Document Sample
720 Powered By Docstoc
					    The Planning Models of Building up Bioenergy Villages in


                                 Wan Tran, Huang
                                Professor & Ph. D.
            Academic Vice President, Chung Chou Institute of Technology

                                Chun Hsien Wang
                               Assistant Professor
           Department of Administrative Business, Ming Chuan University
             250 Zhong Shan N. Rd., Sec. 5, Taipei 111, Taiwan, R.O.C.

                                  Chung-Chunan, Liu
    Department of Marketing and Logistics Management, Chung Chou Institute of
     Based on the oil shortage and global warming effect, EU and Germany put more
efforts on considering how to utilize renewable resources through enacting
“Renewable Energy Sources Act” in 2000 (and amended in 2004). Germany is the
most active to enforce this Act. Germany built up the first bioenergy village located at
Jühnde in Göttingen area in 2005. So far, this village run by cooperative type is doing
good performances. The purposes of this paper are referring to Germany’s experiences
of Jühnde bioenergy village operation to develop the planning models conditioned on
the utilization of liquid manure (animal waste) in Taiwan rural areas. The research
approach employed by the paper is the qualitative analysis by using literature review
and depth interview in both Taiwan and Jühnde village. There are some findings from
Jühnde village’s experiences. Firstly, many people and/or agents, such as university
professors, governors and NGO groups, joined with the planning and promotion of
Jühnde village in order to integrate local resources. Secondly, there are three
dimensions about planning to set up a bioenergy village in terms of village planning,
that is to say, this basic framework includes technical and enological aspects, rural
economical development and social justices. This paper just followed those
dimensions servicing as the backstone of thinking about building up a bioenergy
village in Taiwan. Thirdly, the Jühnde village fully utilizes the biomass, e.g., maize,
wheat, wood chips and liquid manure (animal waste), to produce heat and electricity
power for village inhabitants. This situation offers good implication to build up a

bio-energy village in Taiwan by utilizing animal (e.g., swine) wastes. Fourthly, any
inhabitant joined with the village takes a voluntary manner emphasizing on his (or her)

Keywords: Biomass, Bio-energy village, Liquid manure, Inhabitants, Rural area

     Recently, numerous countries put emphasis on the development of renewable
energy and bio-energy. Many various regulations and acts regarding renewable energy
and bio-energy have been developed and legislated by different government, such as
“Renewable Energy Development Regulations” had draft by Taiwan government in
2002, “Japan Biomass Synthesis Planning” had sketched by Japan government in
2002, and “Renewable Energy Sources Act” set up by Germany in 2000 and
subsequently amended at July 2004. In case of renewable energy covers solar energy,
wind power, waterpower, geothermal energy, and bio-energy. The European Union
(EU) statistical report indicates that the share of bio-energy in total primary renewable
energy supply is about 80 percent in EU region. Thus, Germany is the most efficient
regarding implementing renewable energy policy. According to Germany government
statistical report show that over 89.9 per cent renewable energy is come from
bio-energy. The bio-energy was mainly come from crops, wood and liquid manure of
agricultural sector, and industrial waste of non- agricultural sector. The production
yield of biogas in Germany had attained 20 millions metric ton and bio-energy had
contributed to economic activities reaching to 160 million Euros, and finally had
decreased the CO2 emission about 38 million metric tons in 2005. In fact, various sites
of bio-energy village or biogas plant had been constructed and operated by Germany
government and local residents since 2001. Generally speaking, renewable energy
means the energy resources that could continuously be replenished by the natural
world. Among them, the solar energy and wind energy are the most widely publicized
    There are many countries and regions that have engaged different researches and
exploitation in anaerobic digestion such as France, England, Denmark, Netherlands,
Germany, Switzerland, U.S., Philippines, China, Thailand, South Korea, and Nepal,
and so on. The utilization of biogas has still many environmental limitations and the
primary reason for the attention in bio-energy is due to shortage of petrifaction fuel.
Netherlands had constructed a lot of biogas plant in 1970. However, on the other
hands, in the last year biogas technology in German agriculture has had its biggest
boom ever with the construction of over 250 new biogas installations. In Denmark
there are 18 centralized agricultural biogas plants in operation at the moment. These
plants are digesting a big amount of animal excretions and residues from the food

processing industry. In areas of a high biogas plant concentration, residues of high
energy value like animal fat from slaughterhouses and food waste are becoming a rare
commodity and have to be transported from far a field. Similarly, about 37,000
small-scale biogas plants were installed in Nepal from 1992 to 1998 which supplied
200 thousand residents.
     In Taiwan, the “Six-year Challenge 2008 National Development Plan” had
stressed three renewable energy demonstration village plans which include the solar
electric power town, wind power farm, and geothermal energy park. Once, the
renewable energy is highlighting not only engaged in constructing Taiwan sustainable
management indicators but also emphasizes the importance of reusing renewable
energy. As above discussion, the following will introduce each case in turn for relating
renewable energy.
(1) Solar electricity power town: Taiwan region enjoys long periods of sunshine.
    Government can promote to install solar electricity power system in these regions
    and further to build a solar electricity power demonstration town.
(2) Wind power farm: the western of Taiwan holds an ample of wind force and
    provides great potential for developing and generating electricity power. Recently,
    some of wind firms are addressing the planning of wind power constructing. In
    order to match the project development, it is need to choose appropriate location
    for manipulating and demonstrating wind power development and to build up a
    demonstration system which includes the generation of electricity power and
    tourism and further push forward related industries development.
(3) Geothermal energy park: Geothermal is a maintainability natural resource. The
    cost of generating electricity power is the same as the general fuel generating
    electricity power. Geothermal is steady and highly utilization for the resources
    suitable for electricity generation. To match “Qingshui geothermal energy
    electricity plan” the Yilan county governor had planed to reconstruct and modify
    thermae for improving electrical capacity in the Qingshui village. The Qingshui
    thermae had generate electrical capacity reaching 5000 lm/W at August 2005. The
    Qingshui thermae has not only improved electrical capacity but also provided the
    tourism and leisure of the people.
    In contrast to Taiwan, Germany started planning and applying technique of
biotechnology and some of physical facilities from the beginning of the 2001 in order
to transform biomass into electricity power and biogas through by-product such as
dejects of pig and cattle, rye, helianthus, and wood chips. Until July 2007, the research
team in University of Göttingen has initiated an action research project in formulating
and promoting “the Bio-energy Village”. Through concrete research work, their
research outcomes have applied in the bio-energy village to rear bio-energy crops and

