The African American Odyssey African Americans

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The African American Odyssey African Americans Powered By Docstoc
					African Americans and Jim Crow

 1. The action or state of setting
  someone or something apart from other
  people or things or being set apart.
 2. The enforced separation of different
  racial groups in a country, community,
  or establishment

 1. Deny (someone) access to or bar
  (someone) from a place, group, or
 2. Keep (something) out of a place
 Segregation      by custom and
    tradition, if not by law
   Evolved slowly to enforce white control
    – Schools, hospitals, cemeteries segregated
    – Hotels and restaurants discriminated
Segregation-Black reaction

 –Black people acquiesced
   • Churches and social
   • Accepted separate seating in
     places previously closed
   • Segregation better than
Jim Crow

 What   is it? What does it mean?
Jim Crow
   Minstrel show character
    – Thomas ―Daddy‖ Rice, 1830s and
       • performed in black face and
         ridiculed black people
 Segregation of Railroads

 Thefirst segregation laws involved
 passenger trains
  – Tennessee, 1881
  – Florida, 1887
  – Railroads opposed
     • Maintaining separate cars was too expensive
Plessy v. Ferguson
– Louisiana required segregated trains, 1891
  • Railroads and black people object
– Challenged in court
  • Homer A. Plessy
– U.S. Supreme Court,
  • 8-1 decision
  • Upheld state law--segregation--as constitutional,
  • Justice John Marshal Harlan
  • Fourteenth Amendment
     – Jim Crow laws become embedded in southern states
Segregation Proliferates
   Proliferation
    – ―White‖ and ―colored‖ signs
       • Restrooms, drinking fountains
       • Separate Bibles for black and white witnesses
       • Oklahoma required separate phone booths,
       • School textbooks stored in separate facilities
    – ―Separate but equal‖
       • Inferior facilities or no facilities
    Racial Etiquette
   Black and white people did not shake hands
   Black people did not look directly into white peoples’
   Black people stared at the ground to address white
   Black men removed their hats; white men did not
   Black people went to the back door
   Black men or boys must never look at white women
   Black women could not try on clothing in white stores
   White people did not use titles of respect
   White customers always served first
V. Violence

   Rampant political and mob violence
    – Texas 1886
    – The Phoenix Riot, 1898
    – The Wilmington Riot, NC1898
    – The New Orleans Riot, 1900

   (of a mob) Kill (someone), esp. by
    hanging, for an alleged offense with or
    without a legal trial

   3,745 lynchings between 1889 and
    – Most in the South
    – Black men were the usual victims
      • Presumed threat posed to white women
    – Community participation
      • Few denunciations from white leaders

 Women also lynched (less common)
 Marie Scott
 Mary Turner (8months pregnant)
 Abuse and harassment against black
 No statistics
    – But considered more common than lynching
   Black men tried to protect black women
    – Refused to let them work as domestics for
      white men
   White men considered black women
    – Black women were not virtuous
    – Coleman Blease
Day 2
 Late 19th century African Americans
 Ninety percent of black Americans lived in the
  South, 1910
 Emigrants 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s
   – Africa
   – Kansas
   – Oklahoma
   – Arkansas
The Great Migration
   Why migrate?
    – Southern agricultural disasters, 1910s
    – Labor shortages during World War I
    – To escape the most blatant Jim Crow laws
    – Bleak culture of rural South
   Destinations
    – Most went to Midwest or northeastern
       • Few went west
Northern Communities
   Segregation usually less overt
    – Embraced Jim Crow
       • Southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
    – Chicago
    – Harlem
       • ―Negro Capital of the World‖
Migration of the Negro, Panel 1,
by Jacob Lawrence
   Jacob Lawrence (1917–2000) never
    finished high school and had little formal
    training as an artist. But he had an abiding
    interest in the lives and history of African
    Americans. He painted sixty panels
    depicting the migration of black people from
    the South to the North. In Migration of the
    Negro, Panel 1 (1940–41) he shows black
    Southerners bound for northern cities.
Distribution of the African-
American Population in 1920
    Migration strained families
The Liberian Exodus

   ―Liberia Fever‖
    – Liberian Exodus Joint Stock Company
    The Exodusters

   Western migration
    – Encouraged by the Homestead Act and railroads
    – Between 1865-1880
       • All black towns in Kansas, Nebraska, Indian territory
   Southern migration
    – Many black people moved to southern villages
       • Urban areas offered more economic opportunities
The Buffalo Soldiers

   Combat
    – Black soldiers used to subdue Red people
   Civilian hostility to black soldiers
Red Versus Black:
The Buffalo Soldiers
   Army Reorganization Act of 1869
      • Western frontier fighting the Plains Indians
      • Segregated units
         – Poor equipment, inferior food, inadequate housing
            » Less likely to desert or use alcohol
            » Developed immense pride as professional
            » Plains Indians associated black soldiers with
The Black Cowboys

   5,000 black cowboys
    – Rode herds
    – Cattle drives to Kansas, Nebraska, and
Education and Schools

 Debate over type of education for
  African Americans
 Academic vs. skill based
Education and Schools
 Booker T. Washington
- Hampton Normal and Ag. Inst.
- ―Pull yourself up by your own
 W. E. B. Du Bois
    – Niagara Movement
    – NAACP
    – Talented Tenth
Washington and Tuskegee

   Booker T. Washington
   Supported industrial training
    – Hampton graduate
    – Born a slave, 1856
    – Founded Tuskegee Institute, 1881
       • Accepted segregation—for now
       • Stressed learning a skill
           – industrial-agricultural would earn respect and

 Gained   white people’s support and
  – Power and influence
    • In black communities
    • White businessmen
    • Trusted his judgment and advice
Critics of Washington

 – Trained black people for lives of labor
 – Education more than acquisition of skills
 – DuBois
The Tuskegee Machine
   Booker T. Washington as a political figure
    – Connections
       • Theodore Roosevelt
           – Invited Washington to dinner at the White House
           – Regularly consulted each other on political
    – Behind-the-scenes political activities
    – Conservative leader
       • Did not challenge white supremacy
           – Accepted equitable voting qualifications
           – Opposed women’s suffrage
    – National Negro Business League
    W. E. B. Du Bois
   William Edward Burghardt Du Bois
      • Born and raised in Great Barrington,
         – Little overt racism
      • Fisk University
      • Harvard University
         – Earned Ph.D. in 1895
      • Activist
      • The Souls of Black Folk
      • Critical of Washington’s gradualism
Du Bois and The Crisis

  The Crisis
    • NAACP publication
       – Denounced white racism
       – Demanded that black people stand up for civil rights
       – Did not provoke violence
           » Would not tolerate mistreatment
    • Propaganda tool
       – 30,000 subscribers, 1913
The Niagara Movement
   Niagara Falls, 1905
    – Emphatic and continual protest
       • Political rights
       • Equal treatment in public places
       • Discrimination in military
    – Booker T. Washington
       • Opposed
 Founded 1909
 No direct link with Niagara Movement
 Militant organization during the early
    – Dedicated to racial justice
    – White leaders dominated and financed
      • Oswald Garrison Villard
Using the System
   Full political and civil rights
    – Relied on judicial and legislative systems
       • Lawsuits and bill
Washington versus the NAACP
 Many NAACP leaders despised
 Washington
    – His followers returned the feelings
    – Worked to subvert the NAACP
    – Saw Du Bois as a puppet for white people
      • Refused to debate him
      • Manipulated white supremacists
The Urban League
   Social welfare organization
    – Founded in New York, 1910
    – Black and white progressives
Church and Religion

   Baptist was largest denomination
    – More autonomy
       • Less supervision from church hierarchy
   Churches
    – Opportunity free from white interference
    – Sanctuary for black women
    African Americans
    in the Navy
   More unappealing than the army
    – Black sailors represented ten percent
    – Integrated ships
      • White sailors
         – Refused to eat, bunk, or take orders from
           black men
         – Black men stoked boilers, cooked, and
           served food
The Spanish-American War
   Political, economic, military expansion
    – Latin America and Pacific
       • Spanish-American War, 1898
          –   Thousands of black enlistments
          –   First-time black officers led in combat
          –   Most black units not used in combat
          –   San Juan and Kettle Hills
                » See VOICES
       • After war
          – Black men worked in hospitals
          – Built roads and schools
          – Lack of Jim Crow laws
Black Entrepreneurs

   Black businesses
    – Banks, newspapers, insurance companies,
      • Maggie Lena Walker
      • Madam C. J. Walker
    – Business failures
      • Too dependent on poor, black people
      • Difficult to obtain financing
African Americans and Labor

   Black men worked in factories, mines,
    and mills
    – Usually paid less than white men
    – White men claimed blacks robbed them of
   Black women worked for white families
    – Cooks, laundresses, and maids
   Often excluded black men in late 19th century
    – Knights of Labor, 1869
       • Open to black men and women
    – American Federation of Labor, 1886
       • Barred women and black tradesmen
    – United Mine Workers, 1890
       • Encouraged black coal miners to join
    – The Industrial Workers of the World, 1905
       • Encouraged black coal miners to join
    – National Colored Labor Union, 1869

   Late 19th and early 20th century
    – Most strikes failed
       • Strikebreakers
       • Government support for management
          – Nashville dockyards, 1871
          – Washer Women’s Association of Atlanta
    Black Professionals
   Strictly segregated
    – Medicine
       • Barred from AMA
          – National Medical Association, 1895
    – Black nurses
       • Inappropriate profession for black women
          – Considered domestics, not trained professionals
    – Law
       • Permitted to practice in court
          – Barred from ABA
   Ragtime, jazz, and blues
    – Obscure roots
   Ragtime
    – Composed for piano
   Jazz
    – Not composed and not confined to piano
   Blues
    – The music of poor, black southerners
   Boxing
    – No official prohibition
       • Jack Johnson
   Baseball
    – Both blacks and whites played after the Civil War
       • Moses Fleetwood Walker
   Basketball
    – Black children played in organized YMCA games,
   College Athletics
    – Black students not allowed to participate
XIV. Conclusion

 Jim Crow
 Black military service
 Black institutions
    – Served black communities
    – Did not abuse, mistreat, or ridicule patrons