The Impact of Situational Influences of Websites Toward e-Purchasing Behavior by krismanlo

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									THE IMPACT OF SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES OF WEBSITES AND PRODUCT TYPES TOWARD e-PURCHASING BEHAVIOR ON MEMBER OF APKOMINDO

THESIS

NAME NIM

: KRISMANLO : 122071705

POST GRADUATE PROGRAM TRISAKTI UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2009

THE IMPACT OF SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES OF WEBSITES AND PRODUCT TYPES TOWARD e-PURCHASING BEHAVIOR ON MEMBER OF APKOMINDO

THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MAGISTER MANAGEMENT

By: NAME NIM : KRISMANLO : 122071705

POST GRADUATE PROGRAM TRISAKTI UNIVERSITY JAKARTA 2009

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT

I hereby certify that this paper constitutes my own work, that where the language of others is set fort, quotation marks so indicate and that appropriate credit is given where I have used the language, ideas and expressions of writing of another.

Jakarta, 20 July 2009

Krismanlo

POST GRADUATE PROGRAM TRISAKTI UNIVERSITY

THESIS APPROVAL

NAME NIM CONCENTRATION THESIS TITLE

: Krismanlo : 122071705 : Marketing Management : The Impact of Situational Influences of Websites and Product Types Toward e-purchasing Behavior on Member of Apkomindo.

EXAMINATION COMMITTEE Dated : Chairman : Prof. Dr. Thoby Mutis

Dated :

Major Advisor : Dr. Choiril Maksum

Dated :

Committee

: Prof. Dr. Asep Hermawan

Have been approved and accepted as a partial fulfillment of requirements for Magister Management Degree. Jakarta, 20 July 2009 Post Graduate Program Director,

Prof. Dr. Thoby Mutis

ABSTRACT

Krismanlo, Trisakti University, July 2009 “The Impact of Situational Influences of Websites and Product Types Toward e-Purchasing Behavior on Member of Apkomindo.”. Major Advisor : Dr .Choiril Maksum

Establishing customer e-purchasing was viewed as a great challenge since “competing businesses in the world of electronic commerce are only a few mouse clicks away” (Srinivasan et al.,2002).

One of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in a highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors of situational influences of websites will affect the consideration of consumer whether to purchase or not-purchase. Examine the effect of these situational influences have upon attitudes and intention of e-purchasing behavior.

Six hypotheses were developed and tested; two were supported, four were not supported. The results indicate that e-purchasing behavior is depending on the brand-image of the website‟s domain name created by the website owner or the web business address and also the knowledge and skill of the internet users. Therefore, e-purchasing behavior to a product or service can be increased through the focus on the consumers who have knowledge and skill on how to

use, explore and make purchasing on the internet and by creating the brandimage of the website‟s domain name that can attract and arouse attention of consumer to surf inside the web.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First, I would like to thank the mighty God for His blessing so I can accomplish the thesis. I would like to very much thank my committee members that guided me through the research process. To Dr. Choiril Maksum the major advisor of the thesis and assistant major advisor Dra. Ninawati, M.M. your timely and appropriate responses to my questions were invaluable.

Without the support from my parents, my wonderful wife and children, I also could not have completed the thesis. Lastly, I would like to thank all of the lecturers at Trisakti University that had given lectured to us for the past 3 semesters. All of my friends in Tell 09 all of your support will not be forgotten.

Finally, I certainly hope that this thesis could bring additional values and benefits to all readers and can be used for future endeavors.

Jakarta, 20 July 2009

Krismanlo

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT……………………………… THESIS APPROVAL………………………………………….. ABSTRACT……………………………………………………. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………… TABLE OF CONTENT………………………………………... LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………. LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………… LIST OF APPENDIX………………………………………….

i ii iii v vi viii ix x

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Research Background…………………………………… Research Question……………………………………… Research Purpose and Benefit……………………………. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Situational Influences……………………………………… 8 1 6 6

Skill………………………………………………………… 9 Website Content…………………………………………… 10 Website‟s Domain Name………………………………..… 12 Product Types………………………………..…………... Search Products………………………………………….. Experience Products……………………………………... 14 14 15

Credence Products……………………………………. …… 15 e-Purchasing Behavior…………………….………………. Conceptual Framework……………………………………. III. METHODOLOGY Research Method………………………………………….. Variable and Measurement……………….……………… Sample and Data Collection……………………………….. 19 19 23 16 17

The Validity and Reliability Test of Research Instruments… 27 Validity Test………………………………………………… 27 Reliability Test………………………………………………. 28 Data Analysis Method………………………………………. 29 IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Descriptive Statistic…………………………………………. 30 Result Analysis and Interpretation…………………………… 32 V. CONCLUSION Conclusion….….……………………………………………… 40 Research Results Discussions…………….………………….. 41 Managerial Implications…………………………………….. 43

Limitation of Research………………………………………. 44 Recommendations for Future Research……………………… 45 REFERENCES…………………………………………………....... 46 APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLE

Table

Description

Page

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Respondents‟ Profiles……………………………………… 25 Preliminary Questionnaire…………………………………. 26 Validity Test Result………………………………………... 28 Reliability Test Result……………………………………... 29 Descriptive Statistics Test Result – All Varibales…………. 30 Descriptive Statistic Test Result – Skill…………………… 32 Regression Test Result…………………………………….. 33

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Descriptive

Page

2.1

Conceptual Framework…………………………… 18

LIST OF APPENDIX

Appendix

Description

Page

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Frequency Table………………………………….. A-1 Validity and Reliability Test Result……………… A-3 Descriptive Statistic Result………………………. A-5 Regression Test Result…………………………… A-6 Questionnaire…………………………………….. A-7

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Research Background

Information and communication technology (ICT) in Indonesia has shown a significant growth in the recent year and the growth of internet in Indonesia can easily be seen from metropolitan cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan to small cities. The Growth of the internet has generated the development of new sales channels such as e-commerce in internet, in which all businesses transaction will be executed in the e-markets by e-consumers. Government Regulation on Indonesia Cyber Law (Undang Undang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik/UU ITE) has make the transaction on Internet more secure and legally protected by the authorities, the more advance internet infrastructure, hispeed connection and the cost-down of the connection fee also boost up the growth of internet users in Indonesia which become an attractive market place.

According to the data from Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia (APJII)/Indonesia Internet Services Provider Association, more than 25 million people in Indonesia had accessed the Internet by the end of 2007, the internet has been the emergent media with a greater developing potential than radio, TV

and other media. Through the Internet, businesses provide commodity and service information to attract the consumer‟s attention, cause their interest, arouse their purchasing desire and bring about purchasing action, customer who are really happy with your product or services will return for more purchases and refer to their friends. The effect of this change in the communication chain is altering the way companies market to their customer and prospects and how they deliver their message and products.

