; Y11GeP3.3 Nov 2005 3FebPP.ppt - Ysgol Rhyngrwyd IGCSE Geography
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Y11GeP3.3 Nov 2005 3FebPP.ppt - Ysgol Rhyngrwyd IGCSE Geography

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 27

  • pg 1
									         Things to know about
• Town and city layout:
• Environmental quality:
• More rivers




                                2
                 Town and city layout
• Most urban areas follow models similar
    to one of these.
•   CBD is multi-storied, with no gaps
    between buildings, because the land is
    expensive and shops and other services
    use this area. The pavements are wide
    and usually it has been ‘prettied up’ to
    make a pleasant place that attracts
    visitors to use it.
•   Old inner city residential is mostly 2
    storeys opening onto narrow streets
    with narrow pavements and no off road
    parking. Poor environmental quality.
•   The further out you go, the more
    spaced out the buildings. Bigger houses
    are here, as are business parks and
    shopping malls. Again, likely to be kept
    up well with trees and parking. Good
    environmental quality




                                               3
    Environmental quality survey
• This can be carried out by a questionnaire
• Or it can be done by the researcher giving
  scores.
• These often are scored from 0 (bad) to 5
  (good) or from =2(good) to -2 (poor)
  through zero.
• The items being considered will vary from
  survey to survey, but typically look at
  rubbish, grafitti, the upkeep of the houses
  etc.                                     4
5
• 1. Some students
  investigated land use
  in three different
  areas of Singapore:
  Orchard Road,
  Dunlop Street and
  East Coast Parkway.
  Figure 1 shows a page
  from one student’s
  coursework.
• (a) The table shows
  the annotations for
  Dunlop Street. Write
  the letters A to F in
  the correct box on
  Figure 1. B has been
  done for you.




                          6
• (b) The students carried out an environmental survey in
  each area. Figure 2 shows their results for Dunlop
  Street. Plot the remaining scores on the graph




                                                       7
• (b) The students carried out an environmental survey in
  each area. Figure 2 shows their results for Dunlop
  Street.Plot thr remaining scores on the graph




      Does
      yours
    look like
      this?



                                                       8
(c) Figure 4 shows the completed graphs for
   Orchard Road and East Coast Parkway.
                             •Describe the
                              similarities and
                              the differences
                              shown by the
                              two graphs.
                             •Similarities (2)
                             •Differences (2)



                                              9
  (d) The student’s conclusion was that ‘the quality of
different areas within Singapore improves with distance
       from the CBD (Central Business District)’.


                                        Dunlop street




                                • (i) Do you agree with the
                                  student’s conclusion? YES / NO
                                • (ii) Give reasons for your
                                  answer. Use these graphs and
                                  the pictures at the start to
                                  help you
                                                              10
      What you need to be aware of
• The velocity of a river is notoriously unpredictable.
• The theory says that it flows faster near the steepest
    bit at the top and slower as the channel flattens out.
•   Last time we saw that the velocity slowed as the cross-
    section became greater.
•   But as noted at the time, when the depth stayed fairly
    constant, one explanation of that was that because the
    difference in cross-section was really a difference in
    width, then we were talking of increased channel friction.
•   But this is not a universal truth! Sometimes it goes
    faster when you expect it go slower – and to work out
    why that might be, you need to go and have a look! Could
    be further up stream there are a load of rocks for the
    water to scramble round! So when it comes to scatter
    diagrams go with the flow!
     [Yes that was an intended pun!]
                                                         11
• 2. Study Figure 5. It shows
    the area around the River
    Holford in Somerset (United
    Kingdom). This area was
    studied as part of a
    fieldwork investigation.
•   (a) (i) In which direction is
    the River Holford flowing?
•   (ii) Name the woodland to
    the north west of Kilve.
•   (iii) Name the settlement
    nearest to the mouth of the
    River Holford.
•   (iv) What is the straight line
    distance between fieldwork
    sites C and F?
•   (v) Give the height of the
    highest point.
•   (5)

                             12
• (b) Figures 6a and 6b show sketch cross sections along the lines WZ
  and XY across the River Holford valley. Cross section WZ has been
  labelled.


                                                       B
                                            A
                                                           C




 • Add labels to cross section XY. What do A,B and C stand for? (3)
       River Holford or
       A39 or
       Settlement or
       woodland
                                                                13
(c) The students collected data at sites A to H on the River
           Holford. Figure 7 shows their results.




• (i) At which site
• 1. was the river flowing at the highest velocity?
  2. did the river have the greatest depth? (2)
                                                       14
• Complete it to show the relationship between the river width
  and velocity (speed).(4)




                                                           15
Did yours look like this? Another graphical error in
              the exam paper I think!




• (iii) What relationship is shown by the completed scatter
  graph?(2) [Hint (a) and (b) from the last time]
• (iv) What geographical conclusions can you draw from
  this relationship? (4) [Hint (c) ++]
                                                         16
        Preparing ideas for field
                  work
• What question or issue did you
  investigate?
• This is asking about the hypothesis:
   How does the land use in a town change with
    the distance from the centre?
   Is there a relationship between the number of
    pedestrians and the land use?
   Is there a relationship between the speed of a
    river and the width?

                                              17
        Preparing ideas for field
                  work
• This is what has appeared so far – 2
 marks – get a bit more specific
   Describe briefly the purpose of the
    investigation
   What was the main aim of your fieldwork?
   What was the main aim of your investigation?
• The purpose/aim was to do a ground floor
 count in …. (or along a transect) and
 pedestrian count in .. places and to use this
 to find out if …..
                                              18
        Preparing ideas for field
                  work
• One of these appear to be a dead
 certainty:
   Describe the location of your fieldwork. (4)
   Draw a sketch map of the fieldwork area and
    label the sites where you collected your
    data.(4)
• No matter how improvised your qu 3 is,
 have something relevant to draw – they
 are not going to check it out
                                              19
             Preparing ideas for field
                       work
• One that has only turned up once so far but may reappear:
    State two practical preparations made before carrying out the
     fieldwork.(2)
• Health and safety ought to be a consideration – are you going with
  someone? Who knows you are going? Have you organised to call
  during the time?
• Working out exactly what you are going to do in what order? Having
  a working timetable, allowing reasonable time to complete tasks.
• What do you need to take with you? Prepare for weather –
  waterproof container for you and the bits and pieces. Do you need to
  prepare any tally/other charts? Has you watch got a stop watch
  facility for timing events – either time for an orange floating down a
  river or 10 minutes for a pedestrian count. Measuring tape, camera
  etc – this is only worth 2 so long as you do not simply put down
  clipboard and pen, you should manage 2 marks.




                                                                     20
           Preparing ideas for field work
• Data collection is a frequently referring theme:
    Explain how you made sure that the data you collected was as accurate
     and reliable as possible.(3)
    Describe what data was collected and how it was collected. [You will
     need to refer to techniques, equipment, time taken and sampling
     procedures.](6)
    Explain in what ways this data collecting stage of the investigation was
     (6)(i) successful (ii) might have been improved
• Data collection is the gathering of information in the form of
  numbers, words or even images. The implication is that you need at
  least 2 sets of data, so that you can see whether there is a
  relationship between one thing and another. E.g. the further you are
  from the CBD, the fewer pedestrians there are – data collected:
  distance from CBD, pedestrian counts at measured spots on the way
  – distance could be measured using google maps or a car odometer.
  DO NOT SAY you estimated the number of pedestrians by counting
  all you could see in one go – explain how you should have done a
  pedestrian count. ‘Standing in one place and using a stop watch and a
  tally chart, count how many people passed you in 10 minutes, passing
  in one direction and then repeat for people going in the opposite
  direction. If it is a quiet area, it may be possible to tick off both
  directions at once without loss of accuracy.’
                                                                         21
           Preparing ideas for field work
• Another thing that turns up about data
     Give two reasons why you chose these places to collect your data.
      (2)
     Or as on the previous page, questions about sampling procedure
• Answers to this can be pragmatic (do what is reasonable)
    or can demonstrate good sampling technique:
•   E.g. I chose to measure the width and depth of my river,
    where footpaths permitted me access
•   Or I did pedestrians counts in the areas which were
    predominately of one land use type, e.g. CBD, mostly
    industrial, terraced housing, detached housing
•   Or I did an environmental quality survey at 1 km
    distances from the CDB


                                                                  22
           Preparing ideas for field work
• Yet another favourite
    How could you have improved your data collection?(3)
    State one problem that occurred during your data collection.(1)
    How did you solve this problem?(2)
• Classic answers but make them a bit more specific to your situation:
• Bigger survey at each point – 1 dropped my orange in the river 3
  times, but on occasion it got stuck and took ages so 1 out of 3 was an
  anomaly – I omitted it and carried out a further test but I could
  have done it 5 times and kept the larger time value in. Then the
  anomaly would have had less effect on the average.
• More survey points: I only did 3 environmental quality surveys – if I
  had done them at more sample points, the results might have been
  clearer.
• Inaccurate collection methods: I decided to do count my pedestrians
  going both ways at once. This was fine in mostly residential areas
  where the numbers were low, but I am not entirely sure of my
  accuracy in the CBD as it was much more crowded.



                                                                       23
    Preparing ideas for field work
• Another area to consider
    Select one of your methods of presenting data. Why did you
     choose this method? You may include a diagram as part of your
     answer. (4)
    What other method could you use to present this same data? (2)
• What are the ways of displaying data to the greatest
  effect?
• Scatter diagrams are the best way to compare 2 data
  sets
• Comparing data from different sites could be pie charts
  or stacked bar charts – clustered bar charts make
  comparison really tricky – clustered are where you have
  lots of little bars in different colours side by side – so
  that question about another way to display is always to
  say clustered bars (if the data works for that) – as it
  does not work as whatever else you said you did!
                                                               24
Your field work again – as before copy/paste if its
         good – make it better if you can!
• 3. Use your own experience of fieldwork to
    answer this question.
•   (a) (i) What question or issue did you
    investigate? (1)
•   (ii) What was the main aim of your investigation?
    (2)
•   (iii) Describe the location of your fieldwork. (4)
•   (b) (i) State one problem that occurred during
    your data collection.(1)
•   (ii) How did you solve this problem?(2)
                                                  25
Your field work again – as before copy/paste if its
           good – make it better if you can!
• (c) (i) Complete the table to show
     two types of data you collected
     the method you used to present each one.
       o [hint while you are asked for 2 types of data, if for example
         one was a correlation, then you would have 2 data sets on one
         with the scatter diagram but a single other data set to go
         with bar charts for example]
• (ii) Select one of your methods of presenting
    data shown in (c)(i). Why did you choose this
    method? You may include a diagram as part of
    your answer. (4)
•   (iii) What other method could you use to present
    this same data? (2)
                                                                  26
Your field work again – as before copy/paste if its
           good – make it better if you can!
• (c) (i) Complete the table to show
     two types of data you collected
     the method you used to present each one.
       o [hint while you are asked for 2 types of data, if for example
         one was a correlation, then you would have 2 data sets on one
         with the scatter diagram but a single other data set to go
         with bar charts for example]
• (ii) Select one of your methods of presenting
    data shown in (c)(i). Why did you choose this
    method? You may include a diagram as part of
    your answer. (4)
•   (iii) What other method could you use to present
    this same data? (2)
                                                                  27

								
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