
              -80                     Approx. noise fl. = -64 dB
                                     100                        200                           300        400                                                                       500                         600                700
                                                                                                sample number
Figure 123. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                                                                                                  126
             20




                   Into Building


                                          level 9

                                                                   passing elevators

                                                                                       landing level 11


                                                                                                           passing elevator



                                                                                                                                 waiting for elevator




                                                                                                                                                                                          entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            power off
                                                                                                                                                         entering fitness center
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                     Freq. = 225 MHz
             -70                     Ref. = -37.0 dBm
                                     Approx. noise fl. = -60 dB
             -80
                                    100                                      200                           300        400                                                           500                         600               700
                                                                                                             sample number


Figure 124. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 225.30 MHz; receiver at site 2.

             20
                    Into Building


                                          level 9




                                                                                        landing level 11


                                                                                                            passing elevator



                                                                                                                                  waiting for elevator


                                                                                                                                                          entering fitness center



                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            power off
                                                    passing elevators




             10

               0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60                     Freq. = 449 MHz
                                     Ref. = -42.9 dBm
             -70                     Approx. noise fl. = -55 dB
                                    100                                       200                          300        400                                                           500                         600                700
                                                                                                             sample numbers


Figure 125. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 448.50 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                               127
              20




                                    Into Building


                                                          level 9

                                                                     passing elevators

                                                                                          landing level 11


                                                                                                              passing elevator



                                                                                                                                    waiting for elevator


                                                                                                                                                           entering fitness center



                                                                                                                                                                                                                entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 power off
              10

                0

              -10
 Power (dB)




              -20

              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60                                    Freq. = 902 MHz
                                                     Ref. = -41.3 dBm
              -70                                    Approx. noise fl. = -55 dB
                                                    100                        200                           300        400                                                                            500                           600                700
                                                                                                               sample number


Figure 126. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 2.
              20
                    Into Building



                                                          level 9

                                                                    passing elevators

                                                                                         landing level 11


                                                                                                             passing elevator



                                                                                                                                   waiting for elevator



                                                                                                                                                                                     entering fitness center


                                                                                                                                                                                                               entering elevators




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           entering elevators

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 power off
              10

               0

              -10
 Power (dB)




              -20

              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60                                    Freq. = 1830 MHz
                                                     Ref. = -75.0 dBm
              -70                                    Approx. noise fl. = -20 dB
                                                    100                       200                            300        400                                                                          500                             600               700
                                                                                                               sample number


Figure 127. Colorado Springs, CO hotel second walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                                                                                                                 128
     125                                                                                     1
     100                                        freq. = 49 MHz        median = -62.9 dB      0.8
      75                                        ref. = -31.5 dBm      mean = -57.8 dB        0.6
                                                                      std. dev. = 12.4 dB
      50                                                                                     0.4
      25                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                      0
      -80       -70         -60   -50     -40        -30      -20   -10         0           10

      50                                                                                     1
      40 freq. = 162 MHz                                              median = -48.2 dB      0.8




                                                                                                   CDF
      30 ref. = -32.8 dBm                                             mean = -46.6 dB        0.6
N




      20                                                              std. dev. = 11.8 dB    0.4
      10                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                      0
      -80       -70         -60   -50     -40        -30      -20   -10         0           10

      50                                                                                     1
      40 freq. = 225 MHz                                              median = -46.8 dB      0.8
      30 ref. = -37.0 dBm                                             mean = -44.9 dB        0.6
      20                                                              std. dev. = 11.4 dB    0.4
      10                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                      0
      -80       -70         -60   -50     -40        -30      -20   -10         0           10
                                        Power (dB)



    Figure 128. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
           walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz.




                                                129
      50                                                                                     1
      40 freq. = 449 MHz                                              median = -38.7 dB      0.8
      30 ref. = -42.9 dBm                                             mean = -36.3 dB        0.6




                                                                                                   CDF
      20                                                              std. dev. = 12.1 dB    0.4
N




      10                                                                                     0.2
       0                                                                                     0
       -80      -70         -60   -50      -40         -30   -20    -10         0           10

      50                                                                                     1
      40 freq. = 902 MHz                                              median = -44.9 dB      0.8
      30 ref. = -41.3 dBm                                             mean = -42.2 dB        0.6
      20                                                              std. dev. = 11.3 dB    0.4
      10                                                                                     0.2
       0                                                                                     0
       -80      -70         -60   -50      -40         -30   -20    -10         0           10

                                        Power (dB)


    Figure 129. Colorado Springs, CO hotel statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for second
               walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 448.50 and 902.45 MHz.




                                                 130
                 20




                                                                                                                                                                                              Out of Building
                                      Into Building
                                      N.W. corner
                                      S.W. corner


                                                                                S.E. corner
                                                                                N.E. corner

                                                                                                              Into Building
                 10

                  0

                 -10
                                                                                                                                            Walking back
                 -20                                                                                                                        and forth along
    Power (dB)




                                                                                                                                            the aisles
                 -30

                 -40

                 -50

                 -60

                 -70                                         Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                             Ref. = -35.4 dBm
                 -80                                         Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB
                                                    200                              400                                      600      800     1000           1200      1400     1600
                                                                                                                                     sample number


                                                           Figure 130. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 49.60 MHz.

                 20
                      Into Building




                                                                                                                                                                                      Out of Building
                                                    S.W. corner
                                      N.W. corner


                                                                  S.E. corner




                                                                                                    Into Building
                                                                                N.E. corner




                 10

                  0
                                                                                                                                                  Walking back
             -10                                                                                                                                  and forth along
                                                                                                                                                  the aisles
             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70                                             Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                             Ref. = -36.5 dBm
             -80                                             Approx. noise fl. = -64 dB
                                                    200                                       400                              600         800         1000          1200      1400
                                                                                                                                     sample number
                                                       Figure 131. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 162.09 MHz.


                                                                                                                                            131
             20




                                                  S.W. corner




                                                                                                                                                                              Out of Building
                                   N.W. corner



                                                                    S.E. corner
                                                                    N.E. corner

                                                                                     Into Building
             10

               0

             -10                                                                                                                      Walking back
                   Into Building


                                                                                                                                      and forth along
             -20                                                                                                                      the aisles
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70                                                Freq. = 225 MHz
                                                                Ref. = -32.6 dBm
             -80                                                Approx. noise fl. = -68 dB
                                                   200                       400                                     600      800     1000         1200     1400     1600
                                                                                                                           sample number


                                                  Figure 132. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 225.30 MHz.

             20
                                    N.W. corner




                                                                                                                                                                          Out of Building
                                                                                                     Into Building
                                                      S.W. corner


                                                                       S.E. corner
                                                                       N.E. corner




             10
                                                                                                                                  Walking back
              0
                                                                                                                                  and forth along
                                                                                                                                  the aisles
                   Into Building




             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70                                          Freq. = 449 MHz
                                                          Ref. = -34.6 dBm
             -80                                          Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB
                                                  200                      400                                  600          800     1000       1200      1400     1600
                                                                                                                           sample number


                                                  Figure 133. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 448.50 MHz.

                                                                                                                                132
                 20




                                       Into Building




                                                                                                                                                                                                        Out of Building
                                                                                                                 Into Building
                                                                    S.W. corner


                                                                                      S.E. corner
                                                                                      N.E. corner
                 10

                  0                               N.W. corner
                                                                                                                                                    Walking back
                                                                                                                                                    and forth along
                 -10
                                                                                                                                                    the aisles
    Power (dB)




                 -20

                 -30

                 -40

                 -50
                                                                                              Freq. = 902 MHz
                 -60                                                                          Ref. = -27.9 dBm
                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -70 dB
                                                                              200                   400                          600         800     1000             1200     1400
                                                                                                                                       sample number


                                                                Figure 134. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 902.75 MHz.

                 20




                                                                                                                                                                                      Out of Building
                                                                                                          Into Building
                                                                S.W. corner


                                                                                    S.E. corner
                                                                                    N.E. corner
                                            N.W. corner




                 10

                  0
                                                                                                                                                  Walking back
             -10                                                                                                                                  and forth along
                                                                                                                                                  the aisles
                       Into Building




             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                                          Freq. = 1830 MHz
             -70                                                          Ref. = -34.2 dBm
                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -63 dB
             -80
                                                                200                       400                              600           800     1000        1200       1400    1600
                                                                                                                                       sample number


                                                                Figure 135. Boulder, CO grocery store walk-through at 1830.00 MHz.

                                                                                                                                            133
    100                                                                                     1
     80    freq. = 49 MHz                                       median = -45.1 dB           0.8
     60    ref. = -35.4 dBm                                     mean = -43.1 dB             0.6
     40                                                         std. dev. = 12.0 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                      0
     -80     -70       -60    -50    -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    100                                                                                     1
     80    freq. = 162 MHz                                      median = -38.6 dB           0.8
     60    ref. = -36.5 dBm                                     mean = -36.0 dB             0.6




                                                                                                  CDF
N




     40                                                         std. dev. = 11.8 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                      0
     -80     -70       -60    -50    -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    100                                                                                     1
     80    freq. = 225 MHz                                      median = -45.8 dB           0.8
     60    ref. = -32.6 dBm                                     mean = -43.0 dB             0.6
     40                                                         std. dev. = 14.5 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                     0.2
     0                                                                                      0
     -80     -70       -60    -50    -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20
                                     Power (dB)


     Figure 136. Boulder, CO grocery store statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-
                          through data; 49.60, 162.09, and 225.30 MHz.




                                                   134
    100                                                                                        1
     80      freq. = 449 MHz                                       median = -30.7 dB           0.8
     60      ref. = -34.6 dBm                                      mean = -29.2 dB             0.6
     40                                                            std. dev. = 11.7 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                         0
     -80        -70      -60    -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    100                                                                                        1
     80      freq. = 902 MHz                                       median = -35.3 dB           0.8




                                                                                                     CDF
     60      ref. = -27.9 dBm                                      mean = -33.8 dB             0.6
N




     40                                                            std. dev. = 12.3 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                         0
     -80        -70      -60    -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    100                                                                                        1
     80      freq. = 1830 MHz                                      median = -40.8 dB           0.8
     60      ref. = -34.2 dBm                                      mean = -39.3 dB             0.6
     40                                                            std. dev. = 12.0 dB         0.4
     20                                                                                        0.2
     0                                                                                         0
     -80        -70      -60    -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20
                                        Power (dB)



          Figure 137. Boulder, CO grocery store statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-
                              through data; 448.50, 902.75, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                                      135
             20



                   Into Building


                                       Basement S.E.




                                                                                 Basement N.W.



                                                                                                                    L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                   L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                 L6 W. stairs
                                                                                                                                                                                                         L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               L2 W. stairs


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 L1 S.E.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             L1 S.W
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70

             -80
                     Freq. = 49 MHz                                                              Ref. = -21.3 dBm                                                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB
             -90
                                               500                               1000                       1500                                                                                                                  2000                     2500
                                                                                                    sample number


                                   Figure 138. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 49.60 MHz.
             20
                   Into Building


                                       Basement S.E.




                                                                 Basement N.W.



                                                                                                    L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                    L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                  L6 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        L2 W. stairs



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 L1 S.E.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             L1 S.W
             10

               0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                        Freq. = 162 MHz
             -70                                        Ref. = -41.9 dBm
                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -58 dB
             -80
                                                       500                         1000                      1500                                                                                                                             2000              2500
                                                                                                    sample number


                                   Figure 139. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 162.09 MHz.

                                                                                                                                                        136
              20




                    Into Building


                                            Basement S.E.




                                                                        Basement N.W.



                                                                                                L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                      L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                          L6 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                            L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                            L2 W. stairs



                                                                                                                                                                                                            L1 S.E.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                L1 S.W
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70
                                        Freq. = 226 MHz                                        Ref. = -30.6 dBm                                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -69 dB
              -80
                                                                 500                           1000            1500                                                                                             2000
                                                                                                  sample number


                    Figure 140. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 226.40 MHz.

              20
                        Into Building


                                                 Basement S.E.




                                                                               Basement N.W.




                                                                                                                L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                      L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                         L6 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                           L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                             L2 W. stairs



                                                                                                                                                                                                                      L1 S.E.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         L1 S.W
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70
                                        Freq. = 448 MHz                                             Ref. = -30.1 dBm                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -70 dB
              -80
                                                                  500                                    1000            1500                                                                                               2000
                                                                                                           sample number


                    Figure 141. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 448.30 MHz.

                                                                                                                                     137
             20




                   Into Building

                                           Basement S.E.




                                                                                 Basement N.W.




                                                                                                                  L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                  L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                L6 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                              L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            L2 W. stairs


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          L1 S.E.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               L1 S.W
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70

             -80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -77 dB
                                         Freq. = 902 MHz                                                          Ref. = -21.8 dBm
             -90
                                                                           500                                   1000            1500                                                                                                                                                   2000
                                                                                                                   sample number
                        Figure 142. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 902.45 MHz.

             20
                         Into Building


                                                           Basement S.E.




                                                                                                 Basement N.W.



                                                                                                                                  L10 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                 L8 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                               L6 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             L4 W. stairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           L2 W. stairs


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    L1 S.E.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        L1 S.W
             10

               0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70
                                         Freq. = 1830 MHz                                                          Ref. = -30.6 dBm                                                                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB
             -80
                                                                           500                                   1000            1500                                                                                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                                   sample number
                    Figure 143. Gaithersburg, MD office building walk-through at 1830.00 MHz.