The rapid growth and power of the Internet has begun to change the landscape of businesses environment. With the advances in online technology, the contemporary business is faced with an abundance of opportunities as well as treats. As a result, there is an ever present need for practitioners and academics alike to understand consumers‟ perception of the website utilized by the online retailer or e-tailer (Hopkins, 2001).

According to Godin‟s (2008) book Meatball Sundae: Is Your Marketing Out of Sync? We are embracing the e-marketing revolution. A survey conducted by Dantrum Media found that as many as 83 percent of businesses consider websites to be their most important and widely used advertising and leadgeneration initiative. Eileen P. Monesson, Principal-In-Charge of the Marketing Services Group at Cowan, Gunteski & Co., claimed that internet marketing is

about delivering value-rich content at just the precise moment that a buyer needs.

Websites can be used for e-commerce transactions, product information, interactive communication between marketers and consumers, and the ultimate goal of all (Fong, 2004). Today, companies have a diversity of tools to help increase online purchase. As an example, firms are taking advantage of the business environment through the use of websites (Korgaonkar and Wolin, 1999). McGaughey and Mason (1998) stated that “Cyber-marketing (any form of internet based marketing) will be critical to the success of many companies in the 21st century as they search for a way to gain, sustain or combat competitive advantage”.

The survey conducted by Chen & Lee (2003) found out that website image has a significant effects on the purchasing behavior and purchasing intention of consumers. The evolution of e-purchasing behavior means that the strategies oriented to e-commerce should stress on consumer (Ortega et al.,2008). aspect depending on the target

The advent and growth of “Business to Consumer” (B2C) e-commerce has magnified the importance of building a loyal visitor base to an e-commerce website. Most B2C e-business models have relied initially on an intensive effort

to generate a large enough customer base and subsequently on achieving profitability based on a “lifetime revenue potential” from each loyal customer (Stretch, 2003). Firms must understand what people and other firms want in order to better serve the information needs of searchers in this Internet environment (Grewal et al.,2001). Firms are continually looking for new and innovative ways to increase online purchasing and many companies are looking at the content of website as another tool in the creation of this vital customer behavior (Adkins, 2005). “More and more companies are trying to reach their customer via the Web” (Hoffman, 2009)

Part of the e-commerce allure is the ability to purchase just about anything without leaving the comfort of your home. However, customers typically feel most comfortable purchasing big-ticket items in-store so they can consult a salesperson for expert sight. More e-commerce sites are waking up to the idea that just providing an e-commerce shopping cart is not going to bring it home, (Hoffman, 2009). Shopping online has emerged become one of the popular shopping trend.

The study will examine whether or not the internet can help in the overall development the customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. The internet and more specifically, websites of companies will be examined using the situation influences of the websites that provides products and services. Situational

influences are a component of the consumer behavior process that can influence whether a potential consumer makes a purchase or not. The internet can provide a unique situational influence because of information (e.g. product or company) provided in the website contents, website‟s domain name or the brand name of the website and also another promising situational influence is the consumers‟ knowledge and skill to explore in the internet.

Research Question

According to the explanation above, the writer will bring problem identifications as follows : 1. How does skill of a website visitor influence e-purchasing behavior? 2. How does the website content influence consumers‟ e-purchasing behavior? 3. How does the website‟s domain name influence consumers‟ e-purchasing behavior? 4. How does search products influence customers‟ e-purchasing behavior ? 5. How does experience product influence customers‟ e-purchasing behavior? 6. How does credence product influence customers‟ e-purchasing behavior?

Research Purpose and Benefit

Following are the purposes for the writer in preparing this research : 1. For the writer, the research could explain the situational influence factors of websites and product types and their influence on customers‟ epurchasing behavior. 2. By understanding the situational influence factors of websites and product types that influence the e-purchase motive hopefully can

contributes the success of companies in designing strategy for the websites. 3. The writer also wishes that this research could give important contribution for further exploratory investigation regarding the impact of situational influences of websites and product types toward customers‟ epurchasing behavior

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Situational Influences of Websites.

Situational influences are factors resulting from circumstances, time and location that affect the consumer buying decision process. Situational factors can be Physical surroundings, social surroundings, the time dimension, the reason for purchase. The internet as a situational influence emerged in the late 1980‟s, when consumers started to use the web to surf for information. (Adkins,2005). Zarem,(2000) indicates that many elements may influence website experience, including emotion, engagement and entertainment. He said that the only means to drive the customers‟ demands is to integrate experience into web world. (Chou, 2003) has discussed how experience offered by websites influence users‟ mental and behavioral reactions, such as emotions and the sense of trust.

A research focusing on the relationship between website experience and loyalty of the websites indicates that the ability to shape experience in order to influence the loyalty uses is based on the value of the websites‟ creativity (Wu, 2006).

Palmer (2002) examined websites from a usability, design and performance position and found that greater success is associated with greater information content on the website In this research, websites will be examined as the situational influences that is shown in Adkins (2005) model. Adkins (2005) hypothesized three dimensions (1) Amount of information, (2) brand information and (3) skill as the factors of situational influence of websites. Therefore, this research will examine (1) skill, (2) website content and (3) website‟s domain name as the factors of situational influence of websites.

Skill

Skill is needed in using internet for searching, browsing, finding, selecting, comparing and evaluating information as well as interacting and transacting with the online firm. The terminology “just Google it” Internet user for searching anything in the net. is very famous among the

As technology advances and the business environment continues to evolve, a key challenge facing IT software is identifying critical skill sets, both today and in the future (Goles et. al ,2008) . The individual must have sufficient online experience and the perception that e-commerce is easy (Ortega, 2008). Web experience is important not only for Websites marketing products or services but also for sites targeting customers interested in information. (Constantinides,

2004). When the level of skill does not meet the expectation, the user becomes either bored or anxious. Websites must communicate integrity and credibility in order to persuade customers to stop explored and interact online. (Constantinides, 2004). In order to shop online, the consumer must be able to understand on how to use the technology. Skill of the website user is an important factor of the situational influence of website. Therefore, the following hypotheses were proposed. H1. The level of skill of the website users has a positive effect on epurchasing behavior.

Website Content

Chen & Lee (2005) examined the impact of website image on consumer behavior. They explain that the information part seems to satisfy the browser. Kim (2003) stated in his research of Website design develop e-loyalty find out that website should provide in-depth information, the content of website has to match the preferences of its targeted customer group

Website design embraces all elements of the consumer‟s interaction with the website, including navigation, in depth-information, and order processing (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2003). Montoya-Weiss et al. (2003) suggested an

indirect relationship between website design factors, such as information content, navigation, and graphic style, and the level of e-satisfaction.

One of the advantage that website can provide in the pursuit of customer information is gathering statistics concerning where and what visitors are visiting or downloading from. This valuable information can allow companies to redesign website to fit the potential customers. Research done by Hopkins,(2001) strongly supported that positive evaluation of website content and product information positively influences goal-oriented shoppers.

