SCP newsletter June 2011 by liuqingyan


									                         European Water

                                                (2) Create synergy between research
                                                projects, between projects and programs
                                                of the IWRM-Net partners and other
                                                research networks and initiatives related to   Ÿ Introduction to the project
                                                water;                                         Ÿ IMPACT
                                                (3) Support the dissemination of scientific
                                                results in an integrated manner to the Core    Ÿ FIDIMO from IMPACT
                                                Group, the scientific community and finally    Ÿ ICARUS
                                                to potential users of research.                Ÿ CLIMAWARE

                                                This work will be delivered through the        Ÿ Water Scarcity and Droughts,
                                                promotion of interdisciplinary scientific        by Maggie Kosside NTUA.
                                                exchanges and synergies and facilitated by     Ÿ ESAWADI
                                                the International Office for Water (IOW).
                                                                                               Ÿ Water Cap and Trade
      he partners of the IWRM-Net project       The scientific results will be disseminated    Ÿ Water2Adapt
  launched two calls for research to sup-       to potential users of the knowledge. In        Ÿ Back Page Blog – musings on
  port public policies in the field of water.   support these goals there are three
                                                                                                 Science Policy Interfacing
  The first began in October 2007 and the       meetings proposed; a kick off meeting, a
  second appeal was launched in late 2009,      midterm and final event common to all            from Bob Harris.
  with the following themes (1) The impact      projects.
  of climate change and adaptation of the
  Integrated Water Resources Management         An important aspect is the further
  (2) Water scarcity and drought; (3) Eco-      development of an online scientific
  nomics for IWRM: social and environmen-       community   for   water    research.
  tal assessment for decision making. 

  From that call 6 projects were financed       Transdisciplinary and thematic discussions
  along with the IWRM-Net Scientific            will be organized by IOW to support the        The SCP secretariat is managed
  Coordination Project, which aims to           science policy interface for the WFD,          by the International Office for
  ensure continued support of the research      including the CIS-SPI ad-hoc group and the
                                                water Joint programming initiative.            Water and funded by the
  projects     in both administrative and
  scientific terms. Three challenges to                                                        Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable
  achieve this can be identified:               To initiate this community and assist in its   Development, Transport and
                                                role of scientific expertise, IOW has
                                                organised a group of experts to participate    Housing in France.
  (1) Provide an interface between research
  projects funded IWRM-Net and the Core         in working groups, write articles and
  Group and wider IWRM-NET partners;            support the conferences.

Stephen Midgley, International Office for
Water/Office International de l’Eau (OIEau) 15 Rue
Edouard Chamberland, 87000 Limoges, France.
+33 555 11 47 60

Climate change is an additional stressor    other large scale pressures like missing      to identify the main bottlenecks, and to
for river biota besides other               source populations and the effect of          answer the following research questions:
anthropogenic pressures like catchment      discharge changes on sediment and
land use and river training. It has been    channel dynamics are rarely considered.       - What can you expect from local reach-
widely stated that these pressures at                                                     scale restoration measures given the
                                                                                                remaining pressures at larger spatial
                                                                                                - How important are discharge
                                                                                                changes due to Climate Change
Figure 1: Anthropogenic pressures
                                                                                                compared to other anthropogenic
at different spatial scales
considered in IMPACT.
                                                                                                - Will discharge changes due to
                                                                                                Climate Change have a major
                                                                                                influence on natural reference

                                                                                                This will be done by coupling
                                                                                                physical and biological models:
                                                                                                - catchment rainfall/runoff models
                                                                                                to predict discharge, nutrient, and
                                                                                                sediment load,
                                                                                                - morphodynamic models to assess
                                                                                                changes of channel form and
                                                                                                - habitat models to describe fish and
                                                                                                invertebrate assemblage that can be
                                                                                                expected in the reach given the
                                                                                                modelled abiotic conditions.

                                                                                                 In addition and for the first time,
                                                                                                 dispersal models will be developed
large spatial scales affect the local       The basic idea of IMPACT is to assess         and included in the coupled model to
ecological status, may even constrain the   the      relative      importance        of   assess the distance species move within an
effect of local restoration measures, and   anthropogenic pressures operating at          engineering time scale, and to describe
should be considered in River Basin         different spatial scales for the ecological   the species pool available for colonizing
Management Plans. Most river managers       status of restored or near-natural            the restored reach (see contribution on
are aware of obvious constraints like       reaches (“receiving reach” in Figure 1),      FIDIMO in this newsletter).
water quality and migration barriers but