                                                                                                                                                             138
    400                                                                                                         1
    320                                                              freq. = 49 MHz         median = -68.6 dB 0.8
    240                                                              ref. = -21.3 dBm       mean = -62.1 dB     0.6
    160                                                                                     std. dev. = 16.5 dB 0.4
     80                                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                                         0
     -90     -80     -70     -60         -50         -40           -30         -20      -10          0        10

    200                                                                                                         1
    160                                                                                 median = -42.8 dB       0.8




                                                                                                                      CDF
    120                                                          freq. = 162 MHz        mean = -41.6 dB         0.6
N




     80                                                          ref. = -41.9 dBm       std. dev. = 12.5 dB     0.4
     40                                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                                         0
     -80      -70      -60         -50         -40          -30          -20          -10           0         10

    200                                                                                                         1
    160                                                                                 median = -44.7 dB       0.8
    120                                                          freq. = 226 MHz        mean = -44.1 dB         0.6
     80                                                          ref. = -30.6 dBm       std. dev. = 14.7 dB     0.4
     40                                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                                         0
     -80      -70      -60         -50         -40          -30          -20          -10           0         10
                                         Power (dB)



     Figure 144. Gaithersburg, MD office building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                        walk-through data; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                                           139
    200                                                                                         1
    160                                              freq. = 448 MHz     median = -46.7 dB      0.8
    120                                              ref. = -30.1 dBm    mean = -46.9 dB        0.6
     80                                                                  std. dev. = 14.1 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80     -70      -60      -50      -40       -30        -20        -10        0           10

    200                                                                                         1
    160                                              freq. = 902 MHz     median = -59.7 dB      0.8




                                                                                                      CDF
    120                                              ref. = -21.8 dBm    mean = -57.7 dB        0.6
N




     80                                                                  std. dev. = 14.6 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80     -70      -60      -50      -40       -30        -20        -10        0           10

    400                                                                                         1
    320                                              freq. = 1830 MHz    median = -59.9 dB      0.8
    240                                              ref. = -30.6 dBm    mean = -55.6 dB        0.6
    160                                                                  std. dev. = 12.2 dB    0.4
     80                                                                                         0.2
     0                                                                                          0
     -80     -70      -60      -50      -40       -30        -20        -10        0           10
                                     Power (dB)




    Figure 145. Gaithersburg, MD office building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                      walk-through data; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                               140
     LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                     4500
     Inside Mall, Hechts

     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                     4000
     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                     3500
     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears
     LOS, Sears




                                                                                                                                     3000
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe
     1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                     sample number
                                                                                                                                            2500
     Nordstrom, lower
     Nordstrom, upper
     1st Hall
     Hechts




                                                                                                                                     2000
     LOS, food court
     Hechts
     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears




                                                                                                                                     1500
                                                                                                      Approx. noise fl. = -52 dB
     LOS Sears
                                                                                   Ref. = -47.3 dBm
                                                                  Freq. = 49 MHz




                                                                                                                                     1000
     Sears
     2nd Hall
     1st Hall
                                                                                                                                     500




     Inside Mall
     LOS outside
20


            10


                       0


                           -10


                                  -20


                                          -30


                                                   -40


                                                            -50


                                                                                   -60


                                                                                                                                   -70




                                  Power (dB)



Figure 146. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 1.




                                        141
     LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                        3500
     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                        3000
     Side Hallway, lower
     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                        2500
     LOS, Sears
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe
     1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                        sample number
                                                                                                                                                2000
     Nordstrom, lower

     Nordstrom, upper
     1st Hall
     Hechts




                                                                                                                                        1500
     LOS, food court
     Hechts


                                                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -50 dB
     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears


                                                                                                                                        1000
                                                                                      Ref. = -48.7 dBm
                                                                    Freq. = 162 MHz




     LOS Sears

     Sears
     2nd Hall
     1st Hall
                                                                                                                                        500



     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20


            10


                       0


                           -10


                                   -20


                                            -30


                                                     -40


                                                              -50


                                                                                      -60


                                                                                                                                      -70




                                   Power (dB)


Figure 147. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 1.




                                         142
       LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                       3000
       Inside Mall, Hechts
       Side Hallway, lower

       Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                       2500
       End of Hall


       1st Hall, Bebe
       Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                       2000
       LOS, Sears
       Sears
       1st Hall, Bebe
       1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                       sample number
       Nordstrom, lower




                                                                                                                                         1500
       Nordstrom, upper

       1st Hall
       Hechts

       LOS, food court


                                                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -58 dB

                                                                                                                                       1000
       Hechts
                                                                                       Ref. = -41.7 dBm
                                                                     Freq. = 226 MHz



       2nd Hall
       Inside, Sears


       LOS Sears
                                                                                                                                       500



       Sears
       2nd Hall
       1st Hall
       Inside Mall

       LOS outside
  20


             10


                        0


                             -10


                                   -20


                                           -30


                                                    -40


                                                            -50


                                                                     -60


                                                                                                          -70




                                     Power (dB)

Figure 148. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 226.40 MHz; receiver at site 1.



                                         143
     LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                     3500
     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                     3000
     Side Hallway, lower

     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                     2500
     LOS, Sears
     Sears




                                                                                                                                               2000
                                                                                                                                     sample number
     1st Hall, Bebe
  1st Hall, Santa
  Nordstrom, lower

     Nordstrom, upper




                                                                                                                                     1500
     1st Hall
     Hechts
     LOS, food court
     Hechts                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB

                                                                                                                                     1000
     2nd Hall
                                                                                     Ref. = -41.8 dBm
                                                                   Freq. = 448 MHz




     Inside, Sears
     LOS Sears

     Sears
                                                                                                                                     500




     2nd Hall
     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20


           10


                      0


                           -10


                                 -20


                                          -30


                                                  -40


                                                           -50


                                                                   -60


                                                                                                        -70




                                   Power (dB)

Figure 149. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 448.30 MHz; receiver at site 1.


                                         144
                                                                                                                                           4000
       LOS, oustide Hechts



       Inside Mall, Hechts




                                                                                                                                           3500
       Side Hallway, lower

       Side Hallway, lower

       End of Hall




                                                                                                                                           3000
       1st Hall, Bebe
       Inside Mall, Sears
       LOS, Sears
       Sears




                                                                                                                                           2500
       1st Hall, Bebe
       1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                           sample number
       Nordstrom, lower




                                                                                                                                              2000
       Nordstrom, upper

       1st Hall
       Hechts
       LOS, food court




                                                                                                                                           1500
       Hechts

       2nd Hall                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -49 dBm
       Inside, Sears
                                                                                                                                           1000
                                                                                         Ref. = -49.0 dBm
                                                                       Freq. = 902 MHz




       LOS Sears

       Sears
       2nd Hall
       1st Hall
                                                                                                                                           500




       Inside Mall

       LOS outside
  20



                10


                         0



                             -10


                                      -20



                                                  -30


                                                        -40



                                                                 -50



                                                                                                       -60




                                     Power (dB)

Figure 150. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                            145
     LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                         3500
     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower

     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                         3000
     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                         2500
     LOS, Sears




                                                                                                                                         sample number
                                                                                                                                                 2000
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe

     Nordstrom, lower 1st Hall, Santa

     Nordstrom, upper




                                                                                                                                         1500
     1st Hall
     Hechts
     LOS, food court                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -35 dB
     Hechts
                                                                                                                                         1000
                                                                      Freq. = 1830 MHz

                                                                                         Ref. = -62.2 dBm




     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears

     LOS Sears
                                                                                                                                         500




     Sears
     2nd Hall
                     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20



                10



                                0



                                    -10



                                                   -20



                                                                -30



                                                                      -40



                                                                                                            -50




                                           Power (dB)

          Figure 151. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 1830.00 MHz;
                                          receiver at site 1.

                                                 146
    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 49 MHz                                           median = -49.4 dB     0.8
     600    ref. = -47.3 dBm                                         mean = -47.2 dB       0.6
     400                                                             std. dev. = 5.9 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10

    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 162 MHz                                          median = -48.6 dB     0.8




                                                                                                 CDF
     600    ref. = -48.7 dBm                                         mean = -46.5 dB       0.6
N




     400                                                             std. dev. = 5.8 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10

    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 226 MHz                                          median = -51.6 dB     0.8
     600    ref. = -41.7 dBm                                         mean = -49.9 dB       0.6
     400                                                             std. dev. = 7.1 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10
                                      Power (dB)



      Figure 152. Bethesda, MD shopping mall statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
          walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                               147
    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 448 MHz                                          median = -54.7 dB     0.8
     600    ref. = -41.8 dBm                                         mean = -52.8 dB       0.6
     400                                                             std. dev. = 5.6 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10

    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 902 MHz                                          median = -47.2 dB     0.8




                                                                                                 CDF
     600    ref. = -49.0 dBm                                         mean = -44.6 dB       0.6
N




     400                                                             std. dev. = 6.3 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10

    1000                                                                                   1
     800    freq. = 1830 MHz                                         median = -34.1 dB     0.8
     600    ref. = -62.2 dBm                                         mean = -33.3 dB       0.6
     400                                                             std. dev. = 3.9 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                   0.2
      0                                                                                    0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0         10



     Figure 153. Bethesda, MD shopping mall statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
        walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                               148
      LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                        4000
      Inside Mall, Hechts

      Side Hallway, lower


      Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                        3500
      End of Hall




                                                                                                                                        3000
      1st Hall, Bebe
      Inside Mall, Sears
      LOS, Sears
      Sears
      1st Hall, Bebe




                                                                                                                                                   2500
      1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                        sample number
      Nordstrom, lower

      Nordstrom, upper




                                                                                                                                        2000
      1st Hall
      Hechts
      LOS, food court
      Hechts




                                                                                                                                        1500
      2nd Hall
      Inside, Sears
                                                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -51 dB
      LOS Sears
                                                                                      Ref. = -48.9 dBm



                                                                                                                                        1000
                                                                     Freq. = 49 MHz




      Sears
      2nd Hall
      1st Hall

      Inside Mall
                                                                                                                                        500




      LOS outside
 20


               10


                        0


                            -10


                                     -20


                                                 -30


                                                       -40


                                                               -50


                                                                                      -60


                                                                                                                                      -70




                                     Power (dB)

Figure 154. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                           149
                                                                                                                                    3500
     LOS, oustide Hechts


     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                    3000
     Side Hallway, lower




     End of Hall




                                                                                                                                    2500
     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears
     LOS, Sears
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe




                                                                                                                                                   2000
     1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                        sample number
     Nordstrom, lower
     Nordstrom, upper
     1st Hall




                                                                                                                                    1500
     Hechts

     LOS, food court

     Hechts                                                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -44 dB
     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears                                                                                                                  1000
                                                                                   Ref. = -55.2 dBm
                                                                Freq. = 162 MHz




     LOS Sears

     Sears
     2nd Hall
                                                                                                                                    500




     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20



              10



                        0



                            -10



                                     -20



                                                 -30



                                                         -40



                                                                             -50



                                                                                                                              -60




                                  Power (dB)

 Figure 155. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                           150
                                                                                                                                        3000
     LOS, oustide Hechts



     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                        2500
     Side Hallway, lower

     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                        2000
     LOS, Sears
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe




                                                                                                                                        sample number
     1st Hall, Santa
     Nordstrom, lower




                                                                                                                                           1500
     Nordstrom, upper
     1st Hall
     Hechts




                                                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -53 dB
     LOS, food court




                                                                                                                                        1000
     Hechts                                                                           Ref. = -45.6 dBm
                                                                    Freq. = 226 MHz



     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears

     LOS Sears
                                                                                                                                        500



     Sears
     2nd Hall
     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20


              10


                       0


                           -10


                                   -20


                                            -30


                                                     -40


                                                              -50


                                                                                      -60


                                                                                                                                      -70




                                   Power (dB)


Figure 156. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 226.40 MHz; receiver at site 2.



                                         151
     LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                   3000
     Inside Mall, Hechts
     Side Hallway, lower

     Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                   2500
     End of Hall

     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                   2000
     LOS, Sears
     Sears




                                                                                                                                   sample number
     1st Hall, Bebe
     1st Hall, Santa
     Nordstrom, lower




                                                                                                                                   1500
     Nordstrom, upper

     1st Hall
     Hechts



                                                                                                      Approx. noise fl. = -47 dB
     LOS, food court



                                                                                                                                   1000
     Hechts
                                                                                   Ref. = -52.4 dBm
                                                                 Freq. = 448 MHz




     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears

     LOS Sears
                                                                                                                                   500




     Sears
     2nd Hall
     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20



              10



                        0



                            -10



                                    -20



                                                -30



                                                       -40



                                                                 -50



                                                                                                      -60




                                   Power (dB)


 Figure 157. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 448.30 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                          152
       LOS, oustide Hechts




                                                                                                                                       3500
       Inside Mall, Hechts
       Side Hallway, lower




                                                                                                                                       3000
       Side Hallway, lower

       End of Hall

       1st Hall, Bebe
       Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                       2500
       LOS, Sears
       Sears
       1st Hall, Bebe
       1st Hall, Santa




                                                                                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                                                       sample number
       Nordstrom, lower

       Nordstrom, upper
       1st Hall
       Hechts




                                                                                                                                       1500
       LOS, food court
       Hechts

                                                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -58 dB
       2nd Hall
       Inside, Sears
                                                                                                                                       1000
                                                                                       Ref. = -41.1 dBm
                                                                     Freq. = 902 MHz




       LOS Sears

       Sears
       2nd Hall
       1st Hall
                                                                                                                                       500




       Inside Mall

       LOS outside
  20


             10


                         0


                             -10


                                   -20


                                            -30


                                                    -40


                                                            -50


                                                                     -60


                                                                                                          -70




                                     Power (dB)

Figure 158. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                         153
     LOS, oustide Hechts



     Inside Mall, Hechts




                                                                                                                                        3000
     Side Hallway, lower

     Side Hallway, lower

     End of Hall




                                                                                                                                        2500
     1st Hall, Bebe
     Inside Mall, Sears




                                                                                                                                                       2000
     LOS, Sears




                                                                                                                                           sample number
     Sears
     1st Hall, Bebe
     1st Hall, Santa
     Nordstrom, lower




                                                                                                                                        1500
     Nordstrom, upper
     1st Hall
     Hechts
     LOS, food court                                                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -42 dB

                                                                                                                                        1000
     Hechts
                                                                   Freq. = 1830 MHz

                                                                                      Ref. = -55.0 dBm



     2nd Hall
     Inside, Sears

     LOS Sears

     Sears
                                                                                                                                        500




     2nd Hall
                     1st Hall
     Inside Mall

     LOS outside
20



                10



                            0



                                -10



                                            -20



                                                       -30



                                                             -40



                                                                                      -50



                                                                                                                                      -60




                                       Power (dB)

          Figure 159. Bethesda, MD shopping mall walk-through at 1830.00 MHz;
                                      receiver at site 2.