Davis & Halligan (2002) also point out that business models today do not just have simply a web or non-web presence, but many more have both; this lead to an increasingly complex range of products, services and content that must be managed. Number of study determined the importance of information content. In other word website content is a vital factor of situational influence of websites. In this study suggests that website content influences e-purchasing behavior. H2. Website content has a positive effect on e-purchasing behavior

Website’s Domain Name

A domain name is an identification label to define a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet, based on the Domain Name System (DNS). Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. As domain names are allocated on a first-come first-served basis. This means that disputes between domain name registrars and trade mark holders are commonplace the world over. As we have heard that there are lots of case in the court concerning the claim for or defend against such a domain name. Brand owners particularly need to be aware of this problem.

DotCom company is also what we always heard about, although there are much more extention name such as DotNet, DotBiz , DotTel, etc but the DotCom already has created a brand image for the net users in which represents the online-company or the web-address that most e-tailer wanted. With 78 million active domain using “.com” extention that makes DotCom become dominance. In order to be recognized by consumers, companies must choose the right business website address.

The purpose of domain names is to provide easily recognizable and memorizable names that can become a brand-name of a website. Rebekah &

Thiele, (2005) in their research stated that The Brand can be viewed as a product, a personality, an experience, a set of values and a position it occupies in people‟s mind. Brand can offer emotional or a symbolic connection. Winkler (1999) stated that brand can change it‟s clothes and do different things but its core value and character should be virtually unchanging. A strong brand has little to do with size and everything to do with execution. Dull, a partner in Andersen Consulting's customer relationship management practice in Atlanta says every strong brand is successful at three things: offering something distinctive and better than its competitors, making its product experience consistent every day and communicating its distinctiveness or personality clearly to its audience. Scott (2003) argued that branding is a focus on the customer. Brand is really important for e-content companies, as each customer builds an emotional response to a company, that emotion become the brand image of the company.

Adkins (2005) stated that brand information is viewed as the content and amount of information that website hosts. In his research brand information is a dimension that impacts the situational influence that websites have on epurchasing behavior. Therefore, this study suggests that website‟s domain name influences the level of e-purchasing behavior. H3. Website domain name has a positive effect on e-purchasing behavior.

Product Types

Consumer will buy products or services as long as it meets the expected utility. The detection of the products or services category will be difficult, but researchers have found three types of products in relation to shopping efforts. Adkins, 2005 study the relationship between online shopping behavior was influenced by search product, experience product and credence product. Girard, 2005, found that the relationships of shopping orientation and demographic variables with purchase preference for shopping online significantly differ by search product, experience product and credence product types.

Attitude of search goods is functional, because the activity is routine troubleshooting. In most experience goods, the service is directed at people, while in credence goods (e.g. accounting, legal services) it is often directed at the things people possess (e.g. money, property). Therefore experience goods have an immediate need to “delight” customers.

Search Products

Search products is a product in which all major attributes of the products can be found with information searches, example of search products are books and computer. Customers would be confident of making the purchase decision

without trying the product prior to its use, (Girard, 2005). In this study search product will has significant influence consumer‟s e-purchasing behavior. H4. Search products have a positive effect on e-purchasing behavior

Experience Products

Experience product is a product where the attributes of the product cannot be verified before purchase. Such goods can have information searches made prior to purchase, but the attributes cannot be fully known until direct experience with the product is done, example of experience products are clothing, perfumes, hand-phones and televisions, (Adkins, 2005). Customer would not be confident in making the purchasing decision without sampling the product or service prior to its purchase, (Girard, 2005), therefore experience product will be influence to the e-purchasing behavior. H5. Experience products have a positive effect on e-purchasing behavior

Credence Products

Credence products are such that the quality level of the good cannot be fully verified-even after the purchase and consumption of the goods, examples of credence goods include vitamins, water purifiers and surgery (Girard, 2005).

Therefore, this study hypothesize credence products have significant impacts on e-purchasing behavior. H6. Credence products have a positive effect on e-purchasing behavior.

e-Purchasing Behavior.

To involve in the highly competitive e-marketplace, a marketer should understand the mechanisms of virtual shopping and the behavior of the online customer. Given continuous expansion of the Internet in terms of user numbers, transaction numbers, transaction volumes and business penetration this massive research endeavor is not surprising. More than 20% of Internet users in Indonesia already buy products and services online (APJII, 2008). These developments are gradually transforming e-commerce into a mainstream business activity while at the same time online consumers are maturing and virtual vendors realize the importance and urgency for a professional and customer-oriented approach (Constantinides, 2004).

According to Adkins,(2005) a problem that consumers face on the Internet finding websites that offer the products or services they seek. Some websites will be familiar; others will have never been viewed. The store image (website attitude) will make a first impression on the consumer on whether to seek out

information, buy products and ultimately have website loyalty. However, the motive for visiting the website may not be to buy, but to compare prices, seek other information, etc. Adkins, (2005). supports that emotions are experience during a retail visit and these emotions impact shopping motivations, the study was done on the member of APKOMINDO (Asosiasi Pengusaha Komputer Indonesia, Indonesia Computer Traders Association) which are users of internet and will also feel emotions that could have an impact upon the situational influence of websites.

Conceptual Framework

Referring to the research conducted by Chen and Lee (2005) in the Journal of “The Impact of Web Site Image and Consumer Personality on Consumer Behavior”, the writer developed research design to analyze whether websites can give influence on purchasing behavior using the situational influences of websites and product types.

The questionnaires developed have to support a fundamental assumption that situational influences of websites and products types will have influences on epurchasing behavior. These questionnaires are adopted from the questionnaires concept done by Adkins, 2005.

Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework
SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES OF WEBSITES

SKILL

H1 WEBSITE CONTENT H2

WEBSITE DOMAIN NAME

H3

e-Purchasing Behavior
H4

SEARCH PRODUCTS

H5

H6 EXPERIENCE PRODUCTS

CREDENSE PRODUCTS

PRODUCT TYPES

CHAPTER III

Methodology

Research Method

The research is based on the previous research done by Chen and Lee (2005) in the Journal of “The Impact of Web Site Image and Consumer Personality on Consumer Behavior”. The objective of this research is to discover the factors of situational influences of websites and product types that can impact the epurchasing behavior of customers. Research design method that will be used is to test the hypothesis is correlation research.

Variable and Measurement

The questioner consists of three sections. In the first sections, respondents were asked to identify the demographic information such as age, gender, academic background, occupation, income and residential area. In the second section, respondents were asked whether they subscribe newspaper or not, how they communicate (email, SMS, telephone, fax or letter), do they subscribe internet provider or not? In the third section, the situational influences of websites and

product types and e-purchasing behavior were asked using the scales based on the conceptualization of Adkins (2005).

