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The Global Competition for Talent _FINAL_

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The Global Competition for Talent _FINAL_ Powered By Docstoc
					The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy,	
  Tufts	
  University	
  
Hitachi	
  Center	
  for	
  Technology	
  and	
  International	
  Affairs	
  


	
  
	
  
                                                                                            Spring	
  
                                                                                                         2010	
  
	
  

	
  



       The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
  


Professor	
  Joel	
  Trachtman	
  	
   	
  
Faculty	
  Advisor	
  
	
  
Rachel	
  Greenspan	
                   	
  
Master	
  in	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  2010,	
  Lead	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  
Rahul	
  Bhatnagar	
  	
                	
  
Master	
  in	
  International	
  Business	
  2011,	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  
Kimberley	
  Liao	
  	
   	
  
Master	
  in	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  2011,	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  
Ravi	
  Manghani	
  
Master	
  in	
  International	
  Business	
  2010,	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  
Malavika	
  Sah	
  	
       	
  
Master	
  in	
  International	
  Business	
  2011,	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  

Barbara	
  Seymour	
                    	
  
Master	
  in	
  International	
  Business,	
  2011,	
  Student	
  Researcher	
  
	
  
	
  

                                                                                         Spring	
  
                                                                                                      2010	
  
                                                                                                         The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                         160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
                                                                       SPECIAL	
  THANKS	
  

       Thank	
  you	
  to	
  Professor	
  Joel	
  Trachtman	
  for	
  being	
  the	
  faculty	
  advisor	
  for	
  this	
  project,	
  and	
  for	
  his	
  help	
  and	
  
       support	
  in	
  seeing	
  it	
  through.	
  We	
  would	
  also	
  like	
  to	
  thank	
  Prof.	
  Jonathan	
  Brookfield,	
  Takahiro	
  Yamamoto,	
  
        Prof.	
  Bernard	
  Simonin,	
  Jenifer	
  Burkett-­‐Picker,	
  Dorothy	
  Orszulak,	
  Kurt	
  Eilhardt,	
  Malavika	
  Sah	
  and	
  Ashis	
  
                                                     Shrestha	
  for	
  their	
  help	
  and	
  contributions.	
  
	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                          2	
  
                                                                                             The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                             160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




                                                                                  	
  
       The	
  student	
  research	
  team,	
  from	
  left	
  to	
  right:	
  Rahul	
  Bhatnagar	
  (MIB	
  2011),	
  Rachel	
  Greenspan	
  (MALD	
  
         2010),	
  Kimberley	
  Liao	
  (MALD	
  2011),	
  Ravi	
  Manghani	
  (MIB	
  2010),	
  Barbara	
  Seymour	
  (MIB	
  2011)	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                          3	
  
                                                                                                                                          The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                          160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
                                                                                       Table	
  of	
  Contents	
  
	
  
Prologue ..............................................................................................................................................................................................7	
  
Executive	
  Summary .........................................................................................................................................................................8	
  
Section	
  1:	
  Literature	
  Review ........................................................................................................................................................9	
  
  Background................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10	
  
  Who	
  are	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled	
  mobile	
  workers?................................................................................................................................................. 10	
  
  Overview:	
  What	
  motivates	
  highly	
  skilled	
  workers? .................................................................................................................................. 11	
  
        Push	
  and	
  Pull	
  Factors .................................................................................................................................................................................12	
  
        OECD	
  Study	
  on	
  the	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers	
  (2008)...............................................................................................15	
  
  Skills	
  and	
  graphic	
  distribution	
  of	
  highly	
  skilled	
  mobile	
  workers ........................................................................................................ 15	
  
  Major	
  destinations	
  of	
  skilled	
  migrants ........................................................................................................................................................... 16	
  
  Engineering	
  Education:	
  A	
  look	
  at	
  India,	
  China	
  and	
  Japan..................................................................................................................... 17	
  
  A	
  Comparative	
  Look	
  at	
  National	
  Immigration	
  Policies .......................................................................................................................... 18	
  
        	
  Canada..............................................................................................................................................................................................................19	
  
        	
  Australia ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................20	
  
        The	
  European	
  Union ...................................................................................................................................................................................21	
  
        India ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................22	
  
        Singapore .........................................................................................................................................................................................................22	
  
        United	
  Kingdom ............................................................................................................................................................................................23	
  
        	
  The	
  United	
  States’	
  Immigration	
  Program:	
  A	
  Case	
  Study............................................................................................................24	
  
        Country	
  Level	
  Conclusions.......................................................................................................................................................................26	
  
  Corporate	
  Strategies	
  for	
  Attracting	
  and	
  Retaining	
  Top	
  Talent .......................................................................................................... 27	
  
  Targeted	
  Hiring	
  Practices	
  towards	
  Foreign	
  Workers.............................................................................................................................. 27	
  
        Providing	
  Employee	
  Benefits..................................................................................................................................................................28	
  
Section	
  2:	
  Project	
  Development ............................................................................................................................................... 30	
  
  Overall	
  Assumptions................................................................................................................................................................................................ 31	
  
  Hypotheses .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 31	
  
  Defining	
  a	
  Target	
  Population	
  of	
  Students..................................................................................................................................................... 32	
  
  Methodology............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32	
  
  Company	
  Surveys	
  and	
  Hypotheses.................................................................................................................................................................... 33	
  
Section	
  3:	
  Results	
  and	
  Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 35	
  
  Student	
  Survey	
  Results........................................................................................................................................................................................... 36	
  
     Biographical	
  information..........................................................................................................................................................................36	
  
     Current	
  studies..............................................................................................................................................................................................38	
  
     Employment	
  plans	
  and	
  career-­‐related	
  information .....................................................................................................................40	
  
     Country	
  Preference	
  Correlation	
  to	
  Literature	
  Review.................................................................................................................44	
  
     Employer-­‐related	
  Factors.........................................................................................................................................................................44	
  
     Personal	
  and	
  lifestyle	
  considerations..................................................................................................................................................49	
  
  Student	
  Survey	
  Conclusion................................................................................................................................................................................... 56	
  
     Individual	
  Factors ........................................................................................................................................................................................56	
  
     Career-­‐related	
  Factors ...............................................................................................................................................................................58	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                    4	
  
                                                                                                                                       The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                       160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


         Government-­‐related	
  Factors ...................................................................................................................................................................58	
  
       Qualitative	
  Student	
  Results.................................................................................................................................................................................. 59	
  
         Preferred	
  Industries....................................................................................................................................................................................59	
  
         Traditional	
  Fields .........................................................................................................................................................................................60	
  
         Non-­‐Traditional	
  Fields ...............................................................................................................................................................................61	
  
         Top	
  30	
  Preferred	
  Employers...................................................................................................................................................................62	
  
       Results	
  of	
  Company	
  Surveys ................................................................................................................................................................................ 64	
  
         Hypotheses	
  Relating	
  to	
  Economic	
  Factors ........................................................................................................................................64	
  
         Hypotheses	
  Relating	
  to	
  Individual	
  Factors .......................................................................................................................................65	
  
       Appendix	
  A:	
  List	
  of	
  Relevant	
  Sources............................................................................................................................................................... 68	
  
	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                               5	
  
                                                                                                                              The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                              160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
                                                                                    List	
  of	
  Exhibits	
  
	
  
Tables	
  
Table	
  1:	
  Top-­‐30	
  Skilled	
  Emigration	
  Countries,	
  2000 .......................................................................................................... 16	
  
Table	
  2:	
  U.K.’s	
  Five-­‐tiered	
  Immigration	
  System .................................................................................................................... 24	
  
Table	
  3:	
  Changed	
  Attitude	
  on	
  Skilled	
  Migration	
  (1996-­‐2007)........................................................................................ 26	
  
Table	
  4:	
  Immigration	
  Status	
  Statistics....................................................................................................................................... 36	
  
Table	
  5:	
  Statistics	
  of	
  Degree(s)	
  Pursued................................................................................................................................... 36	
  
Table	
  6:	
  Engineering	
  Disciplines	
  Represented ...................................................................................................................... 37	
  
Table	
  7:	
  Response	
  to	
  Factors	
  for	
  Pursuing	
  Studies	
  Away	
  From	
  Home	
  Country ..................................................... 38	
  
Table	
  8:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  Pursuing	
  Employment	
  Abroad	
  for	
  Given	
  Period..................................................................... 41	
  
Table	
  9:	
  List	
  of	
  Top	
  30	
  countries	
  in	
  which	
  students	
  would	
  consider	
  living.............................................................. 44	
  
Table	
  10:	
  Professional	
  Factors	
  Based	
  on	
  Location............................................................................................................... 48	
  
Table	
  11:	
  Ability	
  to	
  apply	
  professional	
  skills	
  acquired	
  in	
  graduate	
  school ............................................................... 48	
  
Table	
  12:	
  Personal	
  Factors	
  Based	
  on	
  Location ...................................................................................................................... 53	
  
Table	
  13:	
  Response	
  on	
  Spouse	
  Eligibility	
  Question ............................................................................................................. 54	
  
Table	
  14:	
  Response	
  on	
  Raising	
  Children	
  Question............................................................................................................... 54	
  
Table	
  15:	
  Response	
  on	
  Returning	
  Home	
  Due	
  to	
  Economic	
  Downturn........................................................................ 55	
  
Table	
  16:	
  Response	
  on	
  Pursuing	
  Employment	
  in	
  Foreign	
  Country	
  where	
  Gaining............................................... 55	
  
Table	
  17:	
  Top	
  30	
  Preferred	
  Employers..................................................................................................................................... 62	
  
Table	
  18:	
  Response	
  on	
  Special	
  Retention	
  Strategies........................................................................................................... 65	
  
Figures	
  
Figure	
  1:	
  Mean	
  Values	
  of	
  Factors	
  for	
  Pursuing	
  Studies	
  Away	
  From	
  Home	
  Country ............................................. 39	
  
Figure	
  2:	
  Relative	
  importance	
  of	
  factors	
  for	
  pursuing	
  studies	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  country .................................. 40	
  
Figure	
  3:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  pursuing	
  employment	
  abroad	
  –	
  students	
  currently	
  studying	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  
country .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42	
  
Figure	
  4:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  pursuing	
  employment	
  abroad	
  –	
  students	
  currently	
  studying	
  in	
  home	
  country ..... 43	
  
Figure	
  5:	
  Mean	
  values	
  of	
  professional	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad.................................. 45	
  
Figure	
  6:	
  Professional	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad.................................................................. 46	
  
Figure	
  7:	
  Mean	
  values	
  of	
  lifestyle	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad ........................................... 50	
  
Figure	
  8:	
  Lifestyle	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad.......................................................................... 51	
  
Figure	
  9:	
  Traditional	
  Industries ................................................................................................................................................... 60	
  
Figure	
  10:	
  Non-­‐Traditional	
  Industries ...................................................................................................................................... 61	
  
Figure	
  11:	
  Response	
  on	
  Importance	
  of	
  Recruitment	
  Methods ....................................................................................... 64	
  
Figure	
  12:	
  Importance	
  of	
  Retention	
  Strategies...................................................................................................................... 66	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                6	
  
                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




Prologue	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                7	
  
                                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  


Executive	
  Summary	
  
The groundwork for the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Fletcher) study of the mobility of highly
skilled workers began in June 2009. The recession that hit the United States (U.S.) in late 2008 was still
looming large. Companies and employees alike were unsure about the future of their businesses and the
viability of domestic labor markets.

While the economy appeared to be in peril, sources indicated that the global competition for talent remained
intense. Technological advancements, foreign investment, and political shifts had created a global job market
that was both dynamic and diffuse. Manufacturing and labor-intensive jobs continued to move towards the
developing world where costs are lower. In response to this shifting business environment, multinational
enterprises continued to spread out, creating a footprint of research and development (R&D) facilities and
manufacturing sites throughout the world.

This study, executed by Fletcher’s Hitachi Center for Technology and International Affairs, analyzes the impact
of specific factors on graduate engineering students’ willingness to migrate for work after graduation. It is
intended to sit at the intersection between statistical data and anecdotal evidence, analyzing how young
engineers themselves feel about the global competition for talent.

Factors analyzed include lifestyle choices, employment benefits, immigration policies, and transferability of
skills. A second, smaller portion of the study was dedicated to surveying companies in the engineering and
technology sectors regarding employment and retention strategies for foreign labor. The purpose of the study
was to analyze individual motivating factors for migration, and to learn ways that both companies and countries
can keep their competitive edge in the competition for global talent.

We found that the top choice countries that students listed conformed to countries or regions that had been
identified in the literature review as having targeted immigration policies for highly skilled workers (i.e. the
U.S., European Union, Canada and Australia). The study also found that almost all respondents felt that their
engineering skills would be transferable abroad, and 57.9% of students were very or somewhat likely to still
pursue employment in the foreign country even if they knew that it would be difficult to obtain a green card or
permanent visa. Research infrastructure and resources, quality of school systems, access to leisure activities,
cultural and political attributes and regional reputation ranked as the top lifestyle factors for why graduates
sought employment abroad. Professional factors in the decision included room for innovation, employer
openness to new ideas, and the opportunity for higher earning power.

Company surveys of eighteen U.S. companies indicate that the recession may have had contrasting effects on
hiring practices. On one hand, there are potentially more domestic candidates for positions; on the other hand
the overall slowdown in hiring has left a surplus of H-1B visas, making it potentially easier to hire skilled
foreign workers. Companies demonstrated that they used a variety of recruiting methods. Notably, many
companies indicated in the open response sections that they were willing to amend hiring practices on a case-
by-case basis.




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                8	
  
                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  




	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




Section	
  1:	
  Literature	
  Review	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                9	
  
                                                                                                                                             The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                             160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  

Background	
  	
  
We conducted an extensive literature review of the available sources regarding relevant trends in international
migration. This section summarizes the relevant findings of the review, offering insights into the broader trends
in international migration. AnnaLee Saxenian points out that foreign-born engineers have started thousands of
businesses in the U.S. They contribute to the economy, create jobs, lead innovation, and encourage global
business integration.1 In order to attract the best talent, it is important to understand the modes and motivations
of migration on both a logistical and individual level. Our goal was to find out what is already known about
these motivations.

The literature review identified three distinct levels of influence in a person’s decision to migrate:
individual factors, corporate behavior, and government policies.

Extensive prior research exists regarding the various “push” and “pull” factors that allow countries and
companies to attract top talent. A 2009 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
report concluded that there is a complex set of economic, demographic, social and political factors that will
determine and shape the future of global migration. The same study found that global competition for top talent
and skilled individuals is likely to intensify in the future. 2 Although statistical information is available from
educational bureaus, census information, and various other sources, we found that there was a dearth of micro-
level statistical evidence collected from the highly skilled workers themselves.	
  	
  	
  	
  

Who	
  are	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled	
  mobile	
  workers?	
  
As society becomes increasingly dependent on technological innovations, the science and technology workforce
will continue to be impetuses for economic growth and national security.3 In a 2003 report, the National
Science Board identified the key players in this section of the workforce as “skilled practitioners with two- and
four-year degrees and beyond, researchers and educators with advanced degrees, and the precollege teachers of
mathematics and science.”4

The OECD defines skilled labor as “migrants with tertiary education.”5 This metric was also used for Docquier
and Marfoulk’s 2000 study regarding the mobility of highly skilled workers.6

We honed these definitions to the needs of the project. For the purposes of this research, we formulated the
following definition:	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
1Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee.	
  “How	
  High	
  Skill	
  Immigration	
  Makes	
  Everyone	
  Better	
  Off.”	
  The	
  Brookings	
  Review,	
  Vol.	
  20,	
  No.	
  1	
  (Winter,	
  

       2002),	
  pp.	
  28-­‐31.	
  
2	
  OECD,	
  “The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent:	
  Mobility	
  of	
  the	
  Highly	
  Skilled.”	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD,	
  July	
  2008.	
  
3	
  National	
  Science	
  Board,	
  "The	
  Science	
  and	
  Engineering	
  Workforce:	
  Realizing	
  America's	
  Potential,"	
  August	
  2003,	
  pp.	
  7.	
  
4	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
5	
  OECD,	
  “The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent:	
  Mobility	
  of	
  the	
  Highly	
  Skilled.”	
  Organization	
  for	
  Economic	
  Cooperation	
  and	
  

       Development.	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD,	
  July	
  2008.	
  
6	
  Docquier,	
  Frederic	
  and	
  Abdeslam	
  Marfoulk.	
  “Measuring	
  the	
  international	
  mobility	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  (1990-­‐2000).”	
  	
  World	
  

       Bank	
  Policy	
  Research	
  Working	
  Paper	
  Series,	
  No.	
  WPS	
  3381.	
  Available	
  from	
  http://www.econ.worldbank.org.	
  
	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                    10	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  	
  	
  
Highly Skilled Mobile Worker (HSMW): one with tertiary education, trained in an engineering or
technology-related discipline, and with the ability to migrate in order to utilize his/her expertise for work
purposes.

In addition to the sources listed above, studies led by Professor Vivek Wadhwa of Duke University indicated
that the vast majority of immigrant entrepreneurs to the U.S. who founded companies had Master’s and PhD.
degrees in math and science related fields.” The same research also found that the majority of these individuals
came to the U.S. as students and had stayed after graduation.7

It is important to note that a range of definitions has been used in the literature in connection with highly skilled
workers. Richard Florida includes a wide variety of occupations (e.g. scientists, engineers, educators, artists,
etc.) all of which engage in complex problem solving and independent thinking during the execution of their job
duties. The OECD takes a more simplified approach, defining highly skilled workers simply as those with
tertiary education. AnnaLee Saxenian, at the University of California, focuses on highly skilled workers who
are (1) originally from developing countries; (2) stay in developed countries after university graduation from
either undergraduate or graduate programs to start professional careers; (3) often receive support from
immigrant associations or alumni associations; and (4) establish an international network when they return to
their home country. She terms the resulting phenomenon as ‘brain circulation’.8	
  

Overview:	
  What	
  motivates	
  highly	
  skilled	
  workers?	
  
The research team looked at certain restrictions tied to immigration policies for skilled labor. This included
whether or not a spouse was permitted to work, the tax incentives, the duration of visa validity, and the ability
to acquire citizenship in the target country. These factors were integrated into the survey questions, with
participants asked to rank the importance of each factor.

Chiswick and Taengnoi used U.S. 2000 Census data to explain the relations between proficiency in English and
occupations that migrants choose. They found that lack of familiarity with English was a reason why
immigrants pursued careers in technical, less communication-intensive sectors. As a result, immigrants from
Eastern Europe, China, Indochina, South Asia, other Asia, and the Middle East are likely to be in computer and
engineering-related fields.9

A 2009 study at Duke University by Vivek Wadhwa and AnnaLee Saxenian indicated that, while early
hypotheses speculated that cumbersome visa administration processes and restrictive immigration policies
would cause immigrants to return home, the most significant factors in the decision to return home were career
opportunities, family ties, and quality of life.10 Immigrants surveyed were relatively young, with average ages

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
7	
  Wadhwa,	
  Vivek,	
  et	
  al.	
  "Where	
  the	
  engineers	
  are:	
  to	
  guide	
  education	
  policy	
  and	
  maintain	
  its	
  innovation	
  leadership,	
  the	
  United	
  

   States	
  must	
  acquire	
  an	
  accurate	
  understanding	
  of	
  the	
  quantity	
  and	
  quality	
  of	
  engineering	
  graduates	
  in	
  India	
  and	
  China."	
  
   Issues	
  in	
  Science	
  and	
  Technology	
  23.3	
  (2007):	
  Available	
  online	
  from	
  Academic	
  OneFile.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  Web.	
  12	
  Jan.	
  2010,	
  pp.	
  7.	
  	
  
8	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee	
  “The	
  New	
  Argonauts:	
  Regional	
  Advantage	
  in	
  a	
  Global	
  Economy.”	
  Cambridge,	
  Mass.:	
  Harvard	
  University	
  

   Press,	
  2006.	
  
9	
  Chiswick,	
  Barry	
  R.,	
  and	
  Sarinda	
  Taengnoi.	
  “Occupational	
  Choice	
  of	
  High	
  Skilled	
  Immigrants	
  in	
  the	
  United	
  States.”	
  