                                             154
    500                                                                                    1
    400    freq. = 49 MHz                                           median = -44.4 dB      0.8
    300    ref. = -48.9 dBm                                         mean = -42.2 dB        0.6
    200                                                             std. dev. = 9.7 dB     0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10

    500                                                                                    1
    400    freq. = 162 MHz                                          median = -38.0 dB      0.8




                                                                                                 CDF
    300    ref. = -55.2 dBm                                         mean = -35.8 dB        0.6
N




    200                                                             std. dev. = 8.1 dB     0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10

    500                                                                                    1
    400    freq. = 226 MHz                                          median = -41.7 dB      0.8
    300    ref. = -45.6 dBm                                         mean = -39.8 dB        0.6
    200                                                             std. dev. = 11.1 dB    0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10
                                     Power (dB)



     Figure 160. Bethesda, MD shopping mall statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
         walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                              155
     500                                                                                    1
     400    freq. = 448 MHz                                          median = -39.9 dB      0.8
     300    ref. = -52.4 dBm                                         mean = -35.7 dB        0.6
     200                                                             std. dev. = 12.2 dB    0.4
     100                                                                                    0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10

     500                                                                                    1
     400    freq. = 902 MHz                                          median = -54.5 dB      0.8




                                                                                                  CDF
     300    ref. = -41.1 dBm                                         mean = -50.4 dB        0.6
N




     200                                                             std. dev. = 11.2 dB    0.4
     100                                                                                    0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10

    1000                                                                                    1
     800    freq. = 1830 MHz                                         median = -41.0 dB      0.8
     600    ref. = -55.0 dBm                                         mean = -37.7 dB        0.6
     400                                                             std. dev. = 8.5 dB     0.4
     200                                                                                    0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80      -70        -60   -50      -40         -30   -20     -10          0          10
                                      Power (dB)


    Figure 161. Bethesda, MD shopping mall statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
       walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                               156
                                                                                                          6000
                        basement




                                                                                                          5000
     lobby elevator

     1F
     1C




                                                                                                          4000
     1A
     3A
     3H




                                                                                                          sample number
     3C
     3A




                                                                                                             3000
     5A
     5H

     5C
     5A
     7A




                                                                                                          2000
     7H


     7C                                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB
     7A
     9A
                                                                           Ref. = -21.6 dBm
                                                                           Freq. = 49 MHz




     9C
                                                                                                          1000




     lobby
20




                0




                                   -20




                                             -40




                                                        -60




                                                                     -80




                                                                                                        -100




                                         Power (dB)

          Figure 162. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 49.60 MHz.



                                              157
                                                                                               20




                                                                                                                                                                          1F




                                                                                                                              9C
                                                                                                                              7C
                                                                                                                                             5C
                                                                                                                                                        3C
                                                                                                                                                                     1C




                                                                                                                              9A
                                                                                                                              7A
                                                                                                                                             7H
                                                                                                                                             7A
                                                                                                                                             5A
                                                                                                                                                        5H
                                                                                                                                                        5A
                                                                                                                                                        3A
                                                                                                                                                                     3H
                                                                                                                                                                     3A
                                                                                                                                                                     1A




                                                                                                     lobby
                                                                                               10


                                                                                                                                                                                 lobby elevator
                                                                                                0

                                                                                                                                                                                                   basement
                                                                                               -10


                                                                                               -20


                                                                                               -30




158
                                                                                               -40




                                                                                  Power (dB)
                                                                                               -50


                                                                                               -60


                                                                                               -70
                                                                                                              Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                                                               -80            Ref. = -30.9 dBm
                                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -67 dB




      Figure 163. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 162.09 MHz.
                                                                                               -90
                                                                                                             500          1000             1500     2000          2500    3000                    3500        4000
                                                                                                                                                  sample number
                                                                                                           3500
                       basement




                                                                                                           3000
     lobby elevator
     1F




                                                                                                           2500
     1C
     1A
     3A
     3H




                                                                                                                     2000
                                                                                                           sample number
     3C
     3A
     5A
     5H




                                                                                                           1500
     5C

     5A
     7A


                                                                            Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB
     7H


                                                                                                           1000
                                                                            Ref. = -21.7 dBm
                                                                            Freq. = 226 MHz



     7C
     7A
     9A

     9C
                                                                                                           500




     lobby
20




                 0




                                  -20




                                            -40




                                                        -60




                                                                      -80




                                                                                                         -100




                                        Power (dB)

          Figure 164. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 226.40 MHz.


                                             159
                                                                                               20




                                                                                                                                                                 1F




                                                                                                                   9C
                                                                                                                        7C
                                                                                                                                    5C
                                                                                                                                               3C
                                                                                                                                                            1C




                                                                                                                        9A
                                                                                                                        7A
                                                                                                                                    7H
                                                                                                                                    7A
                                                                                                                                    5A
                                                                                                                                               5H
                                                                                                                                               5A
                                                                                                                                               3A
                                                                                                                                                            3H
                                                                                                                                                            3A
                                                                                                                                                            1A




                                                                                                     lobby
                                                                                               10




                                                                                                                                                                      lobby elevator
                                                                                                0


                                                                                               -10
                                                                                                                                                                                       basement

                                                                                               -20


                                                                                               -30




160
                                                                                               -40




                                                                                  Power (dB)
                                                                                               -50


                                                                                               -60


                                                                                               -70
                                                                                                              Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                               -80            Ref. = -29.6 dBm
                                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -70 dB




      Figure 165. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 448.30 MHz.
                                                                                               -90
                                                                                                             500             1000          1500           2000    2500                   3000
                                                                                                                                             sample number
                                                                                                      3500
                         basement




                                                                                                      3000
 lobby elevator
 1F
 1C
 1A
 3A




                                                                                                      2500
 3H

 3C
 3A




                                                                                                      sample number
 5A




                                                                                                             2000
 5H

 5C
 5A
 7A




                                                                                                      1500
 7H

 7C
 7A                                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -83 dB
 9A
                                                                                                      1000
                                                                       Ref. = -16.0 dBm
                                                                       Freq. = 902 MHz




 9C
                                                                                                      500




 lobby
20




            0




                          -20




                                        -40




                                                    -60




                                                                 -80




                                                                                                    -100




                                    Power (dB)
         Figure 166. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 902.45 MHz.

                                         161
                                                                                                20




                                                                                                                                                                               1F




                                                                                                                     9C
                                                                                                                          7C
                                                                                                                                      5C
                                                                                                                                                    3C
                                                                                                                                                                        1C




                                                                                                                          9A
                                                                                                                          7A
                                                                                                                                      7H
                                                                                                                                      7A
                                                                                                                                      5A
                                                                                                                                                    5H
                                                                                                                                                    5A
                                                                                                                                                    3A
                                                                                                                                                                   3H
                                                                                                                                                                        3A
                                                                                                                                                                        1A




                                                                                                      lobby
                                                                                                10




                                                                                                                                                                                    lobby elevator
                                                                                                 0


                                                                                                -10


                                                                                                -20
                                                                                                                                                                                                            basement

                                                                                                -30




162
                                                                                                -40




                                                                                   Power (dB)
                                                                                                -50


                                                                                                -60


                                                                                                -70
                                                                                                               Freq. = 1830 MHz
                                                                                                -80            Ref. = -25.9 dBm
                                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB




      Figure 167. Silver Spring, MD office building walk-through at 1830.00 MHz.
                                                                                                -90
                                                                                                              500           1000            1500           2000         2500                         3000         3500
                                                                                                                                                   sample number
    500                                                                                              1
    400                                                        freq. = 49 MHz    median = -64.2 dB 0.8
    300                                                        ref. = -21.6 dBm mean = -63.7 dB      0.6
    200                                                                          std. dev. = 11.4 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                              0.2
     0                                                                                              0
     -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20         -10       0        10

    500                                                                                              1
    400                                                        freq. = 162 MHz median = -57.9 dB 0.8
    300                                                        ref. = -30.9 dBm mean = -55.7 dB      0.6




                                                                                                           CDF
N




    200                                                                          std. dev. = 10.3 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                              0.2
     0                                                                                              0
     -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20         -10       0        10

    500                                                                                              1
    400                                                        freq. = 226 MHz median = -61.3 dB 0.8
    300                                                        ref. = -21.7 dBm mean = -60.3 dB      0.6
    200                                                                          std. dev. = 11.1 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                              0.2
     0                                                                                              0
     -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20         -10       0        10
                                     Power (dB)

      Figure 168. Silver Spring, MD office building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                          walk-through data; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                                   163
     500                                                                                              1
     400                                                        freq. = 448 MHz median = -52.6 dB 0.8
     300                                                        ref. = -29.6 dBm mean = -52.4 dB      0.6
     200                                                                        std. dev. = 11.2 dB 0.4
     100                                                                                              0.2
      0                                                                                               0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0           10

     500                                                                                              1
     400                                                        freq. = 902 MHz median = -72.1 dB 0.8




                                                                                                            CDF
     300                                                        ref. = -16.0 dBm mean = -70.4 dB      0.6
N




     200                                                                        std. dev. = 10.5 dB 0.4
     100                                                                                              0.2
      0                                                                                               0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0           10

    1000                                                                                              1
     800                                             freq. = 1830 MHz           median = -69.5 dB 0.8
     600                                             ref. = -25.9 dBm           mean = -67.2 dB       0.6
     400                                                                        std. dev. = 5.7 dB    0.4
     200                                                                                              0.2
      0                                                                                               0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0           10
                                       Power (dB)


       Figure 169. Silver Spring, MD office building statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                          walk-through data; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                                    164
             20




                        Into Building

                                             N.W.-C-upper
                                                                 S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                mid. level


                                                                                                                            N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                          S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                     exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                       entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                       tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                             bottom stairs
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70

             -80                                                     Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                                     Ref. = -19.1 dBm
             -90                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -76 dB
                          500                               1000                1500              2000                  2500 3000                                        3500                    4000                4500   5000
                                                                                                                       sample number
             Figure 170. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 1.


              20
                     Into Building

                                        N.W.-C-upper
                                                            S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                   mid. level


                                                                                                             N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                           S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                            exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                     entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                     tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                bottom stairs
              10

               0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70

             -80                                                     Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                                     Ref. = -26.3 dBm
             -90                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -75 dB
                           500                              1000                1500             2000                    2500 3000                                       3500                  4000                 4500    5000
                                                                                                                        sample number


         Figure 171. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                                                                                165
                     20


                               Into Building

                                                               N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                        S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                             mid. level


                                                                                                                                                     N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                                   S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tower, 1st level




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          bottom stairs
                      0


                     -20
Power (dB)




                     -40


                     -60


                     -80

                                                                                                          Freq. = 226 MHz
             -100                                                                                         Ref. = -9.1 dBm
                                                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -90 dB
                                               500                                           1000                        1500                      2000               2500 3000                                        3500                                4000                    4500                     5000
                                                                                                                                                                    sample number
             Figure 172. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 226.40 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                       20
                                               Into Building

                                                                              N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                                       S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                                      mid. level


                                                                                                                                                                    N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                                                  S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 bottom stairs
                           0



                      -20
        Power (dB)




                      -40



                      -60



                      -80
                                                                                                                      Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                                                      Ref. = -18.6 dBm
                                                                                                                      Approx. noise fl. = -81 dB
                     -100
                                                           500                                          1000                1500                     2000  2500    3000                                                                 3500                         4000            4500                        5000
                                                                                                                                                        sample number


             Figure 173. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 448.30 MHz; receiver at site 1.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 166
                    20




                           Into Building

                                                     N.W.-C-upper
                                                                              S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                               mid. level


                                                                                                                                N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                              S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                  exit building


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             bottom stairs
                     0



                    -20
Power (dB)




                    -40



                    -60



                    -80
                                                                                                       Freq. = 902 MHz
                                                                                                       Ref. = -16.5 dBm
                                                                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -82 dB
             -100
                                           500                                           1000                1500               2000    2500   3000                                                                          3500                     4000                   4500
                                                                                                                                 sample number


                    Figure 174. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 1.
                    20
                                     Into Building

                                                               N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                        S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                   mid. level


                                                                                                                                               N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                             S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             bottom stairs
                    10

                      0

                    -10

                    -20
       Power (dB)




                    -30

                    -40

                    -50

                    -60

                    -70
                                                                                                        Freq. = 1830 MHz
                    -80                                                                                 Ref. = -27.5 dBm
                                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -70 dB
                    -90
                                                 500                                               1000             1500                          2000    2500                                       3000                                   3500             4000
                                                                                                                                                 sample number


               Figure 175. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 1.