earned sale volume of agricultural product achieving 250 thousand Euros and further
yielding the after growth agricultural products in per year. In 2006, the research team
of this paper had down the deep analysis and evaluation about bio-energy village in
Germany and further found that main key success factor is: (1) techniques and
facilities, (2) government policy, (3) social culture, (4) resource application, and (5)
economic benefit. The results of questionnaire investigation in last study, it found that
the most important factors in turn are government policy, techniques and facilities,
and economic benefit.
    In this paper, it will draw some lessons from the Germany bio-energy village
experiences, as implications for the renewable energy development in Taiwan. This
paper is being extended to bio-energy village policy and previous research efforts of
related factors for bio-energy village constructing to analyze and explore the
bio-energy village planning model feasibility study in Taiwan. Generally, this paper is
based on the Germany experiences and following aspects to discuss Taiwan
bio-energy village, such as (1) the categories source and techniques of biomaterial, (2)
the social, economic analysis, and environment evaluation for constructing bio-energy,
(3) the scale and location of bio-energy village. The above three aspects can be used to
explore and promote the bio-energy village planning in Taiwan and further provide the
government agencies and related farmer of making policy and practical reference.
     In this paper it also invests experts from Department of Horticulture in Taiwan
University, whom specialized fields are renewable resources and bio-energy
transformation technique. It also found and applied the available related theory and
technique as a basis which has been developed and designed from domestic experts.
On the other hand, the specialists and professors come from Chung Chou Institute of
Technology were participation in this study by combining planning and evaluation
theory with economic analysis approach to evaluate cost-benefit analysis of
bio-energy village constructing. Finally, the location theory was used to assess
location and social culture factors. The secondary data are collected using Germany
website database and Jühnde village publishing in Göttingen, Germany, and research
efforts of our research team in 2006. The primary data had collected by using
semi-structured expert interviews with residents and managers that had participated in
bio-energy village planning activities regarding of economic aspect, considerable
factors before bio-energy village implementation, and management, and business
function and operation problems in the operation processes. There are many factors
needed to take into account in the primary data collection:
(1) The interview with inhabitants, potential investors, and future bio-energy
    consumers which are located in available bio-energy constructing in Taiwan.
(2) Application of location choice theory to estimate rough available bio-energy

    locations or regions.
(3) According above discussion, this paper will provide bio-energy planning models in
    the future which include the cost-benefit items of bio-energy village constructing
    categories and the possible management factors and business functions in the
    actuality implementation.
(4) In addition to Germany experiences, this paper would also refer other countries,
    e.g., Chile, Canada, and Thailand, which use liquid manure combined with
    anaerobic digester to produce electricity power and heat.

     Based on Germany experiences, the following will discuss deeply the case of
Jühnde village. On the basis of this case analysis this paper explores the purpose of
building bio-energy village, the processes of planning, the impact factors, and its
operation analysis as well as aspect of balance of payments. The foundation concept
of the bio-energy village is constructing on the aspect of synthetically rural area such
as ecological perspectives (crop science, edaphic science, and geography science),
economic perspectives (environment economy, agricultural economy, and national
economy), and social perspective (psychology, social, political). Through the
manufacturing process of plant to handle biomass can produce electricity power and
heating which can provide village using and sale to other companies for improving
village quality of life and participation intentions of bio-energy village plan. Therefore,
it expected that development of bio-energy village can accomplish following six

(1) To protect climate and renewable energy:The bio-energy can reduce crude oil
   resource waste as well as decrease the amount of CO2 emission through renewable
    energy transformation.
(2) To protect water and soil:Biomass crops cultivating can reduce soil, wellhead and
    agricultural medicament pollution.
(3) Bio-diversity:All biomass can be transferred to biogas (methane) under the digest
    process and further maintain the nature of biodiversity.
(4) Location farming cycle and economic effect: Creating traditional cropper demand,
    increasing employment opportunities, and improving rural development are need
    for local farmer.
(5) Energy supply diversification:The energy plants are operated by local company
    management in order to fulfill local requirements and subsequently to improve
    local core competence.
(6) Improving resident participating community activities and quality of life:

   Encouraging resident is to solve local problems and to complete objects of
   renewable energy plan. In order do those things, resident participation policy are
   put forward for promoting community culture and increasing quality of life.

The necessary conditions of bio-energy village
     The critical issues of renewable energy application and research are including: (1)
the visibility of exploitable technology, (2) biomass of available, (3) why do we not
act? (4) What kind of obstacle impedes foresight energy supply and accomplishment?
(5) How to overcome the barriers? (6) How to harmonize the biomass supply and
ecology? and (7) After implementation, how to transfer successful experiences of
bio-energy village for other villages? On the other hand, the implementation of
biomass energy also includes as following six issues: (1) there are not bottleneck in
technique and biomass supply, (2) the perspective of agriculture:by-products of
biomass have the driving forces of environmental benefits such as protect wellhead
and prevent soil pollution, (3) the perspective of environment geosciences:it is
balance between energy and consumption, re-cycle of environment and nutrition, (4)
the perspective of economic: economic effects of agriculture and forest (energy
cultivating) at the three level are local, national, and international, (5) the perspective
of psychology : how to stimulate and encourage each resident participating in the
biomass energy village plan ? After implementation of biomass energy village, their
individual welfare should greatly be improved, and (6) the perspective of social
science: how to make people to believe participation in community plan could change
and improve their life style?

The primary planning critical factors of bio-energy village
  1. Technological and auxiliary facilities: To strengthen cropper cultivate such as rye,
     helianthus, and wood-chip products in increasing harvest of unit area and the
     number of cultivation. Modern breeding techniques and facilities have greatly
     improved the health of swine and cattle and their dejection. The biomass
     sources of biomass energy plant were an abundance that not only increase farmer
     income but also decrease environment pollution. Particularly, Germany
     government had adopted three measures: (1) improving energy crop cultivating
     and animal breeding techniques and facilities, (2) improving crop yield and
     dejection handling techniques and facilities, and (3) the guidance and upgrade of
     farm management.
  2. Germany government: In Germany, research groups from Göttingen and Kassel
     Universities had particularly focused on how to transfer biomass energy village
     development experiences into holistic community planning and infrastructure.

