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UNDERGROUND BLASTING

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UNDERGROUND BLASTING Powered By Docstoc
					HAVING FUN
          Underground Blasting
•   Specifications
•   Rock Conditions
•   Explosives
•   Round Design
                    Specifications
• Safety
  –   Clearing and Guarding
  –   Storage, Transportation, & Inventory
  –   MSDS program
  –   Lightning monitoring & Evacuation
  –   Misfires & Cut off handling
  –   Plan for fire fighting
  –   Plan for responsibilities for all personnel involved with day
      to day explosives operations
               SPECIFICATIONS
• BLAST PLAN
  – CONTROLLED BLAST TECHNIQUE (HOLE LOCATION, SPACING,
    DIAMETER, LOADING DETAILS, FULL FACE ROUNDS, SLASH
    ROUNDS, HOLE THRU ROUNDS)
  – DETAILS OF EXPLOSIVE TYPE, AMOUNTS, INITIATION,
    PRIMING, DELAY PERIODS, STEMMING TYPES, CHARGE
    WEIGHTS
  – DETAILS OF BLAST MONITORING EQUIPMENT, TRAINING
  – DETAILS OF DRILLING EQUIPMENT, ALIGNMENT TECHNIQUES,
    AND CONTROL OF OVER DRILLING
  – HOLE CHARGING METHODS
  – INITIATION SYSTEM HOOK UP
  – PLAN FOR SPILL PREVENTION (EXPLOSIVES OR DRILLING
    FLUIDS)
  – CONSULTANTS
  – HRS OF BLASTING
                Rock Conditions
• Massive
  – defined break, good presplit, minimal ground support
• Layered
  – sedimentary, energy loss, cutoffs
• Seamy with Slips
  – Weathering, faulting, gouging, cutoffs
• Soft / Spongy
  – Sandstone, saprolite
• Wet / Dry
  – Will determine powder cost and advance rate
                      Explosives

•   Stick Powder
•   Bulk Explosives
•   Detonators
•   Storage
                    Stick Powder
• Dynamites
  –   Wide range of densities
  –   Wide range of packaging
  –   Wide range of dimensions
  –   Water resistance is good
  –   Fumes are not good
• Emulsions
  –   Wide range of densities but les than dynamites
  –   Wide range of packaging
  –   Wide range of dimensions
  –   Water resistance is good
  –   Fumes are not good
                 Bulk Explosives
• Anfo
  – Ammonia nitrate and fuel oil blend
     • Cheap, storage is easier, breaks good
     • Bulk Loading, Storage, poured, pumped, augered
     • Does not mix with water
     • Can be blended hot or cold
• Slurry
  – Oxidized solution of ammonia nitrate
     • Cheap, storage is easier, breaks good
     • Bulk Loading, Storage, poured, pumped, augered
     • Does mix with water
     • Can be blended hot or cold
                      Detonators
• Blasting Caps
  – Nonel (LP, MS) (Lengths, delay periods)
  – Electric initiation
• Boosters (cast, stingers, slip on)
  – High explosives
  – Gets the column of explosives moving
  – Used in vertical holes mostly
• Detonating Cords
  – High Explosives to initiate timing devices
  – Cords burn at 40,000 fps
                          Storage
• FEDS – STATE
  –   FEDERAL (ATF)
  –   STATE (Department of labor)
  –   LOCAL (Fire Marshal and Police)
  –   Community (They usually know the job better than we do)
• MAGAZINES
  – Scaled Distance (From Highways, Schools, ETC., buildings)
  – Quanity per magazine / Distance between magazines
  – Deliveries (neighborhoods, boats, Coast Guard)
                Round Design
•   Cross Section
•   Round Design
•   Round Length
•   Quantity
                  Cross Section

• Full Face
  – Horseshoe, Modified Horseshoe, Arch & Vertical Sidewalls
• Center Cut and Slash
  – Dimensions of Slash and Leads
• Top Heading and Bench
  – Dimensions of TH & BB
• Pilot Tunnel
  – Drive Pilot for design and geologic mapping
                   Round Design
• Holes per round
  – DLF / NCY or HOLES / SF +/- 2.5 ‘ PATTERN
• Burn holes per round
  – Do not cheat = Low vibration, Good snap break, Dollars
• Perimeter Holes
  – Safety, 10% OB = 50% more Concrete
• Lifter Holes
  – Ease of mucking, key to RAT
• Hole Diameter
  – Powder dimensions, Drill Production, Cleanliness of holes
                     Round Length
• Per Specification
  – Spec will call out round length, contractors choice
• Test Rounds
  – Verification for designer / owner
• Lbs per cubic yard
  – High = sm x section
  – Low = lg x section
  – Overall = Loading technique
• Loadability
  – Cleanliness of holes / Blowing holes
  – Packaging for explosives
                        Quantify
• Total drilled linear ft
   – 750 ft per round x rounds = total dlf (dollars)
• Total time of drilling
   – 3.2 hrs per round x rounds = days, shifts, wks (dollars)
• Consumables
   – Drill bits and steel = 750 ft per round x 300 rnds = 225,000
     dlf x .45 = $101,250
   – Drill repair = 225,000 dlf x 1.00 = $225,000
   – Explosives = 5000 lf of tunnel x 7.25 ncy per ft x $20.00 per
     ncy = $725,000
Any Questions ?
                                                Biography
•   Ken Quintana / 51 years old

•   My wife Karen and I have been married for 25 years, we have 2 daughters, one graduated from the
    University of San Diego this past year and the other is a freshman at the University of Nebraska.

•   I finished High School and went underground with my family for the summer and never to return.

•   I have come up through the ranks and, and feel very fortunate to have spent the majority of my career
    with t he Kiewit Company (Not the biggest just the Best)

•   I have 33 years of Tunneling and Mining experience, and would not trade this experience for any other
    occupation in the world. Although a fly by in an F-17 or a dive in a Submarine would be cool.

•   I have worked in 14 states, and have never been in a town that I didn’t like. I feel our family is stronger
    due to the travel.

•   I have 25 miles of Tunnel Boring Experience.

•   I have 28,000 ft of Drill and Blast experience.

•   I have 3000 VF of Shaft experience.

•   So, do not call me an expert, I am just a person who has made all the mistakes first.

				
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