                                                                                                                                                                                            167
    500                                                                                                       1
    400                                                               freq. = 49 MHz     median = -63.9 dB 0.8
    300                                                               ref. = -19.1 dBm mean = -62.3 dB        0.6
    200                                                                                  std. dev. = 12.5 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                                       0.2
     0                                                                                                        0
     -90    -80     -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20        -10         0         10

    500                                                                                                       1
    400                                                               freq. = 162 MHz median = -61.9 dB 0.8
    300                                                               ref. = -26.3 dBm mean = -59.9 dB        0.6




                                                                                                                    CDF
N




    200                                                                                  std. dev. = 12.1 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                                       0.2
     0                                                                                                        0
     -90    -80     -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20        -10         0         10

    500                                                                                                       1
    400                                                          freq. = 226 MHz median = -65.3 dB            0.8
    300                                                          ref. = -9.1 dBm       mean = -64.1 dB        0.6
    200                                                                                std. dev. = 13.3 dB    0.4
    100                                                                                                       0.2
      0                                                                                                       0
     -100   -90    -80    -70     -60         -50         -40         -30     -20        -10        0        10
                                        Power (dB)



     Figure 176. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
            walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                                          168
    500                                                                                           1
    400                                                       freq. = 448 MHz median = -56.2 dB 0.8
    300                                                       ref. = -18.6 dBm mean = -54.7 dB    0.6
    200                                                                       std. dev. = 14.0 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                           0.2
     0                                                                                            0
     -90     -80     -70     -60    -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0         10

    500                                                                                           1
    400                                                       freq. = 902 MHz median = -63.8 dB 0.8
    300                                                       ref. = -16.5 dBm mean = -61.8 dB    0.6




                                                                                                        CDF
N




    200                                                                       std. dev. = 14.5 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                           0.2
     0                                                                                            0
     -90     -80     -70     -60    -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0         10

    500                                                                                           1
    400                                                       freq. = 1830 MHz median = -60.8 dB 0.8
    300                                                       ref. = -27.5 dBm mean = -57.9 dB    0.6
    200                                                                       std. dev. = 11.4 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                           0.2
     0                                                                                            0
     -90     -80     -70     -60    -50     -40         -30        -20      -10        0         10
                                     Power (dB)


      Figure 177. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
            walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                                  169
                 20




                          Into Building

                                                     N.W.-C-upper
                                                                         S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                              mid. level


                                                                                                                               N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                 S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                   exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                   entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                   tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                               bottom stairs
                 10

                  0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70
                                                                        Freq. = 49 MHz
             -80                                                        Ref. = -26.3 dBm
                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB
             -90
                          500                                1000                                  1500   2000                2500 3000 3500                     4000              4500                 5000    5500
                                                                                                                               sample number


             Figure 178. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                  20
                                          Into Building

                                                                    N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                        S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                 mid. level


                                                                                                                                  N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                  S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                   exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                    entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                    tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                   bottom stairs
                      0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                                                                                        Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                                                        Ref. = -21.3 dBm
                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -80 dB
                 -100
                                          500                            1000                          1500           2000         2500 3000 3500                           4000              4500         5000                    5500
                                                                                                                                   sample number


         Figure 179. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                                                         170
                     20




                               Into Building

                                                               N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                    S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                     mid. level


                                                                                                                                                N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                          S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                        exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tower, 1st level




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           bottom stairs
                      0



                     -20
Power (dB)




                     -40



                     -60



                     -80
                                                                                               Freq. = 226 MHz
                                                                                               Ref. = -15.8 dBm
                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -83 dB
             -100
                                                500                                          1000    1500    2000      2500   3000                                                                      3500                                   4000                     4500                   5000
                                                                                                                    sample number


     Figure 180. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 226.40 MHz; receiver at site 2.
                       20
                                               Into Building

                                                                              N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                                   S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                                  mid. level


                                                                                                                                                               N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                                         S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tower, 1st level


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               bottom stairs
                           0



                      -20
        Power (dB)




                      -40



                      -60



                      -80
                                                                                                              Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                                              Ref. = -18.2 dBm
                                                                                                              Approx. noise fl. = -81 dB
                     -100
                                                           500                                     1000             1500                       2000  2500    3000                                                3500                               4000                 4500                   5000
                                                                                                                                                  sample number


     Figure 181. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 448.30 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                                                                                         171
               20




                     Into Building

                                                     N.W.-C-upper
                                                                              S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                             mid. level


                                                                                                                                 N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                      S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                exit building


                                                                                                                                                                                                                    entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          bottom stairs
               10

                0

               -10

               -20
Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60

               -70

               -80                                                                       Freq. = 902 MHz
                                                                                         Ref. = -23.5 dBm
               -90                                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -75 dB
                            500                                         1000                         1500                 2000          2500 3000                            3500                       4000                           4500              5000
                                                                                                                                       sample number


             Figure 182. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                20
                                     Into Building

                                                               N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                      S.E.-B-upper



                                                                                                            mid. level



                                                                                                                                       N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                             S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bottom stairs
                10

                 0

               -10

               -20
  Power (dB)




               -30

               -40

               -50

               -60

               -70
                                                                                             Freq. = 1830 MHz
               -80                                                                           Ref. = -25.5 dBm
                                                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB
               -90
                               500                                            1000                   1500                 2000              2500 3000                        3500                               4000                           4500      5000
                                                                                                                                          sample number


      Figure 183. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                                                                                       172
     500                                                                                          1
     400                                                    freq. = 49 MHz    median = -50.6 dB 0.8
     300                                                    ref. = -26.3 dBm mean = -49.8 dB      0.6
     200                                                                      std. dev. = 14.4 dB 0.4
     100                                                                                          0.2
      0                                                                                          0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20         -10       0        10

     500                                                                                          1
     400                                                    freq. = 162 MHz median = -65.0 dB 0.8
     300                                                    ref. = -21.3 dBm mean = -61.1 dB      0.6




                                                                                                        CDF
     200                                                                      std. dev. = 15.3 dB 0.4
N




     100                                                                                          0.2
      0                                                                                          0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20         -10       0        10

     500                                                                                          1
     400                                                    freq. = 226 MHz median = -58.8 dB 0.8
     300                                                    ref. = -15.8 dBm mean = -56.8 dB      0.6
     200                                                                      std. dev. = 14.6 dB 0.4
     100                                                                                          0.2
      0                                                                                          0
      -90     -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20         -10       0        10

                                      Power (dB)


    Figure 184. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
           walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                               173
    500                                                                                      1
    400                                                  freq. = 448 MHz median = -58.1 dB 0.8
    300                                                  ref. = -18.2 dBm mean = -56.9 dB    0.6
    200                                                                  std. dev. = 13.4 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                      0.2
     0                                                                                       0
     -90   -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20      -10        0         10

    500                                                                                      1
    400                                                  freq. = 902 MHz median = -55.4 dB 0.8
    300                                                  ref. = -23.5 dBm mean = -54.0 dB    0.6




                                                                                                   CDF
N




    200                                                                  std. dev. = 13.7 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                      0.2
     0                                                                                       0
     -90   -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20      -10        0         10

    500                                                                                      1
    400                                            freq. = 1830 MHz      median = -60.1 dB 0.8
    300                                            ref. = -25.5 dBm      mean = -58.0 dB     0.6
    200                                                                  std. dev. = 11.8 dB 0.4
    100                                                                                      0.2
     0                                                                                       0
     -90   -80     -70     -60     -50     -40     -30        -20      -10        0         10
                                   Power (dB)

Figure 185. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
      walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                           174
                  20




                        Into Building
                                                        N.W.-C-upper

                                                                                      S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                      mid. level

                                                                                                                                        N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                            S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                           exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                             entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                             tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bottom stairs
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                                                                           Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                                                           Ref. = -13.3 dBm
             -100                                                                          Approx. noise fl. = -86 dB
                            500                                             1000                             1500     2000           2500 3000 3500                                                        4000                   4500               5000
                                                                                                                                    sample number


         Figure 186. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 49.60 MHz; receiver at site 3.
                  20
                                        Into Building

                                                                       N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                              S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                       mid. level

                                                                                                                                    N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                       S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                           exit building



                                                                                                                                                                                                              entering building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tower, 1st level


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        bottom stairs
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                                                                                      Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                                                      Ref. = -16.9 dBm
                 -100                                                                 Approx. noise fl. = -84 dB
                                                                       1000                                         2000                 3000                               4000                                                  5000                                  6000
                                                                                                                                      sample number


      Figure 187. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 162.09 MHz; receiver at site 3.

                                                                                                                                                            175
                  20




                            Into Building

                                                    N.W.-C-upper
                                                                             S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                         mid. level


                                                                                                                               N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                     S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                            exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                      entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                      tower, 1st level




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bottom stairs
                   0


                  -20
Power (dB)




                  -40


                  -60


                  -80

                                                                                               Freq. = 226 MHz
             -100                                                                              Ref. = -7.5 dBm
                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -92 dB
                                        500                                      1000                 1500                   2000   2500   3000                             3500                            4000                  4500                    5000
                                                                                                                                 sample number


    Figure 188. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 226.40 MHz; receiver at site 3.

                   20
                                    Into Building

                                                              N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                       S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                mid. level


                                                                                                                                      N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                             S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                      exit building


                                                                                                                                                                                                              entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                              tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          bottom stairs
                        0



                   -20
     Power (dB)




                   -40



                   -60



                   -80
                                                                                             Freq. = 448 MHz
                                                                                             Ref. = -14.3 dBm
                  -100                                                                       Approx. noise fl. = -85 dB
                                            500                                1000                   1500             2000                   2500 3000 3500                                  4000                  4500           5000                   5500
                                                                                                                                              sample number


    Figure 189. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 448.30 MHz; receiver at site 3.


                                                                                                                                                                    176
                  20




                        Into Building

                                                        N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                 S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                      mid. level

                                                                                                                                    N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                  S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                exit building


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bottom stairs
                    0


                  -20
Power (dB)




                  -40


                  -60


                  -80

                                                                                                     Freq. = 902 MHz
             -100                                                                                    Ref. = -9.4 dBm
                                                                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -89 dB
                                        500                                           1000                     1500                2000   2500    3000                                                   3500                          4000                4500
                                                                                                                                      sample number


      Figure 190. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 902.45 MHz; receiver at site 3.

                  20
                                        Into Building

                                                                       N.W.-C-upper
                                                                                                S.E.-B-upper




                                                                                                                  mid. level



                                                                                                                                                   N.W.-C-lower

                                                                                                                                                                                 S.E.-B-lower




                                                                                                                                                                                                                exit building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       entering building
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tower, 1st level



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bottom stairs
                  10

                   0

                  -10

                  -20
     Power (dB)




                  -30

                  -40

                  -50

                  -60

                  -70
                                                                                                        Freq. = 1830 MHz
                  -80                                                                                   Ref. = -24.6 dBm
                                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -72 dB
                  -90
                                        500                                             1000                   1500                2000    2500     3000                                                        3500                           4000          4500
                                                                                                                                      sample number
  Figure 191. Washington, DC convention center walk-through at 1830.00 MHz; receiver at site 3.

                                                                                                                                                                            177
    200                                                                                                       1
    160                                                               freq. = 49 MHz     median = -67.4 dB 0.8
    120                                                               ref. = -13.3 dBm mean = -65.3 dB        0.6
     80                                                                                  std. dev. = 15.5 dB 0.4
     40                                                                                                       0.2
     0                                                                                                        0
     -90    -80     -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20        -10         0         10

    400                                                                                                       1
    320                                                               freq. = 162 MHz median = -68.9 dB 0.8
    240                                                               ref. = -16.9 dBm mean = -66.0 dB        0.6




                                                                                                                    CDF
N




    160                                                                                  std. dev. = 14.4 dB 0.4
     80                                                                                                       0.2
     0                                                                                                        0
     -90    -80     -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20        -10         0         10

    200                                                                                                       1
    160                                                          freq. = 226 MHz median = -64.2 dB            0.8
    120                                                          ref. = -7.5 dBm       mean = -62.3 dB        0.6
     80                                                                                std. dev. = 15.4 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                                       0.2
      0                                                                                                       0
     -100   -90    -80    -70     -60         -50         -40         -30     -20        -10        0        10
                                        Power (dB)


    Figure 192. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
           walk-through data with the receiver at site 3; 49.60, 162.09, and 226.40 MHz.




                                                          178
    200                                                                                                    1
    160                                                               freq. = 448 MHz median = -58.9 dB 0.8
    120                                                               ref. = -14.3 dBm mean = -57.3 dB     0.6
     80                                                                               std. dev. = 15.1 dB 0.4
     40                                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                                     0
     -90     -80    -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20     -10         0         10

    200                                                                                                    1
    160                                                          freq. = 902 MHz median = -68.5 dB         0.8
    120                                                          ref. = -9.4 dBm    mean = -66.4 dB        0.6




                                                                                                                 CDF
N




     80                                                                             std. dev. = 14.1 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                                    0.2
      0                                                                                                    0
     -100   -90    -80    -70     -60         -50         -40         -30     -20     -10        0        10

    400                                                                                                    1
    320                                                         freq. = 1830 MHz      median = -60.7 dB 0.8
    240                                                         ref. = -24.6 dBm      mean = -58.2 dB      0.6
    160                                                                               std. dev. = 12.1 dB 0.4
     80                                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                                     0
     -90     -80    -70     -60         -50         -40         -30         -20     -10         0         10
                                         Power (dB)


    Figure 193. Washington, DC convention center statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
          walk-through data with the receiver at site 3; 448.30, 902.45, and 1830.00 MHz.




                                                          179
             20
                      L1



                              L2 Apmt

                                        L2 N

                                               L3 S

                                                        L4 N

                                                               L5 S

                                                                      L6 N

                                                                              L7 Apmt


                                                                                        L7 S

                                                                                               L8 N

                                                                                                      L9 S

                                                                                                             L10 N


                                                                                                                     L11 S
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50
                                  Freq. = 162 MHz
             -60                  Ref. = -17.0 dBm
                                  Approx. noise fl. = -91 dB
             -70

             -80
                              500                     1000          1500                   2000               2500           3000
                                                                sample number



                   Figure 194. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at site 1.




