Docstoc

Fishing in Hawaii - A Student Manual

Document Sample
Fishing in Hawaii - A Student Manual Powered By Docstoc
					GOATFISH                                                                                      Size: Length up to 16 inches; weight gen-
                                                                                              erally up to 3 pounds
Goatfish are bottom-feeding carnivores,                                                       Habitat: Rocky areas, especially lava
easily recognized by the pair of barbels                                                      rocks, from nearshore to about 150 feet
under their jaws which are used to locate                                                     Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; small
food. Tucked under the sides of the jaw                                                       fish, crustaceans
when not in use, the barbels may not be                                                       Schooling: Solitary or small groups
immediately apparent. Goatfish are com-                                                       Fishing methods: Handline, spear, trap,
mon in inshore waters, and are among the                                                      net, pole and line
most popular food fish in Hawaii.              Moano
                                               Parupeneus multifasciatus
                                               Manybar goatfish

                                               Description: Reddish with shades of yel-
                                               low and white; black marks behind eye, at
                                               base of pectoral fin, and black saddle
                                               areas in front of first dorsal fin, between
                                               dorsal fins, below soft dorsal fin, and in     Weke ‘ä, ‘oama
                                               front of tail; deepness of color varies with   Mulloides flavolineatus
Kümü                                           light intensity, becoming lighter in bright    White weke, yellowstripe goatfish
Parupeneus porphyreus                          light.
Whitesaddle goatfish                           Size: Length up to 14 inches; weight gen-      Description: Silvery white; yellow band
                                               erally up to 1 pound                           extends from eye to tail when schooling;
Description: Juveniles greenish with red       Habitat: Rocky areas, sandy bottoms near       band becomes less distinct when feeding,
fins, body coloration becomes brick red        coral heads                                    and a black spot appears below first dor-
with age; white saddle behind soft dorsal      Feeding: Diurnal; crustaceans, small fish      sal fin; very slender body compared with
fin; dark stripe running through eye from                                                     most other goatfish.
near snout to below first dorsal fin, darker   Schooling: Solitary or small groups
                                               Fishing methods: Handline, trap, spear,        Size: Length up to 18 inches; weight gen-
spot between eye and upper edge of gill
                                               pole and line                                  erally up to 2 pounds
cover.
                                                                                              Habitat: Sandy bottom areas near coral
Size: Length up to 20 inches; weight gen-
                                                                                              patches; shallow water (to about 100 feet)
erally up to 5 pounds
                                                                                              Feeding: Nocturnal and diurnal; crus-
Habitat: Various depths throughout reef
                                                                                              taceans, worms
areas, especially under coral heads
                                                                                              Schooling: Schools by day
Feeding: Nocturnal; mostly crustaceans
                                                                                              Fishing methods: ‘Oama (juveniles)
Schooling: Small groups by day, solitary
                                                                                              taken by pole and line; adults by net, trap,
at night
                                                                                              pole and line, spear
Fishing methods: Spear, trap, net, hand-
line, pole and line                            Moano kea                                      Seasonality: ‘Oama commonly found in
                                               Parupeneus cyclostomus                         shallow sandy areas during late summer;
Seasonality: Young kümü common on                                                             adult weke common year round
inshore reefs throughout spring and sum-       Moana kali, blue goatfish
                                                                                              ‘Oama make excellent bait for papio and
mer; adults common year round
                                               Description: Bluish-purple, with promi-        other predators, and are highly sought by
Kümü are extremely prized fish in Hawaii;                                                     shoreline fishermen.
the flesh is considered a delicacy.            nent yellow saddle at base of tail; slender
                                               body, long snout and long barbels.
Endemic to Hawaii.
                                               Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
                                               ly up to 5 pounds
                                               Habitat: Rocky or reef areas, from
                                               nearshore to depth of about 200 feet
                                               Feeding: Diurnal; small fish, crustaceans
                                               Schooling: Adults small groups; juveniles
                                               solitary
                                               Fishing methods: Handline, spear, trap,
                                               net, pole and line                             Weke ‘ula, ‘oama
Malu
Parupeneus pleurostigma                                                                       Mulloides vanicolensis
Sidespot goatfish                                                                             Red weke, yellowfin goatfish

Description: Body light, whitish to pink;                                                     Description: Light pink with yellow hues;
black spot on side below rear of first dor-                                                   long yellow band extending from eye to
sal fin, followed by large oval white area.                                                   base of tail; fish becomes reddish when
Size: Length up to 16 inches; weight gen-                                                     dead; inner lining of abdomen is black.
erally up to 2 pounds                                                                         Size: Length up to 16 inches; weight gen-
Habitat: Sandy patches adjacent to coral,      Munu                                           erally up to 2 pounds
from nearshore to depths of about 120          Parupeneus bifasciatus                         Habitat: Reef areas, generally in depths
feet                                           Doublebar goatfish, Joe Louis                  from 20-200 feet
Feeding: Diurnal; small worms, crus-                                                          Feeding: Nocturnal; small worms and
taceans                                        Description: Reddish to yellowish-gray;        crustaceans
Schooling: Adults solitary; juveniles small    black triangular saddle under each dorsal      Schooling: Large schools during the day;
groups                                         fin and near tail.                             solitary or small groups at night when
Fishing methods: Handline, spear, trap,                                                       feeding
net

                                                                   65
Fishing methods: Mostly net and trap         SURGEONFISH                                     Schooling: Solitary
Seasonality: Juveniles, known as ‘oama,                                                      Fishing methods: Spear
common offshore in late summer; adults       Surgeonfish (tangs) have blade-like spines
common year round                            on either side of the base of the tail, which
                                             are sometimes used defensively by the
                                             fish. (Fishermen have suffered cuts on
                                             their account, so surgeonfish should
                                             always be handled with care.) Surgeon-
                                             fish are very common in inshore waters,
                                             feeding primarily by day, and at night rest-
                                             ing on the bottom in a sleep-like state.
                                             Because they are mostly plant eaters,
                                             having small mouths and specialized
Weke nono                                    teeth, most surgeonfish are difficult to        Manini
Mulloides pflugeri                           catch with hook and line.                       Acanthurus triostegus sandvicensis
Weke ‘ula, moelua, Pfluger's goatfish                                                        Convict tang

Description: Red with vertical orange-                                                       Description: Silvery, may have yellowish
yellow bands when alive; color changes to                                                    tinge; six black vertical bars, the first pass-
uniform red when dead; inner lining of                                                       ing through the eye and the last near the
abdominal cavity white; fairly robust com-                                                   base of the tail; single small retractable
pared with most other goatfish.                                                              caudal spine on each side.
Size: Length up to 24 inches; weight gen-                                                    Size: Length up to 12 inches; weight gen-
erally up to 8 pounds                                                                        erally up to 3⁄4 pound
                                             Kala                                            Habitat: Most reef areas, from shore to
Habitat: Sand patches and limestone bot-
                                             Naso unicornis                                  depths of about 90 feet
toms, usually 60-300 feet
                                             Bluespine unicornfish                           Feeding: Diurnal; mostly fine algae
Feeding: Diurnal; small fish and crus-
taceans                                                                                      Schooling: Large schools, but also seen
                                             Description: Dusky olive, with light blue       singly or in small schools
Schooling: Small groups or large schools     on the fins and around the caudal spines;
Fishing methods: Handline, trap, spear       horn protruding from front of head about        Fishing methods: Net, spear
                                             eye level (lengthens with age). A similar       Manini are the most abundant surgeonfish
                                             species, Naso brevirostris, is grayish          in Hawaii.
                                             green with numerous small spots or dark         Endemic to Hawaii.
                                             lines on the sides, and a body that is less
                                             deep. Kala have two fixed caudal spines
                                             on each side.
                                             Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
                                             ly up to 8 pounds
Weke pueo                                    Habitat: Inshore reef areas and along
                                             rocky shores
Upeneus spp.
Nightmare weke, bandtail goatfish            Feeding: Diurnal; algae, especially more
                                             leafy varieties                                 ‘Opelu kala
                                             Schooling: Schools; large adults some-          Naso hexacanthus
Description: Light greenish above, fading                                                    Sleek unicornfish
to white below; black and white horizontal   times found singly at edge of reef
stripes on tail.                             Fishing methods: Net, spear, pole and
                                             line                                            Description: Color varies from dark
Size: Length up to 12 inches                                                                 brown to pale blue, with a dark blue tail
Habitat: Shallow sandy or muddy bottoms                                                      fin; two fixed caudal spines on each side.
Feeding: Diurnal; crustaceans and small                                                      Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
fish                                                                                         ly up to 3 pounds
Schooling: Small groups                                                                      Habitat: Deeper waters outside reef; not
Fishing methods: Pole and line, net,                                                         common in waters less than 30 to 50 feet
spear                                                                                        Feeding: Diurnal; plankton, including crab
Weke pueo should be prepared and eaten                                                       larvae and small worms
with care, since the head may cause hallu-                                                   Schooling: Large schools
cinations and other symptoms of poisoning                                                    Fishing methods: Spear, net, pole and
if consumed.                                 Kole
                                             Ctenochaetus strigosus                          line
                                             Goldring surgeonfish