   International	
  Migration	
  45,	
  no.	
  5	
  (2007):	
  3-­‐34.	
  
10	
  Ibid,	
  2.	
  	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


between 30 and 33 years old, and predominantly male. Many of them held either master’s or PhD degrees.
Drawbacks to living in the U.S. included language barriers, missing family and friends at home, difficulty with
cultural assimilation, care of parents and children, and (less so) visa and employment issues.11

Koser and Salt noted four modes of skilled migration:
    Staff movement within internal labor markets;
    Corporate staff moving from more peripheral location for training purposes;
    Self-employed, entrepreneurial migration;
    Movement within newly evolving indigenous transnational companies with ownership based in newly
       industrializing state.12

Because our project focused on the future intentions of graduate students in engineering, it was necessary to
look at statistics regarding the presence of foreign students in graduate engineering programs. According to data
from the National Science Foundation (NSF), in 2005 42% of science and engineering doctorates from U.K.
universities were awarded to foreign-born students. Correspondingly, 41% of science and engineering
doctorates (excluding math and health field) from U.S. universities were awarded to foreign-born students. In
both countries, foreign students accounted for more than 60% of the doctorates awarded in engineering.
Foreign students account for about 10% of science and engineering doctorate recipients in Japan and 25% in
Germany.13 Interestingly, according to OECD data, 61% of foreign students awarded doctorates in 1998 were
still in the U.S. in 2003.14

Baruch et al argue that the most influential factors in a student’s decision to remain or return are: i) perception
of the labor market in the host country; ii) the student’s perception of his/her adjustment to the host country; and
iii) the strength of family ties.15

Push	
  and	
  Pull	
  Factors	
  
Economic	
  Drivers	
  

While there are more obvious economic reasons, such as higher salaries or lower living costs, why a highly
skilled worker may choose a certain location there are also more subtle economic reasons. Canada, for instance,
is concerned that higher taxes will penalize highly skilled workers who are only there on a temporary basis.16

Research funding is an important economic factor in attracting the best highly skilled workers. A 2007 research
study at Duke University stated that if the U.S. wanted to attract the best talent it needed to significantly


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
11	
  Ibid,	
  3.	
  
12	
  Koser,	
  K.,	
  and	
  J.	
  Salt.	
  “The	
  geography	
  of	
  highly	
  skilled	
  international	
  migration.”	
  International	
  Journal	
  of	
  Population	
  

             Geography	
  3,	
  no.	
  4	
  (1997),	
  p.	
  289-­‐290.	
  
13	
  National	
  Science	
  Foundation,	
  Science	
  and	
  Engineering	
  Indicators	
  2008,	
  p.43.	
  
14	
  Cited	
  in	
  OECD,	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent,	
  2008,	
  p.96.	
  
15	
  Baruch,	
  Y.,	
  P.Budhwar	
  and	
  N.	
  Khatri	
  (2007),	
  “Brain	
  drain:	
  Inclination	
  to	
  stay	
  abroad	
  after	
  studies”,	
  Journal	
  of	
  World	
  Business,	
  

             42,	
  pp.	
  99-­‐112.	
  Cited	
  in	
  OECD,	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent,	
  2008,	
  p.95.	
  
16	
  “International	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers:	
  A	
  Synthesis	
  of	
  key	
  Findings	
  and	
  Policy	
  Implications.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Public	
  

             Works	
  and	
  Government	
  Services	
  Canada,	
  April	
  2008	
  (pp.	
  1)	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


increase research funding, supporting ‘Sputnik-like’ programs to develop alternative fuels, reduce global
warming, and treat health concerns. 17

Lifestyle	
  Incentives	
  

Central to Richard Florida’s writings about the so-called ‘creative class’ is the idea that people will relocate not
only to where the jobs are, but to places where they want to live. He points to specific cities that have been
popular for creative people – London, San Francisco, and Greenwich Village.18 Florida reports that through his
focus groups, he has found that lifestyle is frequently prioritized over employment opportunities when people
are choosing where to live.19 Factors included in making lifestyle choices include: proximity of wildlife,
nightlife, diversity, community, identity and vibe.

Surveys of the “best cities to live in” support the notion that people gravitate towards places not only with good
amenities, recreation and schools, but also economic stability, quality health care, and low unemployment. A
recent study by Forbes, for example, used a ranking system with a wide array of criteria, including political and
social stability, law enforcement, restrictions or censorship of personal freedoms, health care, disease rates,
schools, recreation, theatres, sports, access to grocery stores, and cost of housing, as well as climate and
susceptibility to natural disasters.20 The Economist and Mercer both used slightly narrower, but similar criteria.

In addition to the above factors, it is becoming clear that people no longer need to be tied to one specific place –
they can move and shape their own identity, community and friends. Through the review of other sources, it
seems that this is not a universal principle. Florida’s idea that people can shape their own identity may be
applicable for an American in his or her 20’s who moves from Tennessee to California, looking for a more
liberal culture and oceanfront view. It may not, however, apply to Indian or Chinese highly skilled workers
who immigrate to the U.S. to find employment, but find that they miss the ties of family and friends back home
in India.

Visa	
  and	
  Administrative	
  Policies	
  

Visa and administrative immigration policies of select countries are summarized in the country-specific portion
of the literature review.

In a 2009 study performed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and Duke University, 76% of the Indian and
Chinese workers who had returned to their home country indicated that considerations regarding their visa did
not contribute to their decision to return home.21

Visa quotas, such as the annual limit on H-1B visas for skilled workers in the U.S., can limit the number of
recent graduates who are able to stay in the U.S., as well as the number of skilled workers who may come from
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
17	
  Vivek	
  Wadhwa	
  et	
  al.	
  “Where	
  the	
  Engineers	
  Are.”	
  Issues	
  in	
  Science	
  and	
  Technology,	
  Duke	
  University,	
  Spring	
  2007.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  

             June	
  10,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  at	
  http://ssrn.com/abstract-­‐1015843.	
  
18	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class”	
  (New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2004),	
  7.	
  	
  
19	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class”	
  (New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2004),	
  224.	
  
20	
  Matt	
  Woolsey.	
  “World’s	
  20	
  Best	
  Places	
  to	
  Live.”	
  Forbes	
  Magazine,	
  April	
  28,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  30,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  online	
  

             at	
  http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/27/cities-­‐best-­‐live-­‐lifestyle-­‐real-­‐estate-­‐best-­‐places-­‐to-­‐live.html	
  
21	
  Wadhwa	
  et	
  al.,	
  “America’s	
  Loss	
  is	
  the	
  World’s	
  Gain,”	
  2.	
  	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


abroad. The H-1B visa classification allocates 65,000 visa petitions every fiscal year with a further 20,000 visa
petitions available for individuals who have earned at least a Master’s degree from a U.S. educational
institution.22 To attract and retain highly skilled workers from abroad, the U.S. high-tech industry spends
hundreds of millions of dollars a year on lobbying, administrative and legal fees, and overseas offices.23

Professional	
  Opportunities	
  

        “Ideas flow more freely, are honed more sharply, and can be put into practice more quickly when large
      numbers of innovators, implementers, and financial backers are in constant contact with one another, both
     in and out of the office…They and their companies cluster because of the powerful productivity advantages,
             economies of scale and knowledge spillover such density brings.”24 – Richard Florida, 2005.

The quote above by Richard Florida demonstrates one take on the mobility of highly skilled workers – the
viewpoint that location is everything. He argues that fundamentally creative people need to work in places with
‘innovative ecosystems’ where their ideas can be absorbed, incubated and developed.25

Evidence that highly skilled mobile workers will relocate to pursue professional opportunities is provided by the
phenomenon of return migration – foreign skilled workers who choose to return to their home countries after
living and working abroad. According to AnnaLee Saxenian’s book “The New Argonauts,” strong growth rates
and an increasing supply of skilled labor in India and China are driving the return migration of highly skilled
workers. In light of the tech-bubble bursting in the late 1990s, many qualified highly skilled workers from India
and China had incentives to return to their home countries where there was a larger pool of professional
opportunities. In addition, these workers could apply the institutional skills and know-how that they learned in
Silicon Valley in conjunction with their native language and cultural skills to succeed in foreign economies.26

There is also recent statistical evidence to support the theory that highly skilled workers will migrate for better
professional opportunities. Results from the 2009 study at U.C. Berkeley and Duke University entitled
‘America’s Loss is the World’s Gain’ found that 86.8% of Chinese returnees and 79.0% of Indian returnees
surveyed cited growing demand for their skills as a reason for returning to their home countries. Furthermore,
87.3% of Chinese returnees and 62.3% of Indian returnees thought that career opportunities in their home
country were better than in the U.S.27

Lifestyle incentives can also be tied to professional opportunities. Data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics from 1997 demonstrated that many creative workers enjoy flexible schedules. This includes 54.6% of
engineers, 60.2% of natural scientists, and 54.6% of university professors.28 Richard Florida argues that these


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
22http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.eb1d4c2a3e5b9ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=e7d696cfcd6ff110V

             gnVCM1000004718190aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e7d696cfcd6ff110VgnVCM1000004718190aRCRD	
  
23	
  Matt	
  Richtel.	
  “Google’s	
  Immigration	
  Fixer”	
  The	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
  April	
  13,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  29,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  at	
  

             www.nytimes.com.	
  
24	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  World	
  is	
  Spiky.”	
  The	
  Atlantic	
  Monthly,	
  pp.	
  48	
  –	
  51,	
  October	
  2005.	
  
25	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
26	
  AnnaLee	
  Saxenian.	
  The	
  New	
  Argonauts,	
  Cambridge,	
  MA:	
  Harvard	
  University	
  Press,	
  2006,	
  pp.	
  86.	
  	
  
27	
  Wadhwa	
  et	
  al.,	
  “America’s	
  Loss	
  is	
  the	
  World’s	
  Gain,”	
  3.	
  	
  
28	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class.”	
  New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2004,	
  121.	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14	
  
                                                                                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


flexible schedules are the result of needing space to create and be productive, as well as the changing needs of
households with two working parents.29

OECD	
  Study	
  on	
  the	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers	
  (2008)	
  
In 2008, the OECD published a paper analyzing the migration trends of human resources in science and
technology (HRST) within the OECD region. This study focuses on the motivations of highly skilled mobile
workers to relocate. Factors cited in the OECD study include: (1) opportunities for better pay and career
advancement and access to better research funding; (2) opportunities to work with ‘star’ researchers; (3)
opportunities to work at higher quality research facilities; (4) greater freedom to discuss and debate; and (5)
family and personal ties to a location.30

The OECD, in collaboration with Eurostat and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, has developed a system for analyzing the careers and mobility
of workers holding PhD.’s. The study is entitled “The Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) project.”31

In addition to other factors, the OECD concludes that networks may also influence a highly skilled worker’s
choice to relocate. Beyond the social advantages to having a local community, the OECD study found that the
existence of a diaspora could enhance the transfer of knowledge between the highly skilled worker community
and their home country, and play a vital role in developing science and technology capacity. More specifically,
the study found that “social and other links increase the probability that knowledge will continue to flow back
even after individuals move back or move away.”32

Regarding government policies, the OECD publication concluded that while government programs such as
research funding and special immigration benefits may encourage the mobility of skilled workers, there is little
hard data to substantiate this hypothesis. The OECD gathered a limited number of survey results, which
indicated that the correlation between government programs and government goals for innovation in science
and technology remained unclear.33

Skills	
  and	
  graphic	
  distribution	
  of	
  highly	
  skilled	
  mobile	
  workers	
  
What is the size of the HSMW pool, and what do we know about them? Docquier and Marfouk note that the
number of working age individuals born in one country and living in another increased from 42 million in 1990
to 59 million in 2000. Among them, those with tertiary education accounted for 29.8% in 1990 and 34.6% in
2000. It is calculated that in 2000 there were about 20.4 million highly skilled migrants worldwide.34
Presumably the upward trend of skilled migration continued to date, with increasingly larger percentages of
students reaching tertiary levels in emerging economies such as China and India. Although these countries send
only a small percentage of skilled workers abroad, the student body is increasing rapidly. In 2002, college
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
29	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class.”	
  New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2004,	
  121.	
  
30	
  “The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent:	
  Mobility	
  of	
  the	
  Highly	
  Skilled.”	
  Organization	
  for	
  Economic	
  Cooperation	
  and	
  

     Development.	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD	
  Publishing,	
  July	
  2008,	
  9.	
  Available	
  at	
  http://www.oecd.org/sti/stpolicy/talent.	
  	
  
31	
  Ibid.
              	
  
32	
  	
  Ibid.,	
  1.	
  
33	
  Ibid,	
  153.	
  
34	
  Docquier	
  and	
  Marfouk	
  (2004),	
  p.167-­‐168.	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                            15	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


student enrolment in China and India was around 15.19 million and 11.3 million, respectively versus 9.3 million
and 9.8 million in 2000.35

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table	
  1:	
  Top-­30	
  Skilled	
  Emigration	
  Countries,	
  2000	
  

                                                                                                                             Country	
                                                                                             Emigration	
          Country	
                             Emigration	
  
                                                                                                                             UK	
                                1,441,307	
                                                                             Jamaica	
                         291,166	
  
                                                                                                                             Philippines	
                       1,126,260	
                                                                             Hong	
  Kong	
                    290,482	
  
                                                                                                                             India	
                             1,037,626	
                                                                             Russia	
                          289,090	
  
                                                                                                                             Mexico	
                                  922,964	
                                                                         Taiwan	
                          275,251	
  
                                                                                                                             Germany	
                                 848,414	
                                                                         Japan	
                           268,925	
  
                                                                                                                             China	
                                   816,824	
                                                                         Netherlands	
                     256,762	
  
                                                                                                                             Rep	
  of	
  Korea	
                      652,894	
                                                                         Ukraine	
                         246,218	
  
                                                                                                                             Canada	
                                  516,471	
                                                                         Colombia	
                        233,536	
  
                                                                                                                             Vietnam	
                                 506,449	
                                                                         Pakistan	
                        222,372	
  
                                                                                                                             Poland	
                                  449,059	
                                                                         Ireland	
                         209,156	
  
                                                                                                                             USA	
                                     431,330	
                                                                         Romania	
                         176,393	
  
                                                                                                                             Italy	
                                   408,287	
                                                                         Turkey	
                          174,043	
  
                                                                                                                             Cuba	
                                    332,673	
                                                                         Brazil	
                          168,308	
  
                                                                                                                             France	
                                  312,494	
                                                                         South	
  Africa	
                 168,083	
  
                                                                                                                             Iran	
                                    308,754	
                                                                         Peru	
                            163,750	
  
                                                                                                                             Total	
  of	
  top	
  30	
  countries	
                                                                                                                    13,545,341	
  
                                                                                                                             Source:	
  Docquier	
  and	
  Marfouk	
  (2004),	
  p.175-­‐176.	
                                                                                         	
  

Where are these skilled migrants coming from? As shown in Table 1, the United Kingdom has the largest stock
of skilled emigrants, followed by the Philippines, India, Mexico, and so on. In relative terms, on the other hand,
small countries in the Caribbean are among the most heavily affected by skilled emigration. Such countries as
Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago have more than 40% of their skilled labor abroad. As OECD states:
“the brain drain hits mainly small African and Caribbean countries. There is no generalized brain drain from
developing countries to the OECD. The emigration rate of people holding a tertiary degree is generally low (i.e.
less than few percentage points) in most large countries such as Brazil, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and China.
However, there are exceptions: a number of smaller countries –some of which are islands such as Jamaica,
Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Mauritius and Fiji– have more than 40% of their highly-skilled population resident
abroad, and sometimes as much as 80%.”36

Major	
  destinations	
  of	
  skilled	
  migrants	
  
In 2000, out of 20.4 million tertiary-educated migrants, about 50% (11.4 million) were living in the U.S.
Canada follows with 2.4 million, Australia with 1.5 million, the U.K. with 1.2 million, and so on. These four
countries collectively account for about 75% of skilled migrants.37 The majority of the movement is “South-

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
35	
  UNESCO	
  Institute	
  for	
  Statistics,	
  “Global	
  Rankings	
  2008.”	
  Available	
  at	
  http://stats.uis.unesco.org	
  (accessed	
  2009/07/20).	
  	
  
36	
  OECD.	
  A	
  Profile	
  of	
  Immigrant	
  Populations	
  in	
  the	
  21st	
  Century:	
  Data	
  from	
  OECD	
  Countries.	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD,	
  2008.	
  
37	
  Ibid,	
  p.175.




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   16	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


North”; from 1990 to 2000, in net terms, 5 million tertiary-educated adults moved from less developed to more
developed countries, while 2 million moved between more developed countries.38

Engineering	
  Education:	
  A	
  look	
  at	
  India,	
  China	
  and	
  Japan	
  
According to Wadhwa et al, the word “engineer” does not translate well in Chinese, and may have many
different definitions. Statistics reported from Chinese sources included short-term degrees (2-3 years),
independent of academic requirements. They also reported that any profession with the word ‘engineer’ in the
title may have been included in Chinese statistics, which may have lumped together technicians, mechanics,
shipbuilders, etc.39

Wadhwa reports that there have been a series of government reforms in China, beginning in 1999 that aimed to
bring science and engineering programs to the masses and to lower engineering salaries.40 While enrollment
has increased by 140% in 5 years, China has reduced the overall number of engineering programs, leaving those
remaining overcrowded and struggling to maintain quality. From 1999 to 2004, the number of technical schools
reported fell from 4,098 to 2,884.41 As a result, many graduating engineers struggle to find work. Companies
have high demand for engineers from China’s few, elite universities, but are uninterested in hiring the masses of
engineers being produced by other institutions.42

India has both private and public higher education institutions. Most renowned are the Indian Institutes of
Technology. In 2004, India had 974 private engineering colleges, and 291 public and government institutions.
75 % of companies surveyed by Wadhwa indicated that they felt India had an adequate to large supply of well-
qualified entry-level engineers.43

Japan awarded 349,015 first university degrees in science and engineering and 97,931 degrees in engineering in
2005, according to the statistics shown in NSF’s Science and Engineering Indicators 2008.44

According to the survey conducted by Keidanren, 73% of those who are recruited into engineering positions in
major Japanese companies had Master’s degrees, while only 3% had PhDs.45

One of the most serious problems that Japan faces in science and engineering education is the mismatch
between PhD holders and employers. Graduates from Japanese PhD programs in science and engineering are
much less likely to be employed in the private sector than PhD graduates in the U.S. Keidanren notes that

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
38	
  OECD,	
  “Trends	
  in	
  International	
  Migration	
  Flows	
  and	
  Stocks	
  1975-­‐2005,”	
  OECD	
  internal	
  working	
  document.	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  

             OECD,	
  May	
  31,	
  2008.	
  	
  
39	
  Wadhwa,	
  Vivek	
  et	
  al.	
  “Where	
  the	
  Engineers	
  Are.”	
  Issues	
  in	
  Science	
  and	
  Technology,	
  Duke	
  University,	
  Spring	
  2007.	
  Accessed	
  

             on	
  June	
  10,	
  2009.	
  
40	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
41	
  Ibid.	
  
42	
  Ibid.	
  
43	
  Ibid.	
  
44	
  National	
  Science	
  Foundation,	
  “Science	
  and	
  Engineering	
  Indicators	
  2008.”	
  Available	
  at	
  

             http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08/append/c2/at02-­‐38.xls	
  (accessed	
  2009/07/20).	
  	
  	
  
45	
  Keidanren,	
  “Kigyo	
  ni	
  okeru	
  Hakushi	
  Katei	
  Shuryosha	
  no	
  Jokyo	
  ni	
  Kansuru	
  Anketo	
  Chosa	
  Kekka[Results	
  of	
  Questionnaire	
  on	
  

             PhD	
  holders	
  working	
  for	
  private	
  companies].”	
  February	
  2007.	
  Available	
  at	
  
             http://www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/2007/020/chosa-­‐kekka.pdf	
  (accessed	
  2009/07/19).	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Japan’s programs are stuck in a vicious cycle where high-performing students do not advance into PhDs but
instead find a job after Master’s courses, which then makes companies less inclined toward hiring PhD holders.
Employers say that PhD holders are not attractive candidates, since their performance after recruitment has not
necessarily been higher than that of Master’s holders, and they sometimes lack knowledge on fields outside of
their expertise and lack the ability to communicate effectively.46 As well as recruiting global talents, Japan
needs to seek a way to best utilize domestic talents.