                                                                             180
                  20




                          L1



                                     L2 Apmt

                                               L2 N

                                                            L3 S

                                                                       L4 N

                                                                                L5 S

                                                                                       L6 N

                                                                                               L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                L7 S

                                                                                                                          L8 N

                                                                                                                                  L9 S

                                                                                                                                           L10 N

                                                                                                                                                           L11 S
                  10

                   0

                  -10

                  -20
     Power (dB)




                  -30

                  -40

                  -50
                                         Freq. = 230 MHz
                  -60                    Ref. = -12.9 dBm
                                         Approx. noise fl. = -95 dB
                  -70

                  -80
                                     500                           1000               1500                          2000                 2500                              3000
                                                                                   sample number


                       Figure 195. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                  20
                         L1




                                                      L2 Apmt
                                                                L2 N
                                                                        L3 S

                                                                                L4 N



                                                                                              L5 S

                                                                                                         L6 N
                                                                                                                L7 Apmt

                                                                                                                           L7 S

                                                                                                                                  L8 N
                                                                                                                                         L9 S
                                                                                                                                                   L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                   L11 S
                  10

                   0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50
                                 Freq. = 439 MHz
             -60                 Ref. = -13.6 dBm
                                 Approx. noise fl. = -93 dB
             -70

             -80
                               500               1000                         1500       2000                      2500             3000                      3500
                                                                                  sample number
                       Figure 196. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                          181
              20




                    L1



                                    L2 Apmt

                                                        L2 N

                                                                  L3 S

                                                                                L4 N

                                                                                          L5 S

                                                                                                  L6 N


                                                                                                                L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                             L7 S

                                                                                                                                       L8 N

                                                                                                                                                 L9 S

                                                                                                                                                          L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                          L11 S
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60             Freq. = 908 MHz
                              Ref. = -23.1 dBm
              -70             Approx. noise fl. = -84 dB

              -80
                                    500                               1000                    1500        2000                                 2500                         3000
                                                                                            sample number


                    Figure 197. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at site 1.

               20
                         L1



                                              L2 Apmt

                                                               L2 N

                                                                         L3 S

                                                                                   L4 N

                                                                                           L5 S


                                                                                                         L6 N

                                                                                                                   L7 Apmt

                                                                                                                             L7 S

                                                                                                                                      L8 N

                                                                                                                                              L9 S



                                                                                                                                                                  L10 N
                                                                                                                                                                                  L11 S
               10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60
                                 Freq. = 1830 MHz
              -70                Ref. = -32.4 dBm
                                 Approx. noise fl. = -74 dB
              -80
                                  500                           1000                      1500       2000                           2500                3000                        3500
                                                                                            sample number


                Figure 198. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 1830.0 MHz; receiver at site 1.

                                                                                                    182
                20




                          L1




                                                    L2 N

                                                             L3 S

                                                                     L4 N

                                                                              L5 S

                                                                                       L6 N

                                                                                                    L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                     L7 S

                                                                                                                                   L8 N

                                                                                                                                             L9 S

                                                                                                                                                        L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                  L11 S
                                L2 Apmt
                10

                 0

                -10

                -20
   Power (dB)




                -30

                -40

                -50
                         Freq. = 2445 MHz
                -60      Ref. = -55.6 dBm
                         Approx. noise fl. = -45 dB
                -70

                -80
                                    2000                      4000              6000       8000                                     10000                       12000
                                                                               sample number


                     Figure 199. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 2445 MHz; receiver at site 1

                20
                           L1


                                          L2 Apmt
                                                      L2 N

                                                              L3 S

                                                                     L4 N

                                                                              L5 S

                                                                                     L6 N

                                                                                              L7 Apmt


                                                                                                              L7 S

                                                                                                                            L8 N

                                                                                                                                      L9 S

                                                                                                                                                L10 N

                                                                                                                                                        L11 S
                10

                 0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60

             -70            Freq. = 4900 MHz                            Ref. = -44.8 dBm                              Approx. noise fl. = -58 dB

             -80
                                2000                       4000             6000       8000                          10000                   12000                14000
                                                                               sample number


                      Figure 200. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 4900 MHz; receiver at site 1

                                                                                     183
    200                                                                                     1
    160 freq. = 162 MHz                                         median = -25.9 dB           0.8
    120 ref. = -17.0 dBm                                        mean = -24.9 dB             0.6
     80                                                         std. dev. = 10.4 dB         0.4
     40                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80     -70      -60   -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    200                                                                                     1
    160 freq. = 230 MHz                                         median = -26.8 dB           0.8
    120 ref. = -12.9 dBm                                        mean = -25.9 dB             0.6




                                                                                                  CDF
N




     80                                                         std. dev. = 10.4 dB         0.4
     40                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80     -70      -60   -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20

    200                                                                                     1
    160 freq. = 439 MHz                                         median = -27.2 dB           0.8
    120 ref. = -13.6 dBm                                        mean = -25.4 dB             0.6
     80                                                         std. dev. = 11.0 dB         0.4
     40                                                                                     0.2
      0                                                                                     0
      -80     -70      -60   -50     -40     -30         -20   -10       0            10   20
                                      Power (dB)


    Figure 201. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
            walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 162.075, 230.0 and 439.25 MHz.




                                                   184
     200                                                                                   1
     160 freq. = 908 MHz                                       median = -27.8 dB           0.8
     120 ref. = -23.1 dBm                                      mean = -27.0 dB             0.6




                                                                                                 CDF
N




      80                                                       std. dev. = 10.9 dB         0.4
      40                                                                                   0.2
       0                                                                                   0
       -80     -70      -60   -50     -40     -30     -20     -10       0            10   20

     200                                                                                   1
     160 freq. = 1830 MHz                                      median = -26.2 dB           0.8
     120 ref. = -32.4 dBm                                      mean = -25.6 dB             0.6
      80                                                       std. dev. = 12.8 dB         0.4
      40                                                                                   0.2
       0                                                                                   0
       -80     -70      -60   -50     -40     -30     -20     -10       0            10   20
                                      Power (dB)

    Figure 202. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
                walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 908.0 and 1830.0 MHz.




                                                185
    500                                                                                    1
    400 freq. = 2445 MHz                                            median = -17.9 dB      0.8
    300 ref. = -55.6 dBm                                            mean = -17.5 dB        0.6




                                                                                                 CDF
N




    200                                                             std. dev. = 12.0 dB    0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80       -70         -60   -50   -40    -30   -20    -10      0        10           20

    500                                                                                    1
    400 freq. = 4900 MHz                                            median = -37.6 dB      0.8
    300 ref. = -44.8 dBm                                            mean = -36.3 dB        0.6
    200                                                             std. dev. = 13.6 dB    0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80       -70         -60   -50   -40    -30   -20    -10      0        10           20
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 203. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
             walk-through data with the receiver at site 1; 2445 and 4900 MHz.




                                              186
                20




                                  L1


                                                  L2 Apmt

                                                                   L2 N

                                                                                 L3 S

                                                                                           L4 N

                                                                                                     L5 S

                                                                                                              L6 N

                                                                                                                       L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                                 L7 S
                                                                                                                                         L8 N
                                                                                                                                                  L9 S

                                                                                                                                                            L10 N


                                                                                                                                                                             L11 S
                10

                 0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60                 Freq. = 162 MHz
                                 Ref. = -24.4 dBm
             -70                 Approx. noise fl. = -82 dB
                             500         1000                              1500                  2000     2500                          3000                3500                     4000
                                                                                               sample number
                  Figure 204. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                20
                            L1



                                        L2 Apmt

                                                            L2 N

                                                                          L3 S

                                                                                        L4 N

                                                                                                  L5 S

                                                                                                            L6 N

                                                                                                                     L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                                 L7 S

                                                                                                                                           L8 N

                                                                                                                                                     L9 S

                                                                                                                                                                    L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                              L11 S
                10

                 0

                -10
   Power (dB)




                -20

                -30

                -40

                -50               Freq. = 230 MHz
                                  Ref. = -29.2 dBm
                -60               Approx. noise fl. = -77 dB

                                 500               1000                            1500               2000      2500                              3000                      3500
                                                                                                  sample number


                      Figure 205. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at site 2.


                                                                                                            187
             20




                    L1




                                                     L2 Apmt
                                                                L2 N
                                                                         L3 S
                                                                                 L4 N



                                                                                                L5 S
                                                                                                       L6 N
                                                                                                                   L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                                L7 S
                                                                                                                                         L8 N
                                                                                                                                                  L9 S
                                                                                                                                                           L10 N
                                                                                                                                                                   L11 S
             10

              0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50                             Freq. = 439 MHz
                                             Ref. = -33.3 dBm
             -60                             Approx. noise fl. = -73 dBm

                         500    1000                 1500                     2000    2500    3000                           3500               4000               4500
                                                                                sample number


              Figure 206. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at site 2.
             20
                               L1


                                           L2 Apmt

                                                               L2 N
                                                                       L3 S

                                                                                L4 N

                                                                                        L5 S

                                                                                               L6 N

                                                                                                         L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                             L7 S

                                                                                                                                       L8 N
                                                                                                                                                L9 S

                                                                                                                                                          L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                   L11 S
             10

               0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

             -50                       Freq. = 908 MHz
                                       Ref. = -39.4 dBm
             -60                       Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB

                         500        1000                 1500                   2000     2500                 3000                  3500                 4000              4500
                                                                                sample numbers


               Figure 207. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                        188
                20




                                       L1



                                                         L2 Apmt


                                                                      L2 N

                                                                              L3 S

                                                                                      L4 N

                                                                                                L5 S

                                                                                                              L6 N


                                                                                                                           L7 Apmt

                                                                                                                                        L7 S
                                                                                                                                                 L8 N



                                                                                                                                                                   L10 N
                                                                                                                                                                           L11 S
                10

                      0

             -10
Power (dB)




             -20

             -30

             -40

                              Freq. = 1830 MHz
             -50
                              Ref. = -44.0 dBm
                              Approx. noise fl. = -60 dB
             -60

                                 500        1000               1500          2000        2500   3000                        3500               4000        4500                5000
                                                                                      sample number


                      Figure 208. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 1830.0 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                      20
                                    L1


                                               L2 Apmt
                                                             L2 N

                                                                      L3 S

                                                                               L4 N

                                                                                         L5 S

                                                                                                       L6 N

                                                                                                                 L7 Apmt


                                                                                                                                 L7 S

                                                                                                                                          L8 N

                                                                                                                                                    L9 S

                                                                                                                                                           L10 N

                                                                                                                                                                       L11 S
                      10

                          0

                      -10

                      -20
         Power (dB)




                      -30

                      -40

                      -50
                                    Freq. = 2445 MHz
                      -60           Ref. = -61.0 dBm
                                    Approx. noise fl. = -41 dB
                      -70

                      -80
                       5000       6000       7000                  8000      9000        10000 11100 12000 13000 14000 15000
                                                                                        sample number


                          Figure 209. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 2445 MHz; receiver at site 2.

                                                                                                189
             20




                    L1


                            L2 Apmt

                                      L2 N

                                             L3 S

                                                    L4 N

                                                            L5 S

                                                                    L6 N

                                                                           L7 Apmt

                                                                                     L7 S

                                                                                              L8 N

                                                                                                     L9 S

                                                                                                            L10 N

                                                                                                                    L11 S
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50
                                                            Freq. = 4900 MHz
             -60                                            Ref. = -55.9 dBm
                                                            Approx. noise fl. = -46 dB
             -70

             -80
                   2000   3000        4000     5000        6000 7000 8000                   9000 10000 11000 12000
                                                             sample number



              Figure 210. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through at 4900 MHz; receiver at site 2.




                                                                   190
    200                                                                                    1
    160    freq. = 162 MHz                                           median = -27.8 dB 0.8
    120    ref. = -24.4 dBm                                          mean = -27.4 dB       0.6
     80                                                              std. dev. = 10.1 dB 0.4
     40                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80     -70       -60    -50   -40    -30     -20     -10      0         10          20

    200                                                                                    1
    160    freq. = 230 MHz                                           median = -19.3 dB 0.8




                                                                                                 CDF
    120    ref. = -29.2 dBm                                          mean = -19.0 dB       0.6
N




     80                                                              std. dev. = 9.5 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80     -70       -60    -50   -40    -30     -20     -10      0         10          20

    200                                                                                    1
    160    freq. = 439 MHz                                           median = -17.9 dB 0.8
    120    ref. = -33.3 dBm                                          mean = -18.7 dB       0.6
     80                                                              std. dev. = 9.6 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80     -70       -60    -50   -40    -30     -20     -10      0         10          20
                                    Power (dB)


Figure 211. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
        walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 162.075, 230.0, and 439.25 MHz.




                                            191
    200                                                                                    1
    160    freq. = 908 MHz                                           median = -21.2 dB 0.8
    120    ref. = -39.4 dBm                                          mean = -21.4 dB       0.6




                                                                                                 CDF
N




     80                                                              std. dev. = 9.5 dB    0.4
     40                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80     -70       -60    -50   -40     -30     -20     -10      0        10          20

    200                                                                                    1
    160    freq. = 1830 MHz                                          median = -25.6 dB 0.8
    120    ref. = -44.0 dBm                                          mean = -25.6 dB       0.6
     80                                                              std. dev. = 10.2 dB 0.4
     40                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80     -70       -60    -50   -40     -30     -20     -10      0        10          20
                                    Power (dB)


Figure 212. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
            walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 908.0 and 1830.0 MHz.




                                            192
    500                                                                                    1
    400    freq. = 2445 MHz                                         median = -25.6 dB      0.8
    300    ref. = -61.0 dBm                                         mean = -24.8 dB        0.6




                                                                                                 CDF
    200                                                             std. dev. = 9.6 dB     0.4
N




    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80      -70        -60   -50   -40    -30    -20     -10      0        10           20

    500                                                                                    1
    400    freq. = 4900 MHz                                         median = -30.8 dB      0.8
    300    ref. = -55.9 dBm                                         mean = -29.9 dB        0.6
    200                                                             std. dev. = 10.3 dB    0.4
    100                                                                                    0.2
     0                                                                                     0
     -80      -70        -60   -50   -40    -30    -20     -10      0        10           20

                                     Power (dB)


Figure 213. Boulder, CO apartment walk-through statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for
             walk-through data with the receiver at site 2; 2445 and 4900 MHz.