    In the area of Göttingen, for example, Jühnde village have potential 15 biomass
    energy villages which they have similarly function. This means the Germany
    government have four policies: (1) completely community planning and
    development, (2) favorable investment conditions, (3) completely relative
    regulation, and(4) incentive to develop novel technology.

  3. Social culture: Removal of impediments in promotion and development
    processes of biomass energy village, participation and communication among
    government departments, experts and scholars are essential. By this logic, the
    Germany government adopts five policies: (1) planning and formulation of a
    village scale, (2) increasing resident participation intention, (3) enhancing
    well-defined resident organization, (4) improving resident cognitive in biomass
    energy knowledge, and (5) increasing farmer cultivating biomass crop intention.

  4. Resource application: In order to ensure long-term reliability of the biomass
     energy plant, both of local resident and interest group harmony are crucial. The
     Germany government has adopted eight policies: (1) government actively to
     coordinate related departments to the acquisition of land, (2) ensuring the
    abundant source in biomass crop such as hog dung and urine and pollution
    sewage, (3) ensuring energy output products sale in the market, (4) promoting
    green community-based tourism development to increase extra income, (5)
    creating a favorable tax environment, (6) providing favorable credit to farmers, (7)
    guaranteed purchase, and (8) investment subsidies.

Thedevelopment of bio-energy village in germany
    As above discussions, the development of bio-energy village in Germany has a
 long time history. The case analysis in this study is based on the example of Jühnde
 village located in the Göttingen. The first bio-energy village in Germany is Jühnde in
 the south of the district of Göttingen. Since autumn 2005, most of the about 200
 households in the bio-energy village have drawn the energy required for heating and
 electricity from sustainable resources harvested on the surrounding fields. Agedness
 village mayor, who has promoted the project relentlessly despite 76 years of age,
 proposed the bio-energy village. The investment costs of more then 2 million Euros
 had been covered mostly by public funds. Successful experiences attract worldwide
 academic institutions, government units and private groups came here everyday,
 learning to know how bio-energy works. The bio-energy village is not only
 self-sufficiency to generate electricity and heat what they required but also to sale
 redundantly electricity power to government. They can generate four-megavolt

 electricity power per year.
      Sophisticated technical solutions were put forward for the conversion process. A
combined heat and power generator (CHP) operated with biogas was particularly
considered for the production of electricity and heat. The biogas is produced in a
biogas plant which utilizes liquid manure, grass or maize silage, garden waste and
other agricultural raw materials. The plant produces electricity for feeding into the
public grid, commensurate to local requirements. The households continue to get their
electricity from their previous electricity supplier. On the other hand, by changing to
a means of energy production, which is more environmentally friendly, regionally
available, and a constantly renewable biomass, the bioenergy village will demonstrate
that environmentally-friendly energy production in regional areas is not only
technically feasible, but affordable also. The bioenergy village supplies the heat
requirement of the village, and produces twice as much electricity as is used. It has
been estimated that the participating households save 750 Euros per year in energy

The bio-energy village development in other country
     There are many different countries had successively developed related
bio-energy village to produce of electricity and heat. Such as Chile utilizes 120,000
hogs capacity to develop single cell heated covered lagoon. Swine farmers are
applying a collection management depended upon pull and flush manure collection
system. The farmer collects 120,000 pigs and then separate into 120 swine buildings
where the site is adopted all-in-all-out operation system. All wasters were originally
drained to a storage facility that was the dammed upper portion of the watershed
drainage. The facilities were sized for about 6 months of volume storage. To
overcome odor problem from manure storage pond, the headed mixed covered earthen
lagoon digester were employed. The collected manure flows to heated mixed lagoons
where it is treated and the effluent sent to an earthen basin for storage and use. The
primary benefits at sites have been odor reduced and waste treatment. The biogas
generated is used to fire boilers at all the sites and the hot water generated meets the
thermal needs of the digesters. Biogas can also used for electricity production in an
engine generator set, hot water production in a boiler, or flared for odor control.
     All flush buildings are flushed daily collection tanks. Collection tanks are
pumped daily to the digester. Pull plug buildings are pulled on a rotating schedule
where 2 to 3 buildings are drained to a transfer tank on a daily basis and then pumped
to the digester. The daily flow to the digester varies from 900 m3 to 1800 m3. A
bank-buried insulated floating cover is installed on the 105 * 105* 9 meter
(346*346*29.7 ft) lagoon, which can hold roughly 20 days worth of manure

(approximately 32000 m3 or 8,000,000 gallons).
    Up to now, Chile has successfully developed and operated the swine waste
digester to generate of electricity and heat which operation is healthy and operating
well. The primary benefits to the owners are odor reduction of stored and field applied
manure. There have been no odor complaints since four months after the digester was
started up. Compliance observations by regulators continue, but the government
participated in an open house 6 months after startup to demonstrate their support of
the odor control solution. The digester is able to accommodate the variation in manure
loading rate that results from all-in-all-out operation.
     The Iron Creek Hutterite Colony is located south of Viking, Alberta. The
Hutterites are a religious group living communally in rural North America. They are a
people with strong commitment to self-reliance and self-sufficiency. The Iron Creek
Hutterite Colony provides for over 80 people and is self-sustaining through agriculture,
including crop and livestock production. In 2001, the Colony generated large
quantities of manure from a 700 sow, far row to finish operation, 650 ewes and
offspring, 5,000 broiler chickens, 2,100 layer chickens and 1,000 cattle. This was a
growing waste problem that required a solution that would appease the surrounding
community and reduce odor and environmental contamination. The Iron Creek
Digester System was constructed in 2001 and was completed within four months. The
Colony was directly involved, supplying any labor required during the construction
phase. The system installed at Iron Creek is a complete mix digester, suitable for
handling wastes that are low in solids (small than ten percent). The plant was sized to
accommodate manure from a 1,200 hog far row to finish system. This would
accommodate expansion of the hog operation as well as allow the incorporation of
slaughterhouse waste and alternative straw bedded manures including sheep, cattle
and poultry. Manure is flushed into a 15m by 5m receiving tank where solids are
chopped to reduce particle size before being sent to one of three digesters. To achieve
optimum digestion, the waste remains in the digester for 20 to 30 days depending on
feedstock characteristics, flow rates, biogas production and quality. The digester
contents are mixed using a propeller mounted in the side of the digesters that may be
pulled to the top for ease in servicing. Mixing is semi-continuous and computer
controlled. The computer control system senses gas concentrations and automatically
adjusts flow rates, mixing and other operational parameters to maintain constant
conditions and uniform gas production.