A	
  Comparative	
  Look	
  at	
  National	
  Immigration	
  Policies	
  
Many countries with extensive high tech and industrial sectors are making efforts to focus on attracting
HSMWs. The strategies implemented, as well as the degree of success that nations experience, varies. The
U.S., for example, seems to attract more highly skilled workers on a temporary basis, whereas Australia and
Canada focus on attracting highly skilled workers who have the intention of becoming permanent residents.

With the recent rise in the importance of skilled workers across the globe, countries from the UK to Germany to
Australia have been striving to develop special visa categories and programs to attract the skilled labor that
these countries believe will give them the competitive edge in the 21st century. In this race to attract the best
and brightest, different countries have devised a range of policies to attract the skilled workers. This
development at the country level has received a considerable amount of treatment from academic and migration
specialists across the world.

For the purpose of this study, the research team also looked at certain restrictions tied to immigration policies
for skilled labor. This included whether or not a spouse was able to work, the duration of visa validity, and the
ability to acquire citizenship in the target country. These factors were integrated into the survey questions, with
participants being asked to rank the importance of each factor.

While many nations have recently developed a national labor migration policy, some countries such as
Australia, Canada, Singapore and the U.S. have long led the globe with their innovative immigration and
mobility strategies. Indeed, if one surveys the immigration policies of leading industrial and developing
countries today you will find that countries have quite different perspectives on national immigration policies.
Some nations and regions are playing catch-up while others have set up research centers to work on identifying
shortcomings in their longstanding and very successful policies towards attracting highly skilled workers.47

Scholarship on country level immigration policies can be found through various publications of the OECD, as
well as from migration think tanks and academic experts. First hand information is also readily available from
the web sites of each country’s immigration service.




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
46	
  Keidanren,	
  “Daigakuin	
  Hakushikatei	
  no	
  Genjo	
  to	
  Kadai	
  (Chukan	
  Hokoku)[The	
  present	
  state	
  and	
  the	
  issues	
  of	
  PhD	
  programs,	
  

     interim	
  report].”	
  January	
  2007.	
  Available	
  at	
  http://www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/2007/020/chukan-­‐hokoku.pdf	
  
     (accessed	
  2009/07/19).	
  
47	
  See	
  http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/eas-­‐aes.nsf/eng/h_ra01877.html	
  for	
  more	
  information	
  on	
  Canada’s	
  Skills	
  Research	
  

     Initiative	
  which	
  analyzes	
  problems	
  surrounding	
  their	
  policies	
  concerning	
  skilled	
  workers.	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



                                                                            	
  Canada	
  
Canada has had some kind of selective immigration policy dating back to World War II. In the 1990s,
Canadian immigration authorities developed “the human capital model,” whereby skilled workers are selected
for permanent residence based on a point system that rates their education, work experience, knowledge of
English and/or French and other criteria that make them economically attractive.48 The system is intended to
attract well-trained, flexible individuals who have practical work experience. The Canadian points system was
recalculated in 1993 in order to allocate more points for education and specifically to more heavily weight post-
secondary education.

In 2002, Canada revised the human capital model yet again. In the revised system, a total of 200 points is
allocated across six categories as follows: education (25 points), ability in English/French (24 points), work
experience (21 points), age (10 points), arranged employment in Canada (10 points) and adaptability (10
points). Individuals who score higher than 67 points are eligible for permanent residence in the independent
admissions category. Under Canada’s points system half of the possible 100 points can be accumulated through
education and language while work experience and a job offer account for less than a third of the possible
points.49

Eligibility is further contingent on meeting one of the following qualifications: (1) having an offer of arranged
employment; (2) being a foreign national who has been living in Canada legally for one year as a student or
temporary foreign worker; or (3) being a skilled worker with at least one year of experience in one of the
qualifying occupations. Qualifying occupations include financial managers, petroleum engineers and university
professors.50 Applying for permanent residence also requires that the applicant apply to a specific province.
Once the province has nominated a foreign national, they must make a separate application to Citizenship and
Immigration Canada (CIC).51

Immigration from the U.S. to Canada on a temporary basis is governed by NAFTA rules, which regulates cross-
border movement of professionals, intra-company transferees, and traders/investors.52 Mobility of skilled
workers between the U.S. and Canada is a particularly valuable asset to Canada’s skilled workforce.

Canadian policy towards skilled workers has been slow to change over the last decade. The number of skilled
workers arriving in Canada in 2008 was no higher than it was in 1997, around 250,000 skilled workers per



	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
48	
  “What	
  does	
  ‘federal	
  skilled	
  worker’	
  mean?”	
  Citizenship	
  and	
  Immigration	
  Canada.	
  Available	
  from	
  

             http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/faq/immigrate/skilled/skilled-­‐faq01.asp	
  .	
  Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  8,	
  2009.	
  
49	
  The	
  Battle	
  for	
  the	
  Brains	
  Why	
  immigration	
  policy	
  is	
  not	
  enough	
  to	
  attract	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled	
  March	
  2009,	
  The	
  German	
  

             Marshall	
  Fund.	
  
50	
  A	
  complete	
  list	
  of	
  qualifying	
  occupations	
  can	
  be	
  found	
  at	
  http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/apply-­‐who-­‐

             instructions.asp.	
  
51	
  “Skilled	
  Workers/PNP:	
  Overview,”	
  Green	
  and	
  Spiegal	
  Barristers	
  and	
  Solicitors.	
  Available	
  at	
  

             http://www.gands.com/SkilledWorkers.aspx.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  8,	
  2009.	
  
52	
  “International	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers:	
  A	
  Synthesis	
  of	
  key	
  Findings	
  and	
  Policy	
  Implications.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Public	
  

             Works	
  and	
  Government	
  Services	
  Canada,	
  April	
  2008	
  (pp.	
  14)	
  



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


year.53 In addition, in 2008 there was a backlog of 900,000 immigration applications at Canadian embassies
worldwide.54

A recent review of Canadian immigration policy by the government determined that Canada was doing fairly
well in attracting highly skilled permanent immigrants, but that these immigrants have not always experienced
economic success in Canada.55 A 2006 study found that recent immigrants to Canada with university degrees
had a 72% chance of being overqualified for their jobs, compared with 36% of Canadian-born university
graduates. Reasons cited included institutional and language barriers, difficulty in applying foreign credentials
and experience, and other factors, including discrimination.56 Despite these disadvantages, the study shows that
the high tech sector has a better track record in recognizing foreign credentials and experience. It concludes
that more than 25% of workers employed in the high tech sector were immigrants, compared to the 20%
average for all sectors in Canada.57

Limits to the Canadian immigration system include complicated and bureaucratic visa issuance procedures,
limits on spousal employment, and cumbersome temporary admissions procedures. There is also a ‘job
validation requirement’ mandating that employers provide evidence that no Canadians were overlooked in the
job search process.58 This highlights concerns presented within Canada that the Canadian system is not
dynamic enough to provide skilled workers for dynamic and cutting edge industries.

                                                                           	
  Australia	
  
Australia has three categories of admission for immigrants: family, humanitarian and, beginning in the early
1970s, independent, which now includes the highly skilled migrant category. Australia initially targeted highly
skilled workers during the 1990’s using a human capital model similar to Canada, but that was abandoned in
1996 due to high rates of unemployment among those immigrants. Australia’s revised immigration program for
highly skilled workers was introduced in 1999 and seeks to attract skilled migrants for permanent immigration.

Australia has chosen to divide skilled migration into four main categories: General Skilled Migration (“GSM”),
Employer Nomination, Business Skills Migration and Distinguished Talent.

GSM comprises the largest group of the four for skilled migration into Australia and within GSM the Skilled
Independent Migrant Visa program sees the majority of applicants.59 Applicants for this program are selected
based on a point system that allocates points based on ten categories including factors such as age, English
language capabilities, skills, work experience, Australian work experience and Australian educational
qualifications, among others. The system allows for a total of 195 points and individuals who surpass 120
points are eligible for permanent residency in Australia. Those that reached 100 points are placed in a pool of


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
53	
  Corcoran,	
  Terence.	
  Open	
  the	
  door	
  on	
  immigration	
  policy	
  reform.	
  National	
  Post	
  (Canada),	
  May	
  13	
  2008.	
  
54	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
55	
  Ibid,	
  2.	
  
56	
  Li,	
  Chris,	
  Ginette	
  Gervais	
  and	
  Aurelie	
  Duval.	
  “The	
  Dynamics	
  of	
  Overqualification:	
  Canada’s	
  Underemployed	
  University	
  

             Graduates.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Minister	
  of	
  Industry	
  Canada,	
  2006.	
  	
  
57	
  “International	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers,”	
  14.	
  	
  
58	
  Ibid,	
  15.	
  
59	
  “Visas,	
  Immigration	
  and	
  Refugees,”	
  Available	
  at	
  http://www.immi.gov.au/,	
  Accessed	
  on	
  July	
  2,	
  2009.	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


applicants given two years to move above the 120 points threshold due to any changes in employer sponsorship
or occupational demand.60

A significant portion of the points system that Australia uses to attract highly skilled workers is the 60 points
allocated for the individual’s specialized set of skills. Australia has developed a highly specific approach that is
used by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) to identify occupations and skill sets
that are heavily desired. DIMA works to create a list of desired occupations and skills, published in the “Skilled
Occupation List” and the “Employer Nomination Scheme Occupation List.” These lists get constantly updated
using input from employers and unions in order to accurately target labor market needs by sector and skill set.61

While the three other migration categories do not see nearly as many applicants as GSM, the Employer
Nomination channel does allow for employers in Australia to nominate overseas workers for permanent
residence in Australia. This extensive involvement by business and labor in developing the points system is
what has made Australia known for its “neo-corporatist” model. The extensive involvement of the private sector
allows the country to determine which immigrants are currently needed by the Australian economy.	
  	
  

                                                                           	
  The	
  European	
  Union	
  
The debate within the European Union (EU) about highly skilled mobile workers began in earnest in February
2000 when then Chancellor Gerhard Schroder announced that Germany should recruit 20,000 foreign IT
specialists on three to five year work permits. Schroder was forced to table this particular effort, but the
ensuing debate helped shift the mindset in Germany regarding the kinds of immigrants that Germany needed to
attract to remain competitive.62

In the 1990s, Germany, as well as other countries in the EU, such as France, the Netherlands and the Czech
Republic began to establish new programs aimed at attracting the best highly skilled foreign labor. From
divergent nationally focused efforts during the early 2000s, the EU adopted a common approach to immigration
policy by announcing in October 2007 a “blue card” system that would enable highly skilled foreign workers to
enter and work in the EU. The goal of the blue card system was to promote the EU as a viable, competitive
destination for international highly skilled workers, competing with other progressive systems in Australia, the
U.S. and Canada.

The Blue Card system in no way replaces the distinct immigration policies of the twenty-seven EU member
states. Migrants that qualify under the Blue Card system are still required to meet any national quotas or
policies.63 The EU has defined its target demographic as third country nationals who possess higher educational
qualifications or three years of professional experience. This system is demand-driven, and requires candidates
to have a job offer before applying for the Blue Card program.


	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
60	
  Doomernik,	
  Jeroen,	
  Rey	
  Koslowski	
  and	
  Dietrich	
  Thranhardt,	
  "The	
  Battle	
  for	
  the	
  Brains,	
  Why	
  Immigration	
  Policy	
  is	
  not	
  

             enough	
  to	
  attract	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled,"	
  March	
  2009,	
  The	
  German	
  Marshall	
  Fund.	
  P.9.	
  
61	
  Ibid,	
  10.	
  
62	
  “The	
  Battle	
  for	
  the	
  Brains	
  Why	
  Immigration	
  Policy	
  is	
  not	
  enough	
  to	
  attract	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled,”	
  The	
  German	
  Marshall	
  Fund,	
  

             March	
  2009.	
  
63	
  “The	
  Proposed	
  European	
  Blue	
  Card	
  System	
  Arming	
  for	
  the	
  Global	
  War	
  for	
  Talent,”	
  Elizabeth	
  Collett,	
  Migration	
  Institute,	
  

             European	
  Policy	
  Centre,	
  January	
  7,	
  2008.	
  	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


The Blue Card is valid for two years and is renewable. The system allows for spouses and family members to
join the Blue Card recipient and also provides for access to the labor market for spouses. Additionally, the Blue
Card allows the individual to qualify for long-term residence, and allows for freedom of movement within the
EU.64

                                                                           	
  India	
  
With India’s rise as a large, growing consumer market, many multinational corporations have established
significant presences on the sub-continent. Occasionally, these offices are operated by foreign workers. India’s
immigration system does allow for executives to enter the country to lead the Indian operations of multinational
companies. In addition, an increasing number of Indian nationals who have been living and working abroad are
returning to India.

India has instituted policies focused on smoothing the migration process to India for individuals of Indian
background or former Indian citizens who have renounced their Indian citizenship. Since India does not allow
for dual citizenship this is a relatively common predicament for Indian nationals who have lived and worked
abroad for a considerable amount of time.

The government of India has created two classifications to encourage and allow for the smooth flow of
individuals back and forth between India and other countries. The Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) classification
covers individuals who hold other passports but have ancestors who were Indian; for example, individuals who
were born in the U.S. but whose parents who were born in India. The PIO classification allows qualifying
persons to travel to India visa free and live, study and work there. The classification is valid for 15 years.65

A second classification, known as the Overseas Citizen of India (OCI), is for individuals who have previously
renounced their Indian citizenship to gain citizenship in another country. The OCI designation provides for a
multi-entry, multi-purpose lifelong visa to India. These persons are able to live, work and study in India as long
as they enter the country using the OCI designation. Both the PIO and the OCI classifications require Indian
consular approval for international travel.66

The PIO and OCI classifications have enabled India to make the return migration process easier. With the
highly skilled nature of many of India’s overseas citizens and persons of Indian heritage these two processes
have certainly opened the doors for attracting highly skilled talent back to the subcontinent as its companies and
IT spheres look to expand and strengthen their global competitive positioning.

                                                                           	
  Singapore	
  
Singaporean government planners hope to boost knowledge-based industrial output to 40% of the nation’s GDP
by 2010. For that purpose, attracting foreign talent is vital for Singapore. Foreign workers in the country now
account for more than 20% of the residents, and they are growing nearly twice as fast as the native population.

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
64	
  Ibid,	
  7.	
  
65	
  Consulate	
  General	
  of	
  India,	
  New	
  York,	
  USA,	
  Available	
  at	
  http://www.indiacgny.org/php/showContent.php?linkid=174,	
  

             (accessed	
  on	
  July	
  2,	
  2009).	
  
66	
  Ibid.	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              22	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


As the nation’s leader Lee Kwan Yew once put it: “Without foreign talent, we would have not done as well.
They are the extra megabytes in Singapore’s computer. If we do not top up with foreign talent, we will not
make it into the top league.”67

In an aspiration to become the “Boston of the East,” one notable approach taken by Singapore is its
development of university education programs in cooperation with prestigious universities overseas. Singapore
has established campuses, research laboratories, and joint ventures with foreign universities. They have also
pioneered joint degrees under the “World Class University” (WCU) program, launched by the Singapore
Economic Development Board (EDB) in 1998.68 This program was designed to attract “at least ten top
universities to Singapore within ten years” via a variety of linkage mechanisms (from joint ventures to
autonomous campuses).69 Singapore is overhauling its education system, with a new emphasis on creative,
critical thinking, which is crucial to high-tech industries. The government plans to double the number of
foreign students in the coming years.

Singapore has devised an immigration policy that focuses on attracting skilled migrants by offering skilled
migrants who meet certain criteria an “employment pass” (The term “work permit” was the classification
provided for unskilled laborers). The employment passes consist of “P Passes” and “Q Passes,” into which
migrants are categorized according to their income and qualifications. Singapore also publishes a Strategic
Skills List that indicates the industries and occupational titles that the government of Singapore, in consultation
with private industry, expects to be in demand in the near future.

Singapore has made clear efforts to try and attract the skilled workers that its economy will need in the future.
In addition to temporary work permits, Singapore also allows all of its skilled foreigners to apply for permanent
residency. In addition, Singapore has a special measure for investors to grant permanent residency. Under this
scheme, if you invest $1 million or more in a Singaporean company or property, you are entitled to apply for
permanent residency.70

                                                                           	
  United	
  Kingdom	
  
In February 2008, the U.K. replaced its Highly Skilled Workers Scheme with a new, expanded immigration
system characterized by a five-tiered framework. The Highly Skilled Workers Scheme was re-constituted in the
tier one category with additional categories added for completeness, as seen below.




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
67	
  Cited	
  in	
  Heenan,	
  David	
  A.	
  Flight	
  Capital:	
  The	
  Alarming	
  Exodus	
  of	
  America's	
  Best	
  and	
  Brightest.	
  Mountain	
  View,	
  CA:	
  Davies-­‐

             Black	
  Pub,	
  2005,	
  p.126.	
  
68	
  Olds,	
  K.	
  “Global	
  Assemblage:	
  Singapore,	
  Foreign	
  Universities,	
  and	
  the	
  Construction	
  of	
  a	
  “Global	
  Education	
  Hub”.”	
  World	
  

             Development	
  35,	
  no.	
  6	
  (2007):	
  960.	
  
69	
  Ibid,	
  963.	
  
70http://www.mom.gov.sg/publish/momportal/en/communities/work_pass/employment_pass/about_the_pass.html	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table	
  2:	
  U.K.’s	
  Five-­tiered	
  Immigration	
  System	
  

                                                                            Tier	
                                                                                                                                                      Workers	
  Scheme	
  
                                                                            Tier	
  One	
                                                                                                                                               Highly	
  skilled	
  individuals	
  who	
  contribute	
  to	
  growth/productivity;	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        no	
  job	
  offer	
  required	
  
                                                                            Tier	
  Two	
                                                                                                                                               Skilled	
  workers	
  with	
  a	
  job	
  offer	
  to	
  fill	
  gaps	
  in	
  UK	
  workforce	
  

                                                                            Tier	
  Three	
                                                                                                                                             Low	
  skilled	
  workers	
  needed	
  to	
  fill	
  temporary	
  labor	
  shortages	
  

                                                                            Tier	
  Four	
                                                                                                                                              Students	
  

                                                                            Tier	
  Five	
                                                                                                                                              Youth	
  mobility	
  and	
  temporary	
  workers	
  


The U.K.’s tiered system awards points to applicants and designates categories of admission accordingly. In the
first and second tiers, points are awarded for characteristics such as age, previous/prospective salary and
qualifications. The tier one category is intended to attract the globe’s top talent, and specifically it is meant for
highly skilled workers, investors who are committing a large investment in the U.K., as well as entrepreneurs
and individuals who have completed studies in the U.K. This system provides the U.K. with an objective way
of making decisions about the most qualified immigrants to the U.K.71

                                                                           	
  The	
  United	
  States’	
  Immigration	
  Program:	
  A	
  Case	
  Study	
  
Like other countries, The U.S. has traditionally used employment based temporary visas like a valve that is
loosened and tightened in high and low labor demand conditions respectively.72 One study points out: “The
United States has a demand-driven, employer-led labor market immigration system compared to other major
immigrant-receiving countries, many of which — like Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia — admit a
substantial proportion of their foreign workers through points selection systems which do not require employer
sponsorship.”73

The most common type of work visa, the H-1B, is a temporary work visa for foreign individuals with a
Bachelor’s degree or higher. The H-1B visa classification allocates 65,000 visa petitions every fiscal year with a
further 20,000 visa petitions available for individuals who have earned at least a Master’s degree from a U.S.
educational institution.74

Due to high demand, in 2007 and 2008 the H-1B quota was reached in less than a week. Since the economic
downturn, applications have slowed. For example, at August 14, 2009 only 45,000 cap-subject H-1B petitions
had been filed, and the cap was only reached in late December 2009. In the previous year, over 163,000 H-1B
applications were filed in the first few days of the filing period, beginning April 1st.75

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
71	
  http://www.bia.homeoffice.gov.uk/managingborders/managingmigration/apointsbasedsystem/howitworks	
  
72        	
  http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/MPI-­‐BBCreport-­‐Sept09.pdf	
  Page	
  21	
  
73        	
  http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/Provisional_visas.pdf	
  Page	
  6	
  
74	
  http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.eb1d4c2a3e5b9ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=e7d696cfcd6ff11	
  

             0VgnVCM1000004718190aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e7d696cfcd6ff110VgnVCM1000004718190aRCRD	
  
75	
  See	
  http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/MPI-­‐BBCreport-­‐Sept09.pdf	
  P.	
  59	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   24	
  
                                                                                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Unless an employer initiates the green card process, the H-1B status is valid for a period of three years at a time,
with a maximum length of six years. To sponsor an employee for a green card, the employer must complete
two steps:

            (1) Labor Certification: Consists of a prescribed recruitment process to prove that there is no qualified
                U.S. worker for the position. Applications for labor certification must be approved by the U.S.
                Department of Labor.
            (2) I-140 Petition: The employer must submit a petition to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
                presenting the approved Labor Certification (“There is no qualified U.S. worker…”), and sponsoring
                their foreign employee (“…but we have found a qualified foreign worker.”)
            (3) I-485: Based on the approved I-140, the immigrant may apply for a green card.