                                            193
                20




                                                                                                            position 4
                                                                                  position 3
                                   position 1




                                                        position 2




                                                                                                                                      position 5
                                                                                                                                      position 6
                                                                                                                                                      position 7
                                                                                                                                                                         position 8



                                                                                                                                                                                             top of tower


                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             position 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 1
                 0



                -20
Power (dB)




                -40



                -60



                -80                         Freq. = 49 MHz
                                            Ref. = -30.2 dBm
                                            Approx. noise fl. = -73 dB

               -100
                                                1500                                  2000                                                  2500                                                     3000                 3500
                                                                                                                                        sample number


                Figure 214. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 49.85 MHz; receiver at south site.
                 20
                                                                                                                         position 4
                                                                                               position 3
                      position 1




                                                                     position 2




                                                                                                                                         position 5
                                                                                                                                         position 6
                                                                                                                                                            position 7
                                                                                                                                                                                position 8



                                                                                                                                                                                             top of tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 1
                  0



                -20
  Power (dB)




                -40



                -60



                -80
                                                  Freq. = 162 MHz                                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -83 dB
                                                  Ref. = -20.4 dBm
               -100
                                                 500                                                  1000                                       1500                                                       2000                           2500
                                                                                                                                        sample number


               Figure 215. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at south site.

                                                                                                                                                   194
                  20




                                                                                                                             position 6
                                     position 1


                                                                 position 2


                                                                                          position 3

                                                                                                              position 4
                                                                                                                             position 5


                                                                                                                                                     position 7
                                                                                                                                                                   position 8




                                                                                                                                                                                 top of tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              position 1
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                                                  Freq. = 230 MHz                                                                                        Approx. noise fl. = -87 dB
                                                  Ref. = -17.7 dBm
                 -100
                                                  200                         400                      600                              800    1000    1200                                      1400             1600                 1800                       2000
                                                                                                                                           sample number


                  Figure 216. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at south site.

                  20
                                                                                                                                        position 6
                        position 1


                                                    position 2


                                                                                    position 3

                                                                                                       position 4

                                                                                                                           position 5


                                                                                                                                                     position 7

                                                                                                                                                                    position 8




                                                                                                                                                                                  top of tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 1
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                                                                Freq. = 439 MHz                                                                   Approx. noise fl. = -80 dB
                                                                                Ref. = -23.8 dBm

             -100
                200                               400                         600                            800                                1000    1200                     1400                1600                      1800                          2000
                                                                                                                                                 sample number


                 Figure 217. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at south site.

                                                                                                                                                                  195
              20




                                                                                                                   position 6
                     position 1


                                               position 2


                                                                   position 3

                                                                                        position 4

                                                                                                      position 5


                                                                                                                                position 7

                                                                                                                                              position 8



                                                                                                                                                           on the top



                                                                                                                                                                                          position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 1
               0



              -20
Power (dB)




              -40



              -60


                                                             Freq. = 908 MHz
              -80                                            Ref. = -31.6 dBm
                                                             Approx. noise fl. = -72 dB


             -100
                          400                          600                      800                     1000                      1200    1400                                   1600                   1800                         2000
                                                                                                                                sample number


              Figure 218. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at south site.
              20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 1
                    position 1

                                  position 2

                                                            position 3
                                                            position 4
                                                            position 5

                                                                                       position 7
                                                                                       position 8




                                                                                                                                                                        top of tower




                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 8
                0
                                                                          position 6




              -20
Power (dB)




              -40



              -60


                                                                  Freq. = 1830 MHz
              -80                                                 Ref. = -31.2 dBm
                                                                  Approx. noise fl. = -72 dB


             -100
                                                            500                                      1000                             1500                                         2000                                2500
                                                                                                                                sample number


             Figure 219. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 1830.1 MHz; receiver at south site.


                                                                                                                                             196
                20




                      position 1


                                     position 2


                                                          position 3

                                                                       position 4

                                                                                       position 5

                                                                                                             position 7

                                                                                                                                   position 8




                                                                                                                                                                     top of tower




                                                                                                                                                                                              position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 1
                                                                                       position 6
                 0



                -20
Power (dB)




                -40



                -60


                                                           Freq. = 2445 MHz
                -80                                        Ref. = -32.0 dBm
                                                           Approx. noise fl. = -71 dB


               -100
                                                  500                                       1000                                    1500                                                                2000                              2500
                                                                                                                          sample number


                                    Figure 220. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 2445.0 MHz.

                 20
                       position 1


                                    position 2


                                                        position 3

                                                                       position 4
                                                                                    position 5
                                                                                    position 6
                                                                                                    position 7
                                                                                                                      position 8



                                                                                                                                                      top of tower




                                                                                                                                                                                           position 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                             position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                             position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 1
                  0



                -20
  Power (dB)




                -40



                -60


                                                    Freq. = 4900 MHz
                -80                                 Ref. = -33.6 dBm
                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -69 dB


               -100
                                     500                                            1000                                      1500                                                  2000                                   2500
                                                                                                                          sample number


                Figure 221. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 4900.0 MHz; receiver at south site.

                                                                                                                                                197
    200                                                                                 1
               freq. = 49 MHz                                median = -57.1 dB          0.8
               ref. = -30.2 dBm                              mean = -55.9 dB            0.6
    100
                                                             std. dev. = 13.2 dB        0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50    -40    -30   -20      -10           0   10

    200                                                                                 1
               freq. = 162 MHz                               median = -51.2 dB          0.8




                                                                                              CDF
               ref. = -20.4 dBm                              mean = -47.9 dB            0.6
N




    100
                                                             std. dev. = 13.8 dB        0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50    -40    -30   -20      -10           0   10

    200                                                                                 1
               freq. = 230 MHz                               median = -49.0 dB          0.8
               ref. = -17.7 dBm                              mean = -47.3 dB            0.6
    100
                                                             std. dev. = 14.9 dB        0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80      -70         -60   -50     -40   -30   -20      -10           0   10
                                         Power (dB)

Figure 222. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
              data at 49.85, 162.075, and 230.0 MHz; receiver at south site.




                                              198
    200                                                                                1
              freq. = 439 MHz                                median = -47.6 dB         0.8
              ref. = -23.8 dBm                               mean = -45.3 dB           0.6
    100
                                                             std. dev. = 14.6 dB       0.4
                                                                                       0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90    -80      -70         -60   -50   -40    -30    -20       -10           0   10

    200                                                                                1
              freq. = 908 MHz                                median = -47.2 dB         0.8




                                                                                             CDF
              ref. = -31.6 dBm                               mean = -44.8 dB           0.6
N




    100
                                                             std. dev. = 14.8 dB       0.4
                                                                                       0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90    -80      -70         -60   -50   -40    -30    -20       -10           0   10

    200                                                                                1
              freq. = 1830 MHz                               median = -50.3 dB         0.8
              ref. = -31.2 dBm                               mean = -49.4 dB           0.6
    100
                                                             std. dev. = 12.3 dB       0.4
                                                                                       0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90    -80      -70         -60   -50    -40   -30    -20       -10           0   10
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 223. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
              data at 439.25, 908.0, and 1830.1 MHz; receiver at south site.




                                             199
     200                                                                                1
               freq. = 2445 MHz                               median = -52.0 dB         0.8




                                                                                              CDF
               ref. = -32.0 dBm                               mean = -48.3 dB           0.6
     100
 N




                                                              std. dev. = 16.1 dB       0.4
                                                                                        0.2
       0                                                                                 0
      -90     -80     -70         -60   -50    -40   -30     -20      -10           0   10

     200                                                                                1
               freq. = 4900 MHz                               median = -54.8 dB         0.8
               ref. = -33.6 dBm                               mean = -50.4 dB           0.6
     100
                                                              std. dev. = 16.6 dB       0.4
                                                                                        0.2
       0                                                                                 0
      -90     -80     -70         -60   -50    -40   -30     -20      -10           0   10
                                        Power (dB)

Figure 224. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                 data at 2445.0 and 4900.0 MHz; receiver at south site.




                                              200
                20




                        position 1


                                           position 2


                                                           position 3

                                                                           position 4

                                                                                              position 5

                                                                                                                        position 6
                                                                                                                        position 7

                                                                                                                                        position 8




                                                                                                                                                                  top of the tower


                                                                                                                                                                                      position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                   position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                   position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      position 1
                 0



               -20
 Power (dB)




               -40



               -60



               -80                   Freq. = 49 MHz
                                     Ref. = -25.6 dBm
                                     Approx. noise fl. = -74 db
              -100
                      1000                                  1500                                                             2000                         2500                                              3000
                                                                                                                             sample number


               Figure 225. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 49.85 MHz; receiver at north site.

               20
                     position 1


                                        position 2


                                                        position 3

                                                                        position 4
                                                                                        position 5
                                                                                                           position 6
                                                                                                                          position 7

                                                                                                                                        position 8



                                                                                                                                                     on the top



                                                                                                                                                                                      position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                   position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                   position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      position 1
                 0



               -20
Power (dB)




               -40



               -60



               -80
                                                            Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                            Ref. = -25.0 dBm
                                                            Approx. noise fl. = -79 dB
              -100
                           200                 400            600                        800                               1000   1200   1400                                        1600                1800                        2000
                                                                                                                           sample number


              Figure 226. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at north site.

                                                                                                                                       201
                 20




                        position 1


                                               position 2


                                                                          position 3

                                                                                                    position 4

                                                                                                                              position 5


                                                                                                                                                        position 7

                                                                                                                                                                                  position 8




                                                                                                                                                                                                            top of the tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      position 1
                                                                                                                              position 6
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                                               Freq. = 230 MHz                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -81 dB
                                                               Ref. = -23.2 dBm
             -100
                                             200                    400                             600                               800                  1000    1200                                                          1400                     1600                        1800                                 2000
                                                                                                                                                         sample number
                 Figure 227. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at north site.

                  20
                                position 1


                                                       position 2


                                                                                       position 3

                                                                                                                 position 4

                                                                                                                                  position 5


                                                                                                                                                                     position 7

                                                                                                                                                                                               position 8



                                                                                                                                                                                                                         top of the tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 12
                                                                                                                                                position 6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 1
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                                                                                                                                               Freq. = 439 MHz
                                                                                                                                               Ref. = -23.6 dBm
                                                                                                                                               Approx. noise fl. = -80 dB
                 -100
                                             200                     400                                600                                    800              1000    1200                                                                1400                    1600                    1800                                  2000
                                                                                                                                                             sample numbers


                 Figure 228. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at north site.



                                                                                                                                                                             202
                 20




                          position 1


                                                  position 2


                                                                                  position 3

                                                                                                            position 4

                                                                                                                         position 5
                                                                                                                                        position 6
                                                                                                                                                      position 7

                                                                                                                                                                    position 8



                                                                                                                                                                                 top of the tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 1
                  0



                -20
  Power (dB)




                -40



                -60



                -80
                                                                                                        Freq. = 908 MHz
                                                                                                                                                                                   Approx. noise fl. = -77 dBm
                                                                                                            Ref. = -25.7 dBm
               -100
                      200                400                          600                                       800                    1000   1200   1400                                           1600            1800                  2000                  2200
                                                                                                                                         sample number
                Figure 229. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at north site.

                20
                      position 1


                                         position 2


                                                                     position 3

                                                                                               position 4
                                                                                                                  position 5
                                                                                                                  position 6
                                                                                                                                      position 7
                                                                                                                                                     position 8




                                                                                                                                                                                 top of the tower



                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                       position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 1
                 0



                -20
Power (dB)




                -40



                -60



                -80                     Freq. = 1830 MHz
                                        Ref. = -29.9 dBm
                                        Approx. noise fl. = -73 dBm

               -100
                                       200                     400                        600                            800                         1000 1200 1400                                  1600             1800                2000                  2200
                                                                                                                                                     sample number
                Figure 230. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 1830.1 MHz; receiver at north site.



                                                                                                                                                                   203
                  20



                        position 1


                                            position 2


                                                                 position 3

                                                                                 position 4
                                                                                              position 5
                                                                                              position 6

                                                                                                            position 7
                                                                                                                            position 8



                                                                                                                                              top of the tower

                                                                                                                                                                                    position 8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              position 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      position 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         position 1
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80
                                          Freq. = 4900 MHz
                                          Ref. = -23.8 dBm
                                          Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB
                 -100
                                                               500                                   1000                         1500                                                            2000                                                                2500
                                                                                                                         sample number
                 Figure 231. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 2445.0 MHz; receiver at north site.

                  20
                             position 1


                                                  position 2


                                                                   position 3
                                                                                position 4

                                                                                               position 5
                                                                                               position 6
                                                                                                               position 7

                                                                                                                                 position 8




                                                                                                                                                                 top of the tower




                                                                                                                                                                                                  position 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 9
                                                                                                                                                                                                               position 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            position 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             position 12


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    position 1
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80                 Freq. = 2445 MHz
                                     Ref. = -28.5 dBm
                                     Approx. noise fl. = -73 dBm

             -100
                                                         500                                  1000                          1500                                                                 2000                                                             2500
                                                                                                                    sample number


                 Figure 232. SUNCOR oil refinery walk-through at 4900.0 MHz; receiver at north site.


                                                                                                                                     204
      200                                                                                        1
                    freq. = 49 MHz                                     median = -52.5 dB         0.8
                    ref. = -25.6 dBm                                   mean = -50.3 dB           0.6
      100                                                              std. dev. = 16.6 dB       0.4
                                                                                                 0.2
        0                                                                                         0
       -90        -80       -70        -60     -50        -40   -30   -20      -10           0   10

      200                                                                                        1
             freq. = 162 MHz      median = -35.5 dB                                              0.8




                                                                                                       CDF
             ref. = -25.0 dBm     mean = -33.7 dB                                                0.6
  N




      100
                                  std. dev. = 13.9 dB                                            0.4
                                                                                                 0.2
        0                                                                                         0
       -90        -80       -70        -60     -50        -40   -30   -20      -10           0   10

      200                                                                                        1
             freq. = 230 MHz      median = -34.8 dB                                              0.8
             ref. = -23.2 dBm     mean = -34.1 dB                                                0.6
      100
                                  std. dev. = 14.5 dB                                            0.4
                                                                                                 0.2
        0                                                                                         0
       -90        -80       -70        -60     -50     -40      -30   -20      -10           0   10
                                                Power (dB)

Figure 233. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
              data at 49.85, 162.075, and 230.0 MHz; receiver at north site.




                                                        205
    200                                                                                 1
                      freq. = 439 MHz                                median = -38.5 dB 0.8
                      ref. = -23.6 dBm                               mean = -37.8 dB    0.6
    100
                                                                     std. dev. = 14.6 dB 0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80     -70     -60         -50    -40    -30   -20    -10       0        10

    200                                                                                 1
                      freq. = 908 MHz                                median = -44.8 dB 0.8




                                                                                               CDF
                      ref. = -25.7 dBm                               mean = -42.7 dB    0.6
    100
N




                                                                     std. dev. = 17.0 dB 0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80     -70     -60         -50    -40    -30   -20    -10       0        10

    200                                                                                 1
                      freq. = 1830 MHz                               median = -41.6 dB 0.8
                      ref. = -29.9 dBm                               mean = -39.7 dB    0.6
    100
                                                                     std. dev. = 15.1 dB 0.4
                                                                                        0.2
      0                                                                                 0
     -90     -80     -70     -60         -50    -40    -30   -20    -10       0        10
                                          Power (dB)



Figure 234. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
              data at 439.25, 908.0, and 1830.1 MHz; receiver at north site.




                                               206
      200                                                                                     1
                         freq. = 2445 MHz                                  median = -43.1 dB 0.8




                                                                                                     CDF
                         ref. = -28.5 dBm                                  mean = -41.1 dB    0.6
      100
  N

                                                                           std. dev. = 17.5 dB 0.4
                                                                                              0.2
         0                                                                                    0
        -90    -80     -70      -60         -50         -40   -30   -20   -10       0        10

      200                                                                                     1
                         freq. = 4900 MHz                                  median = -50.1 dB 0.8
                         ref. = -23.8 dBm                                  mean = -48.5 dB    0.6
      100
                                                                           std. dev. = 16.8 dB 0.4
                                                                                              0.2
         0                                                                                    0
        -90    -80     -70      -60         -50    -40        -30   -20   -10       0        10
                                            Power (dB)

Figure 235. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                 data at 2445.0 and 4900.0 MHz; receiver at north site.




                                                  207
              20




                    Start




                                          Alpha




                                                                 Bravo




                                                                                          Charlie



                                                                                                              Delta




                                                                                                                                     Echo
               0



              -20
Power (dB)




              -40



              -60



              -80                                                Freq. = 49 MHz
                                                                 Ref. = -27.5 dBm
                                                                 Approx. noise fl. = -73 dB

             -100
                                100       200              300           400         500     600                 700           800   900           1000
                                                                                 sample number
               Figure 236. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 49.85 MHz; receiver at north site.

              20
                            Start




                                                   Alpha




                                                                         Bravo




                                                                                                    Charlie




                                                                                                                       Delta




                                                                                                                                            Echo
               0



              -20
Power (dB)




              -40



              -60



              -80
                                    Freq. = 162 MHz
                                                                         Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB
                                    Ref. = -25.7 dBm

             -100
                                    100           200        300                 400      500                 600          700       800           900
                                                                                 sample number


              Figure 237. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 162.075 MHz; receiver at north site.


                                                                                    208
                20


                     Start



                                   Alpha



                                                   Bravo




                                                                         Charlie


                                                                                        Delta




                                                                                                          Echo
                 0



               -20
 Power (dB)




               -40



               -60



               -80                                   Freq. = 230 MHz
                                                     Ref. = -25.8 dBm
                                                     Approx. noise fl. = -78 dB

              -100
                                   200                     400                      600          800                   1000        1200
                                                                                   sample number
                     Figure 238. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 230.0 MHz; receiver at north site.

               20
                                   Start




                                                           Alpha



                                                                               Bravo




                                                                                                Charlie




                                                                                                                                Echo
                0



               -20
Power (dB)




               -40



               -60



               -80                         Freq. = 439 MHz
                                           Ref. = -26.6 dBm
                                           Approx. noise fl. = -76 dB
              -100
                             100           200   300               400          500    600   700                 800      900   1000      1100
                                                                               sample number


                 Figure 239. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 439.25 MHz; receiver at north site.

                                                                                       209
                  20




                            Start




                                               Alpha




                                                                 Bravo




                                                                                             Charlie



                                                                                                       Delta




                                                                                                                                             Echo
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80                                            Freq. = 908 MHz
                                                                Ref. = -30.0 dBm
                                                                Approx. noise fl. = -73 dB

             -100
                              100             200      300          400        500    600                  700         800      900      1000
                                                                           sample number
                       Figure 240. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 908.0 MHz; receiver at north site.

                  20
                                      Start




                                                        Alpha




                                                                               Bravo




                                                                                                       Charlie



                                                                                                                        Delta




                                                                                                                                      Echo
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60

                                                                Freq. = 1830 MHz
                                                                Ref. = -43.7 dBm
                  -80                                           Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB



                 -100
                                100           200      300               400      500     600                    700   800      900          1000
                                                                               sample number
                   Figure 241. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 1830.1 MHz; receiver at north site.



                                                                                       210
                 20


                        Start


                                          Alpha



                                                          Bravo




                                                                              Charlie



                                                                                               Delta




                                                                                                                         Echo
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60

                                                                    Freq. = 2445 MHz
                                                                    Ref. = -39.3 dBm
                 -80                                                Approx. noise fl. = -62 dB



             -100
                                                  200                   400                   600         800                           1000            1200
                                                                                         sample number
                  Figure 242. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 2445.0 MHz; receiver at north site.


                  20
                                Start



                                                  Alpha




                                                                                 Bravo




                                                                                                              Charlie



                                                                                                                                Delta




                                                                                                                                                      Echo
                   0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60

                                                                        Freq. = 4900 MHz
                                                                        Ref. = -36.5 dBm
                  -80                                                   Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB



                 -100
                                        100        200            300     400             500     600   700             800       900          1000   1100
                                                                                          sample number
                  Figure 243. SUNCOR oil refinery road drive at 4900.0 MHz; receiver at north site.


                                                                                             211
      200                                                                                   1
                freq. = 49 MHz                                    median = -51.9 dB         0.8
                ref. = -27.5 dBm                                  mean = -51.2 dB           0.6
      100
                                                                  std. dev. = 7.3 dB        0.4
                                                                                            0.2
        0                                                                                    0
       -90     -80     -70         -60   -50         -40   -30   -20      -10           0   10

      200                                                                                   1
                freq. = 162 MHz                                   median = -48.3 dB         0.8




                                                                                                  CDF
                ref. = -25.7 dBm                                  mean = -44.8 dB           0.6
  N




      100
                                                                  std. dev. = 13.7 dB       0.4
                                                                                            0.2
        0                                                                                    0
       -90     -80     -70         -60   -50         -40   -30   -20      -10           0   10

      200                                                                                   1
                freq. = 230 MHz                                   median = -47.5 dB         0.8
                ref. = -25.8 dBm                                  mean = -50.1 dB           0.6
      100
                                                                  std. dev. = 5.9 dB        0.4
                                                                                            0.2
        0                                                                                    0
       -90     -80     -70         -60   -50     -40       -30   -20      -10           0   10
                                          Power (dB)



Figure 244. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                        data at 49.85, 162.075, and 230.0 MHz.




                                               212
    200                                                                               1
             freq. = 439 MHz                                median = -48.4 dB         0.8
             ref. = -26.6 dBm                               mean = -45.3 dB           0.6
    100
                                                            std. dev. = 13.6 dB       0.4
                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                0
     -90   -80      -70         -60   -50    -40     -30   -20      -10           0   10

    200                                                                               1
             freq. = 908 MHz                                median = -51.0 dB         0.8




                                                                                            CDF
             ref. = -30.0 dBm                               mean = -45.6 dB           0.6
N




    100
                                                            std. dev. = 17.9 dB       0.4
                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                0
     -90   -80      -70         -60   -50    -40     -30   -20      -10           0   10

    200                                                                               1
             freq. = 1830 MHz                               median = -42.0 dB         0.8
             ref. = -43.7 dBm                               mean = -40.1 dB           0.6
    100
                                                            std. dev. = 11.6 dB       0.4
                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                0
     -90   -80      -70         -60   -50     -40    -30   -20      -10           0   10
                                        Power (dB)


Figure 245. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                        data at 439.25, 908.0, and 1830.1 MHz.




                                             213
    200                                                                               1
             freq. = 2445 MHz                               median = -43.8 dB         0.8




                                                                                            CDF
             ref. = -39.3 dBm                               mean = -41.8 dB           0.6
    100
N




                                                            std. dev. = 12.1 dB       0.4
                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                0
     -90    -80     -70         -60   -50    -40    -30    -20      -10           0   10

    200                                                                               1
             freq. = 4900 MHz                               median = -51.4 dB         0.8
             ref. = -36.5 dBm                               mean = -48.2 dB           0.6
    100
                                                            std. dev. = 11.4 dB       0.4
                                                                                      0.2
      0                                                                                0
     -90    -80     -70         -60   -50     -40   -30    -20      -10           0   10
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 246. SUNCOR oil refinery statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                            data at 2445.0 and 4900.0 MHz.




                                             214
                              Ref. 1


                                          position A




                                                                                     position B




                                                                                                                          position C




                                                                                                                                                                  position D
                 20



                  0



             -20
Power (dB)




             -40



             -60



             -80                                          Freq. = 49 MHz                     Ref. = -29.6 dBm Approx. noise fl. = -67 dB

                                       200                                 400                      600        800                     1000      1200     1400
                                                                                                      sample number
         Figure 247. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 49.8 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.

                  20
                          Ref. 1



                                                       position A




                                                                                       position B




                                                                                                             position C




                                                                                                                                                          position D
                      0



                  -20
    Power (dB)




                  -40



                  -60



                  -80

                               Freq. = 162 MHz                                   Ref. = -12.5 dBm                         Approx. noise fl. = -88 dB
                 -100
                                   1000                             1200         1400                   1600     1800                     2000     2200            2400
                                                                                                      sample number
Figure 248. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.


                                                                                                          215
             40



                   Ref. 1




                                                                                 position B




                                                                                                       position C




                                                                                                                                           position D
             20



              0                    position A
Power (dB)




             -20



             -40



             -60

                                    Freq. = 230 MHz                          Ref. = -35.0 dBm        Approx. noise fl. = -68 dB
             -80
                800                             1000                  1200           1400                1600                 1800          2000
                                                                                sample number
 Figure 249. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.


             40
                      Ref. 1




                                                  position A




                                                                                  position B




                                                                                                           position C




                                                                                                                                            position D
             20



              0
Power (dB)




             -20



             -40



             -60

                                        Freq. = 439 MHz                       Ref. = -36.5 dBm             Approx. noise fl. = -66 dB
             -80
                            1200       1300                    1400   1500     1600 1700 1800                       1900   2000   2100   2200
                                                                                 sample number
Figure 250. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.

                                                                                               216
               40




                       Ref. 1


                                 position A




                                                                                        position B




                                                                                                        position C




                                                                                                                                       position D
               20



                0
Power (dB)




               -20



               -40



               -60

                                Freq. = 908 MHz                         Ref. = -39.1 dBm             Approx. noise fl. = -64 dB

               -80
                     200                      400                600             800        1000                        1200    1400
                                                                               sample number
       Figure 251. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.

                40
                      Ref. 1




                                                                           position B




                                                                                                           position C




                                                                                                                                                    position D
                                                    position A




                20



                 0
  Power (dB)




               -20



               -40



               -60         Freq. = 1830 MHz
                           Ref. = -56.8 dBm
                           Approx. noise fl. = -45 dB

               -80
                     1200                     1400               1600               1800       2000                      2200    2400
                                                                                 sample number
  Figure 252. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 1830.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.




                                                                                             217
                 20




                         Ref. 1



                                             position A




                                                                                               position B




                                                                                                                      position C




                                                                                                                                                         position D
                   0



                 -20
   Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80

                                      Freq. = 2445 MHz                        Ref. = -18.4 dBm              Approx. noise fl. = -83 dB
                -100
                    0                                                  500                                     1000                                      1500
                                                                                 sample number
Figure 253. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 2445.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.

                 20
                                  Ref. 1



                                                          position A




                                                                                           position B




                                                                                                                                    position C




                                                                                                                                                             position D
                   0



                 -20
   Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60



                 -80
                                           Freq. = 4900 MHz                      Ref. = -21.7 dBm                 Approx. noise fl. = -80 dB

                -100
                  2000            2200                    2400         2600      2800     3000                3200                 3400          3600   3800
                                                                                  sample number


Figure 254. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 4900.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.


                                                                                     218
      250                                                                                           1
      200                                                                                           0.8
                                                      freq. = 49 MHz     median = -64.4 dB
      150                                             ref. = -29.6 dBm   mean = -50.2 dB            0.6
      100                                                                std. dev. = 24.3 dB        0.4
       50                                                                                           0.2
        0                                                                                           0
       -100        -80        -60         -40             -20            0            20           40

      300                                                                                           1
      240                                                                                           0.8




                                                                                                          CDF
      180                                                                                           0.6
                                                freq. = 162 MHz              median = -73.1 dB
  N




      120                                       ref. = -12.5 dBm             mean = -54.8 dB        0.4
                                                                             std. dev. = 33.7 dB
       60                                                                                           0.2
        0                                                                                           0
       -100        -80        -60         -40             -20            0            20           40

      250                                                                                           1
      200                                                                                           0.8
      150                                             freq. = 230 MHz    median = -52.6 dB          0.6
                                                      ref. = -35.0 dBm   mean = -43.3 dB
      100                                                                                           0.4
                                                                         std. dev. = 28.7 dB
       50                                                                                           0.2
        0                                                                                           0
       -100        -80        -60         -40             -20            0            20           40
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 255. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                data at 49.8, 162.075, and 230.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.




                                                219
      250                                                                              1
      200                                                                              0.8
      150          freq. = 439 MHz                         median = -48.4 dB           0.6
                   ref. = -36.5 dBm                        mean = -37.9 dB
      100                                                                              0.4
                                                           std. dev. = 28.2 dB
      50                                                                               0.2
        0                                                                              0
       -100       -80         -60       -40         -20          0               20   40

      250                                                                              1
      200                                                                              0.8




                                                                                             CDF
      150          freq. = 908 MHz                         median = -32.4 dB           0.6
  N




                   ref. = -39.1 dBm                        mean = -28.9 dB
      100                                                                              0.4
                                                           std. dev. = 25.1 dB
      50                                                                               0.2
        0                                                                              0
       -100       -80         -60       -40         -20          0               20   40

      250                                                                              1
      200                                                                              0.8
      150          freq. = 1830 MHz                        median = -41.5 dB           0.6
                   ref. = -56.8 dBm                        mean = -26.0 dB
      100                                                                              0.4
                                                           std. dev. = 22.2 dB
      50                                                                               0.2
        0                                                                              0
       -100       -80         -60       -40         -20          0               20   40
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 256. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
               data at 439.25, 908.0, and 1830.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.




                                              220
       250                                                                                  1
       200                                                                                  0.8
                                           freq. = 2445 MHz          median = -61.9 dB




                                                                                                  CDF
       150                                                                                  0.6
   N




                                           ref. = -18.4 dBm          mean = -62.7 dB
       100                                                                                  0.4
                                                                     std. dev. = 21.2 dB
       50                                                                                   0.2
         0                                                                                  0
        -100       -80        -60        -40          -20        0            20           40

       250                                                                                  1
       200                                                                                  0.8
       150                                 freq. = 4900 MHz          median = -61.9 dB      0.6
                                           ref. = -21.7 dBm          mean = -59.9 dB
       100                                                                                  0.4
                                                                     std. dev. = 21.3 dB
       50                                                                                   0.2
         0                                                                                  0
        -100       -80        -60        -40          -20        0            20           40
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 257. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                  data at 2445.0 and 4900.0 MHz; receiver at wing 4 site.




                                               221
                 40


                       Ref. 1
                                   position A



                                                    position B



                                                                        position C




                                                                                              position D




                                                                                                                               position C


                                                                                                                                                          position B



                                                                                                                                                                                position A

                                                                                                                                                                                                Ref. 1
                 20



                  0
    Power (dB)




                 -20



                 -40



                 -60
                          Freq. = 49 MHz
                          Ref. = -54.1 dBm
                          Approx. noise fl. = -42 dB
                 -80
                    400                            600                           800       1000                         1200                             1400                                1600
                                                                                        sample number
         Figure 258. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 49.8 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.
                  20
                          Ref. 1
                                      position A


                                                    position B



                                                                    position C




                                                                                                           position D




                                                                                                                                            position C

                                                                                                                                                                   position B


                                                                                                                                                                                position A
                                                                                                                                                                                              Ref. 1
                   0



                 -20
Power (dB)




                 -40



                 -60


                                        Freq. = 162 MHz
                 -80
                                        Ref. = -41.0 dBm
                                        Approx. noise fl. = -61 dB

             -100
                                   1800                          2000                  2200        2400                                     2600                                2800
                                                                                        sample number


 Figure 259. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 162.075 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.

                                                                                           222
             20




                    Ref. 1

                                 position A




                                                              position B



                                                                                        position C




                                                                                                                     position D




                                                                                                                                         position C


                                                                                                                                                                   position B




                                                                                                                                                                                               position A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ref. 1
             10

              0

             -10

             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60
                                                            Freq. = 230 MHz
             -70                                            Ref. = -44.0 dBm
                                                            Approx. noise fl. = -59 dB
             -80
               200                            400                                       600                 800                   1000                                          1200
                                                                                                     sample number
Figure 260. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 230.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.


             20
                             position A




                                                                                                                                                                                  position A
                                               position B


                                                                           position C




                                                                                                      position D




                                                                                                                                   position C
                                                                                                                                                      position B




                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ref. 1
             10

               0

             -10
                   Ref. 1




             -20
Power (dB)




             -30

             -40

             -50

             -60                                     Freq. = 439 MHz
                                                     Ref. = -60.0 dBm
             -70                                     Approx. noise fl. = -42 dB

             -80
                   0                          200                                       400                 600                   800                                           1000
                                                                                                     sample number
Figure 261. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 439.25 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.



                                                                                                               223
              20



                    Ref. 1

                                 position A




                                                       position B



                                                                      position C




                                                                                                     position D




                                                                                                                                      position C


                                                                                                                                                    position B




                                                                                                                                                                                   position A
                                                                                                                                                                                                Ref. 1
              10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60
                                       Freq. = 908 MHz
              -70                      Ref. = -45.5 dBm
                                       Approx. noise fl. = -56 dB
              -80
                               200                          400                        600         800                                 1000                               1200
                                                                                         sample number
Figure 262. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 908.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.

              20
                      Ref. 1
                               position A




                                                       position B




                                                                                   position C




                                                                                                                  position D



                                                                                                                                       position C


                                                                                                                                                             position B



                                                                                                                                                                             position A

                                                                                                                                                                                                Ref. 1
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50

              -60

              -70                             Freq. = 1830 MHz                        Ref. = -38.3 dBm                         Approx. noise fl. = -63 dB

              -80
                                                 500                1000                            1500                       2000                              2500
                                                                                                sample number


Figure 263. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 1830.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.


                                                                                                  224
              20




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ref. 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                   position A
                    Ref. 1
                                position A




                                                                position B



                                                                                 position C




                                                                                                                    position D




                                                                                                                                               position C



                                                                                                                                                                         position B
              10

               0

              -10

              -20
Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50
                                Freq. = 2445 MHz
              -60
                                Ref. = -52.4 dBm
              -70               Approx. noise fl. = -48 dB

              -80
                                                    500         1000                          1500       2000                                 2500                            3000                                       3500
                                                                                                sample number
Figure 264. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 2445.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.

               20
                       Ref. 1
                                       position A




                                                                   position B




                                                                                                 position C



                                                                                                                                 position D




                                                                                                                                                            position C


                                                                                                                                                                                      position B


                                                                                                                                                                                                                position A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ref. 1
               10

                0

              -10

              -20
 Power (dB)




              -30

              -40

              -50
                                                    Freq. = 4900.0 GHz
              -60                                   Ref. = -59.3 dBm
                                                    Approx. noise fl. = -42 dB
              -70

              -80
                                                    500      1000               1500               2000      2500                                           3000                          3500                           4000
                                                                                               sample number
Figure 265. NIST Boulder laboratory walk-through at 4900.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.



                                                                                                              225
       250                                                                                      1
       200                                                                                      0.8
                                                   freq. = 49 MHz           median = -40.1 dB
       150                                         ref. = -54.1 dBm         mean = -35.0 dB 0.6
       100                                                                  std. dev. = 11.9 dB 0.4
        50                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                      0
        -80     -70     -60    -50     -40     -30        -20         -10   0       10        20

       300                                                                                      1
       240                                                                                      0.8




                                                                                                      CDF
       180                                                                                      0.6
                                                   freq. = 162 MHz          median = -59.9 dB
   N




       120                                         ref. = -41.0 dBm         mean = -50.8 dB 0.4
                                                                            std. dev. = 14.6 dB
        60                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                      0
        -80     -70     -60    -50     -40     -30        -20         -10   0       10        20

       250                                                                                      1
       200                                                                                      0.8
       150                                         freq. = 230 MHz          median = -50.7 dB 0.6
                                                   ref. = -44.0 dBm         mean = -44.2 dB
       100                                                                                      0.4
                                                                            std. dev. = 16.7 dB
        50                                                                                      0.2
        0                                                                                      0
        -80     -70     -60    -50     -40     -30        -20         -10   0       10        20
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 266. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                data at 49.8, 162.075, and 230.0 MHz, receiver at wing 6 site.




                                             226
       250                                                                                   1
       200                                                                                   0.8
       150    freq. = 439 MHz                                      median = -37.1 dB         0.6
              ref. = -60.0 dBm                                     mean = -30.7 dB
       100                                                                                   0.4
                                                                   std. dev. = 13.9 dB
       50                                                                                    0.2
         0                                                                                   0
        -80     -70       -60    -50   -40      -30         -20   -10       0          10   20

       250                                                                                   1
       200                                                                                   0.8




                                                                                                   CDF
       150    freq. = 908 MHz                                      median = -50.1 dB         0.6
   N




              ref. = -45.5 dBm                                     mean = -44.1 dB
       100                                                                                   0.4
                                                                   std. dev. = 15.6 dB
       50                                                                                    0.2
         0                                                                                   0
        -80     -70       -60    -50   -40      -30         -20   -10       0          10   20

       650                                                                                   1
       520                                                                                   0.8
       390                               freq. = 1830 MHz          median = -60.8 dB         0.6
       260                               ref. = -38.3 dBm          mean = -52.9 dB           0.4
       130                                                         std. dev. = 13.8 dB       0.2
         0                                                                                   0
        -80     -70       -60    -50   -40      -30         -20   -10       0          10   20
                                       Power (dB)

Figure 267. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
               data at 439.25, 908.0, and 1830.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.




                                             227
       1000                                                                                    1
       800                                                                                     0.8




                                                                                                      CDF
       600                                                                  median = -46.3 dB 0.6
   N




       400                                         freq. = 2445 MHz         mean = -39.1 dB    0.4
       200                                         ref. = -52.4 dBm         std. dev. = 13.7 dB 0.2
          0                                                                                    0
         -80    -70     -60     -50    -40     -30        -20         -10   0       10        20

       1250                                                                                    1
       1000                                                                                    0.8
       750                                                                                     0.6
                                                                            median = -40.9 dB
       500                                                                                     0.4
                                                   freq. = 4900 MHz         mean = -37.3 dB
       250                                         ref. = -59.3 dBm         std. dev. = 9.0 dB 0.2
          0                                                                                    0
         -80    -70     -60     -50    -40     -30        -20         -10   0         10      20
                                        Power (dB)
Figure 268. NIST Boulder laboratory statistics, histograms, and empirical CDF for walk-through
                  data at 2445.0 and 4900.0 MHz; receiver at wing 6 site.




                                             228
NIST Technical Publications
Periodical

Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology–Reports NIST research and development in
metrology and related fields of physical science, engineering, applied mathematics, statistics, biotechnology, and information
technology. Papers cover a broad range of subjects, with major emphasis on measurement methodology and the basic
technology underlying standardization. Also included from time to time are survey articles on topics closely related to the
Institute's technical and scientific programs. Issued six times a year.

Nonperiodicals

Monographs–Major contributions to the technical literature on various subjects related to the Institute's scientific and
technical activities.
Handbooks–Recommended codes of engineering and industrial practice (including safety codes) developed in cooperation
with interested industries, professional organizations, and regulatory bodies.
Special Publications–Include proceedings of conferences sponsored by NIST, NIST annual reports, and other special
publications appropriate to this grouping such as wall charts, pocket cards, and bibliographies.
National Standard Reference Data Series–Provides quantitative data on the physical and chemical properties of materials,
compiled from the world's literature and critically evaluated. Developed under a worldwide program coordinated by NIST
under the authority of the National Standard Data Act (Public Law 90-396). NOTE: The Journal of Physical and Chemical
Reference Data (JPCRD) is published bimonthly for NIST by the American Institute of Physics (AlP). Subscription orders
and renewals are available from AIP, P.O. Box 503284, St. Louis, MO 63150-3284.
Building Science Series–Disseminates technical information developed at the Institute on building materials, components,
systems, and whole structures. The series presents research results, test methods, and performance criteria related to the
structural and environmental functions and the durability and safety characteristics of building elements and systems.
Technical Notes–Studies or reports which are complete in themselves but restrictive in their treatment of a subject.
Analogous to monographs but not so comprehensive in scope or definitive in treatment of the subject area. Often serve as a
vehicle for final reports of work performed at NIST under the sponsorship of other government agencies.
Voluntary Product Standards–Developed under procedures published by the Department of Commerce in Part 10, Title 15,
of the Code of Federal Regulations. The standards establish nationally recognized requirements for products, and provide all
concerned interests with a basis for common understanding of the characteristics of the products. NIST administers this
program in support of the efforts of private-sector standardizing organizations.
Order the following NIST publications–FIPS and NISTIRs–from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA
22161.
Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS PUB)–Publications in this series collectively constitute the
Federal Information Processing Standards Register. The Register serves as the official source of information in the Federal
Government regarding standards issued by NIST pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949
as amended, Public Law 89-306 (79 Stat. 1127), and as implemented by Executive Order 11717 (38 FR 12315, dated May
11,1973) and Part 6 of Title 15 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations).
NIST Interagency or Internal Reports (NISTIR)–The series includes interim or final reports on work performed by NIST
for outside sponsors (both government and nongovernment). In general, initial distribution is handled by the sponsor; public
distribution is handled by sales through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, in hard copy,
electronic media, or microfiche form. NISTIRs may also report results of NIST projects of transitory or limited interest,
including those that will be published subsequently in more comprehensive form.
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