The case of covered lagoon in Thailand
     The Charoen Pokphand Group owns and operates one of the facilities as a
covered lagoon system to produce renewable energy. The plant outperforms its design

goals by significant margins, offering 22.8% savings on their electricity power cost
and reduction in electrical energy waste, as well as producing correspondingly greater
volumes of biogas and transfer to other swine farmers. The grid-connected 42 kW per
hour power plant supplies all its electrical energy to the factory, with the added
capability of selling surplus electricity to the local swine farmers. There are many
successful cases in bio-energy such as China and Sweden so on. These experiences
provide a good of learning and transplant the techniques and approaches to Taiwan.
This generates additional revenues while further contributing to the country’s green
power portfolio.

    In Taiwan, there are many species of crops, forage, helianthus and hogs can be
chosen to be raw material sources of bio-energy, which are suitable for specific
climate in Taiwan. As for Taiwan, the lands are limited and precious and the cost
including labor is too high to be economic for production. To consider Taiwan
environment sustainable survival, convenient of investment and government policy
this section is to explain and evaluate the technology, which use the swine manure to
transfer to biogas. Finally, the primary contributions of bio-energy are discussed.

Numbers of Taiwan swine and feasibilities of bio-energy Production
     According to Council of Agriculture report in 2007, there are 12,165 swine
farmers and hold total volume of hogs are 692.1 ten thousand in Taiwan. Thus, as the
amount of sewage sludge and manure should take into account the appropriate
technique and approach to decrease water and soil pollution. In addition, the urine and
manure of swine can be produced biogas and as addition by-products in many success
foreign experiences. Particularly, in the age of high petroleum price, biogas is clear
energy extracted from amount of sewage sludge and manure. From Germany
experience notified that technique development, government policy, and resident
participation and coordination are crucial to the future of renewable energy planning
and promoting in Taiwan. It is not only to provide farmer self- sufficiency to generate
electricity and heat but also to attain rural rebirth and further develop tourism.
     The daily waste product to hundred thousand hogs approximately 2,055 m3
which can be transfer into 5,117 degrees of electrical power. Utilizing 30kW sixteen
micro turbine combined heat and power production (CHP) can generate 20kW and
heating 111,000 BTU/ht. The net output of per CHP in full operation is 20 kW, the
heating generate approximately 111,000 BTU/hr. If daily operated 16 hours that 16
CHP can generate 5,000 kWh or 2,800 ten thousand BTU heat energy. The daily

electricity power consumption for everyone is five degrees in Taiwan. Biogas produce
by ten thousand swine can supply one thousand residents small-scale energy village
demand in one day. The heating can directly use in the covered digestion plant or
geyser. The exhaust emission of CHP is meeting of US regulations requirement of
department of environmental protection. It is also quite suits with Taiwan region.
     The sources of bio-energy in Taiwan are come from livestock breeding, dumping
ground, food industry, farm rubbish produce, daily liquid waste, and part of organic
industrial sewage, and so on. Taiwan has a vast potential for power generation from
renewable sources. For example, the solar intensity in Taiwan is capable of supporting
extensive photovoltaic and solar thermal options for some urban and rural applications.
Small hydroelectric units are also being explored in the some regions. Incorporation of
state-of-the-art, renewable-energy technologies and assessment of relevant
international experiences can be strategies learned by the Council of Agriculture in

Technology assessment for applying in Taiwan
     Many developed countries are doing their utmost effort to develop various
bio-energy sources such as solid biomass, livestock waste or garbage, and farm
rubbish produce or derivatives product from biomaterial. These biomaterials through
the technique transfer that can produce and supply into heating, electrical energy or
directly utilize fuel. Many countries own quite maturity technique and facilities in
bio-energy development such as Europe and America. On the other hand, a large
amount of new technology has been developed to efficiently convert biomass into
methanol particularly in developed countries, so that the price of methanol made from
biomass would decrease considerably, and the stimulation of regional economic cycles
and of course independence from crude oil and natural gas. In recent years, many
researchers have obtained specific research outcome concerning the bio-energy,
however in the practicality application and commercialize utilizing is quite limitation.
Along with the foreign successful cases, the paper will also develop 100000 hogs
liquid manure covered digestion system to prove learn issue, which can use to build
bio-energy village and improve liquid manure efficiency and reach goal of
environment protection.

The amount of Taiwan swine liquid manure
  Up to May 2007, the total amount of pigs in Taiwan own 7 million and liquid
manure per day is over 14 million kgs where calculated at an average per hog manure
every day (see Table 3.1). Due to Taiwan environment protection regulations are quite
rigidly to the liquid manure management and the government had not strictly

controlled. Thus, numerous swine farmers need adopt illegal way to deal with liquid
manure such as emission manure in the rainy day. It is serious to influence Taiwan
environment pollution. That is, the problem of liquid manure should learn successful
case in developed countries and transplant into Taiwan in order to reduce the
environment pollution and reuse bio-energy.
    Table 3.1 Amount of Manure Per Day, kg
weight            Water               Food intake          Food intake        Urine , L
(kg)              drinking, L         limitation           without limitation
20                5.12                0.43                 0.69               2.45
40                5.58                0.71                 0.93                  2.65
60                6.04                0.99                 1.18                  2.85
80                6.50                1.26                 1.42                  3.05
100               6.96                1.54                 1.66                  3.26
Data source: 2007, Department of Animal science, Taiwan University

Recently, biomass is widely available in the developed countries and has been used as
an industrial fuel in pulp and paper mills, sugar mills, petrochemical plants, pig iron
and steel plants, and other production activities. Many advanced technology of
biomass can be used to deal with animal manure and then apply to generate electricity
and heating. Such as animal manure passed through many procedures in anaerobic
digester can generate energy (methane, CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), H2S, and treated
effluent (pathogen free, nutrient rich, low odor). The anaerobic digester applied in the
livestock farm, which can divide into following four types: (1) covered anaerobic
lagoon, (2) complete mix, (3) plug flow, and (4) fixed film digester (see Table 3.2) in
developed countries.