There is a “preference system” used to rank foreign nationals for permanent residency. The first preference
category is used for individuals of outstanding ability and managers/executives at multinational firms. The
second preference category is for individuals whose positions require them to have a Master’s degree to perform
the position. The third preference category is for individuals whose positions require them to have a Bachelor’s
degree to successfully perform the duties of the position. The first preference category does not require the
company or the individual to do a test of the labor market in order to determine if a qualified U.S. worker could
be found. The second and third preference categories do require the company to recruit for the position in an
effort to hire a U.S. worker.

A major incentive for highly skilled workers gaining entry to the U.S. labor markets through such a system
comes from the potential to gain permanent residency through an employer based sponsorship system. While
the system does have limitations, immigrants who obtain H-1B status are often sponsored by their employer for
permanent residence.76 The State Department issues a fixed number of “green card numbers” per year. No one
country is allowed to use more than 7% of the allotted numbers. As a result, applicants from India, China,
Mexico and the Philippines are often subject to long waits to receive their green cards.

The H-1B program also offers advantages for employers, who are often able to hire young, qualified workers on
a temporary basis.77 Other common visa programs for skilled workers include: L-1 Visas for inter-company
transferees, TN visas (“Trade National”) for citizens of NAFTA countries, and O-1 visas for immigrants of
extraordinary ability or renown (e.g. Nobel Prize winners). 78

As the U.S. economy struggles, and unemployment rates rise, there has been some debate about the need for
foreign labor. In the last year, Microsoft, for example, has lobbied the U.S. government to increase the number
of H-1B visas available annually, while concurrently laying off over five thousand employees. Senator Charles
Grassley (R-Iowa) has demanded that Microsoft has an ‘imperative’ to ensure that American workers “have
priority in keeping their jobs over foreign workers on visa programs” 79 Senator Grassley, along with Senator
Bernie Sanders (Ind-VT) also led a successful initiative in the U.S. Senate to restrict the ability of banks and
other recipients of the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) to hire workers under the H-1B program. As a
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
76	
  http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/Provisional_visas.pdf	
  (P.	
  7	
  and	
  10)	
  
77	
  http://www.businessworld.in/index.php/Economy/Protectionist-­‐Attitudes.html	
  
78	
  United	
  States	
  Citizenship	
  and	
  Immigration	
  Services,	
  available	
  at	
  http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis	
  (accessed	
  on	
  July	
  2,	
  

   2009).	
  
79http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9128962/Microsoft_to_hire_H_1B_workers_even_as_it_lays_off_some_visa_holde

   rs.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                            25	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


direct result of these restrictions, Bank of America withdrew job offers to foreign MBA students graduating
from U.S. business schools in Summer 2009.80

In recent years, the U.S. has received considerable negative press from certain sectors of the economy,
including such well-known companies as Google and Intel, who have come out in vocal opposition to such
things as the cap on H-1B numbers and current immigration policy.81 While there continues to be a significant
debate about the off-shoring of U.S. jobs and the necessity of foreign skilled labor, many respected voices
maintain that the U.S. is losing its competitive edge as the global war for talent heats up.

Country	
  Level	
  Conclusions	
  
The nations that have been profiled above are only a subgroup of the countries that have been re-evaluating
their national migration and immigration policies in light of the rise in importance in highly skilled mobile
workers. The greater importance that highly skilled mobile workers have taken in recent years can be
demonstrated by the dramatic transformation that has taken place in many European countries between 1996
and 2007. Table 3 compares the attitude on skilled migration between 1996 and 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                 Table	
  3:	
  Changed	
  Attitude	
  on	
  Skilled	
  Migration	
  (1996-­2007)	
  

                                                                                                                                                                  Country	
                                                           1996	
                                   2007	
  
                                                                                                              Czech	
  Republic	
                                                                                                  No	
  Policy	
         Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
                                                                                                              France	
                                                                                                             No	
  Policy	
  	
     Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
                                                                                                              Germany	
                                                                                                            No	
  Policy	
         Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
                                                                                                              Ireland	
                                                                                                            No	
  Policy	
         Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
                                                                                                              UK	
                                                                                                                 No	
  Policy	
         Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
                                                                                                              Netherlands	
                                                                                                        No	
  Policy	
         Raise	
  levels	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  
82

While many nations did not even have a stance on skilled migration in the mid 1990s, today they unanimously
agree that the numbers of skilled migrants need to be higher. The policy developments described above are
indicative of the importance with which nations across the globe view highly skilled mobile workers in shaping
their future economic success. Going forward, a country’s immigration and migration policies will in all
likelihood be an increasingly key component in that nation’s ability to attract and retain the highly skilled
mobile workers to meet economic needs.




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
80	
  Chishti,	
  Muzaffar	
  and	
  Claire	
  Bergeron,	
  Signs	
  of	
  Change	
  in	
  Immigration	
  Enforcement	
  Policies	
  Emerging	
  From	
  DHS,	
  Migration	
  

             Information	
  Source,	
  March	
  16,	
  2009,	
  http://www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=722.	
  	
  	
  
81	
  Alden,	
  Edward,	
  “Wanted:	
  A	
  Smarter	
  Immigration	
  Policy,”	
  The	
  Wall	
  Street	
  Journal	
  online,	
  June	
  9,	
  2009,	
  www.wsj.com,	
  

             Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  10,	
  2009.	
  
82	
  Doomernik,	
  Jeroen,	
  Rey	
  Koslowski	
  and	
  Dietrich	
  Thranhardt,	
  "The	
  Battle	
  for	
  the	
  Brains,	
  Why	
  Immigration	
  Policy	
  is	
  not	
  

             enough	
  to	
  attract	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled,"	
  March	
  2009,	
  The	
  German	
  Marshall	
  Fund.	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         26	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



Corporate	
  Strategies	
  for	
  Attracting	
  and	
  Retaining	
  Top	
  Talent	
  
In a globalized, or “flat,” world companies are no longer restricted by geography when seeking out top talent.
Information on internal hiring processes of firms was difficult to obtain, as many companies prefer to keep this
information confidential. What is clear is that the recent economic downturn has had an impact on how
companies think about hiring foreign workers. In the United States, for example the economic slump has had
two contrasting effects on the applicant pool – on one hand, there are potentially more domestic candidates for
positions; on the other hand the overall slowdown in hiring has left a surplus of H-1B visas, making it
potentially easier to hire skilled foreign workers.

Targeted	
  Hiring	
  Practices	
  towards	
  Foreign	
  Workers	
  
Exploratory interviews were conducted with two top engineering firms in the Boston area (one in marine
engineering, and the other an electrical engineering firm) regarding the development of specifically targeted
policies for foreign workers. One human resources manager indicated that the economic downturn meant a
surplus of job applicants who were American citizens or who held green cards. She questioned the need to hire
foreign workers and deal with the bureaucracy and expense of the immigration process when there were so
many domestic applicants.

Some companies appear to have taken drastic steps to the cost of sponsoring a foreign employee, abandoning
the H-1B process altogether. Akraya Inc., a Silicon Valley IT consulting firm, decided not to sponsor any H-1B
candidates in 2009. According to CEO Amar Panchal, “We decided that hiring an H-1B is hard to justify in the
current circumstances.” Decisions like these may be based on the state of the economy, but may also reflect
administrative barriers such as the cost of sponsoring an employee or the cumbersome nature of the application
process.83

The second human resources executive interviewed indicated that his U.S.-based electrical engineering
company tried to attract talent to locations in the lowest cost labor markets possible given their hiring needs (for
example, by opening a branch in the Philippines). The primary targets of their recruiting process were recent
college graduates in engineering. He noted that it was easier to outsource tactical and product execution related
positions, and harder to outsource strategic and innovative positions. Of over ten thousand employees, two-
thirds are currently overseas. Reasons to retain engineering positions in the U.S. included concerns about
intellectual property and patent laws, and the need to ensure that engineers abroad were of a high caliber and
that there were no skill gaps.

The need for clear communication and creative control over global product development capabilities was
examined in a study at the MIT Sloan business school. The study reiterated the need to establish a consistent
sets of processes and standards, maintain communication between locations, and fund bidirectional travel
between locations to build and sustain relationships.84

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
83	
  Hari,	
  P.	
  “Protectionist	
  Attitudes,”	
  San	
  Francisco:	
  Business	
  World,	
  February	
  27,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  at:	
  	
  

             http://www.businessworld.in/index.php/Economy/Protectionist-­‐Attitudes.html	
  
84	
  Eppinger,	
  Steven	
  D.	
  and	
  Anil	
  Chitkara.	
  “The	
  New	
  Practice	
  of	
  Global	
  Development”	
  (MITSloan	
  Management	
  Review,	
  Vol	
  47	
  No.	
  

             4,	
  Summer	
  2006).	
  Accessed	
  on	
  July	
  10,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  from	
  sloanreview.mit.edu/.../the-­‐new-­‐practice-­‐of-­‐global-­‐product-­‐
             development/	
  	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              27	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


When questioned about the company’s hiring needs over the next five years, the human resources executive
noted that the downturn in the economy did, in fact, make it easier to hire foreign labor under the H-1B
program. He noted, however, that the subsequent green card process remained a significant bureaucratic hurdle.
Retention rates for foreign employees were higher during approximately the first five years of their employment
while the green-card process is ongoing. After that point, the executive reported significant attrition rates for
foreign workers.

We found that other companies, such as IBM, Microsoft and Intel, most likely have confidential internal
programs to review their hiring processes for highly skilled foreign labor. IBM, for example, has a Vice
President for Business Consulting services, whose job is to break down the company business to identify what
is necessary, effective, and cost efficient. 85

Google has taken an analytical approach to problems of employee attrition, developing an algorithm that is
meant to identify which employees are most likely to quit.86 The algorithm crunches data from employee
reviews, and promotion and pay histories. It was developed in response to a concern that the growing size of
the company was changing the dynamic ‘start-up’ environment of the company, and causing some employees to
leave.87 Other action taken by Google to retain employees includes internal “innovation reviews” which give
employees the chance to present original product ideas to executives. In reaction to the realization that Google
employees were leaving to found start-ups, Google allows the option of pursuing limited individual projects and
creations within the company.88

When looking at the overall hiring market in the U.S., one human resources manager interviewed noted that
around 70% of electrical engineering graduate students who applied for positions were foreign nationals.
Suggestions for improvement in the U.S.-born talent pool included immigration reform, investment in
university-level academics in education, and K-12 programs to generate talent in engineering fields.

Providing	
  Employee	
  Benefits	
  
Another method of vying for the top employees is to provide workplace perks, such as child care, fitness
facilities, dry cleaning services, food or transportation to and from work. Nancy Rothbard, Professor at the
Wharton School of Management, argued that anxiety could cause employee distraction at work; having a
company that takes care of one or all of these life tasks may increase productivity.89 David Sirota of Sirota
Survey Intelligence has found that at-work benefits can improve employee morale, and prevent employees from
feeling as if they are being ‘treated like paper-clips.’90 Concerns regarding this company strategy include being
expected to work all the time, and the blurring of the line between workplace life and home life. Ultimately,

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
85	
  Thomas	
  Friedman.	
  The	
  World	
  is	
  Flat,	
  461.	
  	
  
86	
  Scott	
  Morrison,	
  “Google	
  Searches	
  for	
  Staffing	
  Answers,”	
  The	
  Wall	
  Street	
  Journal,	
  May	
  19,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  July	
  18,	
  2009.	
  

             Available	
  online	
  at	
  www.wsj.com.	
  
87	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
88	
  Jessica	
  E.	
  Vascellaro.	
  “Google	
  Searches	
  for	
  Ways	
  to	
  Keep	
  Big	
  Ideas	
  At	
  Home.”	
  The	
  Wall	
  Street	
  Journal,	
  June	
  18,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  

             on	
  July	
  10,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  online	
  at	
  www.wsj.com.	
  
89	
  “Perk	
  Place:	
  The	
  Benefits	
  Offered	
  by	
  Google	
  and	
  Others	
  May	
  Be	
  Grand,	
  but	
  They're	
  All	
  Business,”	
  Published	
  in	
  

     Knowledge@Wharton,	
  March	
  21,	
  2007.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  July	
  17,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  online	
  at	
  
     http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1690.	
  
90	
  Ibid.	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              28	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Sirota concludes that special perks will not retain employees in the long run if they are underpaid or unsatisfied
with their job as a whole.91

Companies have reacted in different, and at times creative, ways to deal with the current recession. IBM, for
example, has developed a program through which employees who had been laid off in the U.S. could seek
employment at IBM locations abroad, notably in the United Arab Emirates or India. The employees would be
provided with relocation assistance but would work for relatively lower wages than in the U.S.92 The program
has been criticized as a way to validate outsourcing. A Canadian study has concluded that employees are more
likely to accept employment where they can increase their compensation by working harder, smarter, or better.93
In other words, performance-based pay will attract high-achievers.

	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
91	
  Ibid.	
  	
  
92	
  See	
  http://www.betanews.com/article/Tech-­‐firms-­‐battle-­‐US-­‐job-­‐protection-­‐laws-­‐while-­‐importing-­‐workers/1233791875	
  
93	
  “International	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers:	
  A	
  Synthesis	
  of	
  key	
  Findings	
  and	
  Policy	
  Implications.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Public	
  

             Works	
  and	
  Government	
  Services	
  Canada,	
  April	
  2008	
  (P.	
  11)	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              29	
  
                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




Section	
  2:	
  Project	
  Development	
  	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                               30	
  
                                                                           The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                           160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  

Overall	
  Assumptions	
  
Our initial literature review raised questions about the impact of these conclusions on individual graduate
students in engineering. We wondered, for example, how willing most students were to leave their home
country to pursue job opportunities. Did they perceive their skills as being transferable on an international
scale? How important were various factors (e.g. occupational incentives, lifestyle preferences, family, and visa
procedures) in their decision to migrate for work?

We took the principal findings of the literature review, and developed hypotheses to be tested in student
surveys. Using rankings of top engineering and technology programs, we identified over fifty universities to be
canvassed. Students from twenty-one universities ultimately participated in the study.

Hypotheses were developed using the following conclusions from the literature review:

1. Movement of highly skilled workers is becoming more and more complex: ‘brain circulation’ is
   replacing ‘brain drain.’

       In the post-World War II decades, the migration of talented youth from developing countries to advanced
       countries was viewed as a “brain drain.” This trend aided wealthy economies at the expense of their poor
       counterparts. In recent years there has been a paradigm shift. Highly skilled migrants from developing
       countries such as China and India are now returning home. Wadhwa’s study in March 2009 titled
       “America’s Loss is the World’s Gain” investigated the motivation of skilled migrants from China and India
       who migrated to the U.S. and returned home. They found that although restrictive immigration policies
       caused some returnees to depart the U.S., the most significant factors in the decision to return were career
       opportunities, family ties and quality of life.

2. The factors that influence HSMWs’ decisions to migrate can be categorized as follows:

                Occupational incentives, such as higher salary, tax incentive, better research environment;
                Lifestyle preferences, such as weather, local amenities, cultural factors, opportunities for integration;
                Human-related factors, such as family ties, friends, and diaspora networks; and
                Bureaucratic complications, such as visa quota or work restrictions for spouse.

Hypotheses	
  
As stated above, the literature review identified three distinct levels of influence in a person’s decision to
migrate: individual factors, corporate behavior, and government policies. Accordingly, we developed the
following hypotheses:




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                      31	
  
                                                                         The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                         160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Individual	
  factors:	
  

     (1)   Language skills affect the decision to migration.
     (2)   Language skills affect the determination of destination state.
     (3)   Marriage and children adversely affect the decision to migrate.
     (4)   Quality of life at home versus abroad affects the decision to migrate.
     (5)   Family and social ties in the destination state affect the decision to migrate.

Career-­related	
  factors:	
  

     (6) Transferability of skills affects the decision to migrate.
     (7) Career opportunities at home versus abroad affect the decision to migrate, including:
            a. Research infrastructure
            b. Room for promotion
            c. Company openness to new ideas and creative problem solving
            d. Caliber of colleagues
            e. Work environment/culture
            f. Possibility of developing long-term business relationships

Government-­influenced	
  factors	
  

     (8) Potential migrants prefer permanent migration opportunities, compared to opportunities for temporary
         migration that restricts the length of their stay.
     (9) Reports of visa availability affect the determination to migrate.

Defining	
  a	
  Target	
  Population	
  of	
  Students	
  	
  
From the findings of our literature review we determined that the population of graduate students in engineering
was an invaluable source of up-and-coming highly skilled labor. In addition, this target population is comprised
of individuals who are likely to be in their twenties or early thirties – age groups where workers were more
likely to be mobile and not yet fully settled down. In keeping with our research goals we were aiming to survey
individuals who were at the beginning of their careers as highly skilled workers. In addition, many students
were already studying away from their home countries, opening up the possibility that they would stay after
graduation.

In order to target the appropriate students, the research team identified top U.S. and international universities
using prominent ranking lists.

Methodology	
  
The student survey questions can be broken down into four groups: 1) current studies, 2) career/employment
plans, 3) personal and lifestyle choices, and 4) externalities. The survey questions were assembled by the
research team, and vetted using a focus group at the Tufts Graduate School of Engineering. Completion of the
survey was entirely voluntary and all information was kept confidential. As an incentive for completing the
survey, students were entered to win prizes.


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                    32	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


The company survey was developed in several stages by the Fletcher research team, with input from human
resources representatives, a survey and marketing expert, and advice from the Associate Director of Corporate
Relations at Fletcher’s International Business Center. The final iteration of the survey was an online, multiple-
choice document. Target companies were selected from lists of the best companies to work for, such as
Fortune’s Survey of the 100 Best Companies to Work For and BusinessWeek 2009 Most Innovative
Companies. The lists were filtered by the researchers for companies’ relevance to the engineering and
technology sector and the likelihood that the company had a distinct hiring policy for engineers versus other
types of job candidates.

Companies were assured that any information gathered in the study would be kept private and that specific
companies would not be named in our report. As an incentive for completing the surveys, companies were
offered customized reports of their information compared to the aggregate student data. Contact to both
universities and companies was performed by all members of the research team, and was guided by set scripts
regarding the study’s purpose and procedure.

Company	
  Surveys	
  and	
  Hypotheses	
  
While developing the graduate student survey, we came across several unique components related to the hiring
of foreign workers. For example, we wanted to investigate the potential impact of government immigration
policies on the hiring process, the need to accommodate foreign workers who wished to maintain close ties to
their home countries, and the impact of the economic downturn on a company’s ability to retain foreign labor.
Based on the significant percentage of graduate students in engineering in the U.S. and Canada who were
foreign-born, we were curious to examine how companies dealt with this phenomenon during the hiring
process.

From the literature review, we were able to draw the following conclusions:

                                                      1. Geographical location of talent means much less to companies than it used to. Companies can
                                                         simply outsource the base for R&D, website design, advertising, and so on to the places where the
                                                         most qualified service provider can be found.94

                                                      2. Especially in the U.S. but elsewhere as well, high turnover rate of workers behooves companies
                                                         to rethink their strategy for retaining talented workers. Americans change jobs on average
                                                         every 3.5 years, according to 2001 figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.95

                                                      3. Base pay, benefits, stability and challenges are said to be the most important elements for
                                                         information technology professionals.96 Perks may not help retention, though usage of perks has
                                                         become more common recently.

                                                      4. Companies are becoming aware of intensifying competition for global talent and taking measures
                                                         to attract global talent and avoid turnover.97 The Yankee Group estimates that last year over 2,300
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
94	
         Friedman,	
  The	
  World	
  Is	
  Flat,	
  446.	
  
95	
  Cited	
  in	
  Richard	
  Florida,	
  “The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class,”	
  (New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2004),	
  104.	
  	
  
96	
  InformationWeek	
  Analysis	
  2009	
  U.S.	
  IT	
  Salary	
  Survey	
  of	
  12,410	
  IT	
  professionals.	
  Available	
  from	
  www.informationweek.com	
  

             [note	
  that	
  this	
  survey	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  reproduced	
  in	
  any	
  publication	
  without	
  permission].	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              33	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                                                                                 companies worldwide adopted some form of talent-management technology and predicts that the
                                                                                 market for such technology will nearly double by 2009.98

The team’s company surveys were intended to sample the methods employed by companies when recruiting
foreign labor. We were also curious to examine what employment benefits companies used to attract and retain
foreign labor, and what impact (if any) the current recession has had on their ability to retain foreign labor. The
scope of the company outreach was limited to U.S. engineering and technology companies, and the results were
predominantly anecdotal. We did, however, gain some interesting insights.

The corporate portion of the study was designed to explore the following hypotheses:

Economic	
  Factors:	
  

                           (1) The economic downturn has expanded the talent pool available to companies.
                           (2) Companies hire foreign labor to work in the U.S. only when the work cannot be done through
                               outsourcing or foreign investment.
                           (3) Recruitment strategies may have shifted during the economic downturn.

Individual	
  Factors:	
  

                           (4)                        Language skills affect the decision to hire foreign workers.
                           (5)                        HSMWs may present a higher turnover problem than domestic workers.
                           (6)                        Companies will offer help with immigration benefits in an effort to retain foreign labor.
                           (7)                        Companies value diversity in their workforce.


	
  




	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
97	
  For	
  example,	
  see	
  Scott	
  Morrison,	
  “Google	
  Searches	
  for	
  Staffing	
  Answers,”	
  The	
  Wall	
  Street	
  Journal,	
  May	
  19,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  

             July	
  18,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  online	
  at	
  www.wsj.com.	
  	
  
98	
  The	
  Economist,	
  "A	
  Survey	
  on	
  Talent	
  (special	
  report)",	
  The	
  Economist,	
  October	
  7,	
  2006.




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   34	
  
                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  




Section	
  3:	
  Results	
  and	
  Analysis	
  	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                               35	
  
                                                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  

Student	
  Survey	
  Results	
  
815 students started to answer our survey; 663 of them completed the survey (81.3%). Where appropriate, we
used data from the broader group. Our survey questions can be broken down into five groups: a) biographical
information b) current studies, c) employment plans and career-related information, d) personal and lifestyle
considerations and e) externalities.

Biographical	
  information	
  
Based on 662 students who disclosed their university names, twenty-one universities are represented in our
survey, covering nine countries and three continents. The greatest number of respondents were from U.S.-based
universities (400), followed by Canada (217).

Out of the 815 respondents, 656 disclosed their respective countries of citizenship. 49 students held at least dual
citizenship. Highest representation was from US citizens (33.5%), Canada had 125 respondents (19.1%),
followed by 63 from China (9.6%) and 61 from India (9.3%), excluding multiple citizenships.

619 (76.0%) students provided information about their immigration status in the country of current education;
363 (44.5%) were citizens, 39 (4.8%) were permanent residents, 213 (26.1%) were on student visas and 4
(0.5%) were on some form of temporary work permit (Table 4).

                                                     Table	
  4:	
  Immigration	
  Status	
  Statistics	
  

          Immigration	
  Status	
                          Frequency	
                  %	
                       Valid	
  %	
     Cumulative	
  %	
  
          	
   Citizen	
                                      363	
                    44.5	
                      58.6	
              58.6	
  
          	
   Permanent	
  Resident	
                         39	
                     4.8	
                        6.3	
             64.9	
  
          	
   Student	
  Visa	
                              213	
                    26.1	
                      34.4	
              99.4	
  
          	
   Temporary	
  Work	
  Visa	
                      4	
                     0.5	
                        0.6	
            100.0	
  
          	
   Valid	
  Total	
                               619	
                    76.0	
                     100.0	
                         	
  
          	
   Missing	
                                      196	
                    24.0	
                              	
                     	
  
          Total	
                                             815	
                   100.0	
                              	
                     	
  

                                                    Table	
  5:	
  Statistics	
  of	
  Degree(s)	
  Pursued	
  

          Degree	
  Level	
                                Frequency	
                   %	
                      Valid	
  %	
     Cumulative	
  %	
  
          	
   Bachelor’s	
                                    21	
                      2.6	
                       3.2	
              3.2	
  
          	
   Master’s	
                                     275	
                     33.7	
                     41.5	
              44.6	
  
          	
   Doctorate	
  (PhD)	
                           355	
                     43.6	
                     53.5	
              98.2	
  
          	
   Post-­‐Doctoral	
                                5	
                      0.6	
                       0.8	
             98.9	
  
          	
   Other	
                                          7	
                      0.9	
                       1.1	
            100.0	
  
          	
   Valid	
  Total	
                               663	
                     81.3	
                    100.0	
                         	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                              36	
  
                                                                                                  The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                  160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


          	
   Missing	
                                      152	
                18.7	
                                         	
                              	
  
          Total	
                                             815	
               100.0	
                                         	
                              	
  

Of the 663 students who disclosed their degree programs, 21 (3.2%) were Bachelor’s, 275 (41.5%) were
Master’s, 355 (53.5%) were doctorates, and 7 (1.1%) were in diploma (joint-degree in Germany) or non-degree
programs (Table 5). We also asked these students about their respective engineering disciplines. The results
are tabulated in Table 6. The three most common disciplines were: electrical engineering (19.5%), mechanical
engineering (15.2%) and civil engineering (9.7%).

                                                Table	
  6:	
  Engineering	
  Disciplines	
  Represented	
  

         Discipline	
                                        Frequency	
              %	
                    Valid	
  %	
                Cumulative	
  %	
  
          	
   Aerospace	
  Engineering	
                           41	
               5.0	
                    6.2	
                            6.2	
  
          	
   Architectural	
  Engineering	
                           1	
              .1	
                     .2	
                           6.3	
  
          	
   Bioengineering	
                                         7	
              .9	
                   1.1	
                            7.4	
  
          	
   Biomedical	
  Engineering	
                          58	
               7.1	
                    8.7	
                          16.1	
  
          	
   Chemical	
  Engineering	
                            41	
               5.0	
                    6.2	
                          22.3	
  
          	
   Civil	
  Engineering	
                               64	
               7.9	
                    9.7	
                          32.0	
  
          	
   Computer	
  Engineering	
                            21	
               2.6	
                    3.2	
                          35.1	
  
          	
   Computer	
  Science	
                                46	
               5.6	
                    6.9	
                          42.1	
  
          	
   Construction	
  Engineering	
                            1	
              .1	
                     .2	
                         42.2	
  
          	
   Electrical	
  Engineering	
                        129	
              15.8	
                   19.5	
                           61.7	
  
          	
   Environmental	
  Engineering	
                       20	
               2.5	
                    3.0	
                          64.7	
  
          	
   Industrial	
  Engineering	
                          25	
               3.1	
                    3.8	
                          68.5	
  
          	
   Information	
  Systems	
                                 6	
              .7	
                     .9	
                         69.4	
  
          	
   Manufacturing	
  Engineering	
                           5	
              .6	
                     .8	
                         70.1	
  
          	
   Materials	
  Engineering	
                           22	
               2.7	
                    3.3	
                          73.5	
  
          	
   Materials	
  Sciences	
                              28	
               3.4	
                    4.2	
                          77.7	
  
          	
   Mechanical	
  Engineering	
                        101	
              12.4	
                   15.2	
                           92.9	
  
          	
   Metallurgical	
  Engineering	
                           2	
              .2	
                     .3	
                         93.2	
  
          	
   Nuclear	
  Engineering	
                             10	
               1.2	
                    1.5	
                          94.7	
  
         	
   Systems	
  Engineering	
                              6	
              0.7	
                    0.9	
                            95.6	
  
         	
   Other	
                                              29	
              3.6	
                    4.4	
                           100.0	
  
         	
   Valid	
  Total	
                                    663	
             81.3	
                  100.0	
                                        	
  
         	
   Missing	
                                           152	
             18.7	
                                 	
                              	
  
         Total	
                                                  815	
            100.0	
                                 	
                              	
  

We also asked participants about their native language and languages in which they are fluent. The native
language question was misunderstood by many respondents as they went on listing many second and third



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                          37	
  
                                                                                                           The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                           160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


languages, and in many cases not selecting the appropriate non-native languages. Hence, any analysis of
linguistic proficiencies of the respondents has been excluded from this report.

Current	
  studies	
  
Out of the 815 students who began the survey, 325 students (39.9%) are currently studying in a country away
from their home country, while 490 students (60.1%) are studying in their respective home countries. We asked
the students who are currently studying in a country away from their home country for reasons that played role
in that decision. Almost 80% of the students selected gaining an international perspective as an extremely
important or a very important reason (Mean value: 1.76 on scale of 1-5) as can be seen from Table 7 and figure
1. The second most important reason was the quality of education in their home country (Mean value: 2.19 on
scale of 1-5). A detailed breakdown of factors in terms of the relative importance can be seen in figure 2.	
  

                         Table	
  7:	
  Response	
  to	
  Factors	
  for	
  Pursuing	
  Studies	
  Away	
  From	
  Home	
  Country	
  

    Factors	
                                                                    N	
      Minimum	
              Maximum	
          Mean	
      Std.	
  Deviation	
  
    Quality	
  of	
  education	
  in	
  home	
  country	
                       303	
              1	
                     5	
       2.19	
           1.112	
  
    Lack	
  of	
  job	
  prospects	
  in	
  home	
  country	
                   303	
              1	
                     5	
       3.12	
           1.313	
  
    Political	
  and/or	
  social	
  instability	
  in	
  home	
  country	
     303	
              1	
                     5	
       3.76	
           1.312	
  
    Sponsored/won	
  scholarship	
  to	
  study	
  abroad	
                     303	
              1	
                     5	
       2.46	
           1.383	
  
    Interest	
  in	
  gaining	
  global	
  perspective	
                        303	
              1	
                     5	
       1.76	
           0.938	
  
    Other	
  important	
  factor	
                                              303	
              1	
                     5	
       3.42	
           1.559	
  
    Valid	
  N	
                                                                303	
       	
                      	
                  	
                	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                         38	
  
                                                                                                                The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                     Figure	
  1:	
  Mean	
  Values	
  of	
  Factors	
  for	
  Pursuing	
  Studies	
  Away	
  From	
  Home	
  Country	
  

                              To	
  what	
  degree	
  did	
  the	
  following	
  reasons	
  play	
  a	
  role	
  in	
  your	
  decision	
  to	
  pursue	
  
                                                       your	
  studies	
  away	
  from	
  your	
  home	
  country?	
  

                                 Quality	
  of	
  education	
  in	
  home	
  country	
                                                2.19	
  


                               Lack	
  of	
  job	
  prospects	
  in	
  home	
  country	
                                                                       3.12	
  


               Political	
  and/or	
  social	
  instability	
  in	
  home	
  country	
                                                                                           3.76	
  


                      Sponsored/won	
  scholarship	
  to	
  study	
  abroad	
                                                               2.46	
  


                                 Interest	
  in	
  gaining	
  global	
  perspective	
                                      1.76	
  


                                                      Other	
  important	
  factor	
                                                                                  3.42	
  


                                                                                             0	
        1	
                  2	
                       3	
                         4	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                            	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                    39	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                    Figure	
  2:	
  Relative	
  importance	
  of	
  factors	
  for	
  pursuing	
  studies	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  country	
  


                                                            To	
  what	
  degree	
  did	
  the	
  following	
  reasons	
  play	
  a	
  role	
  in	
  your	
  decision	
  to	
  
                                                                           pursue	
  your	
  studies	
  away	
  from	
  your	
  home	
  country?	
  
        350	
  


        300	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not	
  At	
  All	
  Important	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Not	
  Very	
  Important	
  
        250	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Somewhat	
  Important	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Very	
  Important	
  
        200	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Extremely	
  Important	
  

        150	
  


        100	
  


          50	
  


            0	
  
                                                                                                                                                            Sponsored/won	
  scholarship	
  
                                                                      Lack	
  of	
  job	
  prospects	
  in	
  
                           Quality	
  of	
  Education	
  




                                                                                                                 instability	
  in	
  home	
  country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                               Interest	
  in	
  gaining	
  a	
  global	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Other	
  important	
  factor	
  
                                                                                                                    Political	
  and/or	
  social	
  
                                                                           home	
  country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                 to	
  study	
  abroad	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                      perspective	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     	
  
People who are interested in gaining global perspective always have the potential of bringing their experience
back to their home country. 91.7% of respondents who rated gaining global perspective as extremely or very
important reported that they would consider working from their home country after graduation, compared to
96.7% of those who considered gaining global perspective as somewhat, not very or not at all important. This
in fact suggests that a larger proportion of students who considered gaining international perspective as an
important reason for pursuing studies abroad were ready to return to their home country soon after graduation.

Employment	
  plans	
  and	
  career-­‐related	
  information	
  
Out of the 779 students who answered the question about considering employment in a foreign country after
their graduation, 300 are already studying in foreign countries. This distinction is reflected in the responses, as
92.7% of the students currently studying in foreign countries showed interest in pursuing employment in foreign
countries, compared to 78.1% of students studying in their home countries. In spite of the 14.6% spread, it is




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         40	
  
                                                                                                                         The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                         160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


interesting to see that overall 83.7% of the students surveyed are open to international migration for
employment.

In order to further understand immediate employment plans, the students were asked about the likelihood of
pursuing employment away from home after their graduation (Table 8). 573 students replied to this question,
and answers were dispersed, with no clear preference. The options were: stay in/return to home country
immediately after graduation, stay for short duration up to a year away from home country, stay for one to five
years away from home country, consider settling permanently away from home country, move back and forth,
and do not know. However to dig deeper, the responses were split based on students who are currently studying
in their home countries and away from home countries (Figures 3 and 4 for graphical representation). This
provided more insight into what seemed like dispersed responses. Only 23.6% of students who are currently
away from home countries are very likely or somewhat likely to return back to home country
immediately after graduation, compared to 72.4% of students who are currently studying in their own
home country who plan to stay. Students who are currently studying away from their home country also had a
higher likelihood of staying in a country away from home for one to five years (72.8%) compared to the other
group (37.6%).

                                    Table	
  8:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  Pursuing	
  Employment	
  Abroad	
  for	
  Given	
  Period	
  

                                                                                                     Currently	
                                    Std.	
          Std.	
  Error	
  
    Likelihood	
  of	
  Employment	
  Abroad	
                                                                            N	
        Mean	
  
                                                                                                       Away	
                                     Deviation	
         Mean	
  
    I	
  plan	
  on	
  staying	
  in/returning	
  to	
  my	
  home	
  country	
                                Yes	
     254	
         3.52	
         1.221	
          0.077	
  
    immediately	
  after	
  graduation	
                                                                       No	
      319	
         1.98	
         1.097	
          0.061	
  
    I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  short	
  duration	
  of	
  up	
  to	
  a	
  year	
  away	
               Yes	
     254	
         2.82	
         1.315	
          0.083	
  
    from	
  home	
  country	
                                                                                  No	
      319	
         2.79	
         1.103	
          0.062	
  
    I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  one	
  to	
  five	
  years	
  away	
  from	
  home	
                     Yes	
     254	
         2.07	
         1.083	
          0.068	
  
    country	
                                                                                                  No	
      319	
         3.01	
         1.182	
          0.066	
  
    I	
  would	
  consider	
  settling	
  permanently	
  away	
  from	
                                        Yes	
     254	
         2.74	
         1.283	
          0.080	
  
    my	
  home	
  country	
                                                                                    No	
      319	
         3.46	
         1.223	
          0.068	
  
    I	
  could	
  move	
  back	
  and	
  forth	
                                                               Yes	
     254	
         2.59	
         1.099	
          0.069	
  
                                                                                                               No	
      319	
         2.98	
         1.173	
          0.066	
  
    I	
  don’t	
  know	
                                                                                       Yes	
     254	
         3.59	
         1.330	
           0.083	
  
                                                                                                               No	
      319	
         3.03	
         1.150	
           0.064	
  

                                                                                                        	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                         41	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  

       Figure	
  3:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  pursuing	
  employment	
  abroad	
  –	
  students	
  currently	
  studying	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  
                                                                     country	
  

                                                                                                         How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  pursue	
  employment	
  away	
  from	
  
                                                                                                                   your	
  home	
  country	
  after	
  graduation?	
  
         300	
  


         250	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Very	
  Unlikely	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Relatively	
  Unlikely	
  

         200	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Neither	
  Likely/Unlikely	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Somewhat	
  Likely	
  

         150	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Very	
  Likely	
  



         100	
  


           50	
  


             0	
  
                     I	
  plan	
  on	
  staying	
  in/returning	
  




                                                                                                                            I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  one	
  to	
  uive	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I	
  do	
  not	
  know	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I	
  could	
  move	
  back	
  and	
  forth	
  
                                                                      duration	
  of	
  up	
  to	
  a	
  year	
  away	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                      permanently	
  away	
  from	
  my	
  
                     immediately	
  after	
  graduation	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                       I	
  would	
  consider	
  settling	
  
                                                                                                                                  years	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  
                                                                         I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  short	
  
                             to	
  my	
  home	
  country	
  




                                                                              from	
  home	
  country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                               home	
  country	
  
                                                                                                                                                country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            	
  
	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                42	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


     Figure	
  4:	
  Likelihood	
  of	
  pursuing	
  employment	
  abroad	
  –	
  students	
  currently	
  studying	
  in	
  home	
  country	
  

                                                                                                        How	
  likely	
  are	
  you	
  to	
  pursue	
  employment	
  away	
  from	
  
                                                                                                                  your	
  home	
  country	
  after	
  graduation?	
  
       350	
  


       300	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Very	
  Unlikely	
  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Relatively	
  Unlikely	
  
       250	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Neither	
  Likely/Unlikely	
  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Somewhat	
  Likely	
  
       200	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Very	
  Likely	
  

       150	
  


       100	
  


         50	
  


           0	
  
                    I	
  plan	
  on	
  staying	
  in/returning	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I	
  could	
  move	
  back	
  and	
  forth	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             I	
  do	
  not	
  know	
  
                                                                                                                           I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  one	
  to	
  uive	
  
                                                                     duration	
  of	
  up	
  to	
  a	
  year	
  away	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                     permanently	
  away	
  from	
  my	
  
                    immediately	
  after	
  graduation	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                      I	
  would	
  consider	
  settling	
  
                                                                                                                                 years	
  away	
  from	
  home	
  
                                                                        I	
  plan	
  to	
  stay	
  for	
  short	
  
                            to	
  my	
  home	
  country	
  




                                                                             from	
  home	
  country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                              home	
  country	
  
                                                                                                                                               country	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           	
  
Out of the 571 students who responded to our request to name up to five countries, other than their home
country, that they would be interested in living in after graduation, 340 students listed the U.S., followed by 331
for UK, 207 for Germany, 205 for Canada and 174 for Australia. (Table 9 lists the top 30 countries).




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               43	
  
                                                                                                                     The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                     160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  

                                  Table	
  9:	
  List	
  of	
  Top	
  30	
  countries	
  in	
  which	
  students	
  would	
  consider	
  living	
  

                                                                        Cumulative	
       	
                                                                         Cumulative	
  
  Rank	
   Country	
                    Frequency	
          %	
                                         Rank	
   Country	
                 Frequency	
     %	
  
                                                                           %	
                                                                                           %	
  
         1.	
     USA	
                       340	
         14.2	
         14.2	
                 	
       16.	
      Hong	
  Kong	
             31	
       1.3	
        85.8	
  
         2.	
     UK	
                        331	
         13.9	
         28.1	
                 	
       17.	
      Ireland	
                  24	
       1.0	
        86.8	
  
         3.	
     Germany	
                   207	
           8.7	
        36.8	
                 	
       18.	
      Brazil	
                   19	
       0.8	
        87.6	
  
         4.	
     Canada	
                    205	
           8.6	
        45.4	
                 	
       19.	
      India	
                    19	
       0.8	
        88.4	
  
         5.	
     Australia	
                 174	
           7.3	
        52.6	
                 	
       20.	
      Norway	
                   16	
       0.7	
        89.1	
  
         6.	
     France	
                    169	
           7.1	
        59.7	
                 	
       21.	
      Austria	
                  13	
       0.5	
        89.6	
  
         7.	
     Japan	
                     111	
           4.6	
        64.4	
                 	
       22.	
      Greece	
                   13	
       0.5	
        90.2	
  
         8.	
     Switzerland	
               110	
           4.6	
        69.0	
                 	
       23.	
      Israel	
                   13	
       0.5	
        90.7	
  
         9.	
     China	
                      68	
           2.8	
        71.8	
                 	
       24.	
      Taiwan	
                   13	
       0.5	
        91.2	
  
       10.	
      Singapore	
                  65	
           2.7	
        74.5	
                 	
       25.	
      UAE	
                      13	
       0.5	
        91.8	
  
       11.	
      Italy	
                      59	
           2.5	
        77.0	
                 	
       26.	
      Korea	
                    12	
       0.5	
        92.3	
  
       12.	
      Spain	
                      56	
           2.3	
        79.4	
                 	
       27.	
      Belgium	
                  11	
       0.5	
        92.8	
  
       13.	
      Netherlands	
                45	
           1.9	
        81.2	
                 	
       28.	
      Denmark	
                  10	
       0.4	
        93.2	
  
       14.	
      New	
  Zealand	
             39	
           1.6	
        82.9	
                 	
       29.	
      South	
  Africa	
          10	
       0.4	
        93.6	
  
       15.	
      Sweden	
                     39	
           1.6	
        84.5	
          	
              30.	
      Argentina	
                 9	
       0.4	
        94.0	
  


Country	
  Preference	
  Correlation	
  to	
  Literature	
  Review	
  
Coincidentally, the top countries listed by students as possible destination states are also the countries that were
selected by the literature review as having specialized policies towards highly skilled workers. These countries
had been identified as having specific, targeted immigration policies towards skilled workers.

Employer-­‐related	
  Factors	
  
In order to explore the professional needs and motivations for students as they concern their prospective
employers, we asked the students about factors that would contribute to their decision to seek employment away
from their home country.

As seen from Figures 5 and 6, students considered all factors important with varying degrees. The most
important factors as observed from the mean of the importance scale of 1 to 5 (1 extremely important  5 not at
all important) are employer openness to new ideas (mean = 2.1), freedom to use creative/innovative approaches
to problem solving (mean = 2.16), higher earning power (mean = 2.17) and better work environment or
corporate culture (mean = 2.22), as seen in Figure 5. According to the respondents other factors would play a
role in their decision as well, but to lesser degree.




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                     44	
  
                                                                                                                  The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                  160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                Figure	
  5:	
  Mean	
  values	
  of	
  professional	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  

                                  Professional	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  decision	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  



                                     Employer	
  openness	
  to	
  new	
  ideas	
                                                    2.1	
  

              Freedom	
  to	
  use	
  creative/innovative	
  approaches	
  to	
  
                                                                                                                                      2.16	
  
                                                        problem	
  solving	
  

                                                      Higher	
  earning	
  power	
                                                     2.17	
  


                   Better	
  work	
  environment	
  or	
  corporate	
  culture	
                                                        2.22	
  


                                                   Potential	
  for	
  promotion	
                                                             2.43	
  


                                     Performance-­‐based	
  pay	
  incentive	
                                                                     2.57	
  

                     Greater	
  ability	
  to	
  impact	
  home	
  country	
  after	
  
                                                                                                                                                     2.68	
  
                                                            experience	
  abroad	
  

                                                           Training	
  programs	
                                                                     2.7	
  


                          Exposing	
  your	
  children	
  to	
  a	
  new	
  country	
                                                                             3.21	
  


                                Earning	
  citizenship	
  of	
  a	
  host	
  country	
                                                                                   3.51	
  


                                                                                           0	
            1	
                2	
                          3	
                       4	
  

                                                                                                                                                                                            	
  
                                                                                                   	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                    45	
  
                                                                                                                                               The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                               160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



                                                 Figure	
  6:	
  Professional	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  


                                        Employer	
  openness	
  to	
  new	
  ideas	
                                                       Freedom	
  to	
  use	
  creative/innovative	
  approaches	
  
                                                                                                                                                              to	
  problem	
  solving	
  
          300	
                                  274	
                                                                    300	
  
                                                                                                                                                                246	
  


          200	
                                                                                                           200	
  
                                                                                                                                              152	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                       Count	
  
                              143	
  
                                                                 121	
                                                                                                          123	
  

          100	
                                                                                                           100	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                  38	
  
                                                                                  24	
                                                                                                                                 14	
  
                                                                                                       11	
  
                   0	
                                                                                                             0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
  




                                               Higher	
  earning	
  power	
                                                                Better	
  work	
  environment	
  or	
  corporate	
  culture	
  
          300	
                                                                                                           300	
  

                                                 223	
                                                                                                          213	
  
          200	
                                                                                                           200	
  
                              161	
                                                                                                           159	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                       Count	
  




                                                                 133	
                                                                                                          142	
  


          100	
                                                                                                           100	
  
                                                                                  41	
                                                                                                            36	
  
                                                                                                       15	
                                                                                                            23	
  

                   0	
                                                                                                             0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
  




                                              Potential	
  for	
  promotion	
                                                                           Performance-­based	
  pay	
  incentive	
  
          300	
                                                                                                           300	
  

                                                 215	
  
                                                                                                                                                                192	
  
          200	
                                                                                                           200	
                                                 171	
  
                                                                 163	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                       Count	
  




                              110	
  
                                                                                                                                               99	
  
          100	
                                                                                                           100	
                                                                   81	
  
                                                                                  59	
  
                                                                                                       26	
                                                                                                            30	
  

                   0	
                                                                                                             0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
  


	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                 46	
  
                                                                                                                                        The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                        160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  




                      Greater	
  ability	
  to	
  impact	
  home	
  country	
  after	
                                                                   Training	
  programs	
  
                                      experience	
  abroad	
  
    200	
                                                                                                          300	
  
                                                         171	
  
                                         155	
  
                                                                                                                                                         194	
  
                                                                                                                   200	
                                                  177	
  
                        107	
  
 Count	
  




                                                                                                                Count	
  
                                                                           97	
  
    100	
  

                                                                                                                   100	
                76	
                                                78	
  
                                                                                                43	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 48	
  


             0	
                                                                                                            0	
  
                      Extemely	
       Very	
        Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
        Very	
         Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                     Important	
     Important	
     Important	
      Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
      Important	
      Important	
      Important	
        Important	
  




                         Exposing	
  your	
  children	
  to	
  a	
  new	
  country	
                                                        Earning	
  citizenship	
  of	
  a	
  host	
  country	
  
    200	
                                                                                                          200	
                                                                   189	
  
                                                         169	
  

                                                                          137	
                                                                                           132	
                                131	
  
                                         113	
  
                                                                                              101	
  
 Count	
  




                                                                                                                Count	
  




    100	
                                                                                                          100	
                                  86	
  

                         53	
  
                                                                                                                                        35	
  


             0	
                                                                                                            0	
  
                      Extemely	
       Very	
        Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
        Very	
         Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                     Important	
     Important	
     Important	
      Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
      Important	
      Important	
      Important	
        Important	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                           47	
  
                                                                                                 The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                 160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  




In order to understand these professional motivations between students who are studying in their home
countries versus students studying abroad, the responses were split based on their current location. In Table 10,
we have recorded the percentage of students who responded to the factors as extremely and very important. It is
interesting to note that a greater number of students who are currently studying in foreign countries found
almost all factors more important than students studying in their respective home countries. The lowest
discrepancy is on the potential for promotion factor. Foreign students valued earning power, performance-based
pay incentive, greater ability for impact on the home country and earning citizenship far more (~20% higher)
than students studying in home countries.
                                               Table	
  10:	
  Professional	
  Factors	
  Based	
  on	
  Location	
  

                Factor/Currently	
  Away	
                                                          Yes	
                    No	
       Total	
  
                Employer	
  openness	
  to	
  new	
  ideas	
                                       81.9%	
                  65.5%	
     72.8%	
  
                Freedom	
  to	
  use	
  creative/innovative	
  approaches	
                        76.0%	
                  64.3%	
     69.5%	
  
                Higher	
  earning	
  power	
                                                       78.4%	
                  58.0%	
     67.0%	
  
                Better	
  work	
  environment	
  or	
  work	
  culture	
                           70.5%	
                  60.5%	
     64.9%	
  
                Potential	
  for	
  promotion	
                                                    57.5%	
                  56.1%	
     56.7%	
  
                Performance-­‐based	
  pay	
  incentive	
                                          66.5%	
                  38.2%	
     50.8%	
  
                Greater	
  ability	
  to	
  impact	
  home	
  country	
                            57.5%	
                  36.4%	
     45.7%	
  
                Training	
  programs	
                                                             53.2%	
                  43.0%	
     47.1%	
  
                Exposing	
  your	
  children	
  to	
  a	
  new	
  country	
                        32.3%	
                  26.3%	
     29.0%	
  
                Earning	
  citizenship	
  of	
  a	
  host	
  country	
                             31.9%	
                  43.0%	
     21.1%	
  

We asked students if they felt that professional skills acquired in graduate school could be applied outside their
current country of education. Over 97% of the students who responded felt confident that their skills were
transferable, while only 2.7% replied that the skills could not be used outside their current country of
education (Table 11).

                           Table	
  11:	
  Ability	
  to	
  apply	
  professional	
  skills	
  acquired	
  in	
  graduate	
  school	
  

                                                      	
           Frequency	
        %	
          Cumulative	
  %	
  
                                                    Yes	
             680	
        97.3	
                        97.3	
  
                                                    No	
               19	
          2.7	
                    100.0	
  
                                              Valid	
  Total	
        699	
           	
                  	
  
                                                Missing	
             116	
           	
                  	
  
                                             Total	
                  815	
           	
                  	
  


	
  
	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                            48	
  
                                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  
Personal	
  and	
  lifestyle	
  considerations	
  
In order to explore the personal lifestyle needs of students and how they influence their career decisions, we
asked the students about quality of life aspects that would contribute to their decisions to seek employment
away from their home countries.

As seen from Figures 7 and 8, students considered all factors important with varying degrees. The most
important factors as observed from the mean of the importance scale of 1 to 5 (1 extremely important  5 not at
all important) are research infrastructure (mean = 1.92) and quality of schools for children (mean = 2.21).
According to the respondents other factors would play a role in their decision as well, but to a lesser degree.
The least important factors reported were community from home country in the new area (mean = 3.09) and tax
advantages (mean = 3.19).




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                               49	
  
                                                                                                                The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                    Figure	
  7:	
  Mean	
  values	
  of	
  lifestyle	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  

                                        Lifestyle	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  decision	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  


                 Research	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  resources	
  available	
                                               1.92	
  

                 Quality	
  of	
  schools	
  for	
  children	
  (hypothetically,	
  if	
  
                                                                                                                                    2.21	
  
                                                         you	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  any)	
  

                 Access	
  to	
  leisure	
  activities/outdoors/sports	
  in	
  a	
  
                                                                                                                                        2.25	
  
                                                              given	
  region	
  

                                             Cultural	
  or	
  political	
  attributes	
                                                 2.29	
  


                                                             Regional	
  reputation	
                                                          2.53	
  


                           Closeness	
  to	
  home	
  country	
  and/or	
  family	
                                                            2.56	
  


                                                   Shorter	
  commute	
  to	
  work	
                                                              2.58	
  


                                                                                Climate	
                                                           2.61	
  


                                          Quality	
  of	
  public	
  transportation	
                                                               2.64	
  


                                                          Cheaper	
  cost	
  of	
  living	
                                                              2.82	
  


                       Community	
  from	
  home	
  country	
  in	
  new	
  area	
                                                                                3.09	
  


                                                                    Tax	
  advantages	
                                                                             3.19	
  


                                                                                                0	
     1	
                2	
                            3	
                  4	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                        50	
  
                                                                                                                                            The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                            160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



                                                  Figure	
  8:	
  Lifestyle	
  factors	
  contributing	
  to	
  seek	
  employment	
  abroad	
  

                           Research	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  resources	
  available	
                                                 Quality	
  of	
  schools	
  for	
  chidren	
  (hypothetically,	
  if	
  
                                                                                                                                                             you	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  any)	
  
          400	
                                                                                                         400	
  
                                              308	
                                                                                                            311	
  
          300	
                                                                                                         300	
  
                               236	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                     Count	
  
          200	
                                                                                                         200	
                155	
                             163	
  
                                                              110	
  
          100	
                                                                                                         100	
  
                                                                                26	
                                                                                                             40	
  
                                                                                                      7	
                                                                                                             18	
  
                   0	
                                                                                                           0	
  
                            Extemely	
       Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
     Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
        Important	
  




                            Access	
  to	
  leisure	
  activities/outdoors/sports	
  in	
                                                              Cultural	
  or	
  political	
  attributes	
  
                                                       given	
  region	
  
          400	
                                                                                                         400	
  

                                              296	
                                                                                                            292	
  
          300	
                                                                                                         300	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                     Count	
  




                                                              195	
                                                                                                            194	
  
          200	
                                                                                                         200	
  
                               141	
                                                                                                         138	
  

          100	
                                                                                                         100	
  
                                                                                46	
                                                                                                             48	
  
                                                                                                      9	
                                                                                                             15	
  
                   0	
                                                                                                           0	
  
                            Extemely	
       Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
     Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
        Important	
  




                                              Regional	
  reputation	
                                                                       Closeness	
  to	
  home	
  country	
  and/or	
  family	
  
          300	
                               273	
                                                                     300	
  
                                                                                                                                                                               240	
  
                                                              229	
  
                                                                                                                                                               210	
  
          200	
                                                                                                         200	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                     Count	
  




                                                                                                                                             117	
  
                                87	
                                                                                                                                                             97	
  
          100	
                                                                 72	
                                    100	
  

                                                                                                     26	
                                                                                                             23	
  

                   0	
                                                                                                           0	
  
                            Extemely	
       Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                          Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
        Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
     Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                Important	
       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
        Important	
  


	
  

The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                51	
  
                                                                                                                                                     The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                                     160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
                                                                                                                       	
  

                                            Shorter	
  commute	
  to	
  work	
                                                                                                 Climate	
  
          300	
                                                                                                                  400	
  
                                                241	
           246	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                       311	
  
                                                                                                                                 300	
  
          200	
  
                                                                                                                                                                     211	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                              Count	
  
                                                                                                                                 200	
  
                               90	
                                                90	
  
          100	
  
                                                                                                                                 100	
                78	
                                                 73	
  
                                                                                                       20	
                                                                                                                    14	
  
                   0	
                                                                                                                    0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                                 Extemely	
       Very	
         Somewhat	
         Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
       Important	
        Important	
  




                                        Quality	
  of	
  public	
  transportation	
                                                                                 Cheaper	
  cost	
  of	
  living	
  
          300	
                                                                                                                  400	
  
                                                                260	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                       314	
  
                                                219	
  
                                                                                                                                 300	
  
          200	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                              Count	
  




                                                                                                                                                                     200	
  
                                                                                                                                 200	
  
                               88	
                                                95	
                                                                                                                   117	
  
          100	
  
                                                                                                                                 100	
  
                                                                                                       25	
                                           38	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18	
  
                   0	
                                                                                                                    0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                                 Extemely	
       Very	
         Somewhat	
         Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
       Important	
        Important	
  




                             Community	
  from	
  home	
  country	
  in	
  new	
  area	
                                                                                Tax	
  advantages	
  
          300	
                                                                                                                  300	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                       258	
  
                                                                239	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                          196	
  
          200	
                                 167	
                                                                            200	
  
                                                                                 163	
  
       Count	
  




                                                                                                                              Count	
  




                                                                                                                                                                     132	
  

          100	
                                                                                        76	
                      100	
                                                                                         67	
  
                               42	
                                                                                                                   34	
  

                   0	
                                                                                                                    0	
  
                            Extemely	
         Very	
        Somewhat	
       Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
                                 Extemely	
       Very	
         Somewhat	
         Not	
  Very	
     Not	
  At	
  All	
  
                           Important	
       Important	
     Important	
     Important	
        Important	
                                       Important	
     Important	
      Important	
       Important	
        Important	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                                         52	
  
                                                                                                     The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                     160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


In order to understand these lifestyle/personal motivations between students who are studying in their home
countries versus students studying abroad, the responses were split based on their current location. In Table 12,
we have recorded the percentage of students who responded to the factors as extremely and very important. As
opposed to the professional factors, students who are currently studying in home countries found almost all
factors more important than students studying in foreign countries. Here the responses were far more similar
between students studying home and away. Eight of twelve factors were reported more important by students
currently studying in their home countries. Our hypothesis is that since most of the student respondents in their
home countries belong to developed countries, they consider lifestyle and standard of living factors as (and in
some cases more) important as professional factors.

                                                 Table	
  12:	
  Personal	
  Factors	
  Based	
  on	
  Location	
  

         Factor/Currently	
  Away	
                                                                          Away	
          Home	
           Total	
  
         Research	
  infrastructure	
  and	
  resources	
  available	
                                       86.6%	
          74.3%	
          79.2%	
  
         Quality	
  of	
  schools	
  for	
  children	
                                                       66.6%	
          68.7%	
          67.8%	
  
         Access	
  to	
  leisure	
  activities/outdoors/sports	
  in	
  any	
  given	
  region	
             62.9%	
          64.1%	
          63.6%	
  
         Cultural	
  or	
  political	
  attributes	
                                                         59.3%	
          64.8%	
          62.6%	
  
         Regional	
  reputation	
                                                                            54.2%	
          51.2%	
          52.4%	
  
         Closeness	
  to	
  home	
  country	
  and/or	
  family	
                                            37.1%	
          54.6%	
          47.6%	
  
         Shorter	
  commute	
  to	
  work	
                                                                  44.4%	
          50.7%	
          48.2%	
  
         Climate	
                                                                                           41.1%	
          42.7%	
          42.1%	
  
         Quality	
  of	
  public	
  transportation	
                                                         66.6%	
          68.7%	
          67.8%	
  
         Cheaper	
  cost	
  of	
  living	
                                                                   37.1%	
          33.0%	
          34.6%	
  
         Community	
  from	
  home	
  country	
  in	
  new	
  area	
                                         28.7%	
          31.6%	
          30.4%	
  
         Tax	
  advantages	
                                                                                 25.1%	
          23.5%	
          24.2%	
  

We also questioned subjects on decisions in relation to their spouses and children (hypothetically if they did not
have any). Of the 687 students who responded to our question on whether they would accept a job in a
country where their spouse was unable to work due to immigration restrictions (Table 13), 48.5% replied
negatively. There was some uncertainty among 43.0% of them, as some replied that they would be willing to
consider it (23.6%), and a smaller percentage were not sure (19.4%). Only a very small percentage of the
replies were affirmative (8.6%).




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                53	
  
                                                                                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  
                                               Table	
  13:	
  Response	
  on	
  Spouse	
  Eligibility	
  Question	
  

                          If	
  you	
  are	
  married	
  or	
  are	
  planning	
  to	
  get	
  married,	
  would	
  you	
  take	
  a	
  job	
  in	
  a	
  country	
  
                                   where	
  your	
  spouse	
  is	
  ineligible	
  to	
  work	
  due	
  to	
  immigration	
  restrictions?	
  

                                                 	
                             Frequency	
                 %	
          Valid	
  %	
        Cumulative	
  %	
  
                        It	
  would	
  not	
  be	
  a	
  problem	
                        59	
             7.2	
              8.6	
                     8.6	
  
                        Would	
  be	
  willing	
  to	
  consider	
  it	
                 162	
            19.9	
             23.6	
                    32.2	
  
                        No	
                                                             333	
            40.9	
             48.5	
                    80.6	
  
                        Not	
  sure	
                                                    133	
            16.3	
             19.4	
                   100.0	
  
                        Valid	
  Total	
                                                 687	
            84.3	
            100.0	
                        	
  
                        Missing	
                                                        128	
            15.7	
                 	
                        	
  
                        Total	
                                                          815	
           100.0	
                 	
                        	
  

Of the 687 students who responded to our question on where they would consider raising their children, a
majority of them (43.5%) expressed that they wanted their children to experience multiple countries
(Table 14). A very few of the subjects (15.4%) wanted to raise their children only in one country (home or any
other).

                                                Table	
  14:	
  Response	
  on	
  Raising	
  Children	
  Question	
  

                  If	
  you	
  have	
  children	
  or	
  are	
  planning	
  to	
  have	
  children,	
  where	
  would	
  you	
  consider	
  raising	
  them?	
  
                                                                                                                                             Valid	
  
                                                        	
                                          Frequency	
                 %	
                           Cumulative	
  %	
  
                                                                                                                                               %	
  
        Solely	
  in	
  my	
  home	
  country	
                                                              92	
           11.3	
            13.4	
                     13.4	
  
        Solely	
  in	
  another	
  country	
                                                                 14	
            1.7	
             2.0	
                     15.4	
  
        Would	
  like	
  my	
  children	
  to	
  experience	
  multiple	
  cultures	
                       299	
           36.7	
            43.5	
                     59.0	
  
        Not	
  sure	
                                                                                       143	
           17.5	
            20.8	
                     79.8	
  
        It	
  doesn’t	
  matter	
                                                                            82	
           10.1	
            11.9	
                     91.7	
  
        N/A	
                                                                                                57	
            7.0	
             8.3	
                    100.0	
  
        Total	
                                                                                             687	
           84.3	
           100.0	
                         	
  
        Missing	
                                                                                           128	
           15.7	
                   	
                      	
  
        Total	
                                                                                             815	
          100.0	
                   	
                      	
  

Recession

We asked students about the implications of the economic downturn on their career pursuit. We asked “If you
are currently studying abroad, does the global economic downturn make it more or less likely that you
will return to your home country?” Out of the 310 responses from students studying abroad, 42.6% felt
that the economic downturn was very or somewhat likely to influence their decision to return to their
home country, whereas only 21.0% said that the economic downturn was somewhat or very unlikely to
affect their decision (Table 15).



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                     54	
  
                                                                                               The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                               160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                              Table	
  15:	
  Response	
  on	
  Returning	
  Home	
  Due	
  to	
  Economic	
  Downturn	
  

                                                   	
             Frequency	
                  Valid	
  %	
           Cumulative	
  %	
  
                         Very	
  Likely	
                                 38	
                    12.3	
                     12.3	
  
                         Somewhat	
  Likely	
                             94	
                    30.3	
                     42.6	
  
                         Neither	
  Likely/Unlikely	
                    113	
                    36.5	
                     79.0	
  
                         Somewhat	
  Unlikely	
                           41	
                    13.2	
                     92.3	
  
                         Very	
  Likely	
                                 24	
                     7.7	
                    100.0	
  
                         Total	
                                         310	
                   100.0	
                         	
  

We also asked the students whether they would work in a foreign country on a temporary visa if they knew that
it would be difficult to gain permanent residency/citizenship. It was interesting to know that 57.9% of them
were very or somewhat likely to still pursue employment in the foreign country (Table 16). Only 21.2% of
the students replied that they were relatively or very unlikely to do so.

                     Table	
  16:	
  Response	
  on	
  Pursuing	
  Employment	
  in	
  Foreign	
  Country	
  where	
  Gaining	
  
                                                   Permanent	
  Residency	
  was	
  Difficult	
  

                                            	
                Frequency	
             %	
            Valid	
  %	
      Cumulative	
  %	
  
                        Very	
  Likely	
                            134	
           16.4	
              19.5	
               19.5	
  
                        Somewhat	
  Likely	
                        264	
           32.4	
              38.4	
               57.9	
  
                        Neither	
  Likely/Unlikely	
                143	
           17.5	
              20.8	
               78.7	
  
                        Relatively	
  Unlikely	
                     99	
           12.1	
              14.4	
               93.2	
  
                        Very	
  Unlikely	
                           47	
            5.8	
               6.8	
              100.0	
  
                        Valid	
  Total	
                            687	
           84.3	
             100.0	
                   	
  
                        Missing	
                                   128	
           15.7	
                  	
                   	
  
                        Total	
                                     815	
          100.0	
                  	
                   	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                          55	
  
                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


	
  

Student	
  Survey	
  Conclusion	
  
As stated above, the hypotheses tested were as follows:

Individual Factors
(1) Language skills affect the decision to migrate.
(2) Language skills affect the determination of destination state.
(3) Marriage and children adversely affect the decision to migrate.
(4) Quality of life at home versus abroad affects the decision to migrate.
(5) Family and social ties in the destination state affect the decision to migrate.

Career-related Factors
(6) Transferability of skills affects the decision to migrate.
(7) Career opportunities in at home versus abroad affect the decision to migrate, including:
    a. Research infrastructure
    b. Room for promotion
    c. Company openness to new ideas and creative problem solving
    d. Caliber of colleagues
    e. Work environment/culture
    f. Possibility of developing long-term business relationships

Government-related Factors
(8) Potential migrants prefer permanent migration opportunities to opportunities for
    temporary migration that restricts the length of their stay.
(9) Reports of visa availability affect the determination to migrate.


Individual	
  Factors	
  
Hypothesis 1: Language skills affect the determination to migrate.
Hypothesis 2: Language skills affect the determination of the destination state.

As stated above, students largely misunderstood the question about native language skills, often listing multiple
languages. The original intention was to correlate this data with the countries listed by students about where
they could migrate and perform professional activities.

Family Ties:

Hypothesis 3: Marriage and children adversely affect the determination to migrate.

It is clear from the survey results that the almost half of the respondents (48.5%) will not consider migrating to
a country if their spouses/to-be spouses are ineligible to work due to immigration restrictions. In this sense,


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
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                                                                       The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                       160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


marriage adversely affects the determination of respondents to migrate but only where immigration
barriers act as an impediment to the spouse. Furthermore, we can infer that if immigration barriers are low and
spouses are in fact allowed to work, this would encourage technology workers to migrate.

Children adversely affect the determination to migrate

We actually got a response that was opposite to what we expected. A vast majority of respondents said that the
option to raise their children in a different culture would be desirable or not figure as a parameter in determining
their intent to migrate. For instance, 43.5% of respondents said that they would be happy to have their children
raised in multiple countries and about 12% of the respondents indicated that this did not figure in their decision
to migrate. Looking at the data, it appears that, at least for the majority of the respondents, having children did
not adversely affect the determination to migrate to a new country for work. It can also be inferred from
the data that the respondents might desire their children to gain citizenship of the country where they are
currently employed.

Respondents were also interested in quality of schools for their children as an important factor in their decision
to migrate.

Hypothesis 4: Quality of life at home versus abroad affects the decision to migrate.

Respondents suggested that gaining a global perspective was a more important reason to pursue education in a
foreign country compared to quality of life in their home country.

We got a sense of lifestyle factors that influence the decision to migrate. Factors such as quality of schools for
children, access to leisure activities and cultural/political attributes of the new place were considered by the
respondents to be very important. Other factors, such as regional reputation, closeness to home country/family,
commute to work, climate and quality of public transportation, were considered important (in the same order) as
well. Surprisingly, cheaper cost of living was not considered as important; similarly tax advantages and
presence of community from the home country did not feature among the top eight factors.

Hypothesis 5: Family and social ties in the destination state affect the determination to migrate to that state.

The majority of the respondents felt that family ties and closeness to their home countries was an
extremely/very important parameter affecting their determination to migrate to a new state. This indicates that
even while highly skilled workers look at various incentives to migrate to a new country, family ties and
closeness to their home country remains an important parameter. A very small percentage of respondents
indicated that this was not in any way an important determinant for them to make a decision. A related survey
question gauged the importance of having a community from the respondent’s home country in proximity to the
respondent’s neighborhood. The results indicated that having such a community would motivate a majority of
the respondents to migrate to the new country; however it may not be among the most important quality of life
factors. One third of students who responded to the survey indicated that having a community from their home
country in the near area would be ‘extremely important’ or ‘very important.’ A higher percentage of students
marked other factors as ‘extremely important’ or ‘very important,’ such as research infrastructure, quality of
schools for children, climate, cultural or political attributes, regional reputation, or access to leisure activities.

	
  


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
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  Fletcher	
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  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



Career-­‐related	
  Factors	
  
Hypothesis 6: Internationally transferable skills affect the determination to migrate.

An overwhelming majority of respondents (97.5%) believes that their skills are transferrable and can be used in
countries outside their current country of education. It can be inferred that transferability of skills does not
adversely affect the determination to migrate.

Hypothesis 7: Career opportunities at home versus abroad affect the decision to migrate, including:

                 a.   Research infrastructure
                 b.   Room for promotion
                 c.   Company openness to new ideas and creative problem solving
                 d.   Caliber of colleagues
                 e.   Work environment/culture
                 f.   Possibility of developing long-term business relationships

Career opportunities in the destination state as compared to the home state affect the determination to migrate,
including: (1) Research infrastructure; (2) Room for promotion; (3) Openness to new ideas; (4) Talented
colleagues; (5) Work environment; and (6) Possibility of continued business relationships after return migration.
Notably, 79.2% of students responded that it would be ‘very important’ or ‘extremely important’ to have
research infrastructure and resources available to them. Please refer to Table 10 for the breakdown of other
responses pertaining to this hypothesis.

It is important to note that non-monetary motivational factors such as openness to new ideas and freedom to
exercise creative problem-solving were rated as more important than earning power and potential for
promotion. These observations can profoundly impact companies’ strategies to attract high-skilled technical
talent.

Government-­‐related	
  Factors	
  
Visa Issues

Hypothesis 8: Potential migrants prefer permanent migration opportunities to opportunities for temporary
              migration that restrict the length of their stay.

This is another hypothesis where intuitive logic did not hold ground in our survey. Traditionally, high skilled
migrant workers from countries such as India and China have made the U.S. their home through permanent
residency or even U.S. citizenship. The permanent residency status especially provides the same employment
mobility and labor protections that are enjoyed by U.S. citizens and is coveted by highly skilled migrant
workers currently in the U.S. on temporary visas such as the H1B visa. Our survey paints a slightly different
picture – only 14.4% of respondents indicated that they would be unwilling to accept a temporary work permit
if they knew that the chances of conversion to permanent residency were slim, whereas nearly 58% stated that
they would either most likely or somewhat likely accept the work position. The rest (21%) were undecided. In
fact, in a separate question that ranked the factors motivating respondents to migrate from their home countries,
‘Earning citizenship of the host country’ came in last in rank of preference. This is contrary to traditional


The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                 58	
  
                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


wisdom and is perhaps a reflection on a younger/more mobile/ single workforce that is flexible in terms of
temporary migration to and from a new country.

Hypothesis 9: Reports of visa availability affect the determination of the destination state.

This survey asks two questions related to visa availability – the first one relates to the openness of respondents
to stay in a country given that chances for permanent residence are slim. Respondents generally seemed open to
relocate to a new destination even though the scope for permanent residency might be low. In response to this
question, 57.9% of respondents said they were very or somewhat likely to still pursue employment in the
foreign country given limited visa availability (Table 16). Only 21.2% of the students replied that they were
relatively or very unlikely to do so. Contrasted with priorities regarding lifestyle choices and employment
benefits, it appears that students may seek employment in a country of choice even if the visa process is
cumbersome or uncertain.

The second question is related to whether respondents would move to a new destination given that their spouses
would be ineligible to work due to immigration restrictions. Almost 50% of the respondents indicated that they
would not migrate to a destination where their spouses cannot work, and only 8.6% indicated that this would not
be a problem. The research team hypothesized that this may be driven by the education-level of the spouses
(i.e. they may also be qualified as “highly skilled workers”), or by the need to have two incomes in a household.
Further research would be needed to identify the motivating factors behind this question.

Qualitative	
  Student	
  Results	
  

Preferred	
  Industries	
  
Students were asked on a volunteer basis to name the top five employers they hoped to work for after
graduation as part of the survey. Of the 754 responses received, 668 were valid, meaning it was clear which
company was indicated by the response. Due to the international nature of this survey and the possibility of
similarities or overlap in company names, it was not possible to precisely identify which company was meant
for 86 of the entries.

85% of respondents hoped to work in what can loosely be termed “traditional” engineering fields such as
software development, computer manufacturing, national labs, universities, and semiconductors. “Traditional”
can be understood as applied or academic posts which directly utilize the skills that engineering programs
disseminate. The remaining 15% of students hoping to work in “non-traditional” fields plan to begin careers in
disciplines such as finance, consulting, and government agencies. These disciplines can be considered “non-
traditional” since there is rarely direct application of the technical skills acquired within engineering programs.




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
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  Fletcher	
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  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                             160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  

Traditional	
  Fields	
  
Of the traditional fields, software development, aerospace and defense, and computer hardware were the most
popular industries in which students hoped to work. Within software development, there were four types of
classifications: entertainment, internet, systems, and applications. Internet software had the highest number of
individual responses (42) followed by systems software (34), application software (9), and home entertainment
software (3). These three sectors account for nearly 40% of total responses and represent 14%, 12%, and 11%
of total responses. When adding in academic positions at universities and jobs in semiconductors (both
accounting for 7% of total responses), these five sectors collectively represent 50% of total responses. The
remaining industries in order of decreasing percentage of total responses include: Consumer
Electronics/Household Appliances, Construction and Farm Machinery/Industrial Machinery, Communications
Equipment/Telecom, Utilities, Electrical Components/Equipment, Healthcare/Pharmaceuticals/Biotech,
Commodity/Diversified Chemicals, Automotive, Miscellaneous (consumer goods, steel, apparel, etc.),
Industrial Conglomerates, Construction and Engineering, National Lab, and Oil and Gas.

                                                       Figure	
  9:	
  Traditional	
  Industries	
  


                                                    Breakdown	
  of	
  Traditional	
  Industries	
  

                                                                                       2%	
  
                                                                                         2%	
  2%	
  
                                                                    14%	
                               3%	
  
                                                                                                             3%	
  
                                                                                                               2%	
  
                                                                                                                     4%	
  

                                                                                                                          4%	
  
                                                     11%	
  

                                                                                                                               5%	
  


                                                                                                                              6%	
  
                                                     12%	
  

                                                                                                                     6%	
  


                                                               7%	
                                         6%	
  

                                                                              7%	
           6%	
  

                           Consumer	
  Electronics	
                                                  Construction/Farm/Industrial	
  Machinery	
  
                           Communications	
  Equipment/Telecom	
                                      Utilities	
  
                           Electrical	
  Components/Equipment	
                                       Healthcare/Pharmaceuticals/Biotech	
  
                           Commodity/Diversiuied	
  Chemicals	
                                       Automotive	
  
                           Miscellaneous	
                                                            Industrial	
  Conglomerates	
  
                           Construction	
  and	
  Engineering	
                                       National	
  Lab	
  
                           Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
                                                        Semiconductors	
  
                           University	
                                                               Computer	
  Hardware	
  
                           Aerospace	
                                                                Software	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                        60	
  
                                                                                                     The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                     160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  

Non-­‐Traditional	
  Fields	
  
Of the students wishing to work in non-traditional fields, consulting is the most popular option at 42% of total
responses followed by government agencies which accounted for 17% of total responses. The remaining fields
in order of decreasing percentage are: finance (15%), multilateral organizations (such as the World Bank,
WHO, UN – 12%), green/environmentally focused firms (6%), NGOs (4%), and entrepreneurship (3%). Within
consulting, a few students mentioned niche consulting firms, but the majority (75%) indicated firms such as
Bain, McKinsey, and BCG. No trends were observed within the type of government agencies preferred by
students though it is interesting to note that of the students who put down a government agency, 65% indicated
U.S. government agencies (as compared to international agency responses).

                                                     Figure	
  10:	
  Non-­Traditional	
  Industries	
  


                                                       Breakdown	
  of	
  Non-­Traditional	
  Industries	
  


                                                                                3%	
  
                                                                                         4%	
  
                                                                                                  6%	
  




                                                                                                             12%	
  
                                                    42%	
  




                                                                                                           15%	
  




                                                                             17%	
  

                                                    Entrepreneur	
                        NGOs	
  
                                                    Green/Environment	
                   Multilateral	
  Organizations	
  
                                                    Finance	
                             Government	
  Agency	
  
                                                    Consulting	
  
                                                                                                                                                     	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                61	
  
                                                                                               The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                               160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  

Top	
  30	
  Preferred	
  Employers	
  
Google is the top employer of choice for students followed by IBM, Microsoft, GE, Boeing, and Lockheed
Martin. In assessing clusters within the top 30 employers shown in the list below, it is clear that computer and
computer-related industries such as internet software, semiconductors, and systems software are the most
popular.

                                                    Table	
  17:	
  Top	
  30	
  Preferred	
  Employers	
  

                Employer	
                              Industry	
                                                     #	
  of	
  Responses	
  
                Google	
                                Internet	
  Software	
  and	
  Services	
                                   36	
  
                IBM	
                                   Computer	
  Hardware	
                                                      28	
  
                Microsoft	
                             Systems	
  Software	
                                                       28	
  
                General	
  Electric	
                   Industrial	
  Conglomerates	
                                               22	
  
                Boeing	
                                Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                               16	
  
                Lockheed	
  Martin	
                    Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                               13	
  
                Intel	
                                 Semiconductors	
                                                            10	
  
                Apple	
                                 Computer	
  Hardware	
                                                       8	
  
                Shell	
                                 Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Equipment	
  and	
  Services	
                          8	
  
                AMEC	
                                  Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Equipment	
  and	
  Services	
                          6	
  
                Airbus	
                                Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                                5	
  
                Honda	
                                 Automobile	
  Manufacturers	
                                                5	
  
                Texas	
  Instruments	
                  Semiconductors	
                                                             5	
  
                Bombardier	
                            Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                                4	
  
                Northrop	
  Grumman	
                   Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                                4	
  
                Bosch	
                                 Consumer	
  Electronics	
                                                    4	
  
                ARUP	
                                  Construction	
  and	
  Engineering	
                                         4	
  
                Siemens	
                               Industrial	
  Conglomerates	
                                                4	
  
                Nvidia	
                                Semiconductors	
                                                             4	
  
                Schlumberger	
                          Oil	
  and	
  Gas	
  Equipment	
  Services	
                                 4	
  
                Rolls	
  Royce	
                        Aerospace	
  and	
  Defense	
                                                3	
  
                General	
  Motors	
                     Automobile	
  Manufacturers	
                                                3	
  
                Tesla	
                                 Automobile	
  Manufacturers	
                                                3	
  
                MDA	
                                   Commodity	
  Chemicals	
                                                     3	
  
                Nokia	
                                 Communications	
  Equipment	
                                                3	
  
                Sony	
                                  Consumer	
  Electronics	
                                                    3	
  
                DuPont	
                                Diversified	
  Chemicals	
                                                   3	
  
                National	
  Instruments	
               Electronic	
  Equipment	
  and	
  Instruments	
                              3	
  



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                          62	
  
                                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


                Qualcomm	
                          Integrated	
  Telecommunication	
  Services	
                           3	
  
                VMWare	
                            Systems	
  Software	
                                                   3	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                 63	
  
                                                                                           The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                           160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  

Results	
  of	
  Company	
  Surveys	
  
There were eighteen respondents to the company survey, which was posted on an online survey website. All
the respondents were engineering, biotechnology, and high-tech companies from the New England area.
Participants were located through employer rankings from BusinessWeek magazine and the Boston Globe.

Hypotheses	
  Relating	
  to	
  Economic	
  Factors	
  
As previously stated, the hypotheses relating to economic factors were as follows:

       (1) The economic downturn has expanded the talent pool available to companies.
       (2) Companies hire foreign labor to work in the U.S. only when the work cannot be done through
           outsourcing or foreign investment.
       (3) Recruitment strategies may have shifted during the economic downturn.

Employee referrals were by far the most utilized method of recruiting highly skilled mobile workers with
seventeen respondents listing it as extremely important or very important. Of the respondents who listed
domestic university recruitment as a recruitment strategy, 12 of the 17 classified it as either extremely or very
important. Interestingly, recruiting at international universities did not receive such a warm reception, with just
five respondents listing it as extremely or very important. Professional contacts at national labs were the second
most popular recruiting strategy with seven responses. Online job searches were unsurprisingly not as well-
received with just five respondents indicating that it was extremely important or very important.

                                    Figure	
  11:	
  Response	
  on	
  Importance	
  of	
  Recruitment	
  Methods	
  




Of the six responses under “other” we received from companies regarding recruitment methods, half of them
mentioned the use of recruiters, one mentioned employee referrals, and the remaining two cited the use of
university relationships. This confirms the prevalence of “third party opinions” as a critical component of hiring
strategies.



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                      64	
  
                                                                                                    The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                    160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Just two firms commented on the issue of employee loyalty to the firm. One mentioned the fact that an
employee had left the firm two years after joining to take a more senior position in his home country. This
indicates an additional area of research that companies could undertake in order to better understand what
incentivizes highly skilled mobile workers to remain loyal to their employers.

With regards to retention strategies, the following table summarizes the individual popularity of certain
methods. Helping employees with their legal status constitute the two most popular retention strategies
employed indicating that highly skilled mobile workers most likely genuinely do want to stay in the country in
which they are working.

                                            Table	
  18:	
  Response	
  on	
  Special	
  Retention	
  Strategies	
  	
  

                      Strategy	
                                                                                  #	
  of	
  Respondents	
  
                      Help	
  paying	
  for	
  I-­‐485	
  (green	
  card	
  )	
  application	
                                 11	
  
                      Sponsorship	
  for	
  permanent	
  residence	
                                                           10	
  
                      Help	
  with	
  language	
  training	
  or	
  cultural	
  adjustment	
                                     9	
  
                      Opportunities	
  to	
  travel	
  home	
  for	
  extended	
  periods	
  of	
  time	
                        7	
  
                      Help	
  finding	
  housing	
                                                                               7	
  

When asked about whether or not the downturn has made it harder to retain foreign labor, all respondents either
said it did so only on a case-by-case basis (6) or indicated that there was no difference (10). Employers also
responded that employees only sometimes go on to start up their own companies, suggesting that
entrepreneurship may not always be a popular exit strategy for highly skilled workers despite their skill sets.
When asked about where they think employees go after leaving a firm, eight respondents listed another firm
within the same geographical area and five listed another firm in a different geographical area.

Sending employees from foreign firms to the US for training appears to happen on an ad-hoc basis with eight
respondents listing that they sometimes sponsor foreign employees from the company in US offices. Five
respondents even indicated that they do this frequently. Companies indicated that it was important to construct
teams from diverse backgrounds. Twelve respondents indicated that this factor is either an important component
of their company’s strategy/beliefs or that it is one factor taken into consideration when forming teams or
groups. Most companies (eleven) mentioned that they believe up to 50% of their total employees are born
outside of the United States. Only three listed a percentage higher than 50%.

Hypotheses	
  Relating	
  to	
  Individual	
  Factors	
  
As previously stated, the hypotheses relating to individual factors were as follows:

     (4)   Language skills affect the decision to hire foreign workers.
     (5)   HSMWs may present a higher turnover problem than domestic workers.
     (6)   Companies will offer help with immigration benefits in an effort to retain foreign labor.
     (7)   Companies value diversity in their workforce.



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                               65	
  
                                                                                               The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                               160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


Employee retention strategies that were listed varied, though many firms did report investing in one or more of
the strategies listed on the questionnaire (i.e. language training, relocation assistance, residency sponsorship,
opportunities to travel home, etc.). An additional strategy added by several respondents was the use of stock
options and compensation in U.S. dollars.

                                                Figure	
  12:	
  Importance	
  of	
  Retention	
  Strategies	
  




Most comments in the “other” section emphasized the occasional and case-by-case basis that is employed in
deciding which strategies to pursue or employ. One employer mentioned that they prefer to hire candidates who
do not require sponsorship. At another firm, employees who request assistance generally receive aid in other
areas, such as finding housing or receiving language training.

Most companies surveyed mentioned the interview and all correspondence (email or telephone) as a means of
gauging a candidate’s language abilities. All eighteen respondents indicated that they used the in-person
interview to gauge an applicant’s ability. One company noted that it asked the applicant’s references for an
assessment of his or her language abilities. If a candidate is found to be lacking in language proficiency, one
company indicated that it would bring in a language coach to rectify the situation. The responses may indicate
that companies are prepared to invest in employees with a weaker command of the language provided they have
a desirable skill set.

Visa and legal issues are overwhelmingly managed by outside counsel hired for this purpose (12 responses). In
addition, many firms (11 responses) have an internal transfer process that allows employees to return to their
home countries after service abroad. Several companies noted the administrative difficulties in sponsoring an
employee for a green card, or the cost of the immigration process. Interestingly, we asked engineers in the
student survey if foreign participants would pursue work on a temporary visa if they knew that it would be
difficult to gain permanent residency/citizenship. 57.9% of students were very or somewhat likely to still pursue
employment in the foreign country (Table 16). Only 21.2% of the students replied that they were relatively or
very unlikely to do so.

Interestingly, the majority of the respondents (nine) indicated that there is no difference in attrition rates
between those who are of foreign origin and those that are from the US. This should be a source of comfort for
companies who question if adjustment to foreign cultures may be the culprit of employees’ decisions to leave.



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                          66	
  
                                                                   The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                   160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


By contrast, when asked about whether or not there have been changes to hiring patterns due to the deteriorating
economic conditions, most answered that there either has been less overall hiring demand, or that things have
remained steady in terms of hiring. Some mentioned that they relied less on search firms but more on employee
referrals. There was also a reported increase in applications from candidates who have unrelated backgrounds
and thus are not competitive in the talent pool. Most employers found that the economic downturn has
periodically made it harder to retain foreign labor. This provides an interesting correlation to the results from
the student survey where, out of the 310 responses from students studying abroad, 42.6% felt that the economic
downturn was very or somewhat likely to influence their decision to return to their home country, whereas only
21.0% said that the economic downturn was somewhat or very unlikely to affect their decision (Table 15).




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                              67	
  
                                                                                                                                         The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                         160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  



	
  
Appendix	
  A:	
  List	
  of	
  Relevant	
  Sources	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Alden,	
  Edward,	
  "Wanted:	
  A	
  Smarter	
  Immigration	
  Policy,	
  "	
  Wall	
  Street	
  Journal,	
  June	
  8,	
  2009.	
  A17.	
  	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Baruch,	
  Y.,	
  P.Budhwar	
  and	
  N.	
  Khatri	
  (2007),	
  “Brain	
  drain:	
  Inclination	
  to	
  stay	
  abroad	
  after	
  studies”,	
  Journal	
  of	
  World	
  
                              Business,	
  42,	
  pp.	
  99-­‐112.	
  Cited	
  in	
  OECD,	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent,	
  2008,	
  p.	
  95.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Beine,	
  M,	
  F.	
  Docquier	
  and	
  H.	
  Rapoport.	
  "Brain	
  Drain	
  and	
  LDC's	
  Growth:	
  Winners	
  and	
  Losers."	
  IZA	
  Discussion	
  Paper,	
  no.	
  
                            819,	
  July.	
  Institute	
  for	
  the	
  Study	
  of	
  Labor,	
  Bonn,	
  2003.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Benton-­‐Short,	
  L.,	
  M.	
  Price,	
  and	
  S.	
  Friedman.	
  “Global	
  Perspective	
  on	
  the	
  Connections	
  between	
  Immigrants	
  and	
  World	
  
                            Cities.”	
  George	
  Washington	
  Center	
  for	
  the	
  Study	
  of	
  Globalization	
  Occasional	
  Paper	
  CSGOP-­‐04-­‐32,	
  George	
  Washington	
  
                            University,	
  Washington,	
  DC	
  	
  (2004).	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Benton-­‐Short,	
  L.,	
  M.	
  D.	
  Price,	
  and	
  S.	
  Friedman.	
  “Globalization	
  from	
  below:	
  the	
  ranking	
  of	
  global	
  immigrant	
  cities.”	
  
                              International	
  Journal	
  of	
  Urban	
  and	
  Regional	
  Research	
  29,	
  no.	
  4	
  (2005):	
  945-­‐959.	
  	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  	
  Canadian	
  Government:	
  Skills	
  Research	
  Initiative.	
  Available	
  online	
  at:	
  http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/eas-­‐
                              aes.nsf/eng/h_ra01877.html	
  	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Canadian	
  Government.	
  “International	
  Mobility	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skilled	
  Workers:	
  A	
  Synthesis	
  of	
  key	
  Findings	
  and	
  Policy	
  
                              Implications.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Public	
  Works	
  and	
  Government	
  Services	
  Canada,	
  April	
  2008.	
  	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Chiswick,	
  Barry	
  R.,	
  and	
  Sarinda	
  Taengnoi.	
  “Occupational	
  Choice	
  of	
  High	
  Skilled	
  Immigrants	
  in	
  the	
  United	
  States.”	
  
                              International	
  Migration	
  45,	
  no.	
  5	
  (2007):	
  3-­‐34.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Collett,	
  Elizabeth.	
  	
  “The	
  Proposed	
  European	
  Blue	
  Card	
  System	
  Arming	
  for	
  the	
  Global	
  War	
  for	
  Talent,”	
  Migration	
  Institute,	
  
                            European	
  Policy	
  Centre,	
  January	
  7,	
  2008.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Docquier,	
  Frederic	
  and	
  Abdeslam	
  Marfoulk.	
  “Measuring	
  the	
  international	
  mobility	
  of	
  skilled	
  workers	
  (1990-­‐2000).”	
  	
  
                              Available	
  at	
  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=625258.	
  Funded	
  by	
  the	
  World	
  Bank.	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Doomernik,	
  Jeroen,	
  Rey	
  Koslowski	
  and	
  Dietrich,	
  Thranhardt,	
  "The	
  Battle	
  for	
  the	
  Brains,	
  Why	
  Immigration	
  Policy	
  is	
  not	
  
                              enough	
  to	
  attract	
  the	
  highly	
  skilled,"	
  March	
  2009,	
  The	
  German	
  Marshall	
  Fund.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Eppinger,	
  Steven	
  D.	
  and	
  Anil	
  Chitkara.	
  “The	
  New	
  Practice	
  of	
  Global	
  Development”	
  (MITSloan	
  Management	
  Review,	
  Vol	
  47	
  
                            No.	
  4,	
  Summer	
  2006).	
  Accessed	
  on	
  July	
  10,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  from	
  sloanreview.mit.edu/.../the-­‐new-­‐practice-­‐of-­‐global-­‐
                            product-­‐development/	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard,	
  "America's	
  Looming	
  Creativity	
  Crisis,	
  Harvard	
  Business	
  Review,	
  October	
  1,	
  2004.	
  	
  
                       	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard,	
  "A	
  Dire	
  Global	
  Imbalance	
  in	
  Creativity,"	
  Financial	
  Times,	
  ft.com,	
  July	
  20,	
  2005.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard	
  L.	
  The	
  Rise	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class:	
  And	
  How	
  It's	
  Transforming	
  Work,	
  Leisure,	
  Community,	
  and	
  Everyday	
  Life.	
  
                            New	
  York,	
  NY:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2002.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
                       -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard	
  L.	
  The	
  Flight	
  of	
  the	
  Creative	
  Class:	
  The	
  New	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent.	
  1st	
  ed.	
  New	
  York:	
  Harper	
  
                            Business,	
  2005.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  




The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                    68	
  
                                                                                                                                      The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                                      160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


               -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard	
  L.	
  Who's	
  Your	
  City?:	
  How	
  the	
  Creative	
  Economy	
  Is	
  Making	
  Where	
  to	
  Live	
  the	
  Most	
  Important	
  Decision	
  of	
  
                      Your	
  Life.	
  New	
  York:	
  Basic	
  Books,	
  2008.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Florida,	
  Richard,	
  “The	
  World	
  is	
  Spiky,”	
  Atlantic	
  Monthly,	
  pp.	
  48	
  –	
  51,	
  October	
  2005.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Friedman,	
  Thomas	
  L.	
  The	
  World	
  Is	
  Flat	
  3.0:	
  A	
  Brief	
  History	
  of	
  the	
  Twenty-­first	
  Century.	
  Picador,	
  2007.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Greenburg,	
  Dan.	
  “Scientists	
  and	
  Engineers	
  in	
  Short	
  Supply?	
  Not	
  Likely.”	
  	
  The	
  Chronicle	
  of	
  Higher	
  Education,	
  March	
  15,	
  
                      2008.	
  	
  Available	
  online	
  at	
  www.chronicle.com.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Heenan,	
  David	
  A.	
  Flight	
  Capital:	
  The	
  Alarming	
  Exodus	
  of	
  America's	
  Best	
  and	
  Brightest.	
  Mountain	
  View,	
  CA:	
  Davies-­‐Black	
  
                      Pub,	
  2005,	
  p.	
  126.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Institute	
  of	
  International	
  Education,	
  Atlas	
  of	
  Student	
  Mobility	
  –	
  France	
  (2004).	
  Available	
  online	
  at	
  
                    <http://www.atlas.iienetwork.org/?p=48034>	
  (accessed	
  2009/07/20).	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Kapur,	
  D.,	
  and	
  J.	
  McHale.	
  Give	
  us	
  your	
  best	
  and	
  brightest:	
  The	
  global	
  hunt	
  for	
  talent	
  and	
  its	
  impact	
  on	
  the	
  developing	
  
                      world.	
  Center	
  for	
  Global	
  Development,	
  2005.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Keidanren,	
  “Kigyo	
  ni	
  okeru	
  Hakushi	
  Katei	
  Shuryosha	
  no	
  Jokyo	
  ni	
  Kansuru	
  Anketo	
  Chosa	
  Kekka	
  [Results	
  of	
  Questionnaire	
  
                      on	
  PhD	
  holders	
  working	
  for	
  private	
  companies].”	
  February	
  2007.	
  Accessed	
  June	
  15,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  at	
  
                      http://www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/2007/020/chosa-­‐kekka.pdf	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Koser,	
  Khalid	
  and	
  John	
  Salt,	
  "The	
  Geography	
  of	
  Highly	
  Skiled	
  International	
  Migration,"	
  International	
  Journal	
  of	
  
                    Population	
  Geography.	
  1997.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Li,	
  Chris,	
  Ginette	
  Gervais	
  and	
  Aurelie	
  Duval.	
  “The	
  Dynamics	
  of	
  Overqualification:	
  Canada’s	
  Underemployed	
  University	
  
                    Graduates.”	
  Ottawa,	
  ON:	
  Minister	
  of	
  Industry	
  Canada,	
  2006.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Meredith,	
  R.,	
  The	
  Elephant	
  and	
  the	
  Dragon:	
  The	
  Rise	
  of	
  India	
  and	
  China	
  and	
  What	
  It	
  Means	
  for	
  All	
  of	
  Us	
  (W.W.	
  Norton	
  &	
  Co.,	
  
                    2008),	
  p.73.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  National	
  Science	
  Board,	
  "The	
  Science	
  and	
  Engineering	
  Workforce:	
  Realizing	
  America's	
  Potential,"	
  August	
  2003.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  OECD,	
  “A	
  Profile	
  of	
  Immigrant	
  Populations	
  in	
  the	
  21st	
  Century:	
  Data	
  from	
  OECD	
  Countries.”	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD,	
  2008.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  OECD,	
  “Trends	
  in	
  International	
  Migration	
  Flows	
  and	
  Stocks	
  1975-­‐2005,”	
  OECD	
  internal	
  working	
  document.	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  
                    OECD,	
  May	
  31,	
  2008.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  OECD,	
  “The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent:	
  Mobility	
  of	
  the	
  Highly	
  Skilled.”	
  Paris,	
  France:	
  OECD,	
  July	
  2008.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Olds,	
  K.	
  “Global	
  Assemblage:	
  Singapore,	
  Foreign	
  Universities,	
  and	
  the	
  Construction	
  of	
  a	
  “Global	
  Education	
  Hub.”	
  World	
  
                    Development	
  35,	
  no.	
  6	
  (2007):	
  960.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Papademetriou,	
  Demetrious	
  and	
  Doris	
  Meissner,	
  et	
  al,	
  "Harnessing	
  the	
  Advantages	
  of	
  Immigration	
  for	
  a	
  21st	
  Century	
  
                    Economy,"	
  May	
  2009,	
  Migration	
  Policy	
  Institute.	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Price,	
  Marie,	
  and	
  Lisa	
  Benton-­‐Short,	
  eds.	
  Migrants	
  to	
  the	
  Metropolis:	
  The	
  Rise	
  of	
  Immigrant	
  Gateway	
  Cities.	
  1st	
  ed.	
  Space,	
  
                    place,	
  and	
  society.	
  Syracuse,	
  N.Y:	
  Syracuse	
  University	
  Press,	
  2008.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Matt	
  Richtel.	
  “Google’s	
  Immigration	
  Fixer,”	
  The	
  New	
  York	
  Times,	
  April	
  13,	
  2009.	
  Accessed	
  on	
  June	
  29,	
  2009.	
  Available	
  at	
  
                    www.nytimes.com.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  



The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                                       69	
  
                                                                                                                           The	
  Fletcher	
  School	
  of	
  Law	
  and	
  Diplomacy	
  
                                                                                                                           160	
  Packard	
  Avenue	
  |	
  Medford,	
  MA	
  02155	
  


               -­‐	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee.	
  The	
  New	
  Argonauts	
  (Cambridge,	
  MA:	
  Harvard	
  University	
  Press,	
  2006).	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee,	
  "From	
  Brain	
  Drain	
  to	
  Brain	
  Circulation,	
  Transnational	
  Communities	
  and	
  Regional	
  Upgrading	
  in	
  India	
  
                    and	
  China,	
  Studies	
  in	
  Comparitive	
  International	
  Development,	
  Fall	
  2005.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee,	
  "The	
  Bangalore	
  Boom:	
  From	
  Brain	
  Drain	
  to	
  Brain	
  Circulation,"	
  in	
  IT	
  Experience	
  in	
  India,	
  Bridging	
  the	
  
                    Digital	
  Divide,	
  eds.,	
  Kenneth	
  Keniston	
  and	
  Deepak	
  Kumar.	
  2004	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee,	
  "Brain	
  Circulation	
  and	
  Capitalist	
  Dynamics:	
  Chinese	
  Chipmaking	
  and	
  the	
  Silicon	
  Valley-­‐Hsinchu-­‐
                      Shanghai	
  Triangle,"	
  in	
  V.	
  Nee	
  and	
  R.	
  Swedberg,	
  eds.	
  The	
  Economic	
  Sociology	
  of	
  Capitalism,	
  Princeton,	
  Princeton	
  
                      University	
  Press,	
  2005.	
  	
  
               	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Saxenian,	
  AnnaLee,	
  "Silicon	
  Valley's	
  High	
  Growth	
  Entrepreneurs,"	
  Economic	
  Growth	
  Quarterly,	
  2002.	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  
               -­‐	
  Sands,	
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The	
  Global	
  Competition	
  for	
  Talent	
                                                                                                                                                     70	
  

				
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