IMPACT is funded by the following national agencies: German Federal
Ministry of Education and Research (grant no. 02WM1134), French ONEMA
(Office National de l'Eau et des Milieux Aquatiques), and Portuguese
Foundation for Science and Technology.
  There is increasing evidence that even        GIS to model linear and
  restoration measures which lead to an         branching elements like
  increase in local habitat diversity had no    river networks with the
  positive effect on river biota, yet. This     open source library of
  might be simply due to the fact that fish     algorithms and mathe-
  and invertebrates were not able to            matical tools for the Py-
  reach and colonize the restored river in      thon programming language (SciPy).         and the species-specific dispersal func-
  an engineering time frame.                                                               tion. The branching nature of river
                                                The results strongly depend on two         networks is considered and the mobile
  The presence of barriers like dams ob-        input files: (i) The presence and loca-    component is split at each river junc-
  viously determines if a restored reach        tion of source populations, which can      tion, i.e. most individuals move up the
  can be colonized, which is already con-       be provided as random points or by         main stem and some enter the tributa-
  sidered in most River Basin Manage-           user defined coordinates. While the        ry according to the size of the river. If
  ment Plans. Moreover, the presence            input of user defined coordinates will     information on the location and passa-
  and distance of source populations and        probably give the most accurate re-        bility of barriers can be provided, the
  many other factors influencing fish mo-       sults, the presence of species is rarely   model considers that a specific share
  vement determine if a restored reach          known for entire catchments. Alter-        of the fish is stopped from moving
  can be colonized and how long it takes        natively, species distribution models      further and accumulates in front of the
  (e.g. habitat requirements, population        can be used in a preliminary analysis to   barriers.
  size).                                        model the presence of species based
                                                on proxy variables which are available     Model output:
  As one task in the IMPACT project, the        at the catchment scale (e.g. land use      The output maps show the probability
  Fish Dispersal Model FIDIMO has been          data). (ii) The form of the dispersal      of occurrence after the model time-
  developed to predict fish movement            function describing fish movement is       steps (see Figure). Based on the results
  and dispersal and to assess the (re)-co-      based on empirical data which show         it is possible to assess if and how many
  lonization potential. Dispersal was mo-       some scatter. To account for this, a       individuals will probably reach a resto-
  deled in a Geographic Information             range (min / max) can be supplied and      red section in the model time, which
  System (GIS). It is different from other,     FIDIMO randomly selects values in a        has further implications for planning
  terrestrial dispersal models in two           number of model runs to assess             and prioritizing restoration measures
  ways: First, fish movement is restricted      uncertainty and model sensitivity.         and assessing restoration success. In
  to the river corridor in contrast to the                                                 addition, the model can be used to
  radial dispersal of terrestrial species.      The basic idea of FIDIMO is to apply       assess the effects of weir removal,
  Second, most individuals of a fish popu-      the dispersal function on a rasterized     estimating recovery times of fish popu-
  lation are rather stationary while only       river network. Maps of several topo-       lations, to predict the spread of invasi-
  few move longer distances. These diffe-       logical characteristics of the network     ve fish species, and to assess the
  rent components can be modeled best           (distances, flow direction, stream or-     maximum distance between restored
  by a specific mathematical dispersal          der) are exported to SciPy. The pro-       reaches acting as stepping-stones for
  function (two superimposed normal             bability of species occurrence is          meta-populations.
  distributions), which is not provided by      calculated for each raster cell based
  most current GIS software packages.           on the locations of source populations
  FIDIMO links the strength of GRASS

This task of the IMPACT project was funded by the Ger-
man Federal Ministry for Education and Research (grant
number 02WM1134).