Table 3.2 Comparisons of Different Digester Category Types
Characteristics          Covered              Complete mix          Plug flow           Fixed film
                         lagoon               digester              digester
Digestion                Deep lagoon          round/square          Rectangular         Above ground
vessel                                        in/above              in-ground tank      tank
                                              ground tank
Level of                 Low                  Medium                Low                 Medium
Supplemental             No                   Yes                   Yes                 No
Total solids             0.5-3%               3-10%                 11-13%              3%
Solids                   Fine                 Coarse                Coarse              Very fine
HRT (days)               40-60                15+                   15+                 2-3
Farm type                dairy, hog           dairy, hog            Dairy only          dairy, hog
Optimum                  Temperate and        All climates          All climates        Temperate and
location                 warm climates                                                  warm

The suggestion of available technology in Taiwan
     In the rural areas of Taiwan, small-scale swine farmers keep a few swine and
poultry, and their waste is used for methane production. The waste is directly drawn
into a fermentation tank buried in the soil. Along with the developed countries
successful cases, building cost and economy efficiency are critical factor in building
livestock digester. To consider the current of Taiwan livestock and purposes of this
paper, this paper recommends a checklist of digester to evaluate what kind of digester
is suit cost and benefit analysis. Because the categories and specifications of digester
building are greatly different that need into account many relate effect factors. Costs
and economy benefits are main factor while building a digester, for example, Chile
spent 40 million NT dollars building 120,000 hogs manure digester, China spent 4
million NT dollars building 100,000 hogs manure digester, and U.S. spent 6 million
NT dollars to building 5,000 hogs manure digester. In this paper, it considers that
flush manure is collected from different scale and neighboring livestock farmer. The
livestock digester are based on 100,000 sow far row to finish and proposed synthetic
(1) According to Jühnde village experiences, harmonize among academic, government
    policy, and resident participation are crucial. From energy aspect, according to
    above three forces not only provide self-sufficiency generate electricity and
    heating but also bring rural restructure as well as beyond the benefit from
    technological commercialization.
(2) Relies on the presupposition of the government great promote bio-energy village
    and Taiwan located in the subtropical region, the covered digestion system are
    easiest to overcome these particular environment condition.
(3) According to Bureau of Environment Protection (USA) report, 100,000 swine can
    generate 900,000 ft3(approximately 25,700m3) organisms gaseous. Per marsh gas
    can produce heating about 1,000BUT and 450 MMBTU heating energy per day,
    and through transform into electric power equal to 5117kWh (1kWh=3412BTU),
    offering 56 million NT dollars savings on their electric power cost, which is
    calculated 1 degree equal to 3 NT dollars.
(4) The 30kW micro turbine combined heat and power production (CHP) can be used
    in Taiwan livestock farmers since the CHP specifications and exhaust emission are
    suit for American environment protection requirements.
(5) The swine manure digestion system need consider delivery cost of raw material,
    legislations, degree of accepted of residents, hardware infrastructure costs, and
   maintain costs in the period of initial constructing. Based on the base theory and
   technology and costly petrifaction oil, the manure digestion system is quite
   available in Taiwan livestock farmers. From practical perspectives should need to

   combine experts of agricultural machinery with cooperation to increase
   probabilities of success.

    Comprehensive planning should consider a wider range of potential bio-energy
village, including technological, economics and social culture perspectives. The
available digester technology in Taiwan was discussed in the preceding section. In this
section, it will discuss the related factors and components from economic, social
culture and environment perspectives in turn. Firstly, the Jühnde village experiences
were discussed and further addressed the advantage conditions at planning and
constructing bio-energy village stage in Taiwan. Secondly, it also proposed the factors
and components during the future planning and constructing bio-energy village stage.

The economic factors for constructing bio-energy village
    To overcome the global-warming effect and decrease the amount of CO2 emission,
Germany government made great stride an increasing amount of investments in
renewable resources, such as set up energy village is one of policy. Based on the
experience of Jühnde village, the main purposes cover with following perspective.
One of primary energy of Jühnde village is to produce biogas. The biogas is produced
in a biogas plant which utilises liquid manure, grass or maize silage, garden waste and
other agricultural raw materials. A combined heat and power generator operated with
biogas was particularly considered for production of electricity and heat to supply
village demands. Currently, many similarly biogas plants are screwed in Germany.
Firstly, due to climate factors, the heating energy demand is currently not applied on a
large scale in Taiwan. The energy policy for government of Taiwan is enhanced to
produce bio-diesel fuel and bio-ethanol rather than to fully utilize waste or source of
biomaterial. The bio-energy village will be constructed in the rural region and this
should be reflected in the source of biomaterial, which in turn are covered waste
(kitchen waste), animal manure (hogs and livestock), and straw. Secondly, the
technology requirements for using to transfer biomaterial into energy as discussed in
section three. However, what kinds of energy are should be produced and transfer
ware depended upon the local residents for energy requirement and regulations.
Therefore, in this paper it proposed the primary purpose of constructing bio-energy
village in the rural area is to provide local resident urgent demand (biogas is instead of
natural gas).

Improving the farmer incomes and saving expenditures

    Agricultural policy in Taiwan is more of an imbalance than of certain developed
counties. The development of rural area in Taiwan is appearing recession and farmers’
income is less than non-farmers. Part of problems is due to cadmium pollutes the
farmland and imbalance occurs between agricultural production and marketing.
Recently, to match national energy policy that the agricultural sector has provided
2,000 hectares (ha.) to grow bio-energy crops such as rapes and helianthus. The main
aims are to produce bio-diesel fuel and bio-ethanol rather than to improve agricultural
structure or improve farmer income. In practical, in Taiwan there are rich sources of
biomaterial such as liquid manure (hogs), straw, and waste of agriculture or
nonagricultural. This is also a big problem in the applications of the bioenergy;
however, the agricultural sector had been ignored such source of biomaterials.
     On the other hand, according to research result of bio-energy village in Germany,
it found that the critical factors include government specific policy, perfect regulation,
technologically maturity of bio-energy product, benefits of investors and residents,
biomaterials sufficient, and incentives to grow bio-energy crops, and so on.
Similarly, it also found that residents have significant desired expectation to build the
bio-energy village in the Taiwan after investigating rural residents whom have be
participated the intention research in swine farming area. Therefore, building
bio-energy village in domestic rural areas is need and can not be ignored.

Impact of relevant industries economy
    The bio-energy village constructing and development are not only to influence
agricultural economy but also to influence other sectors such as energy sector
(including electricity sector), automobile industry, tourism industry, waste recycle and
other derivatives industry(such as facilities industry where is to switch raw material to
energy). In case of Taiwan environment, building the bio-energy village in the rural
area is directly to affect agriculture and waste recycles industry as well as hospitality
industry. Either rural area or non-rural area the biomaterial needs to use large amount
of waste to generate electricity and heating. Therefore, it is worthy to influence on the
waste recycling industry economy and to impact on rural ecological environment, if
establishing the bio-energy village.