                                             Description: Dark brown with about 35
                                             light blue horizontal lines extending into
                                             the fins, small blue spots on the head,
                                             bright yellow ring around the eye; single
                                             retractable caudal spine on each side.
                                             Size: Length up to 7 inches; weight gen-
                                             erally up to 1⁄2 pound
                                             Habitat: Inshore reef areas, and depths
                                             of 150 feet or more
                                             Feeding: Diurnal, small bits of algae and
                                             decaying plant material


                                                                 66
                                                  WRASSES
                                                  Wrasses make up the largest family of
                                                  fishes in Hawaii. Nearly 50 species are
                                                  known to exist here, but only a few are
                                                  popular with fishermen. Males and
                                                  females of the same species frequently
                                                  have different colorations, and wrasses
                                                  are known to undergo sex conversions            Laenihi
                                                  from female to male. Coloration changes
Palani                                            as the fish gets older.
                                                                                                  Xyrichtys umbrilatus
Acanthurus dussumieri                                                                             Blackside razorfish, nabeta
Eyestripe surgeonfish
                                                                                                  Description: Blue-green or grayish body
Description: Yellowish brown with black                                                           with faint vertical crossbands, one dark
spots, bright blue tail fin, fine blue lines on                                                   scale on either side below front of dorsal
body fading towards belly, yellow dorsal                                                          fin, yellow stripe on anal fin.
and anal fins, yellow band between and                                                            Size: Length up to 15 inches; weight gen-
behind the eyes; single white retractable                                                         erally up to 2 pounds
caudal spine on each side, surrounded by
a patch of black.
                                                  ‘A‘awa                                          Habitat: Sandy areas at depths of 60 to
                                                  Bodianus bilunulatus                            300 feet, generally within a few hundred
Size: Length up to 18 inches or more;                                                             yards of the shoreline
                                                  Hawaiian hogfish, table boss
weight generally up to 3 pounds                                                                   Feeding: Diurnal; crustaceans
Habitat: Mostly bays and outer reef areas                                                         Schooling: Solitary
                                                  Description: Juveniles (up to 4 inches)
over sandy patches, usually at depths of
                                                  whitish with reddish brown horizontal lines     Fishing methods: Handline
at least 10 feet
                                                  and large black spot between soft dorsal        Considered an excellent food fish.
Feeding: Diurnal; algae and decaying              and anal fins; as fish grows older spot dis-
plant material                                    appears and black saddle forms at rear of       Endemic to Hawaii.
Schooling: Schools                                dorsal fin; females white with brown hori-
Fishing methods: Spear, trap                      zontal lines in front, shading to yellow near
                                                  tail; males wine-colored or purplish brown,
                                                  and black saddle is faint or absent.
                                                  Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
                                                  ly up to 4 pounds
                                                  Habitat: Common throughout reef area,
                                                  taken on bottom in shallow water out to
                                                  depths of about 100 feet or more                Po‘ou
                                                  Feeding: Diurnal; small fish, crustaceans,      Oxycheilinus unifasciatus
                                                  molluscs, sea urchins                           Ringtail wrasse
                                                  Schooling: Solitary
                                                  Fishing methods: Handline, spear, pole          Description: Color varies with age; at 10
                                                  and line                                        inches the fish is plain olive green with
Pualu
Acanthurus spp.                                                                                   white saddle near tail; fish 20 inches and
                                                                                                  over have no white saddle, but show black
Ringtail surgeonfish, yellowfin surgeonfish
                                                                                                  spots at base of dorsal and anal fins, and
                                                                                                  have dark pelvic fins.
Description: Purplish gray, sometimes
                                                                                                  Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
with irregular dark stripes along the sides,
                                                                                                  ly up to 2 pounds
dorsal and anal fins have horizontal blue
bands, yellow spot between eye and top of                                                         Habitat: Reef and rocky areas at depths
gill cover; single black retractable caudal       Hinälea lauwili                                 of up to 40 or 50 feet
spine on each side.                               Thalassoma duperrey                             Feeding: Diurnal; fish and crustaceans
                                                  Saddle wrasse                                   Schooling: Solitary
Size: Length up to 20 inches or more;
weight generally up to 5 pounds                                                                   Fishing methods: Handline, spear
Habitat: Bays and harbors; also deep              Description: Green with vertical purple-
outer reefs with sandy patches, usually at        red bars, purplish blue head and wide
depths of 30 feet or more                         orange saddle surrounding body just
                                                  behind head; saddle not apparent on juve-
Feeding: Diurnal; mostly algae, but often
                                                  niles.
hooked with animal material as bait
                                                  Size: Length up to 1 foot; weight general-
Schooling: Schools
                                                  ly up to 1⁄2 pound
Fishing methods: Spear, net, handline
                                                  Habitat: Very abundant along shallow
                                                  rocky shorelines and reef areas
                                                  Feeding: Diurnal; seaweed, crustaceans
                                                  Schooling: Solitary or small aggregate
                                                  Fishing methods: Pole and line, handline
                                                  Generally an incidental catch; food value
                                                  considered poor, often used as bait.
                                                  Endemic to Hawaii




                                                                      67
MULLET                                          BARRACUDAS                                      NEARSHORE SNAPPERS




                                                Käkü
                                                Sphyraena barracuda
                                                Great barracuda
‘Ama‘ama, pua
Mugil cephalus
Striped mullet                                  Description: Greyish back turning silvery       Ta‘ape
                                                on sides and belly, with irregular black        Lutjanus kasmira
                                                flecks on sides.                                Bluestripe snapper
Description: Body silver with grayish-
green above changing to white below, red-       Size: Length up to 6 feet; weight general-
dish tinge around mouth and gills. A simi-      ly up to 70 pounds                              Description: Bright lemon yellow with
lar species, Chelon engeli (summer or           Habitat: Various, inshore and offshore;         four pale-blue horizontal stripes edged
Australian mullet), is smaller than the         juveniles prefer brackish water areas, bays     with lavender or deep purple.
amaama, growing to a length of about 8          and stream mouths                               Size: Length up to 15 inches; weight gen-
inches, and has slightly larger scales.         Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish and        erally up to 11⁄2 pounds
Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-      squid                                           Habitat: Hard bottom areas, generally in
ly up to 5 pounds                               Schooling: Generally solitary                   waters 40 to over 300 feet deep
Habitat: Calm waters close to shore,            Fishing methods: Generally caught cast-         Feeding: Primarily nocturnal; shrimp and
around mouths of streams and inlets, and        ing from shore, trolling lures and baits, and   other crustaceans, squid, and small fish
brackish bays and harbors                       handlining from boats. Prominent sharp          Schooling: Schools
Feeding: Diurnal; algae and small plants,       teeth make a wire leader essential, and
                                                the fish should be regarded with caution.       Fishing methods: Generally taken at
especially along bottom.
                                                                                                night with handlines; some taken in traps
Schooling: Schools                                                                              or nets; occasionally by pole and line near
Fishing methods: Generally taken with                                                           shore and by spear
nets; difficult to catch with pole and line,                                                    Introduced 1958 and 1961 from
but will take a hook baited with thin sea-                                                      Marquesas Islands and Society Islands
weed or bread
Seasonality: Spawns December through
February                                        Kawale‘ä
                                                Sphyraena helleri
                                                Heller's barracuda