The ICARUS project aims at identifying        already developed by these actors. These In the second year of the project, a intense
adaptation strategies to climate, social      tasks will allow carrying out a comparative participatory phase will take place, where
and economic, and land                                                                    first future adaptation strategies will be
use change for water ma-                                                                  identified, then their social, economic and
nagement in the Mediter-                                                                  environmental sustainability will be evalua-
ranean, yet focusing on                                                                   ted with the support of a decision-support
three areas in particular,                                                                tool, developed in previous European pro-
the Venice Lagoon Wa-                                                                     ject, which will be updated for this ad hoc
tershed (italy), the Jucar                                                                use. In the end, all information collected
Basin (Spain), and Western                                                                during the project will create the grounds
Algarve (Portugal).                                                                       for (i) a framework for participatory inte-
                                                                                          grated irrigation water management,
This goal requires several                                                                which can be tested in other Mediterra-
preparation phases to take                                                                nean contexts and (ii) identify prospective
place contemporaneously,                                                                  adaptation strategies for sustainable irriga-
as it has been occurring                                                                  tion in Southern Europe agriculture.
since the inception of the
project, September 2010. Firstly, infor-      analysis of the different irrigation systems    NEW STUDY AREA
mation is gathered from previous Euro-        placed in the three regions according to
pean project (e.g.SCENES, FUME;               their potential for saving water.           The new study area is located in Algarve
CIRCE; NOSTRUMdss, and so forth)                                                          (southern region of Portugal) and in regio-
and reports (e.g. SCENAR2020) on fu-          Thirdly, for sounder adaptation strategies, nal terms it encompasses an area of
ture climate, socio-economic, and land        partners provide stakeholders with an       around 209 000 ha, which include four
use scenarios of change between now           updated review of legal and institutional   mediu size dams / reservoirs (Bravura,
and 2030. The project partners purpo-         framework in which decision are taken on Odelouca, Funcho and Arade) and two
sefully chose a short to medium-term          water and, specifically, irrigation manage- irrigation perimeters (Alvor; and Silves,
time frame in order to provide more           ment. In addition, we will analyse the      Lagoa and Portimão). However, the de-
immediately useful information to the         needs of local population in terms of wa- tailed study will be developed in the Arade
end-users, i.e. farmers, when they desi-      ter consumptions and eventual conflicts     Catchment (of around 97 900 ha) concer-
gn adaptation strategies.                     that may ensure between sectors.            ning the irrigation perimeter of Lagoa and
                                                                                          Portimão with around 2300 ha of irrigated
Secondly, a necessary baseline informa-                                                   area.
tion on the present and potential use of
scarce water resources in these regions
is provided, regarding agrarian practices
of water use and explanatory factors
(hydrological, biophysical, historical, so-
cial and economical), technical and orga-
nizational innovations, through both a
review on previous research and field
surveys and interviews. These works
pretend to identify the specific adapta-
tion strategies –frequently combined—
The five CLIMAWARE partners come from France, Germany                        regional river systems (Weser). Cemagref and Les Grands Lacs
and Italy. The underlying motivation of the project is that                  de Seine from France evaluate in another case study the impacts
climate projections as prepared by the IPCC predict changes in               of climate change on the management of the Seine reservoirs
precipitation and temperature, which will impact regional                    and its adaptation.
water availability.
                                                                             The Istituto Agronomico Mediterranneo di Bari (CIHEAM-
A further challenge for water management schemes are                         IAMB), Italy, investigates the impacts of climate change on the
expected changes in water consumption in various sectors due                 agricultural water use in the Apulia region.
to climate change such as a higher water demand in agriculture               The primary objectives of our research are to:
or in industries for cooling. The aim of this project is to develop               • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river
integrated planning tools for a sustainable water resources                           flows and their consequences on flood and drought
management that take account of the impacts of climate                                occurrence and sectoral water uses.
change. As the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD)                                 • analyse the effects of climate change on the
demands river basin management plans and programmes of                                hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and
measures, these tools have to be analysed as well and adjusted                        therefore the definition of “good status”.
accordingly. A problem of making recommendations for                              • define adaptative management rules/strategies for dam
adjustments are uncertainties related to climate change                               management and irrigation practices.
projections.                                                                      • investigate uncertainties in climate model – scenario
CLIMAWARE considers both
the European and regional
scales of water availability. The
Center for Environmental
Systems Research at the
University of Kassel, Germany,
selects the integrated scenarios
and conducts modelling on
water use and availability at the
European scale to assess the
change in the hydrologic
regimes and water use of
different sectors. Subsequently
three case studies in three
different regions (Weser –
Germany, Seine – France,
Apulia – Italy) investigate the
impact of climate change at a
regional scale by the means of
region-based hydrological and
hydrodynamic models and water management strategies. The                     Thanks to the involvement of different stakeholders in each
case study of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and                    country, the results and recommendations developed within the
Water Resources Management at the University of Kassel,                      project time should be accounted for in future policy making.
Germany, investigates the impacts of climate change on

The kick-off meeting of the CLIMAWARE project was held in october
2010 in Kassel, Germany where each partner presented its case study
and where a common approach was set-up. As different scenarios on
climate change exist, one of the challenges of this project was to discuss
the scenarios used for modelling to have a comparable basis. The next
project meeting will take place next September in Bari.

                                                                                         ,       impacts and responses and their cau-
                                                  which relate to the definitions of WS&D,       se-effect relations. Drivers result in
                                                  the causalities among drivers-pressures-       pressures, which adversely change
                                                  impacts and responses, the concepts of         the state, causing thus impacts which
                                                  vulnerability and adaptive capacity. The       call for responses. Yet, a response
                                                  fact that both WS&D operate on many            measure can mitigate an impact, or
                                                  levels and scales as a result of many          change a driver, or become itself a
Adequacy of fresh water resources is flagged
                                                  complex factors and affect different           driver that changes a pressure. This
in international discussions on sustainable
                                                                                                 interplay is inherently complex, and
development. Conflicts on the allocation of
                                                                                                 requires in-depth analysis in order to
resources have exacerbated the need to
                                                                                                 be able to define how the different
adapt sustainable water strategies which ac-
                                                                                                 variables affect one another. Current-
count for the future requirements of the
                                                                                                 ly, there are limited studies (even mo-
economic sectors, the human needs and the
                                                                                                 re limited EU cases) where these
ecosystems welfare. Yet, the increasing
                                                                                                 cause-effect relations are investigated
pressures, induced by natural and anthropo-
                                                                                                 in order to provide insight into un-
genic driving forces, have led to considerable
                                                                                                 derstanding the full dimension of the
imbalances of water resources in many plac-
                                                                                                 WS&D parameters interplay. Finally,
es in Europe.
                                                                                                 regarding the definitions of the diffe-
                                                  sectors, often make the definitions            rent adaptation measures, a common
Over the past 30 years drought’s impacts
                                                  directly related to their impacts. Wilhite     typology is currently missing, resulting
have dramatically increased in the EU (total
                                                  and Glantz (1985) analyzed more than 150       in confusion since interpretation of
costs 100 billion €) while 17% of its territory
                                                  definitions. The absence of a universally      the measures is based on subjective
have been affected by water scarcity to date
                                                  accepted definition adds to the confusion      judgement.
[COM(2007)414]. In recognition of the
                                                  about the occurrence and severity of
acuteness of the problem, different initia-
                                                  these phenomena, while many of the ex-
tives have been put forward from the EU
                                                  isting definitions do not adequately define    As stated in the 2007 EU Communi-
Commission (in-depth assessments, 2007
                                                  them in meaningful terms for scientists        cation, policy action on WS&D needs
Communication and follow-up, targeted
                                                  and policy makers. The thresholds for          to be based on high-quality informa-
studies) and the different countries, yet
                                                  declaring drought are arbitrary in most        tion on the extent of the challenge and
there are major gaps in our knowledge and
                                                  cases. Furthermore, there is a significant     projected trends. Existing EU and na-
understanding of these phenomena, lack of
                                                  gap of knowledge and lack of coherent          tional assessment and monitoring pro-
adequate monitoring of their state and evo-
                                                  methodologies when it comes to defining        grams are neither integrated nor
lution, and limited data to allow in depth
                                                  and assessing Europe’s vulnerability to        complete. Reliable information on the
analysis, resulting in a poor ability to proac-
                                                  WS&D. The scope of WS&D vulnerability          extent and impacts of WS&D is indis-
tively manage and mitigated their impacts.
                                                  assessment is to identify environmental,       pensable for decision-making at all
The aim of the current article is to highlight
                                                  social and economic co-determinants of         levels, yet there are significant data
some of these gaps, which call for further
                                                  drought impacts (Ribot, 1996). Vulnerabi-      gaps, especially when it comes to the
targeted research in order to obtain the
                                                  lity is determined by three components:        socio-economic parameters. Data on
necessary tools for proper WS&D manage-
                                                  exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity.      impacts are not widely available, nor
ment in Europe, and further bridge the rela-
                                                  To assess vulnerability one must have a        has a common typology been devel-
tive science-policy breach in this field. These
                                                  clear view of the drivers, pressures, state,   oped. It is well known that they can in
gaps are categorized as follows:
generally be classified under environmental,      search is needed to enhance the selection       is not always accredited. EU countries
social and economic, yet the wide variety of      of proper indicators, not only based on         governance schemas in relation to the
impacts makes it necessary to develop an EU       scientific merit, but on their value for op-    management of WS&D highly differ,
harmonized reporting framework so that            eration decision-making as well.                and coordination among stakeholders
misinterpretations are avoided. A similar ap-                                                     is not always well planned or detaily
proach has been adopted by the US National        (3) the definition of a common WS&D             prescribed in the relevant MPs. Im-
Drought Mitigation Center who has devel-          Vulnerability Assessment Framework: Al-         provement of the national policy and
oped an “impact reporter” providing met-          though vulnerability to floods is well stud-    governance in needed in many cases,
rics for baseline comparison across the US.       ied in Europe, this is not the case for         and enhanced communication be-
Furthermore, information on the effective-        WS&D, and as result no harmonized               tween the developers/researchers
ness of response measures and economic            framework for such an assessment exist.         and the end-users must be established
policy instruments is also lacking. Research      Due to the fact that WS&D impacts are           so that the developed tools are de-
in this direction is highly needed, developing    not as direct, the effects of the mitigation    signed to fit the specific user’ needs,
the necessary common criteria and tools to        measures are not currently evident, and         while their users are adequate trained
allow and facilitate such assessments.            the adaptive capacity of a population high-     into using them for decision making.
                                                  ly depends on the socio-economic setting,       Whether an EU piece of legislation on
                                                  it is very complex to define the associated     WS&D is needed, remains to be ex-
The current state of implementation of inte-      vulnerability and risk.                         plored and researched, both in terms
grated solutions to combat WS&D in a pro-                                                         of necessity as well as selection of the
active (rather than crisis) manner is             (4) the development of concrete and har-        adequate form.
inadequate. Research on specific issues can       monized guidelines for WS&D Manage-
facilitate the process, focusing on:              ment Plans: Although efforts have been          REFERENCES
                                                  made towards common guidelines, many             Ÿ COM (2007) 414. Communication from
(1) the engineering design of adequate mon-       technical issues are not adequately tack-          the Commission to the European Parlia-
                                                                                                     ment and the Council Addressing the
itoring, forecasting and early warning sys-       led, and the objectives and requirements           challenge of water scarcity and droughts
tems (key parameters, spatiotemporal              of the WS&D MPs remain loose.                      in the European Union (http://eur-
scales, data integration and analysis, fore-                                               
casting methodologies, improved delivery,                                                            ?uri=CELEX:52007DC0414:EN:NOT)
etc.).                                            Currently no EU legislation exists regard-       Ÿ Ribot, Jesse C. (1996). Introduction to
                                                  ing the management of WS&D. The WFD                Climate Variability, Climate Change, and
(2) the definition of proper indicators and       provides some basis, touching on issues of         Variability: Moving Forward by Looking
thresholds to be used for the development         exemptions and encouraging DMPs as                 Back. In: J.C. Ribot, A.R. Magalhães, and
                                                                                                     S.S. Panagides (eds.). Climate Variability,
of Management Plans: The characterization         supplementary measures. Yet, the full              Climate Change, and Social Vulnerability
of WS&D and the identification of its             range of WS&D issues are not addressed             in the Semi-arid Tropics. University of
on/offset require different indicators and        in the WFD. It is important to notice that         Cambridge, New York.
quantification for triggers. Single indicators    when defining WS&D conditions in an area
                                                                                                   Ÿ Steinemann A., Hayes M.J., and Luiz Ca-
often prove inadequate for decision makers        one must also account for environmental            valcanti L.(2005). Drought Indicators and
while multiple indicators and triggers can be     and other requirements (e.g. treaties in           Triggers. In Wilhite, D. (ed.) Drought
useful, yet many challenges arise when we         transboundary rivers) and thus consider            and Water Crises: Science, Technology,
try to combine them (e.g. scales incompara-       this volume as practically unavailable for         and Management Issues. Marcel Dekker,
                                                                                                     NY, 2005.
bility, statistical inconsistence of thresholds   abstraction. This can significantly change
etc.) (Steinemann et al., 2005). Thus re-         the water stress picture of an area, yet this    Ÿ Wilhite D.A and Svoboda M.D. Drought
                                                                                                     Early Warning Systems in the Context of
                                                                                                     Drought Preparedness and Mitigation.
                                                                                                     National Drought Mitigation Center, Lin-
                                                                                                     coln, Nebraska U.S.A.

                                                                                                   Ÿ Wilhite, D. A. and Glantz M.H. (1985).
                                                                                                     Understanding the drought phenome-
                                                                                                     non: The role of definitions. Water Inter-
                                                                                                     national 10:111-120.
                                                                                                                       The Mondego river

Utilising the Ecosystem Services Approach for Water Framework
Directive Implementation

The Ecosystem Services Approach (ESA) (3) In terms of improving stakeholder                response (DPSIR) analysis, and identified
has received a lot of attention over the involvement and understanding of the              the main services, stakeholders and pres-
last 6 years for instance through the Uni- WFD implementation and integrated wa-           sure sources in the system. The IMAR
ted Nations Environment Programme’s ter management decision-making measu-                  team is currently testing the DPSIR fra-
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment or res.                                                    mework surveys with different stakehol-
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodi-                                                     ders. ESAWADI will test whether the ESA
versity (TEEB) initiative of the European The project builds on 3 case studies in          can facilitate communication between re-
Commission and Germany. Over the sa- France, Germany and Portugal. While a                 searchers and stakeholders.
me period, the WFD economic require- coordinated approach will be used by
ments have proved a considerable developing and answering the same core                                               takes place in the
challenge for water administrations, both research questions in all case studies,          transboundary German/Dutch Ems River
in terms of data and                    The Dordogne     each national case study          basin. It will focus on riverine connectivi-
methodologies. Up                                        will deal with different          ty. It aims to identify how the ESA can
to now, there has                                        ecosystems at different           contribute to the decision-making pro-
been no assessment                                       scales, and shall therefore       cess in relation to measures and further
of how the ESA can                                       also focus on site-specific       interferences with riverine connectivity in
contribute to addres-                                    issues.                           the German Ems River Basin esp. connec-
sing this challenge.                                                                       ted to the justification of exemptions ac-
                                                                                           cording to article 4 of the WFD and the
ESAWADI will work on linking the econo-      takes places at the middle stream of the      “disproportionality of costs” criteria. The
mic elements of the WFD and the current      Dordogne River. The case study will look      experiences and                   lessons
“state-of-the-art” regarding the ecosys-     at the issue of                               learnt from each
tem services assessment. Through this                           , with the hypothesis      case study will
project, the methodological linkages         that it is on these aspects that the ESA      be synthesized
between the two concepts (ESA and            approach may be the most helpful for          to provide pos-
WFD) will be investigated. Our main aca-     engaging with stakeholders on the rele-       sible guidelines
demic innovation will not be to further      vance of local water implementation           for using the
develop ecosystem services valuation         measures and for addressing WFD eco-          ESA in WFD-im-
methodologies but to assess the potential    nomic requirements. Both regional struc-      plementation as
added-value of the ESA in the WFD deci-      tures (the Adour-Garonne Water Agency         well as policy
sion-making process, including stakehol-     and EPIDOR) and local structures have to      recommenda-
der participation.                           find operational solutions to implement       tions for water
                                             locally the RBMP (River Basin Manage-         authorities.
The contributions of the ESA will be as-     ment Plan) and achieve good ecological
sessed in three ways:                        status of the Dordogne water bodies by        The ESAWADI
                                             2015.                                         methodology                    The Ems River
(1) In terms of linking ecosystem services                                                 builds on the assumption that using a eco-
provision and the WFD definition of                                         will look at   system services approach for policy desi-
“good ecological status” for water bodies;   the relationship between “good ecologi-       gn and implementation in the field of
                                             cal status” and the provision of ecosystem    Integrated Water Resource Management,
(2) In terms of non-monetary assessment      services in the case of the Mondego River     will enable to better integrate the ecolo-
of ecosystem services and WFD econo-         estuary, in collaboration with the Admi-      gical status of ecosystems and their im-
mic requirements (cost effectiveness, dis-   nistração da Região Hidrográfica do           pact on economic and social well-being;
proportionality     of    costs,     cost    Centro. A previous study in this area un-     and therefore, bring stakeholders closer
recovery…);                                  dertook a driver-pressure-state-impact-       to the ecological issues at stake.

ESAWADI is a project managed by a multidisciplinary team of water manage-
ment consultants, university researchers, economists and policy experts, led
by ASCONIT Consultants, in partnership with CREDOC France, seeconsult
(Germany), Intersus (Germany) and IMAR – Instituto do Mar (Portugal). For
more information on ESAWADI, please have a look at our website at:
                                           FUNDING PARTNER

Since October 01, 2009, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has               there are five thematic topics, which build the frame for the
merged with the Universität Karlsruhe into the Karlsruhe Insti-       upcoming calls.
tute of Technology (KIT). The KIT is logistically divided in two
                                                                      Those are
campuses, campus north and campus south. Although the
Project Management Agency Karlsruhe (PTKA) is located at                  •   Water and Energy
campus north and also keeps an infrastructural connection to the          •   Water and Environment
KIT (e.g. IT- and some administrative services) PTKA is an                •   Water and Health
institutionally independent unit, will consist of two main sections       •   Water and Nutrition
(i) Water, Environment and Nuclear Safety Research (WTE) and
                                                                          •   Water and Urban Areas
(ii) Production and Manufacturing Technologies (PFT).
                                                                      Further IWRM-related funding activities supported by PTKA
On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research          are:
(BMBF) the water section of PTKA coordinates and manages
                                                                          1. River Basin Management
research and development projects. PTKA assists the Ministry in
the strategic planning of research programmes and calls for               2. Flood protection
proposals as well as the evaluation and selection of projects. The
allocation of subsidies, the administrative support for running           3. Water technologies
projects and dissemination of results as well are additional tasks
taken over by PTKA.                                                       4. IWRM (special attention to developing coun-
Among others PTKA is responsible for managing of research                    tries)
projects funded in the national Framework Programme “Re-
                                                                      In the recent past section PTKA-WTE manages about 450
search for Sustainable Development” of the German Federal
                                                                      research and development projects with a budget of about
Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Within that national
                                                                      €50 Million per year; 59 of these are directly related to the
funding programmes there are specific activities, so called
                                                                      IWRM framework.
“Förderschwerpunkte” which are related to a diversity of differ-
ent thematic topics. In the frame of a new priority theme “Sus-       In the on-going 2nd IWRM.Net funding initiative there are 6
tainable Water Resources Management” (German NaWaM)                   projects out of which 4 are with German participation: Clima-
                                                                      te change, ESAWADI, IMPACT, Water2Adapt. All of them
                                                                      started successfully in 2010 and some first results were gai-
                                                                      ned. As an example and representative pictures for the
                                                                      Water2Adapt project two pictures of the German case study
                                                                      are given below. The study site was changed to the adminis-
                                                                      trative district “Soltau-Fallingbostel” because this region is
                                                                      more affected by droughts then the former one and repre-
                                                                      sents thereby aspects of investigation in a better way.
                                                 Water Cap and Trade

In a context of climate change, structural     our research effort on the design of WM        In parallel with this first activity, different
water deficits and climate extreme             scenarios that can be considered as credi-     methodological approaches are currently
events are expected to become more             ble policy options by stakeholders. In-        being developed by the project team to
frequent, putting at stake the mecha-          deed,      the     consortium     members      test and fine tune WM scenarios with
nisms currently used for sharing water         postulated that the discussion of simplistic   stakeholders. A limited number of work-
between economic sectors and among             WM scenarios, slightly adapted from Ang-       shops were organized with a few farmers
users. The IWRM project                        lo-Saxon experiences, would inevitably         in one of the French case study. A game
       will investigate whether and how        lead to rejection by stakeholders. This        simulating the functioning of water market
water markets (WM) – or systems of             implies working out sophisticated descrip-     has been designed and tested with stu-
tradable water quotas – could become a         tion of WM scenarios which should incor-       dents, before being deployed in a real case
feasible policy option for water alloca-       porate elements from local economic,           study (end of 2011). A semi-structured
tion under increasing scarcity conditions.     institutional, cultural and technical con-     questionnaire has also been developed for
                                               texts. The team also recognizes the need       conducting interviews (planned end of
The underlying assumption is that the          to be creative while designing such scenar-    2011).
use of a “cap and trade” approach could        ios, making the best possible use of the
simultaneously guarantee environmental         great diversity of water market experienc-     In Spain, a National Advisory Group, com-
protection, as required by the Water           es conducted in different states of Austra-    prising high-level stakeholders and experts
Framework Directive, and enhance flex-         lia and Northern America (Canada, USA),        has been formed and had a first meeting,
ibility in allocation to maximize water use    in Chile, Spain as well as in developing       which was followed by a seminar on water
utility and possibly reducing conflicts.       countries (Pakistan, India).                   markets with experts from different fields
Our research team recognizes that a lot                                                       and stakeholders. Similar events should
of economic modeling has already been          Significant efforts have thus been made to     soon take place in France (October 2011)
carried out to assess potential economic       document existing WMs around the               and Italy. In Italy, preliminary interviews
gains of implementing WM in various            world. The case of Spain, where such           have been conducted with irrigation
countries. Models were in particular           markets function relatively well since         boards and the subject was discussed with
used to predict water sales and purchase       2005, has been extensively documented          experts at a conference in Florence.
curves, the intensity of trade, price levels   (report available on request). We actually
and the total welfare gains. However, in       expect that French and Italian stakehold-      The development and use of economic
cases where markets have actually been         ers will be more sensitive to experiences      models for simulating possible develop-
established afterwards (Spain, Califor-        conducted in a nearby European Country         ment of water markets scenarios will only
nia), trade intensity has been much lower      than to Australian experiences. This mate-     be take place at the end of the project,
than predicted by economic models.             rial will soon be used to developed scenar-    once the scenarios have been stabilized
                                               ios to be debated with stakeholders in         with stakeholders.
There is evidence that economic agents         regional arenas and with experts at the
are reluctant to engage in water trading       national level. Preliminary scenarios have
for a number of reasons which need to          already been defined for improving exist-
be investigated. One of the key decisions      ing water markets in the Tajo-Segura ba-
taken during the kick-off meeting held in      sins and Guadalquivir-South basins in
January 2011 in Montpellier was to focus       Spain.
                                                                                                    tes) and physiological conditions of
                                                                                                    plants and animals. Individually or in
                                                                                                    combination, these three effects set
                                                                                                    off successive processes such as in-
                                                                                                    trusion of saline water in coastal
                                                                                                    aquifer or increased risk of wild fire
                                                                                                    as a result of accumulated combus-
                                                                                                    tibles. The effects of deficient preci-
                                                                                                    pitation are often amplified by
                                                                                                    atmospheric conditions (temperatu-
                                                                                                    re, wind) that favour evaporation
                                                                                                    and further increase water demand.
                                                                                                    Direct effects pertain to water-use
                                                                                                    sectors hit by a drought such as
                                                                                                    agriculture, hydro- and cooling-wa-
                                                                                                    ter dependent energy production,
                                                                                                    water navigation, water-intensive
                                                                                                    manufacturing and households. At
                                                                                                    the same time water is an important
                                                                                                    input to production, a crucial lifeline
                                                                                                    for utility services and a means of
                                                                                                    transport for good and passengers.
Water2Adapt project seeks to analyse         that precludes adoption of well informed       During drought events, the sectors hit di-
the economic and social effects of drou-     and context specific climate adaptation        rectly are likely to curtail their activities
ghts, and explore the drought risk ma-       and risk mitigation policies.                  and production, collect less revenues, lay-
nagement policies and measures that                                                         off staff, and postpone all but critical in-
increase the preparedness and resilience                                                    vestments. These direct losses set off a
to future drought events. The latter are                                                    sequence of 'up'- and 'downstream' reac-
expected to increase in frequency and        Droughts are temporarily breaks of water       tions which affect their suppliers and cus-
intensity in changing climate throughout     replenishments through precipitation and       tomers.
Europe. The project analyses in depth        inflow. They are low-frequency (low
selected drought events with respect to      tail/bound of probability distribution func-
the direct and higher order economic         tion) but ordinary events, results of clima-
effects, social hardship in both urban       te variability. Deficient precipitation        The W2A consortium explores the social
and rural contexts, while taking into ac-    reduces water stocks and flows and af-         costs of drought, the benefits of drought
count the institutional framework of the     fects water accessibility; and causes inter-   risk mitigation policies and the influence of
drought risk governance in Spain, Ger-       ruptions in replenishment with                 both of community resilience.
many, Portugal and Italy. In doing so, the   subsequent changes of physical environ-
project is filling in the gap of knowledge   ment (soil moisture, water and air attribu-