Incentive mechanism
   Up to now, the trend of renewable energy policy was not significant in Taiwan.
Although government has created some incentives for the use of solar energy,
however, the Taiwan government to promote bio-energy technological research and
bio-energy relevant experiment are lying in the initial stage. Moreover, Taiwan
government also does not have any incentive mechanism design for the bio-energy

village. Thus, there are many perspectives should be taken into account in planning
and constructing the bio-energy village.
(1) Investment conditions
    Two points of view of investment incentives should be taken into account the
scale of the bio-energy village constructing and planning. Firstly, the land is put
forward for the digestion facilities. Secondly, biomass energy resources need land to
grow and produce. In this paper, it proposed that land acquisition areas would include
these larger liquid manure storages in present swine farmers and the collection region
of swine farmers. In case of facilities of bio-energy, the advance facilities and
production technology are dependent on foreign import. Therefore, the government
needs to create equipment investment incentives for constructing bio-energy village,
which were installed while designing and promoting, as well as solar energy.

(2) Loan terms
    A new bio-energy village need invest numerous budget. To accelerate bio-energy
building the government with bank cooperation to desige favorable loan programs in
relation period is need. A well-defined loan program not only supports bio-energy
building but also eliminates investment obstacles.

(3) Purchase conditions
    According Germany’s Renewable Energy Sources Act, there are two main
regulations namely, guaranteed purchase prices and guaranteed income of bio-energy
crop. One alternative is to introduce guaranteed purchase prices for electricity from
renewable energy sources, which also represent a strong incentive to expand the
renewable energy supply. Another alternative is to give the guaranteed income of
bio-energy crop cultivating as well as wheat growing. However, The biomaterial
policy in Taiwan agricultural sector has not yet significant direction and
non-agricultural sector purchasing bio-diesel fuel and bio-ethanol are still at
experiment stage. Thus, the planning and building of bio-energy village should be
considered the purchasing price of bio-energy crops and be regulated the selling price
of bio-energy products.

The social factors for constructing bio-energy village
     The participation intention of the bio-energy village was encouraged to increase
participation by both residents and farmers in the planning and building process.
According to the surrey of this paper found that the resident participated in bio-energy
village project that their control of perception behavior had 96.6% positive intention.
Thus, most of residents in Taiwan rural area have positive attitude towards the

bio-energy village construction under government engaged in subsidies and incentive
      According to Germany experiences, the scaled of bio-energy village do not
clearly be defined. Jühnde village, for example, there are a total 700 residents and
hold over 500 hogs buildings. In Japan experience, the hog farm participating in
bio-energy program owes 5,000 hogs and 300,000 metric ton liquid manure per day.
From these cases, it can find in Taiwan that the bio-energy village would be set up in
the livestock farmer collection regions where easy to collect biomaterial such as liquid
manure. In Germany, the bio-energy village was organized by village mayor, farmers,
and research team of University of Göttingen. However, from point of bio-energy
village view, the cooperative societies, production and marketing alliances, and
community development society are organized as one of bio-energy village members.
    Started in 1980, due to impacts from the consciousness of the environment
protection and the environment protection regulation, the swine farms need set up
liquid manure storage factory, which provides organically farmer in growing crop or
directly sell to general farmer. Recently, few farmers begin emphasizing that the
liquid manure is one of important source of biomaterial. In this paper, it investigated
swine farmers and found that most of swine farmers approve the liquid manure as a
source of biomaterial. The development of raw-biomaterials and the emerging concept
of the bio-energy are gaining an increasing profile in developed countries which also
provide well experiences and technological what we need. On the contrary, Taiwan
government is continuing to promote to grow bio-energy crops but effects are not very
well. This is a lack of the guaranteed purchase prices for the row-biomaterials and
increase hogs feeding and decreases the prices of hogs. If the government can make
the work of accuracy timely, providing a foundation for future progress in the
development of raw-biomaterial from swine liquid manure resources and further
creating hogs liquid manure as a source of income. Therefore, the overall intention of
swine farmer participation in bio-energy village project will be greatly increasing.

The environment factors for constructing bio-energy village
   The biomass regulation had legislated and carried out from 2000 in Germany.
However, Taiwan only passed the draft of renewable energy development regulation
and is not able to legislate and execute. It currently does not have any biogas plant
running, but this paper is under construction in Taiwan, and is expected to be
operational in the future. This paper invited three groups of experts, including 21 hog
farmers from the Taiwan hog industry, and 14 government officers in agricultural
policy planning and development, and 7 scholars, whom professional hog feeding and
bio-energy. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire by computing the

factors based on evaluation perspectives of bio-energy village constructing. The
results shows that participants stress government policy where includes all community
planning and constructing, available investment incentives, completeness related laws
and regulations, incentive to development new technology, and so on. Thus, it
suggests that government could accelerate to legislate the “renewable energy
development regulation” to provide related sectors and farmers as a reference.

Assistant planning of local government and related sectors
     To construct the bio-energy village, the relevant private businesses, university,
research sector, and local government are common in developing and cooperating to
promote bio-energy village and create occupation opportunities. The primary
purpose of local villages and towns participate in the public works and local industry
development is to accelerate rural village re-structure, to promote development of the
local economy, and encourage development of the local hospitality industry. As above
discussion of the developed countries experiences, the main apocalypse for Taiwan
government is focused on cooperating and participating between local government
and private business to construct bio-energy village. Up to now, the government of
Yunlin country had proposed livestock breeding industry and electricity power
foresight estimation at the “Yunlin country agricultural technology development
planning”. Based on the 3000-4000 swine farms, it estimates that the production of
biogas has approximately for 400-500 m3 and 600 degree per day. The yield of
electricity power is approximately for 6 million NT dollars per year. Yunlin county
owns 1.5 million hogs, biogas approximately for 6.5*107m3 per day, and about 300
million electricity yield every year. Similarly, there are 1.7 million hogs in Pingtung
county. Therefore, in this paper it suggests that the Yunlin and Pingtung counties are
highest priority areas to construct bio-energy village.