                                                Description: Silvery olive above, becom-
                                                ing silvery on sides and belly; sides
                                                marked with two horizontal yellowish
                                                stripes which disappear after death.
                                                Smaller than kaku, with more slender head
                                                and larger eyes.                                To‘au
Uouoa                                                                                           Lutjanus fulvus
Neomyxus leuciscus                              Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
                                                ly up to 4 pounds                               Blacktail snapper
Sharpnose mullet
                                                Habitat: Inshore to depths of 50 to 200
                                                feet                                            Description: Dusky yellow above fading
Description: Grayish back, changing to                                                          to pale yellow or white below, six or more
silver on the sides, white belly; yellow spot   Feeding: Nocturnal; small fish
                                                                                                thin horizontal yellow stripes along side;
present at base of pectoral fins; snout         Schooling: Large schools
                                                                                                dorsal fin reddish, tail fin blackish with red-
more pointed than amaama.                       Fishing methods: Mostly handline                dish tinge and white margin; other fins yel-
Size: Length up to 16 inches; weight gen-                                                       low.
erally up to 11⁄2 pounds                                                                        Size: Length up to 13 inches; weight gen-
Habitat: Sandy shores, tide pools, rocky                                                        erally up to 3 pounds
surge areas                                                                                     Habitat: Inshore, brackish water and
Feeding: Diurnal; seaweed, some crus-                                                           around stream mouths out to waters about
taceans                                                                                         40 or 50 feet in depth
Schooling: Schools                                                                              Feeding: Nocturnal; crustaceans, espe-
Fishing methods: Net                                                                            cially crabs, and small fish
Seasonality: More common November                                                               Schooling: Solitary or small school
through March                                                                                   Fishing methods: Handline, pole and
                                                                                                line, trap, spear
                                                                                                Introduced 1956 and 1958 from Society
                                                                                                Islands




                                                                     68
                                             Habitat: Inshore areas, including streams,
                                             bays and along shoreline; generally found
                                             at depths less than 20 feet; juveniles live
                                             in tide pools or schools close to shore
                                             Feeding: Mostly nocturnal; primarily crus-
                                             taceans
                                             Schooling: Schools                            Awa‘aua
Wahanui                                      Fishing methods: Pole and line, cast          Elops hawaiensis
Aphareus furca                               nets, spear                                   Hawaiian tenpounder
Smalltooth jobfish, gurutsu                  Seasonality: More taken during fall and
                                             winter                                        Description: Bright silvery, with blue-
Description: Uniform steel blue or pur-                                                    green hue on the dorsal area.
                                             Endemic to Hawaii
plish, with yellow border on anal fin.                                                     Size: Length up to 3 feet or more; weight
Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-                                                 generally up to 12 pounds
ly up to 2 pounds                                                                          Habitat: Inshore areas, including bays
Habitat: Open water, generally just out-                                                   and harbors, and along sandy shorelines
side or above reef                                                                         Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; small fish
Feeding: Diurnal; small fish and crus-                                                     and crustaceans
taceans                                                                                    Schooling: Singly or in small schools
Schooling: Solitary or small school                                                        Fishing methods: Pole and line, net
Fishing methods: Pole and line, hand-
line, spear
                                             ‘Ala‘ihi
                                             Sargocentron and Neoniphon spp.
OTHER REEF FISHES                            Squirrelfish

                                             Description: Bright red, fading to lighter
                                             below in some species; sides marked with
                                             six or more light horizontal lines; most
                                             species take on prominent nocturnal col-      ‘Äweoweo
                                             oration, generally white spots or vertical    Priacanthidae
                                             bands.                                        Bigeye, glasseye
                                             Size: Length up to 12 inches or more,
                                             depending on species; weight up to 5          Description: Variable coloration, from
‘Aha                                         pounds for largest species                    deep red to silvery, or mottled silvery pink
Belonidae
                                             Habitat: Inshore reef areas, congregating     and red; fins often speckled with black;
Needlefish                                                                                 some species plain red by day.
                                             in crevices and caves by day and foraging
                                             over the reef at night                        Size: Length depends on species, up to
Description: Blue green on back, fading to                                                 20 inches; weight generally up to 3
                                             Feeding: Nocturnal; crustaceans
silvery below; jaws long and pointed, with                                                 pounds
sharp teeth.                                 Schooling: Solitary or grouped, depend-
                                             ing on species                                Habitat: Shallow reefs out to deep boul-
Size: Length depends on species, 15                                                        der areas
inches to more than 4 feet; weight gener-    Fishing methods: Spear, handline, pole
ally up to 5 pounds                          and line, trap                                Feeding: Nocturnal; small fish and inver-
                                                                                           tebrates
Habitat: Near surface in waters of various
depths from nearshore to open ocean                                                        Schooling: Solitary or schools
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; small fish                                                 Fishing methods: Pole and line, hand-
near the surface, floating crabs                                                           line, spear, net
Schooling: Schools
Fishing methods: Pole and line
Aha can be dangerous at night; they are
attracted to lights and have been known to
spear people.                                Awa
                                             Chanos chanos
                                             Milkfish

                                             Description: Grayish green above, fading
                                             to silvery below.                             Küpïpï
                                             Size: Length up to 3 feet or more; most       Abudefduf sordidus
                                             caught are around 18 to 24 inches; weight     Blackspot sergeant
                                             generally up to 40 pounds
                                             Habitat: Near surface in inshore areas,       Description: Grayish brown above fading
                                             including brackish-water areas, bays and      to silvery below; sides marked with seven
Äholehole                                    inlets                                        dark vertical bands; dark spot on upper
Kuhlia sandvicensis                          Feeding: Diurnal; algae                       side of caudal peduncle and at base of
Hawaiian flagtail                            Schooling: Schools                            dorsal fin.
                                             Fishing methods: Pole and line, net           Size: Length up to 9 inches; weight gen-
Description: Silvery, with blue tones on                                                   erally up to 1 pound
                                             Seasonality: Generally more taken in
back, fins often dusky tipped.                                                             Habitat: Inshore reef and boulder areas;
                                             summer months
Size: Length up to 12 inches; weight gen-                                                  shallow rock crevices; juveniles common
erally up to 1 pound                                                                       in tide pools

                                                                69
Feeding: Diurnal; algae, small crus-                                                          Size: Length up to 20 inches or more;
taceans and other invertebrates                                                               weight generally up to 5 pounds
Schooling: Solitary or small schools                                                          Habitat: Outer edges of reef in water over
Fishing methods: Pole and line, spear                                                         20 feet deep
                                                                                              Feeding: Diurnal; small fish and inverte-
                                                                                              brates
                                                                                              Schooling: Solitary, sedentary
                                                                                              Fishing methods: Spear, pole and line
                                                Mu
                                                Monotaxis grandoculis
                                                Bigeye emperor

                                                Description: Olive gray above fading to
                                                silvery below; sides marked with four light
Mamo                                            vertical bands which fade as fish gets
Abudefduf abdominalis                           older; inside of mouth red.                   ‘Ö‘iö
Hawaiian sergeant                               Size: Length up to 30 inches; weight gen-     Albula spp.
                                                erally up to 5 pounds                         Bonefish
Description: Pale brassy or green with          Habitat: Various reef areas, generally
four or five black vertical bars; belly white   moving into shallower waters during           Description: Bright iridescent silver, with
with yellow tinge near anal fin.                evening                                       greenish tinge on dorsal area; elongate
Size: Length up to 9 inches; weight gen-        Feeding: Nocturnal; small mollusks and        upper jaw.
erally up to 3⁄4 pound                          crustaceans                                   Size: Length generally up to about 18
Habitat: Shallow water reefs, harbors and       Schooling: Solitary or loose aggregates       inches; may reach over 40 inches; weight
bays, from nearshore to edge of reef            Fishing methods: Pole and line, spear         generally up to 16 pounds
Feeding: Diurnal; small crustaceans,                                                          Habitat: Sandy bottoms, usually over
plankton                                                                                      sand patches or channels in reef areas
Schooling: Loose aggregates                                                                   Feeding: Generally nocturnal; crus-
Fishing methods: Pole and line, spear                                                         taceans, small fish
Endemic to Hawaii                                                                             Schooling: Schools
                                                                                              Fishing methods: Pole and line, net,
                                                                                              handline
                                                                                              Seasonality: More taken December
                                                                                              through April
                                                Nenue
                                                Kyphosus spp.
                                                Enenue, sea chub, rudderfish

                                                Description: Gray brown with blue reflec-
Moi                                             tions above, fading to lighter below; nar-
Polydactylus sexfilis                           row dark bands on sides between scale
Six-fingered threadfin                          rows; some fish have irregular yellow
                                                blotches on sides, and on rare occasions
Description: Dusky above, silvery on            a fish may be entirely yellow.
sides and belly, with numerous narrow           Size: Length up to 24 inches; weight gen-     Päki‘i
wavy horizontal lines along sides; fins         erally up to 6 pounds                         Bothus spp.
black-tipped; characterized by presence of      Habitat: Rough and turbulent waters           Flounder
six long filaments extending from base of       along rocky coasts
each pectoral fin, and overhanging snout.       Feeding: Diurnal; mostly algae                Description: Brownish coloration with
Size: Length up to 24 inches; weight gen-                                                     irregular mottling, lower surface white or
                                                Schooling: Schools
erally up to 6 pounds                                                                         tan; coloration changes to match sub-
                                                Fishing methods: Spear, net, pole and         strate.
Habitat: Generally found in sandy holes         line
along rocky shorelines, or along sandy                                                        Size: Length up to 16 inches; weight gen-
beaches in surge areas                                                                        erally up to 4 pounds
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; primarily                                                     Habitat: Sandy patches in shallow water
crustaceans                                                                                   Feeding: Diurnal; crustaceans and small
Schooling: Schools                                                                            fish
Fishing methods: Pole and line, net                                                           Schooling: Solitary
Seasonality: Spawn during summer                                                              Fishing methods: Pole and line, spear
months; from about May through August
small moi (or moi-li‘i) occur in schools
along beaches and in sheltered coves            Nohu
                                                Scorpaenopsis cacopsis
                                                Scorpionfish

                                                Description: Mottled camouflage col-
                                                oration, reddish brown with irregular white
                                                and yellow hues, fading to lighter below;
                                                spines venomous.

                                                                    70
                                                Size: Length up to 5 feet; weight general-
                                                ly up to 25 pounds
                                                Habitat: Crevices and holes in nearshore
                                                reef areas by day; moves in open on reef
                                                after dark
                                                Feeding: Nocturnal; fish and crustaceans
                                                Schooling: Solitary
                                                Fishing methods: Spear, pole and line,
Po‘opa‘a                                        trap
                                                                                             ‘Upäpalu
Cirrhitus pinnulatus                                                                         Apogon spp.
Stocky hawkfish                                                                              Cardinalfish

Description: Brownish above fading to                                                        Description: Coloration varies with
lighter below, with white mottlings; body                                                    species; generally light red or brown with
and fins have red spots; head bluish white                                                   iridescent hues; dark horizontal bands
with brownish orange markings.                                                               present in some species.
Size: Length up to 10 inches; weight gen-
                                                Roi                                          Size: Length up to about 7 inches,
erally up to 11⁄2 pounds                                                                     depending on species; weight generally up
Habitat: Hides in crevices during the day;      Cephalopholis argus
                                                                                             to 1⁄4 pound
at night found in turbulent waters of surge     Peacock grouper
                                                                                             Habitat: Nearshore caves and crevices
zones, often on large rocks or coral heads
                                                Description: Purple brown with light blue    Feeding: Nocturnal; small crustaceans
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; small fish
and crustaceans                                 spots; pale vertical bars present towards    Schooling: Solitary when feeding
Schooling: Solitary                             tail region, fins edged with yellow.         Fishing methods: Pole and line
Fishing methods: Pole and line, spear           Size: Length up to 20 inches; weight gen-
                                                erally up to 5 pounds
                                                Habitat: Reefs and rocky areas at depths
                                                of about 10 to 40 fathoms, generally near
                                                ledges and crevices
                                                Feeding: Diurnal; fish
                                                Schooling: Solitary
                                                Fishing methods: Spear, trap, handline
                                                Introduced 1956 and 1961 from Society
                                                Islands                                      `Ü`ü
                                                                                             Myripristis spp.
Puhi                                                                                         Soldierfish, menpachi
Gymnothorax spp.
Moray eel                                                                                    Description: Bright red by day, lower
                                                                                             sides become silvery at night.
Description: Coloration varies with                                                          Size: Length up to 14 inches; weight gen-
species; generally brown (darker toward                                                      erally up to 1 pound
posterior) with numerous round or irregular                                                  Habitat: Inshore reef areas, congregating
light spots, depending on species; large        Uhu                                          in caves and crevices during the day
fanglike teeth.
                                                Scaridae                                     Feeding: Nocturnal; plankton, crusta-
Size: Length up to 5 or 6 feet; most under      Parrotfish                                   ceans
2 feet; weight occasionally reaches 70
pounds                                                                                       Schooling: Schools
                                                Description: Coloration varies with          Fishing methods: Spear, handline, net,
Habitat: Crevices and holes in rocky or         species, sex and age; males are generally
reef areas; rarely exposed, except for                                                       trap
                                                more gaudy, with colors dominated by         Seasonality: Spawns late spring to mid-
head                                            blues and greens, females are generally
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish and                                                     summer; generally more taken in late sum-
                                                more bland with colors dominated by red-     mer and early fall
crustaceans                                     dish browns or grays; teeth are fused
Schooling: Solitary                             together and resemble a beak.
Fishing methods: Spear, pole and line,          Size: Length up to 2 feet or more; weight
trap                                            generally up to 15 pounds
                                                Habitat: Rocky areas and coral reefs,
                                                usually more abundant at outer edge of
                                                reef
                                                Feeding: Diurnal; algae, crustaceans
                                                Schooling: Solitary or small groups; juve-
                                                niles tend to school
                                                Fishing methods: Spear, net
Puhi ühä
Conger cinereus
White eel, mustache conger, tohe

Description: Grayish brown on dorsal
surface, fading to lighter below, alternating
light and dark bars on body when feeding;
well-developed pectoral fins are present.

                                                                   71
CARANGIDS
(Jacks and their allies)




                                               Kamanu
                                               Elagatis bipinnulatus                            ‘Öpelu
                                               Rainbow runner                                   Decapterus macarellus
                                                                                                Mackerel scad
                                               Description: Dark blue above followed in
                                               succession down side by light blue stripe,       Description: Bluish or greenish yellow
Akule, halalü                                  yellow stripe, another light blue stripe; yel-   above fading to silvery white below, dark
Selar crumenophthalmus                         lowing silver below, yellow fins.                spot on upper part of gill cover.
Bigeye scad, aji                               Size: Length up to 4 feet; weight general-       Size: Length up to 20 inches; weight gen-
                                               ly up to 10 pounds                               erally up to 2 pounds
Description: Silvery blue above fading to      Habitat: Open water, usually near sur-           Habitat: Near coast in surface and mid-
silvery white below, yellow tail fin; very     face; may be found with other fish around        water; juveniles school far out at sea
large eyes.                                    floating objects                                 Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; plankton,
Size: Length up to 15 inches; weight gen-      Feeding: Diurnal; fish and squid                 especially small crustaceans
erally up to 2 pounds
                                               Schooling: Solitary or small school              Schooling: Schools
Habitat: Mid- or surface waters along
coast, or shallow banks near shore             Fishing methods: Trolling with small             Fishing methods: Caught by handline at
                                               lures or baits, by handline, or from shore       night, and with special lift nets during the
Feeding: Nocturnal; small crustaceans          with baitcasting gear                            day
Schooling: Large schools                       Considered an excellent food fish.               Seasonality: Spawns from about March
Fishing methods: Halalu (juveniles up to                                                        to the middle of August; juveniles enter
about 5 inches) taken with light tackle;                                                        coastal areas in late fall and winter
akule are generally taken handlining at
                                                                                                Considered an excellent food fish; also
night, or by day with net or pole and line
                                                                                                popular as bait and live chum for large
Seasonality: Spawn from about March                                                             tuna, marlin, and other predators.
through October, at which time they form
large schools in shallow water; halalu
common about July to December
                                               Lai
An excellent food fish.                        Scomberoides lysan
                                               Leatherback