Back Page Blog
                                                           Bob Harris
Forty years of working at the interface          transition if we want to try and speed the
between research and environmental poli-         process up. For example displaying data as
cy and decision-making has taught me that        information – attractive charts or maps;
there are no magic solutions for the easy        using conceptual models, often as tools to
transition of new insights from research to      engage others who possess different
where it could be used. The transfer pro-        knowledge.
cess is just that, a process… a lengthy one.
Scientists produce, and love, data and in-       Having the users of research involved as
formation, but policy-makers need un-            partners from conception to finish is es-
derstanding and wisdom. So           must be     sential for the quicker uptake of new
translated, but this doesn’t happen in one       knowledge. There is an old Chinese pro-
simple action. First it needs to be turned       verb, which still holds true today:
into               , and then information into
             . Knowledge leads to
          and, if we add in experience, ulti-    Showing and involving are therefore bet-
mately to              . With wisdom comes       ter ways of transferring and exchanging
vision and design. With wisdom, we can           knowledge than more traditional ways like
create the future rather than just grasp the     conferences or publishing papers.
present and past. But achieving it isn't easy;
we have to move successively through the         The UK government research program-
other categories.                                me Demonstration Test Catchments is
                                                 an example where both the local stake-
This transition process, following the wis-      holder community and policy-makers are
dom hierarchy ascribed to Ackoff, is often       completely involved in understanding the
ignored in the modern world where the            link between farming practices and water
managers and funders of science often            quality to ensure that developing policy is
want quick and easy results – ‘what’s your       underpinned by strong evidence and sta-
science programme doing/ever done for            keholder support –
our business’, is a difficult question when
the answer is obscured by a journey,
which may have been 5 or 10 years or
more. The beginning point is often forgot-
ten. We must recognise the steps in the

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