    As motioned above, The Executive Yuan in Taiwan had examined and passed the
draft of renewable energy development regulation in 2002. By using easily renewable
plant material for energy generation, biomass technologies help protect the
environment by reducing dangerous greenhouse gas emissions and preserving global
important resources sustainable utilizing. Numerical developed and developing
countries have began enhancing renewable energy exploitation and utilization.
Because the biomass technologies are used in the production of clean transportation
fuels, electricity, heating and much more. Biomass is one of world’s most promising
renewable energy resources in the future.

    The distinct feature of the bio-energy village in Taiwan is that it needs
considerable through cooperative business associates to operate which members are
rural-base residents. Since building up the bio-energy village would improve rural
resources, promote community culture, complete the rule of law and democracy,
maintain ecological protection, well-defined government policy, and multiple
raw-biomaterials of biomass. Particularly, bio-energy village development and
exploitation in Taiwan area is not only to consider environment protection and
ecological balance but also to verify accuracy management system in order to attain
costs and benefits. As mentioned previously, the biomass is a cornerstone of
renewable energy driving toward self-sufficiency supply system using renewable
sources of energy. As well as generating energy, the bio-energy also provides
considerable benefits to economy and technology. Therefore, to build bio-energy
village there are many different factors should be considered in terms of location view:
(1) temperature, (2) humidity, (3) plant and wood, (4) soil pollution, and (5) ecological
animal balance.

The electricity power demand estimation
   To investigate the appropriateness of the bio-energy village location, this paper
investigated and analyzed various areas, then found that the Baozhong Shiang, Yunlin
County is the most appropriate for bio-energy village example in Taiwan rural area. It
shows that the residents in this rural area have high degree participation intention and
the location of swine farmer very collection in the same area. Baozhong hold 21 swine
farmers and 35,000 swine. The location factors of Baozhong village are listed as
(1) Geographical position: Baozhong village is located in Chanan plain, the wide over
    4,200 meters, the length about 8,823m, the Baozhong village area about 37 km2.
(2) Topography: the Baozhong village is Champaign, the indicated altitude about
    5~30 meter.
(3) Climate and hydrology: the Baozhong village is the subtropical climate, rainfall
    between 1000mm~1500mm annual, temperature between 15.5 ~29.7 degrees
(4) Geology and soil: the Geology of Baozhong village belong modern alluvium
    where include clay, thin gravel, grit and gravel.
(5) Traffic and transportation: the main road is number 158 and its extension line.
(6) Crop: paddy, peanut, and vegetables.

Bio-energy demonstration village
In this Paper, the Baozhong village will be chosen as a bio-energy demonstration

village. The primary reasons are explained as following:
(1) Community own common conscious.
(2) Swine farmer collection.
(3) Community people agree with bio-energy.
(4) Yunlin county swine union supports.
(5) Baozhong local government supports to set up the first bio-energy demonstration
    village in Taiwan.
(6) Location in the old liquid manure processing factory, land acquisition easily.
(7) Utilizing methane generates electricity power and biogas for inhabitant demand,
   methane about 6,000m3 per day, yield of electricity power about 80~100 million
   NT dollars annually.
The simulation of baozhong bio-energy demonstration village in Taiwan
   The case of Baozhong village utilizes 35,000 hogs can generate methane about
6000m3 per day. All methane is used to generate electricity power that the yield
achieves about 80~100 million NT dollars annually. However, due to limitation of
hog’s water waste handling factory area, the area of the Baozhong village only
12,000m2, just reserve bio-energy equipment saving area, fermentation area, generate
electric power area, and control area. The primary equipments and locations of
bio-energy village are including: (1) equipment saving area: covering wood chip
limbo and liquid manure storage pond, (2) fermentation area: two anaerobic digestion
plants and ferment control system, (3) generating electricity power area: heating and
electric symbiosis system utilizing animal liquid manure and energy crop be a ferment
material to transform into biogas, and then deliver to electric machinery for burn
methane to generate electricity, and(4) control system: utilizing control interaction
relationship between ferment and burning.

   The primary goal of this paper is to design and analyze bio-energy village demand
and to develop a self-sustaining market for emerging renewable energy technologies
of biomaterial, biomass electric generating and supplies systems, which meet certain
eligibility requirements, by offering rebates to reduce the initial cost of the customers.
This paper was confirmed to be urgent by the renewable energy policy in the Taiwan.
Specially, since Taiwan has already carried out various national renewable energy
programs, there is a need to do some detailed case studies to conclude some valuable
experiences in learning from the other developed countries. Most of these programs
are initiating in the planning stages. There are still no detailed studies or projects to
analyze and investigate the actual renewable energy demands. Therefore, detailed case
studies are particularly desirable in connection with the design and the analysis of

planning and implementation of renewable energy village in Taiwan.
    There are some findings from Jühnde village’s experiences. Firstly, many people
and/or agents, such as university professors, governors and NGO groups, joined with
the planning and promotion of Jühnde village in order to integrate local resources.
Secondly, there are three dimensions about planning to set up a bioenergy village in
terms of village planning, that is to say, this basic framework includes technical and
enological aspects, rural economical development and social justices. This paper just
followed those dimensions servicing as the back stone of thinking about building up a
bioenergy village in Taiwan. Thirdly, the Jühnde village fully utilizes the biomass, e.g.,
maize, wheat, wood chips and liquid manure (animal waste), to produce heat and
electricity power for village inhabitants. This situation offers good implication to build
up a bioenergy village in Taiwan by utilizing animal ( e.g., swine) wastes. Fourthly,
any inhabitant joined with the village takes a voluntary manner emphasizing on his (or
her) motivation.
    Despite different renewable energy policy and planning are facing different
barriers in its spread, the critical perspectives of planning models building up
bio-energy village in Taiwan can be drawn as following. The covered anaerobic
digestion is a primary technique which is appropriating for bio-energy village
planning in Taiwan. Because the covered anaerobic digestion can control the fixed
manure under 3 percent and manure demurrage time about 40-60 days. Therefore, 100
thousand hogs can excrete 450,000m3 methane, per methane can generate 1,000BTU,
and generate 450 million degree electricity power per day. It can transform into
electricity power about 5,117kWh and saving 56 million NT dollars where 1 degree
electricity power is three NT dollars. This paper also suggests to adopt 30KW micro
turbine combined heat and power production (CHP) in 100 thousand hogs biogas plant.
16 CHP generators can generate 5,000KWh and 28 million BTU heating. The biogas
by 100 thousand hogs can supply 500 household small-scale energy village in one day.