The variables that will be measured in this research are classified as independent variables and dependent variable. The dependent variable only consists of epurchasing behavior was measured using a five-item, five-point Likert scale. Likert scale asks respondents to indicate the extent to which they either agree or disagree with a series of mental or behavioral belief statement about a given object (Hair et al., 2009). Independent variables consists of: 1. Skill construct was measured using a three-item, five-point Likert scale. 2. Website content was measured using a four-item, five-point Likert scale. 3. Website‟s domain name was measured using a five-item, five-point Likert scale. 4. Product type construct was measured by using a fifteen-item, five-point Likert scale. There will be 3 parts of product type to be measured; the search product, experience product and credence product groups. All product type scale items use the following question as a lead-in, “What products are you purchase each of the following via the internet?

In order to identify and describe whether the situational influences of websites and product types have impact on e-purchasing behavior. The primary data will be used to represent firsthand raw data and structure.

Skill variable was measured by three questions: 1. I am extremely skilled at using the web 2. I consider myself knowledgeable about good search techniques on the Web. 3. I know how to find what I am looking for on the Web.

Website Content/Information was measured by four questions: 1. I enjoy visiting unfamiliar websites just for the sake of variety 2. When I hear about a new website, I‟m eager to check it out 3. I like website that have in-depth information 4. I often click on a link just out of curiosity

Website‟s domain name was measured by five questions: 1. I use my knowledge of buying online to verify that advertising claims are in fact true. 2. I can recall almost all existing online sellers of a specific product from memory 3. I can recognize almost all types of websites that sell a particular product online. 4. I can recall product specific attributes of products sold online. 5. I can recall specific attributes of the various websites that sell products online.

e- Purchase behavior was measured by five questions: 1. Shopping is generally a lot of fun for me 2. Website is my choice, when I want to make a purchase 3. I am overall satisfied with online purchasing 4. I enjoy browsing for things even if I cannot buy them 5. I am satisfied with the online purchase experience

All product type scale items use the following question as a lead-in, “What products are you purchase each of the following via the internet?” Search Products 1. Books, magazines, information. 2. CD, DVD, Video. 3. Personal computer/notebook. 4. Toys for Children. 5. Travel related products/services. Experience Products 6. Clothing, jewelry, accessories. 7. Flowers and plants. 8. Food and drink. 9. Automotive products. 10. Electronics, TV, DVD player, refrigerators.

Credence Products 11. Legal services. 12. Financial services. 13. Business services. 14. Education services. 15. Mortgage lending.

Sample and Data Collection

To investigate how situational influence factors and product types effects on epurchasing behavior, we gather data from selected members of Apkomindo (Asosiasi Pengusaha Komputer Indonesia, Indonesia Computer Traders Association) to conform some criteria, therefore, the questionnaires were circulated to the members who had experience on purchasing in internet. Participants were selected based on the belief that the participants will meet the requirement of the research. Walpole‟s formula (1982) was used in order to fulfill the minimum requirement of sample size, following is the formula:

n 

(Z  / 2 ) 4e
2

2

Where : n=sample size
(Z  / 2 )
2

= the value of Z distribution table (areas of the standard normal

distribution) at confidence level of  e=level of error allowed in this research

With the 90% confident level, the value of Z distribution table at confidence level of  is 1.645, therefore with 10% error allowed in this research, the minimum sample of this research is 68 respondents.

Hair et al., (2009) lists four type of survey research: (1) Person-Administered, (2) Telephone-Administered, (3) Self-Administered, and (4) Computer-Assisted (Online). The method utilized in this study is Computer-Assisted (Online) questionnaire. The respondents were selected from the member

APKOMINDO‟s (Asosiasi Pengusaha Komputer Indonesia) which are active internet users. Initially the total of 125 questionnaires distributed, 15 questionnaires discarded due to the incompleteness and insincerity of the answers. After the data collection process, 110 usable data were obtained and used for data analysis. Table 3.1 presents the respondents‟ profiles.

Table 3.1 Respondents’ Profiles

No. 1.

Respondents Profile Gender Male Female Total Age 20 – 30 years old 31 – 40 years old 41 – 50 years old Above 50 years old Total Academy Background High School Diploma Bacherol Degree (S1) Master Degree (S2) Total Occupation Student Employee Entrepreneur Total Income Less than Rp. 2.5 million Rp. 2.5 million – Rp. 5 million Rp. 5 million – Rp. 10 million Above Rp. 10 million Total Residential Area Down Town Suburb Out of Town Total

No. of Respondents 57 53 110 25 46 34 5 110 3 4 85 18 110 5 59 46 110 4 12 46 48 110 55 49 6 110

%

51.8% 48.2% 100.0% 22.7% 41.8% 30.9% 4.5% 100.0% 2.7% 3.6% 77.3% 16.4% 100.0% 4.5% 53.6% 41.8% 100.0% 3.6% 10.9% 41.8% 43.6% 100.0% 50.0% 44.5% 5.5% 100.0%

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Preliminary questionnaires such as newspaper subscriber, communication media used and subscribe of internet provider were also collected to give more understanding of the respondents‟ profiles. Table 3.2 presents the preliminary questionnaires.

Table 3.2 Preliminary Questionnaires No. Respondents Profile No. of Respondents 56 54 110 47 58 5 0 110 90 20 110 %

1. Newspaper subscriber Yes No Total 2. Communication media used e-mail Short messages (SMS) Telephone Mail Total 3. Internet Provider Subscriber Yes No Total

50.9% 49.1% 100.0% 42.7% 52.7% 4.5% 0.0% 100.0% 81.8% 18.2% 100.0%

Of the 110 respondents, 81.8% were internet subscribers and only 18.2% were not internet subscriber. Table 3.2 shows the respondents communicate with email were 42.7%, short messaging (sms) were 52.7%, telephone were 4.5% and none of them used mail as a communication media.

The Validity and Reliability Test of Research Instruments

To ensure all data collected for this research were appropriate to be further used in the hypothesis testing, the validity and reliability test were conducted to all questions in the questionnaire.

Validity Test

Validity is defined as how well the measures correctly represent constructs under study (Hair et al., 2009). All research instruments for measuring research variables were thoroughly tested by applying the validity test. Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequancy (KMO – MSA Coefficient) will be used for the validity test of the research instruments. If the result indicate valid then all the research instruments can be used to measure the research objectives. The validity test was based on the following range: 1. The research instruments are not valid if the coefficient of Measure of Sampling Adequacy is less than 0.50; 2. The research instruments are valid if the coefficient of Measure of Sampling Adequacy is above or equal to the acceptable level of 0.50.

SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution) version 15. is used to analyze the above designated data and the result of the validity test presents in table 3.3

shows that all the research instruments in measuring research variables are valid according to KMO-MSA, with the coefficient value of 0.823 which is above 0.50.

Table 3.3 Validity Test Result Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Approx. ChiSquare df Sig. a Based on correlations Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

.823 277.011 21 .000

Reliability Test

The test is related with the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure. A measurement is identified reliable if it supplies consistent results. This test is also to ensure that the measurement is free of random or unstable error. SPSS version 15.0 will be used. The expected minimum results are in the range of 0.7 Cronbach‟s coefficient alpha (Hair, 2009). The result of the reliability test presents in Table 3.4 shows that each variables is reliable and complies to the minimum requirement at 0.7 Cronbach‟s coefficient alpha.

Table 3.4 Reliability Test Result Cronbach's Alpha .805

N of Items 7 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .789 .720 .768 .728 .797 .811 .816

Corrected Item-Total Correlation web .536 domain .805 skill .616 purchase .797 search .438 experience .338 credence .309

Data Analysis Method. All of the collected data will be analyzed using regression analysis method in which data will be tested to identify linear relationship between variables measurement in this research. The correlation coefficients tells you the overall strength of the association and the direction of the relationship between variables in greater details (Hair et al., 2009)

CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Descriptive Statistic

Descriptive statistic will be used to describe the summary of mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum point of research variables. Table 4.1 represents the descriptive statistic results.

Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistic Test Results – All Variables N Minimum Maximum 110 1.50 5.00 110 1.00 4.60 110 1.67 5.00 110 1.60 4.60 110 1.00 3.75 110 1.00 2.33 110 1.00 3.40 110 Mean 3.2659 2.7891 3.7242 3.1527 1.8614 1.4955 1.7891 Std. Deviation .96396 .93763 .65254 .77764 .57528 .35370 .64727

web domain skill purchase search experience credence Valid N (listwise)

The overall objective of the study was to determine whether websites can influence online purchasing behavior using (1) website content/information, (2) website‟s domain name, (3) skill of the website user, (4) product types. To analyze the influence of website contents, website‟s domain name and users‟

skill, the 5 point Likert type response format will be used. The number 1 indicates strongly disagree, 2 indicates disagree, 3 indicates neither agree nor disagree, 4 indicates agree and number 5 indicates strongly agree. The results shows that the respondents‟ differences in responding the questionnaires. The mean of website content, website‟s domain name and skill is almost near to 3, it means that the situational influences of websites have an impact on e-purchasing behavior, the mean of products types is below 3 in this study, showing that product types do not really have impact on e-purchasing behavior.

As skill is one of the research variables that have obtained the highest mean, each questionnaire of skill are described as show on table 4.2. „I am extremely skilled at using the web‟ is the highest response compare to the other two variables, in this case it explain that the consumer‟s skill in using the web will have great influences on e-purchasing. Besides that good search techniques on the web and know how to find what the consumer is looking for on the web also have a great influences on e-purchasing behavior.

Table 4.2.

Descriptive Statistics test result - Skill N skill_1
Extremely skilled using web

Minimum 1.00 1.00 2.00

Maximum 5.00 5.00 5.00

Mean 3.9000 3.7091 3.5636

Std. Deviation .71613 .83880 .89368

110 110 110 110

skill_2
Good search techniques on web

skill_3
How to find on the web

Valid N (listwise)

Results Analysis and Interpretation

The analysis on the research will be obtained by conducting the hypothesis testing. The level of significance (alpha) of 0.05 (5%) will be used as the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. Data will be processed by using the linear regression test, aiming to identify whether two or more independent varibles (X1, X2, X3,…….Xn) significantly influence the dependent variable (Y). The objective of this test is to reject the null hypothesis (Ho), therefore, alternative hypothesis can be accepted, Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 15.0 will be used to analyze this hypothesis testing. Hypothesis test to be used will be defined as follows: 1. Ho = Not significantly influence between the dependent variable and independent variable.

2. H1 = Significantly influence between the dependent variable and Independent variable The level of significance (alpha) of 0.05 (5%) will be the decision: 1. If significance level > 0.05, Ho will be accepted; 2. If significance level < 0.05, Ho will be rejected.

Table 4.3 Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Beta .036 .589 .208 .073 .046 .090

Model

t B .784 .542 7.104 2.999 1.175 .768 1.553

Sig. Std. Error .435 .589 .000 .003 .243 .444 .123

B Std. Error 1 (Constant) .247 .315 web .029 .053 domain .488 .069 skill .248 .083 search .098 .084 experience .102 .133 credence .108 .069 a Dependent Variable: purchase

Hypothesis 1 : The first hypothesis is to test whether skill of customers using the web influence the e-purchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are :

H01 = No significant influence appears between customers‟ skill in using the web and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Ha1 = Significant influence appears between customers‟ skill in using the web and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Table 4.3 presents the hypothesized relationship of skill in using the web and epurchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 2.999 with the significance level of 0.003, thus, Ho is rejected because p<0.05 significance level. Therefore, there is significant influence between the customers‟ skill in using the website and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. The finding rejected the hypothesis support the theory by Hoffman (1996) that skill beliefs would positively influence e-purchasing behavior.

The result explain that in order to have activities in the cyber world, at least the users have the knowledge of how to use the web, how to search in the web and know what to search in the web. Without the skill and techniques in using the web it is impossible to do activities in the cyber world. Therefore skill of the customers in using the web is considered very important.

Hypothesis 2 : The second hypothesis is to test whether website content influence e-purchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are:

H01 = No significant influence appears between website content and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Ha1 = Significant influence appears between website content and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 0.542 with the significance level of 0.435, thus, we fail to reject Ho because p>0.05 significance level. This means that there is no significant influence between the information in website and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Failing to reject Ho did not support the theory that website content influence the e-purchasing behavior based on the research by Adkins (2005).

Hypothesis 3 : The third hypothesis is to test whether website‟s domain name influence epurchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are: H01 = No significant influence appears between website‟s domain name and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Ha1 = Significant influence appears between website‟s domain name and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 7.104 with the significance level of 0.000, thus, Ho is rejected because p<0.05 significance

level. Therefore, there is significant influence between websites‟ domain name and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior.

The finding shows that a domain name of a website has great influence to a customer‟s decision whether want to access the website or not which can have impact on e-purchasing behavior. Lots of people are trying to put on the firsthand domain name on the world wide web (www), and also lots of domain name in which have a particular brand name is being registered.

Nowadays, everybody is trying to create a domain name which is so attractive that can persuade the customer to browse into their websites. And the advertisement on „click‟ the web also shown the unique domain name created by the website owners hoping will create brand-image. Every domain name will be push to become the number one priority in Google or Yahoo search engines, in hope that customers will see the first domain name and click on the link.

Hypothesis 4 : The forth hypothesis is to test whether search products will have influenced on e-purchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are: H01 = No significant influence appears between search products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior.

Ha1 = Significant influence appears between search products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 1.175 with the significance level of 0.243, thus, we fail to reject Ho because p>0.05 significance level. This means that there is no significant influence between search products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior.

Hypothesis 5 : The fifth hypothesis is to test whether experience products will have influenced on e-purchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are: H01 = No significant influence appears between experience products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Ha1 = Significant influence appears between experience products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 0.768 with the significance level of 0.444, thus, we fail to reject Ho because p>0.05 significance level. This means that there is no significant influence between experience products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior.

Hypothesis 6 : The sixth hypothesis is to test whether credence products will have influenced on e-purchasing behavior significantly. The null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis are: H01 = No significant influence appears between credence products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Ha1 = Significant influence appears between credence products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior. Using the 0.05 level of significance, the computed t is 1.553 with the significance level of 0.123, thus, we fail to reject Ho because p>0.05 significance level. This means that there is no significant influence between credence products and customers‟ e-purchasing behavior.

From the result we obtained the interaction term between the dependent variable and independent variable was entered into the regression equation to determine if a significant independent variable effects the dependent variable. The relationship is represented in the following equation:

y    1 X 1   2 X 2

y  0 , 247  0 . 589 X 1  0 . 208 X 2

R

2

 0 . 700

Where : y = Dependent variables (e-purchasing behavior)
X1 

Domain name Skill

X

2



  Constant
 1  Regression coefficient for independent variable
 2  Regression coefficient for second independent variable.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

Conclusion

The study was designed to determine the e-purchasing behavior incorporating various constructs. The results indicate that website domain name and skill of the website users influence the e-purchasing behavior, whereas website content and product types (search products, experience products and credence products) did not have significant effects on the e-purchasing behavior. From the findings and the growth of internet users we can assure that the customers using the web for purchasing still based on the customers who have the knowledge and skill in using the web. The individual must have sufficient online experience and the perception that e-commerce is easy. Once the consumer has made at least one purchase, the acceptance of the new channel is strengthened, mainly through the satisfaction achieved and the perception of self-efficacy (Girard, 2005).

Domain name plays a big role in the website industry. Customers will pay attention at the brand name of a website. Website content and product types did not have significantly influence the e-purchasing behavior, this is the result of the late adoption of the cyber technology, the late implementation of the cyber

law and the costly connection of the internet service provider which limited the used of the internet facility for the purpose of business. But the competition of internet service provider in which will cost-down the connection cost, the more advent on the internet infrastructure and lots of easier tools provide by the software will encourage lots of people to browse into the web to look for more information with unlimited source will provide the bright future business in the cyber world and will create the e-consumer on e-purchasing behavior.

Lots of young generations now log in the internet to start the business by providing lots of easy-understand information and competitive price and provide more advance service, guarantee and trust that will make the business booming in the coming years.

Research Results Discussions

Skill of customers in using the web is defined as knowing where to find the information that is necessary to make a potential purchase and the prospect for action (Novak et. al. 2000). Therefore in this study skill positively influence epurchasing behavior. Recent lots of software and search engine such as Google, Yahoo have made skills easier to browse into the web, but the capability of using the software also need certain knowledge and understanding.

Website content is the information that needed by customers to take the action on doing purchasing. As the earlier study by Adkins (2005), the amount of information in website content was positively influencing the attitude of customer‟s purchasing behavior but the findings did not support the hypothesized relationship. The hypothesized relationship might not have been supported due to the lack of information provided by the website showing what information will be provided by the websites and what can make the customers to browse into the websites.

Website‟s domain name examined the dimension of whether website‟s domain name or brand-name of website influences the e-purchasing behavior. In this study, this dimension was significant. This confirm the research done by Adkins, (2005) that presented this hypothesized relationship. Domain name is a brandname of a website in which will assure or give guarantee and trust for the customers.

Lastly, the product types were composed of three different types: search products, experience products and credence products. Through the analysis, this study indicates that the three products have a negative influence upon epurchasing behavior.

Managerial Implications

The process of e-purchasing behavior provides valuable insights for online retailers or e-tailers. With this result, online retailers can have better understand the process of establishing and directing their resources toward improving or creating e-purchasing behavior.

It is noteworthy that e-purchasing behavior has to be based on both skill of the users and the website‟s domain name. In managing customer‟s e-purchasing behavior, online retailer or e-tailer must consider to target the segment to the internet users who has the knowledge and skill in using and explore the web and set a trustworthy, easy to recognize domain name. One of the key findings in this research is that the online retailer has to provide fully understandable information on their website and easy-used website so that the customers do not need any specific skill to browse into the website.

In addition, it is important to note that among a sample of online shoppers included in this study, product types did not significantly impact the relationship on e-purchasing behavior. The results indicated that online retailers might not need to target any specific products to enhance e-purchasing behavior. Design an easy-used with fully understandable information so that the customers do not need any specific skill in using the websites and launch an attractive, easy to

recognize and easy to remember domain name website. Therefore, it can be suggested that once online retailers have gained the success in blow-up the domain name of the website with the attractive design and easy-used website then they can get the customer to do online purchasing.

Research Limitation

The limitation of the study is the sample were collected in one particular group of people, and represent a certain profiles, the results may vary with subjects of different sample population. Therefore, further research is suggested toward expanding the study to focus of other population.

Another limitation, situational influences of website in this study only consists of three factors. Since websites‟ situational influences can include more than those factors, by the guidance of previous studies, these influences are generally used by most researcher when examining the internet as a situational influence (Adkins, 2005).

Recommendations for Future Research

The first area for future research is testing the study with different sample populations. As such, a more representative sample of customers who consider purchasing via the internet would be useful to further the hypothesized relationships studied in the model.

Another area for future research would be the testing of the other situational influences upon the website environment. This could improve the explained variance of the model and provide an even more improved model. In future the product classification framework is suggested to use a much better method in the relationship with the online retail industry. There is still much work to be accomplished in future research.

REFERENCES A Shwu-Ing Wu, (2006). “Comparison of the behavior of different customer clusters towards Internet bookstores”, Information & Management. Amsterdam: Vol. 43, Iss. 8; p. 986. Adkins, Steve, D.B.A.(2005), “The impact of situational influences of websites on brand loyalty: An empirical analysis”, Nova Southeastern University, 197 pages. Camilla Palmer.(2002), “Advertisers turn to content to further their brands”. Campaign. Teddington. p. 16. Chuan Lee, Wen-Jung Chen (2005). “The Effects of Internal Marketing and Organizational Culture on Knowledge Management in the Information Technology Industry” International Journal of Management. Vol. 22, p. 661. David J. Ortinau, Hair, Robert P. Bush (2009), “Marketing Research” McGrawHill College 5th Edition. Donna L Hoffman, Thomas P Novak (2000), “How to acquire customers on the Web”. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 78, Iss. 3; p. 179. Efthymios Constantinides (2004), “Influencing the online consumer's behavior: the Web experience”. Internet Research. Bradford. Vol. 14, Iss. 2; p. 111. Fong, Tsai-Shin, Ph.D. (2004), “The impact of Web site design on consumer loyalty in business-to-consumer (B2C) Internet commerce: A rhetorical approach” Lynn University, 277 pages; AAT 3123911. Girard, Tulay, Ph.D.,(2005), “Validating the search, experience, and credence product classification framework in a model of patronage intentions”. Florida Atlantic University, Girard, Turay, Pradeep Korgaonkar, Ronnie Silverblatt.(2003). “Relationship of Type of Product, Shopping Orientations, and Demographics with Preference for Shopping on the Internet”. Journal of Business and Psychology. New York:. Vol. 18, Iss. 1; p. 101 Godin (2008) Big Think Strategy: “How to Leverage Bold Ideas and Leave Small Thinking Behind/Meatball Sundae: Is Your Marketing Out Of Sync?” The Conference Board Review. New York. Vol. 45, Iss. 1; p. 94

Hopkins, Christopher David, Ph.D.(2001), “Analysis of affective and functional dimensions of e-tailer image as antecedents to online search motives, involvement, and purchase intentions” An empirical test and explanation, Mississippi State University, 222 pages. John-Michael Maas, Scott (2003). “Brave New Branding”, Publishers Weekly. Vol. 250, Iss. 51; p. 14. Mary Wolfinbarger, Mary C Gilly (2003). “eTailQ: Dimensionalizing, measuring and predicting etail quality”. Journal of Retailing. Vol. 79, p. 183. Mitzi M Montoya-Weiss, Glenn B Voss, Dhruv Grewal (2003), “Determinants of online channel use and overall satisfaction with a relational, multichannel service provider”. Academy of Marketing Science Journal. Vol. 31, p. 448. Ortega Blanca, Hernández, Julio Jiménez-Martínez, M. José Martín-DeHoyos (2008), “Differences between potential, new and experienced e-customers; Analysis of e-purchasing behavior”, Internet Research. Bradford, Vol. 18, Iss. 3; pg. 248. Pradeep K Korgaonkar, Lori D Wolin A multivariate (1999) “Analysis of Web usage”. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol. 39, Iss. 2; p. 53. Rajdeep Grewal, James M Comer, Raj Mehta, (2001), “An investigation into the antecedents of organizational participation in business-to-business electronic markets”. Journal of Marketing. Chicago. Vol. 65, Iss. 3; p. 17. Rebekah Bennett, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele (2005), “The brand loyalty life cycle: Implications for marketers”. Journal of Brand Management. London. Vol. 12, Iss. 4; p. 250. Robert W. Proctor, Kim-Phuong L. Vu, Lawrence J. Najjar, Misha W. Vaughan, Gavriel Salvendy.(2003), “Content preparation and management for ecommerce Web sites”. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM. Vol. 46, Iss. 12; p. 289. Robert, T. "Bob" Stretch, (2003) “Porter and the Internet: An Empirical Assessment of Porter's Strategic Thinking as Applied to Online Strategies for Pet Supply Stores in the San Diego”, Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Fort Lauderdale: Vol. 8, Iss. 3; p. 133 (18 pages) Ronald E McGaughey, Kevin H Mason. (1998), “The Internet as a marketing tool”. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. Vol. 6, Iss. 3; p. 1.

Ronald E. Walpole.(January 1982). “ Introduction to Statistic”. MacMillan. 3rd edition. 521 pages. Scott Davis, Cathy Halligan, (2002), “Extending your brand by optimizing your customer relationship”. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 19, Iss. 1; p. 7 Thomas Hoffman, (2009), “9 Hottest Skills For '09”. Computerworld. Framingham: Vol. 43, Iss. 1; p. 26. Tim Goles, Stephen Hawk, Kate M Kaiser (2008), “Information technology workforce skills: The software and IT services provider perspective”. Information Systems Frontiers. Vol. 10, Iss. 2; p. 179. Vijay Mahajan, Raji Srinivasan, Jerry Wind (2002), “The dot.com retail failures of 2000: Were there any winners?” Academy of Marketing Science. Journal.. Vol. 30, Iss. 4; p. 474 Wen-Jung Chen, Chuan Lee (2005), “The Impact of Web Site Image and Consumer Personality on Consumer Behavior”. International Journal of Management.. Vol. 22, Iss. 3; p. 484. William Hoffman, (2009), “Big Blue boost”.Journal of Commerce. New York. Zarem, Jane, E. (2000), “Getting people to pay: Sub-based Web sites” The Magazine for Magazine Management. Vol. 29, Iss. 15; p. 53.

Frequency Table- Appendix 1
usia responden Cumulative Percent 22.7 64.5 95.5 100.0

Frequency Valid 20-30 thn 31-40 thn 41-50 thn > 50 thn Total 25 46 34 5 110

Percent 22.7 41.8 30.9 4.5 100.0

Valid Percent 22.7 41.8 30.9 4.5 100.0

pendidikan Cumulative Percent 2.7 6.4 83.6 100.0

Frequency Valid SMA Diploma S1 S2/S3 Total 3 4 85 18 110

Percent 2.7 3.6 77.3 16.4 100.0

Valid Percent 2.7 3.6 77.3 16.4 100.0

jenis kelamin Cumulative Percent 51.8 100.0

Frequency Valid pria wanita Total 57 53 110

Percent 51.8 48.2 100.0

Valid Percent 51.8 48.2 100.0

jenis pekerjaan Cumulative Percent 4.5 58.2 95.5 100.0

Frequency Valid mahasiswa pegawai pengusaha 4.00 Total 5 59 41 5 110

Percent 4.5 53.6 37.3 4.5 100.0

Valid Percent 4.5 53.6 37.3 4.5 100.0

penghasilan per bulan Cumulative Percent 3.6 14.5 56.4 100.0

Valid

< Rp 2.5 juta Rp 2,5 - 5 juta > Rp 5 - 10 juta > Rp 10 juta Total

Frequency 4 12 46 48 110

Percent 3.6 10.9 41.8 43.6 100.0

Valid Percent 3.6 10.9 41.8 43.6 100.0

lokasi tempat tinggal Cumulative Percent 50.0 94.5 100.0

Valid

pusat kota pinggir kota luar kota Total

Frequency 55 49 6 110

Percent 50.0 44.5 5.5 100.0

Valid Percent 50.0 44.5 5.5 100.0

berlangganan surat kabar Cumulative Percent 50.9 100.0

Frequency Valid ya tidak Total 56 54 110

Percent 50.9 49.1 100.0

Valid Percent 50.9 49.1 100.0

media komunikasi Cumulative Percent 42.7 95.5 100.0

Frequency Valid email sms telepon Total 47 58 5 110

Percent 42.7 52.7 4.5 100.0

Valid Percent 42.7 52.7 4.5 100.0

langganan internet provider Cumulative Percent 81.8 100.0

Valid

ya tidak Total

Frequency 90 20 110

Percent 81.8 18.2 100.0

Valid Percent 81.8 18.2 100.0

Validity Test Result – Appendix 2

KMO and Bartlett's Test(a) Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square df Sig. a Based on correlations .823 277.011 21 .000

Reliability Test Result Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 110 100.0 Excluded(a) 0 .0 Total 110 100.0 a Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha .805

N of Items 7

Item-Total Statistics Scale Variance if Item Deleted 8.121 7.093 9.138 7.906 10.065 11.075 10.291 Corrected Item-Total Correlation .536 .805 .616 .797 .438 .338 .309 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .789 .720 .768 .728 .797 .811 .816

web domain skill purchase search experience credence

Scale Mean if Item Deleted 14.8120 15.2888 14.3536 14.9252 16.2165 16.5824 16.2888

Descriptive Statistic Result – Appendix 3 Descriptive Statistics Std. Deviation .96396 .93763 .65254 .77764 .57528 .35370 .64727

web domain skill purchase search experience credence Valid N (listwise)

N 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110

Minimum 1.50 1.00 1.67 1.60 1.00 1.00 1.00

Maximum 5.00 4.60 5.00 4.60 3.75 2.33 3.40

Mean 3.2659 2.7891 3.7242 3.1527 1.8614 1.4955 1.7891

Descriptive Statistics test result - Skill N skill_1
Extremely skilled using web

Minimum 1.00 1.00 2.00

Maximum 5.00 5.00 5.00

Mean 3.9000 3.7091 3.5636

Std. Deviation .71613 .83880 .89368

110 110 110 110

skill_2
Good search techniques on web

skill_3
How to find on the web

Valid N (listwise)

Regression Test Result-Appendix 4
Variables Entered/Removed(b) Variables Entered credence, search, experience, web, skill, domain(a) a All requested variables entered. b Dependent Variable: purchase Model Summary(b) Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Variables Removed

Model 1

Method

.

Enter

.837(a) .700 .683 .43793 1.741 a Predictors: (Constant), credence, search, experience, web, skill, domain b Dependent Variable: purchase ANOVA(b) Sum of Squares 46.160 19.754

Model 1

R

R Square

Durbin-Watson

Model 1

Regression Residual Total

df 6 103

Mean Square 7.693 .192

F 40.115

Sig. .000(a)

65.914 109 a Predictors: (Constant), credence, search, experience, web, skill, domain b Dependent Variable: purchase Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B (Constant) web domain skill search experience credence .247 .029 .488 .248 .098 .102 .108 Std. Error .315 .053 .069 .083 .084 .133 .069 .036 .589 .208 .073 .046 .090 Standardized Coefficients Beta

t B .784 .542 7.104 2.999 1.175 .768 1.553

Sig. Std. Error .435 .589 .000 .003 .243 .444 .123

a Dependent Variable: purchase

KUESTIONER PENELITIAN Studi untuk mengetahui pengaruh Situational Influences dari Websites dan type produk terhadap e-Purchasing Behavior.

Untuk memberikan masukan terhadap pengembangan e-marketing dengan website, saya mahasiswa Program Pascasarjana Universitas Trisakti Jakarta, sedang melakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh situational influences dari websites dan type produk terhadap e-purchasing behavior yang pada saat ini sedang berkembang pesat dan banyak dilakukan oleh perusahaan dalam menghadapi persaingan era globalisasi. Mohon kesediaan Saudara/i untuk mengisi kuestioner di bawah ini yang menurut Saudara/i paling sesuai, tidak ada jawaban yang benar atau salah dalam pilihan Saudara/i. Data isian ini akan terjaga kerahasiaannya dan seluruh data yang kami peroleh hanya akan dipergunakan untuk kepentingan studi ini. Terima kasih atas kesediaan Saudara/i untuk meluangkan waktunya mengisi kuesioner ini.

Beri tanda [X] pada pilihan sebagai berikut : Bagian I 1. Jenis kelamin :  pria  wanita  41-50 thn  Diploma  ≥ 50 thn  Sarjana (S1)

2. Usia :  20-30 thn  31-40 thn 3. Pendidikan terakhir :  SMA  Pascasarjana (S2)

4. Pekerjaan :  Mahasiswa  Pegawai

 Pengusaha

5. Penghasilan per bulan :  < Rp. 2.5 juta  >Rp. 10 juta 6. Lokasi tempat tinggal :  Pusat Kota  Pinggir Kota  Luar Kota  Rp. 2.5 juta – 5 juta  > Rp. 5 juta – 10 juta

Bagian II 1. Berlangganan Surat Kabar :  Ya  Tidak 2, Media Komunikasi :  email  Surat 3. Apakah saudara/i berlangganan salah satu internet provider  ya  tidak  SMS  Telepon  Fax

Bagian III Beri tanda [X] pada kolom pilihan sesuai dengan pendapat anda. Jawaban berskala 1-5, dimana : 1 = Sangat tidak setuju, 2 = Tidak setuju, 3 = Ragu-ragu, 4 = Setuju, 5 = Sangat Setuju

No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Website Content/Isi website Saya suka mengunjungi website yang tidak saya kenal hanya untuk mengetahui isi website Ketika saya mendengar tentang sebuah website baru maka saya ingin segera mengetahuinya Saya menyukai website yang memiliki informasi yang lengkap Saya sering click sebuah link baru karena keingin tahuan.

1

2

3

4

5

No. 1.

Website Domain Name/Nama dari Website Saya menggunakan pengalaman saya berbelanja secara online untuk verifikasi bahwa apa yang diiklankan adalah sesuai dengan fakta Saya dapat „recall‟ kembali semua penjual online dari produk yang spesifik dari memory komputer Saya dapat mengenal hampir semua type dari website yang menjual produk istimewa secara online. Saya dapat mengingat produk khusus yang di jual secara online Saya dapat mengingat website khusus yang melakukan penjualan secara online

1

2

3

4

5

2.

3.

4. 5.

No. 1. 2. 3.

Skill/Kemampuan Saya sangat mahir menggunakan Internet/web Saya memiliki keahlian dalam melakukan pencarian/search didalam web Saya dapat mencari apa yang saya inginkan didalam web

1

2

3

4

5

No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

e-Purchasing Behavior/Perilaku berbelanja Belanja/shopping adalah hal yang menyenangkan buat saya Website merupakan pilihan saya untuk berbelanja Saya sangat puas berbelanja secara online Saya sering melakukan browsing untuk produk atau jasa yang walaupun saya tidak dapat membelinya. Saya sangat puas dengan pengalaman belanja secara online.

1

2

3

4

5

5.

Jawaban berskala 1-5, dimana : 1 = Sangat Jarang, 2 = Jarang, 3 = Biasa, 4 = Sering, 5 = Sangat Sering

No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Barang Barang apa saja yang sering anda belanja secara online Buku, majalah, informasi CD, DVD, Video Komputer Pribadi/Notebook Mainan Anak Anak Jasa/produk perjalanan/travel Baju, Perhiasan, asesoris Bunga dan Tanaman Makanan dan minuman Mobil/Motor Electronik, TV, DVD player, kulkas dll Layanan Hukum (pengacara, notaris) Layanan Keuangan (perbankan) Layanan Bisnis (konsultan, broker) Layanan Pendidikan Pinjaman dengan Jaminan (Leasing)

1

2

3

4

5


								
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