                                               Description: Slate blue above, fading to
                                               silvery below; fins may have yellowish
                                               tinge; leathery skin with small needle-like
                                               scales.
                                                                                                Omaka
                                               Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-       Atule mate
Kahala                                         ly up to 2 pounds
                                                                                                Yellowtail scad
Seriola dumerili                               Habitat: Inshore coastal waters, sheltered
Greater amberjack                              bays and harbors, brackish water areas
                                                                                                Description: Silvery body with greenish
                                               near mouths of streams
                                                                                                yellow tinge, marked with 9 or 10 darker
Description: Light metallic brown with         Feeding: Diurnal; smaller schooling fish-        vertical bars; yellow tail, black spot behind
purplish tinge; light yellow horizontal band   es, especially mullet and nehu, crus-            eye on edge of gill cover.
extends from head to base of tail, fades       taceans
                                                                                                Size: Length up to one foot; weight gener-
after fish is caught; dark diagonal streak     Schooling: Schools near the surface              ally up to 3⁄4 pound
through eye.                                   Fishing methods: Often caught by shore           Habitat: Protected bays and estuaries;
Size: Length up to 6 feet; weight general-     anglers casting bait or lures for young          juveniles very abundant in fall around
ly up to 120 pounds                            jacks; also by net; should be handled            floating objects, especially jellyfish; not
Habitat: Deeper coastal waters, typically      carefully because of sharp anal spines           found in open sea
60 to 600 feet or more; lives near bottom;     Not widely sought after for food; skin is        Feeding: Diurnal; plankton, mostly small
young often found around floating objects      valued for making trolling lures.                fish and crustaceans
at sea
                                                                                                Schooling: Schools
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish and
squid                                                                                           Fishing methods: Mostly taken with light
                                                                                                tackle from shore and piers; occasionally
Schooling: Solitary or small school                                                             taken with net
Fishing methods: Caught mostly by fish-                                                         Seasonality: More common March to
ing over deep-sea ledges or drop offs;                                                          October
usually taken handlining offshore, but
often come close enough to shore to be                                                          Considered an excellent food fish.
caught with baitcasting gear; occasionally
by spear or trap




                                                                    72
ULUA                                           Fishing methods: Casting from rocky
                                               shores and ledges
Like other carangids, ulua are fast-swim-      Seasonality: Uncommon year round in
ming predators, feeding on a variety of fish   main Hawaiian Islands
and crustaceans. Juveniles, known collec-
tively as päpio, tend to live close to shore
for protection, then move toward deeper
waters as they get older. Ulua are
extremely popular gamefish, and the flesh
is very good to eat.                                                                          Pake ulua
                                                                                              Caranx sexfasciatus
                                                  Adult
                                                                                              Bigeye trevally, menpachi ulua, sasa

                                                                                              Description: Dark blue-green to gold
                                                                                              above, yellow-green to silver below, upper
                                                          Juvenile                            lobe of tail fin dark with black tip; juveniles
                                                                                              have four to seven dark vertical bands.
                                               Ulua kihikihi                                  Size: Length usually under 3 feet; weight
                                               Alectis ciliaris                               generally up to 15 pounds
                                               Threadfin jack, kagami ulua
                                                                                              Habitat: Young fish found in brackish
Ulua aukea                                                                                    water areas out to deeper coastal waters;
                                               Description: Adults dusky white, often         adult fish live along rocky shores in turbu-
Caranx ignobilis
                                               darker along dorsal area, with bluish,         lent water over reefs
White ulua, giant trevally                     greenish, and yellowish hues; juveniles sil-   Feeding: Nocturnal; fish and crustaceans
                                               very blue above and bright silver below,
Description: Pale olive above with green-                                                     Schooling: Solitary
                                               with a diamond shaped body and long
ish tinge around head, white sides, yellow     trailing filaments extending from dorsal       Fishing methods: Handline; juveniles
anal fin; color varies to darker shades,       and anal fins; as fish gets older body         taken with pole and line
depending on fish's temperament and time       becomes more elongate, and filaments           Seasonality: More abundant spring to
of day; breast nearly scaleless except for     begin to disappear.                            mid-summer
patch of about 10 scales in middle.            Size: Length up to 40 inches; weight gen-
Size: Length over 5 feet; weight generally     erally up to 40 pounds
up to 120 pounds                               Habitat: Juveniles often found in harbors
Habitat: Papio caught near shore, adult        and other sheltered waters, upon reaching
fish found over nearshore reefs; often hid-    maturity move to deeper and more open
ing in caves during the day                    water, often taken from depths of 60 to
Feeding: Nocturnal, but occasionally           200 feet
caught by day; fish, octopus, crustaceans      Feeding: Diurnal; mostly crustaceans
Schooling: School; when large (over 30         Schooling: Solitary or small school
pounds) generally solitary or in pairs                                                        ‘Ömilu
                                               Fishing methods: Handline                      Caranx melampygus
Fishing methods: Casting from rocky
                                                                                              Bluefin trevally, hoshi ulua
shores and ledges; handline, trap, spear
Seasonality: Young common in summer,
adults common year round                                                                      Description: Juveniles silvery blue above
                                                                                              fading to silver below, with yellow pectoral
An excellent food fish, the white ulua is
                                                                                              fins; as fish ages bluish-black spots begin
widely considered to be the ultimate
                                                                                              to appear all over, and body changes to
shoreline gamefish.
                                                                                              neon blue; fins, especially first dorsal, also
                                                                                              blue; breast completely scaled.
                                               Ulua                                           Size: Length up to 3 feet; weight general-
                                               Uraspis helvola                                ly up to 20 pounds
                                               Cottonmouth jack, dobe ulua                    Habitat: Juveniles found in shallow bays
                                                                                              and estuaries; medium sized fish (6 to 20
                                               Description: Dark dusky color, easily          inches) taken over reefs; adults often
                                               identified by looking inside mouth; tongue     move in close to shore by following chan-
                                               and roof of mouth are white, back of           nels in coral reefs, swimming over the reef
                                               mouth and throat and gill areas are bluish     by day
Ulua lä‘uli                                    black.                                         Feeding: Mostly diurnal; small fish
Caranx lugubris                                Size: Length up to 20 inches; weight gen-      Schooling: Solitary or small groups
Black trevally                                 erally up to 3 pounds
                                                                                              Fishing methods: Usually taken with sur-
                                               Habitat: Dropoff areas, generally 100 to       fcasting gear; trolling, spear, net, handline,
Description: Dark brown, with almost           200 feet                                       trap; juveniles taken with pole and line
black head; may tend toward a creamy or        Feeding: Nocturnal; small fish and crus-
dusky shade; breast completely scaled,         taceans
scutes distinct; definite notch above snout    Schooling: Schools
in profile.
                                               Fishing methods: Handline
Size: Length over 3 feet
Habitat: Outer reef channels
Feeding: Nocturnal; fish and crustaceans
Schooling: Form large schools when
feeding


                                                                     73
                                                Size: Length up to 4 feet; weight general-    Size: Weight up to 80 pounds or more,
                                                ly up to 40 pounds                            but few exceed 40 pounds
                                                Habitat: Bays and coastal waters              Habitat: Open water, generally staying
                                                Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,         below 60 fathoms during the day, then
                                                crustaceans and octopus                       moves close to surface by night
                                                Schooling: Schools                            Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,
                                                                                              squid and crustaceans
                                                Fishing methods: Handline
Ulua pa‘opa‘o                                                                                 Schooling: Schools
Gnathanodon speciosus                                                                         Fishing methods: Longline, handline
Golden trevally                                                                               Seasonality: More abundant during sum-
                                                                                              mer months
Description: Creamy yellow with silvery
and bluish hues, marked by series of 8 to
                                                SCOMBRIDS
                                                (Tunas and their allies)
12 darker greenish vertical bands; jaws of
adults contain no teeth.
                                                Scombrids are carnivorous fishes that feed
Size: Length up to 3 feet; weight general-
                                                on squids, crustaceans and other small
ly up to 10 pounds
                                                fishes. They have well-contoured torpedo-
Habitat: Generally found in sandy chan-         shaped bodies, the most perfect shape for
nels and bars close to shore                    high-speed swimming. The anterior dorsal
Feeding: Uncertain; fish and crustaceans        fin can be completely tucked into a groove    ‘Ahi po‘o nui
Schooling: Small schools                        on the back. Scombrids often live in large    Thunnus obesus
Fishing methods: Pole and line, net             schools, and many species are known to        Bigeye tuna
                                                migrate over long distances.
Seasonality: Uncommon year round
                                                                                              Description: Blackish blue above fading
                                                                                              to silvery below, yellowish finlets; closely
                                                                                              resembles ahi, but has larger eyes.
                                                                                              Size: Weight generally up to 150 pounds,
                                                                                              but some have been known to reach 300
                                                                                              pounds
                                                                                              Habitat: Open water, generally staying
                                                                                              below 60 to 70 fathoms by day, then mov-
                                                                                              ing closer to surface by night
                                                ‘Ahi                                          Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,
Ulua                                            Thunnus albacares                             squid and crustaceans
Carangoides orthogrammus                        Yellowfin tuna                                Schooling: Schools
Yellowspot trevally, island jack, papa                                                        Fishing methods: Handline, longline
                                                Description: Blackish blue above fading to    Seasonality: More abundant late fall
Description: Silvery blue above fading to       white below; faint yellow stripe extends      through late spring
silvery white below, bluish and golden          from eye to tail, soft dorsal and anal fins
hues on fins; sides marked with a few           and finlets bright yellow; dorsal and anal
lemon-colored round spots, which tend to        fins lengthen with age.
fade as fish gets older.                        Size: Weight up to 300 pounds
Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-      Habitat: Open water, generally found over
ly up to 5 pounds                               deepwater banks and submarine ledge
Habitat: Near shore                             areas at depths to 1000 fathoms; young
Feeding: Diurnal; small fish and crus-          fish often travel near the surface
taceans                                         Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,
Schooling: Solitary or small groups             squid and crustaceans                         Aku
                                                Schooling: Schools                            Katsuwonus pelamis
Fishing methods: Trolling, spear, pole
and line                                                                                      Skipjack tuna
                                                Fishing methods: Longline, pole and line,
                                                trolling, handline
                                                                                              Description: Dark metallic blue above,
                                                Seasonality: Adults more abundant late
                                                                                              light dusky blue below, with four or five
                                                spring through early fall; juveniles abun-
                                                                                              dark purplish longitudinal stripes on side of
                                                dant fall and winter
                                                                                              belly.
                                                                                              Size: Weight averages about 18 to 22
                                                                                              pounds during the summer, 5 to 12
                                                                                              pounds during the rest of the year
                                                                                              Habitat: Generally found in waters 100
                                                                                              fathoms and deeper
Butaguchi                                                                                     Feeding: Diurnal; fish, squid and crus-
Pseudocaranx dentex                                                                           taceans
Buta ulua, thicklipped jack
                                                ‘Ahi palaha                                   Schooling: Schools
                                                Thunnus alalunga                              Fishing methods: Pole and line (aku
Description: Dark silver above fading to        Albacore, tombo                               boat type), trolling
light silver below, dark spot at upper edge
                                                                                              Seasonality: Taken year round, but most
of gill cover; juveniles have yellow horizon-
                                                Description: Blackish blue above fading       common during spring and summer
tal streak extending through eye and along
side of body to base of tail; thick fleshy      to silvery below; long pectoral fins which
lips, pointed snout, and concave depres-        extend beyond the soft dorsal and anal
sion in front of eyes.                          fins.


                                                                    74
                                                BILLFISH
                                                Billfish are carnivorous fishes of the open
                                                ocean, feeding on squid and relatively
                                                large fishes. They are characterized by
                                                the presence of a spear, or bill, which is
                                                actually an extension of the upper jaw.       A‘u
Kawakawa                                        The bill helps streamline the fish, and is    Makaira indica
Euthynnus affinis                               often used to slash at schools of prey; the   Black marlin, hida
Wavyback skipjack                               billfish then feeds on the wounded fish.
                                                                                              Description: Variable coloration; most
Description: Dark blue or bluegreen                                                           are dark slate blue above fading to silvery
above fading to silver below; about 12                                                        below; may have pale blue stripes or blue
dark wavy marks on dorsal area.                                                               patches on sides that fade quickly after
Size: Weight up to about 20 pounds, but                                                       death; pectoral fins don't fold against
most are around 4 or 5 pounds                                                                 body.
Habitat: Open water, but somewhat close                                                       Size: Most average about 200 pounds,
to shoreline, generally in depths less than                                                   but have been known to reach 1800
100 fathoms; often found over dropoffs, or
                                                A‘u                                           pounds
in association with aku; young may enter        Tetrapterus audax
                                                                                              Habitat: Pelagic
bays and harbors                                Striped marlin, nairagi
                                                                                              Feeding: Diurnal; fish and squid
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; small                                                         Schooling: Solitary
fish, squid and crustaceans                     Description: Royal blue above fading to
                                                silvery below, with lavender or pale blue     Fishing methods: Trolling, longline
Schooling: Schools
                                                vertical stripes on sides; dorsal and anal
Fishing methods: Trolling, pole and line        fins cobalt blue; high pointed dorsal fin.
Seasonality: Present throughout year,           Size: Weight up to 150 pounds or more;
but most abundant during summer when            most average about 25 to 100 pounds
the fish come fairly close to shore in large
                                                Habitat: Pelagic
schools
                                                Feeding: Diurnal; fish and squid
                                                Schooling: Solitary or small schools          A‘u
                                                Fishing methods: Trolling, longline           Tetrapterus angustirostris
                                                Seasonality: Taken mostly in spring and       Shortbill spearfish, hebi
                                                fall
                                                                                              Description: Deep metallic blue above
Ono                                                                                           fading to silvery and white below; no sig-
Acanthocybium solanderi                                                                       nificant markings; upper jaw extends on a
Wahoo                                                                                         short distance beyond the lower jaw.
                                                                                              Size: Average weight about 20 to 40
Description: Dark blue above fading to                                                        pounds, rarely exceeds 100 pounds
silver below, with about 30 purplish-gray                                                     Habitat: Pelagic
vertical bars on sides that flash bright blue   A‘u                                           Feeding: Diurnal; squid and small fish
when the fish is fighting a hook.               Makaira nigricans
                                                                                              Schooling: Solitary or small schools
Size: Weight up to 100 pounds, average          Pacific blue marlin, kajiki
                                                                                              Fishing methods: Trolling, longline
30 to 40 pounds
                                                Description: Cobalt blue above fading to      Seasonality: Most abundant during win-
Habitat: Roams the surface waters of the
                                                silvery below, with pale blue vertical        ter and early spring
open sea, usually over deep-sea ledges;
often found near floating logs and other        stripes on sides and blue patches on dor-
objects                                         sal area and tail.
Feeding: Diurnal; fish, squid and crus-         Size: Weight averages about 300 to 400
taceans                                         pounds, but some exceeding 1400 pounds
                                                have been taken
Schooling: Solitary or small schools
                                                Habitat: Generally taken over bank areas
Fishing methods: Trolling, longline
                                                where baitfish are abundant, and over off-
Seasonality: More abundant late spring          shore ledges where bottom drops off from
through fall                                    100 to 1000 fathoms or more                   A‘u ku
                                                Feeding: Diurnal; mainly aku and other        Xiphias gladius
                                                tunas                                         Broadbill swordfish, shutome
                                                Schooling: Solitary
                                                Fishing methods: Trolling, longline           Description: Coloration varies from
                                                Seasonality: Most abundant during sum-        metallic purplish to blackish brown, but
                                                mer                                           generally dark brown, with silvery irides-
                                                                                              cence below; pelvic fins are absent, dorsal
                                                                                              fin not retractable.
                                                                                              Size: Average weight about 200 to 300
                                                                                              pounds; large fish may exceed 1000
                                                                                              pounds
                                                                                              Habitat: Pelagic
                                                                                              Feeding: Nocturnal; fish and squid



                                                                     75
Schooling: Solitary or in pairs                 DEEPWATER SNAPPERS
Fishing methods: Longline, handline
                                                Snappers are voracious carnivores, and
                                                the species described here are generally
                                                found in the deeper waters of Hawaii, up
                                                to 150 fathoms (900 ft), as opposed to the
                                                nearshore species described earlier. Most
                                                deepwater snappers are a uniform bright
                                                color, usually with red or yellow hues. A      ‘Opakapaka
                                                few species have color patterns.               Pristipomoides filamentosus
A‘u lepe                                                                                       Pink snapper
Istiophorus platypterus
Sailfish                                                                                       Description: Light violet brown above
                                                                                               fading to dusky white below; pectoral fins
                                                                                               yellowish.
Description: Body coloration dark steely
blue above fading to silvery white below,                                                      Size: Length up to 3 feet; weight general-
with pale purple vertical bars on sides; sail                                                  ly up to 18 pounds
cobalt blue to purple with numerous small                                                      Habitat: Deep waters, usually 40 to 100
blue spots.                                     Kalekale                                       fathoms; most abundant over rocky bottom
Size: Average weight about 30 to 50                                                            dropoffs
                                                Pristipomoides sieboldii
pounds                                          Kalikali, von Siebold's snapper                Feeding: Diurnal and noctunal; fish, squid
Habitat: Generally near submerged                                                              and sea cucumbers
shoals fairly close to shore                    Description: Light lavender above fading       Schooling: School
Feeding: Diurnal; small fish and squid          to lighter below; scales above lateral line    Fishing methods: Handline
Schooling: Usually solitary; may occur in       have pale-blue spots in center which form      Seasonality: Most caught during winter
small schools                                   lengthwise lines; margin of dorsal fin         months
                                                orange with light lavender; tail fin dark
Fishing methods: Trolling, longline
                                                lavender with light margin.
Seasonality: Uncommon year round
                                                Size: Length up to 2 feet; weight general-
                                                ly up to 4 pounds
                                                Habitat: Deep waters, usually 80 to 120
DOLPHINFISH                                     fathoms
                                                Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,
                                                squid and crustaceans
                                                Schooling: School
                                                Fishing methods: Handline                      Ukikiki
      Male                                      Seasonality: Most caught during late fall      Pristipomoides zonatus
                                                and winter                                     Brigham's snapper, gindai

                                                                                               Description: Pinkish red with four wide
                                                                                               vertical yellow bands; dorsal, pectoral and
                                                                                               caudal fins yellow.
     Female
                                                                                               Size: Length up to 20 inches or more;
Mahimahi                                                                                       weight generally up to 4 pounds
Coryphaena hippurus                                                                            Habitat: Deep water, usually 60 to 100
Dorado                                          Lehe                                           fathoms
                                                Aphareus rutilans                              Feeding: Diurnal; fish, squid and crus-
Description: Brilliant green and yellow         Lehi, ironjaw snapper                          taceans
dotted with phosphorescent blue, with pur-                                                     Schooling: Solitary or small schools
plish blue dorsal fin; colors change rapidly    Description: Brick red above fading to         Fishing methods: Handline
when fighting and just before death.            silvery below; dorsal fin has yellow spot on
Males have an almost vertical head profile,     margins and yellow border; tail has yellow-
females are more sloping.                       ish hues.
Size: Average weight 20 to 30 pounds;           Size: Length up to 3 feet or more; weight
occasionally 70 pounds                          generally up to 25 pounds
Habitat: Open ocean, often seen close to        Habitat: Deep waters, usually around 100
surface near schools of flyingfish, or          fathoms
around floating objects                         Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; fish,
Feeding: Diurnal and nocturnal; squid           squid and crustaceans
                                                                                               Uku
and small fish, especially flyingfish                                                          Aprion virescens
                                                Schooling: School
Schooling: School                                                                              Gray snapper
                                                Fishing methods: Handline
Fishing methods: Trolling, handline,            Seasonality: Most caught during late fall
longline                                                                                       Description: Uniform grayish blue, with
                                                and winter                                     dorsal area more bluish than below; dard
Seasonality: Small fish (up to 5 pounds)                                                       blue towards head; three dark spots near
common in summer, large fish (30 to 40                                                         base of dorsal fin.
pounds) more plentiful in late winter and
early spring                                                                                   Size: Length up to 3 feet or more; aver-
                                                                                               age weight about 4 to 8 pounds




                                                                    76
Habitat: Relatively shallow water com-         GROUPERS                                        Life history: In Hawaii spawning season
pared with other snappers, usually less                                                        occurs during the winter and spring and is
than 60 fathoms; rocky bottom areas out-                                                       limited to reservoir habitats; male builds a
side of reef, deep rocky areas near shore                                                      circular nest in 3 to 4 feet of water; male
Feeding: Generally nocturnal; fish, squid                                                      guards the nest and defends eggs and
and crustaceans                                                                                young until they leave.
Schooling: Solitary or small groups; large                                                     Fishing methods: Light spinning or bait-
aggregates when spawning                                                                       casting gear is recommended, with sur-
                                                                                               face or deep running lures, such as plastic
Fishing methods: Handline, spear
                                                                                               worms, crankbaits or spinnerbaits; effec-
Seasonality: Most caught during late                                                           tive live baits include puntat, tilapia, cray-
spring and early summer when spawning          Hapu‘u
                                                                                               fish and worms.
                                               Epinephelus quernus
                                               Seale's grouper                                 Introduced to Hawaii in 1896.

                                               Description: Dark purplish brown with
                                               small white spots; spots become less dis-
                                               tinct as fish grows larger.
                                               Size: Length up to 4 feet; weight general-
                                               ly up to 50 pounds
‘Ula‘ula                                       Habitat: Deep water, generally 50 to over
Etelis carbunculus                             120 fathoms
                                                                                               Smallmouth Bass
‘Ehu, red snapper                                                                              Micropterus dolomieui
                                               Feeding: Diurnal; fish and crustaceans
                                               Schooling: Solitary                             Description: Coloration varies with loca-
Description: Red above fading to silvery
pink below; interior of mouth is pink.         Fishing methods: Handline                       tion, generally dark green to olive brown
                                                                                               above fading to white below; sides marked
Size: Weight generally up to 9 pounds
                                                                                               with vertical bars and dark mottlings; jaw
Habitat: Deep waters, usually 100 to 150                                                       does not extend back beyond eye; spiny
fathoms                                                                                        portion of dorsal fin lower than on large-
Feeding: Generally diurnal; fish, squid                                                        mouth bass, and not as deeply notched.
and crustaceans                                                                                Size: Weight ranges up to 4 pounds in
Schooling: Aggregates                                                                          Hawaii; state record 4.98 lbs (2004); world
Fishing methods: Handline                                                                      record 11 lbs 15 oz (1955, Kentucky).
Seasonality: Most caught during winter                                                         Distribution: In Hawaii found on the
                                                                                               islands of Kauai and Oahu.
                                                                                               Habitat: Found in cool flowing streams
                                               FRESHWATER                                      and reservoirs fed by such streams.
                                                                                               Feeding: Young feed on crustaceans,
                                               SPORTFISH (Introduced)                          insects and small fishes; adults feed pri-
                                                                                               marily on live fishes and crayfish.
                                                                                               Life history: In Hawaii spawning season
                                                                                               occurs during the spring and is limited to
‘Ula‘ula koa‘e                                                                                 stream habitats; male builds a hollow nest
Etelis coruscans                                                                               in sand and guards the young, viciously
                                                                                               attacking any intruder.
Longtail red snapper, onaga
                                                                                               Fishing methods: Small spinners or pop-
                                                                                               pers are effective lures; live baits include
Description: Red above fading to silvery
                                                                                               crayfish or worms.
pink below; dorsal and tail fins red; inside
of mouth red; caudal fin lobes are elon-
                                               Largemouth Bass                                 Introduced to Hawaii in 1953.
gate, upper lobe longer than lower.            Micropterus salmoides
Size: Weight generally up to 35 pounds
                                               Description: Coloration varies with loca-
Habitat: Taken over offshore dropoffs,         tion, generally dark green above fading to
usually in water 100 to 150 fathoms            white below; may have faint horizontal
Feeding: Generally diurnal; fish, squid        band along sides (more distinct in young
and crustaceans                                fish); jaw extends back beyond posterior
Schooling: School                              margin of eye; dorsal fin deeply notched
Fishing methods: Handline                      between spiny and soft portions.
                                               Size: Weight ranges up to 10 pounds in          Channel Catfish
Seasonality: Most caught during winter
                                               Hawaii; state record 9 lbs 9.4 oz (1992);       Ictalurus punctatus
                                               world record 22 lbs 4 oz (1932, Georgia).
                                               Distribution: In Hawaii found on the            Description: Bluish olive to gray above
                                               islands of Kauai, Oahu and Hawaii.              fading to white below, with dark spots
                                                                                               scattered along sides; older males
                                               Habitat: Usually found in sluggish waters,
                                                                                               become dark in color and lose spots; long
                                               occur primarily in reservoirs in Hawaii; pre-
                                                                                               barbels surrounding mouth; deeply forked
                                               fer submerged logs, weeds or other cover
                                                                                               tail.
                                               near banks.
                                                                                               Size: Generally under 10 pounds, but
                                               Feeding: Young feed on crustaceans,
                                                                                               have unoffically exceeded 50 pounds in
                                               insects and small fishes; adults feed on
                                                                                               Hawaii; state record 43 lbs 13 oz (1974);
                                               live fishes, crayfish and frogs.
                                                                                               world record 58 lbs (1964, South
                                                                                               Carolina).


                                                                   77
Distribution: In Hawaii found on the                                                             Fishing methods: Minnow-like lures are
islands of Kauai and Oahu.                                                                       effective; live baits include worms, crayfish
Habitat: Occur primarily in reservoirs in                                                        and mosquitofish.
Hawaii.                                                                                          Introduced to Hawaii in 1951.
Feeding: Feeds primarily on small fish,
crustaceans, clams and snails.
Life history: Spawning occurs in late
spring; eggs are laid in jelly-like masses in    Tucunare
holes and crevices, and guarded by the           Cichla ocellaris
male; hatching occurs after about a week,
and the male continues to guard the              Description: Yellow with a green back
young.                                           and white abdomen; vertical bars along
Fishing methods: Crankbaits or large             sides; during spawning season yellow
spinnerbaits are the most effective lures; a     color intensifies, and males develop a
catfish weighing 51 pounds (unofficially)        large hump above the head; prominent
                                                 black spot on caudal fin.
                                                                                                 Bluegill Sunfish
was taken from the Wahiawa Reservoir on
                                                                                                 Lepomis macrochirus
a spoon; other baits include tilapia, cray-      Size: Weight averages about 2 to 3
fish, aku belly, liver and various stinkbaits.   pounds; state record 9 lbs 4.2 oz (1990);
                                                 world record 27 lbs (1994, Brazil)              Description: Coloration varies somewhat
Introduced to Hawaii in 1958.
                                                                                                 with sex and age, generally olive green
                                                 Distribution: In Hawaii found on the            above with blue or purplish sheen along
                                                 islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii.        sides; breeding males may have more
                                                 Habitat: Generally found in the larger          blue and orange on sides; faint vertical
                                                 reservoirs of the state.                        bars along sides; opercular flap is dark
                                                 Feeding: Feeds exclusively on small fish,       blue or black, and prominent dark blotch is
                                                 especially threadfin shad, mosquito fish,       present at posterior base of dorsal fin.
                                                 tilapia and bluegill.                           Size: Generally 4 to 6 inches in length,
Rainbow Trout                                    Life history: Spawning in Hawaii occurs         may reach 14 inches; state record 8 oz
Oncorhynchus mykiss                              from about March to September; eggs are         (2000); world record 4 lb 12 oz (1950,
                                                 laid on rocks or other hard objects and         Alabama).
Description: Bluish or olive green above         guarded by one or both parents; hatching        Distribution: In Hawaii found on the
fading to silvery below, with broad pink lat-    takes place within four days, and parents       islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii.
eral stripe; back, sides, dorsal and caudal      guard the young; presence of at least one       Habitat: Usually found in lakes, ponds,
fins marked with small dark spots.               parent is essential for survival of young, so   reservoirs and sluggish streams, occur pri-
                                                 fishermen are urged not to disturb spawn-       marily in reservoirs in Hawaii; prefer deep
Size: Generally under 3 pounds, but have         ing fish which are often visible near shore.
unofficially reached 8 pounds in Hawaii;                                                         weed beds.
state record 5 lbs 10 oz (1991); world           Fishing methods: Lures include jigs and         Feeding: Young feed on crustaceans,
record 42 lbs 3 oz (1970, Alaska).               torpedo-shaped lures that resemble min-         insects and worms; adults feed on snails,
                                                 nows; the only effective live bait is mosqui-   small crayfish, insects, worms and small
Distribution: In Hawaii found on the             tofish, mollies or tilapia.
islands of Kauai and Hawaii.                                                                     minnows; feed mostly in early morning and
                                                 Introduced to Hawaii in 1957.                   late afternoon and evening.
Habitat: Prefers cold water streams with
moderate flow.                                                                                   Life history: In Hawaii spawning season
Feeding: Young feed on small insects                                                             occurs in winter and spring; male builds a
and crustaceans; adults feed on fish eggs,                                                       circular nest in sandy areas 3 to 6 feet
minnows and other small fish (including                                                          deep; after fertilizing eggs male chases
other trout).                                                                                    female away and guards the nest until fry
                                                                                                 disperse.
Life history: Limited spawning occurs in
Hawaii because water temperatures are                                                            Fishing methods: Worms are the most
too high; what spawning does occur takes                                                         effective live bait; lures include flies and
place from about November to February;                                                           small spinners.
annual stockings of the Kokee region on                                                          Introduced to Hawaii in 1946.
Kauai are accomplished with eggs from            Oscar
California, hatched and raised at Sand           Astronotus ocellatus
Island, Oahu.
Fishing methods: Small spinners or flies         Description: Brightly colored with irregu-
are effective lures; salmon eggs are used        lar red markings on a dark brown body;
with good success.                               prominent black spot surrounded by red
Introduced to Hawaii in 1920.                    ring at base of caudal fin.
                                                 Size: Weight reaches 3 pounds or more;
                                                 state record 2 lbs 6 oz (1976).
                                                 Distribution: In Hawaii found on the
                                                 island of Oahu.
                                                 Habitat: Prefers quiet shallow water.
                                                 Feeding: Feeds on small fish, crayfish,
                                                 worms and insect larvae.                                    State records as of Feb 2006;
                                                                                                             source Hawaii Fishing News.
                                                 Life history: Spawning in Hawaii occurs
                                                 from about March to September; oscar
                                                 pairs excavate a circular nest in shallow
                                                 water, where eggs are deposited; both
                                                 parents guard the nest.
                                                                                                    Illustrations: National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                                                                                                     Administration, Les Hata / Hawaii Fishing News,
                                                                                                     Division of Aquatic Resources, Waikiki Aquarium


                                                                     78

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:201
posted:8/14/2011
language:English
pages:14