The Economic Social Dimensional Planning
    The primary purpose of building up bio-energy village is to provide electricity
power, heating, biogas, increasing farmer’s income, saving expenditure, and affecting
in related industrial economy. Secondly, incentive systems should be designed such as
investment, loan, and purchase. In case of individual, cooperative association or joint
venture is a primary way for the bio-energy business operation. The acquisition of
resources should utilize fully hogs liquid manure factories and hogs farmer collection
region to get the source of raw biomaterial. In addition, the income and cost of
bio-energy village and the categories and patterns of local resident demand estimation
are needed considerably.

Social factors planning
    The primary considerable factors are participation intention of local residents
(participating investment, energy demander and suppliers), bio-energy scale and
location (large-scale hog collection region), resident organization (cooperative
association, production and marketing team (PMT), and community development
association), the cognition of resident for raw biomaterial and growing or providing
raw biomaterial intention.

Environment factors planning
    In macro environment, the specific and legislation related laws and regulations for
the government energy policy are the most important duties. Secondly, the local
government such as county, villages, and towns government participates to build up
bio-energy village. Thirdly, the nature environment protection issues are also need
carefully to consider when constructing the bio-energy village. For the micro
environment, the public facilities of bio-energy village are a primary factor.

Location Practical Planning
    Due to the narrowness of land and high degree of population density in Taiwan, to
develop bio-energy village that many factors should consider carefully, such as the
abhorrence of local residents, handling technique and equipment which appropriate
the climate of Taiwan region, the sustaining and easy acquisition of raw biomaterial,
the comparative benefits of local residual usages, the balance among government,
local government, and private group to promise sustaining management and operation.
The case study of Baozhong bio-energy village is explained as following in turn.
 Easy to acquire waste water: total of 21 hogs farmers and 35,000 hogs collection
  in Baozhong village would advantage waste water collection and reduce odor of
  liquid manure, resulting in increasing local resident quality of life.
 Appropriating environment climate for handling techniques and equipment
 The location characteristics of Baozhong village case include: (1) Baozhong
  region widely, (2) geography flat, (3) temperature steady and catchment’s smooth,
  (4) geology and soil firm, and(5) convenient traffic transportation.
 The Baozhong Shiang, Yunlin County, is the most appropriate for building up
  initial demonstrate bio-energy village in Taiwan rural area. Because it holds high
  degree common conscious and strong desired to build up bio-energy village.
 According to bio-energy demanded scale to estimate biogas transformation
  equipment. For example, 35,000 hogs can generate methane about 6,000m3 per

   day. All methane are used to generate electricity power that the yield achieve about
   80~100 million NT dollars annually, however, due to limitation of hog’s water
   waste handling plant area where the area of the Baozhong village only 12,000m2,
   just reserve bio-energy equipment saving area, fermentation area, generate electric
   power area, and control area. (a) equipment saving area: include wood chip limbo
   and liquid manure storage pond, (b) fermentation area: two anaerobic digestion
   plants and ferment control system, (c)generate electric power area: heating and
   electric symbiosis system utilize animal liquid manure and energy crop be a
   ferment material to transformation into biogas, and than deliver to electric
   machinery for burn methane to generate electricity, (d)control area: utilizing
   control interaction relationship between ferment and burning.

1. ARUP, 2005, DongtanEco-city Project, (23 August 2005)
2. ARUP, 2006, Collaborationon Renewable Energy Supply to the World's First
   SustainableCity,        (24
   February 2006)
3. Balsam, J. 2002. Anaerobic digestion of animal wastes: factors to consider.,
   National Center for Appropriate TechnologyAgricultural Energy Specialist.
   National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA).
4. Barker, J. C. 2001. Methane fuel gas from livestock wastes: a summary. North
   Carolina State University Cooperative Extension Service, Publication #EBAE
5. Bundesministerium fürUmwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU),
   2004,Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), Bundesgesetzblatt,
6. Burns, R. T. 2005.Animal waste anaerobic digester basics. Agricultural &
   Biosystems Engineering Department Iowa State University
7. CAEEDAC report. 1999. The economics of biogas in the hog industry. A report
   prepared for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) By The Canadian Agricultural
   Energy End Use Data and Analysis Centre (CAEEDAC)
8. CogenEurope, 2001, EDUCOGEN, European EducationalTool on Cogeneration,
   2nd Ed., The European Association for the Promotion ofCogeneration.
9. EUBIA, 2006, EUBIAProfile, European Biomass Industry Association, Brussels,

11. Interdisziplinäres Zentrumfür Nachhaltige Entwicklung (IZNE), 2005,
    Wärme-und Stromversorgung durchheimische Biomasse, IZNE der
    Universität Göttingen, Deutschland.
12. InterdisziplinäresZentrum für Nachhaltige Entwicklung (IZNE), 2006,
    Bioenergiedörfer,      IZNE      derUniversität     Göttingen,
13. International Energy Agency (IEA), 2006, Renewables Information, IEA.
14. Karpenstein-Machan, M.,2007, “Bioenergy village–sustainable concepts for
    energy in action,” International Conference onBioenergy, Tallinn, Estonia.
15. Karpenstein-Machan, M. and P. Schmuck, 2007, “The bioenergy village: technical
    and agricultural aspects of a sustainability project,” International Conference on
    Climate Change, Hong Kong, China.
16. Kirchgessner, D. 2005. Swine waste electric power and heat production systems.
    CHP Case Studies / Business Case. US EPA Office of Research.
17. Moser, M. A. 2004. A dozen successful swine waste digesters. RCM Digesters,
18. Mueller, S. 2004. Methane recovery from hog waste integrated with combined
    heat and power technologies. Development and Energy Resource Center,
    University of Illinois in Chicago (ERC, UIC) in partnership with the Midwest
    CHP Application Center, US DOE.
19. RCM Digesters, Inc.14 successful swine digesters commercial, scalable, operating
20. Scott J. 2004. Methane recovery from hog waste. CHP Workshop. Sioux City &
    Cedar Rapids IA November 3rd and 4th, 2004
21. Summary report on feasibility studies on projects for CDM and JI swine manure to
    biogas power project in Ratchaburi, Thailand. 2004. Takuma Co., Ltd.
22. Yau, R. M. H., A. K. C. Chan, J. Hacker, and C. Twinn, 2007, “Towards delivering
    a sustainable Dongtan: Dongtan – 21st sustainable city,” International Conference
    on Climate Change, Hong Kong, China.


Shared By: