HAVING FUN Underground Blasting • Specifications • Rock Conditions • Explosives • Round Design Specifications • Safety – Clearing and Guarding – Storage, Transportation, & Inventory – MSDS program – Lightning monitoring & Evacuation – Misfires & Cut off handling – Plan for fire fighting – Plan for responsibilities for all personnel involved with day to day explosives operations SPECIFICATIONS • BLAST PLAN – CONTROLLED BLAST TECHNIQUE (HOLE LOCATION, SPACING, DIAMETER, LOADING DETAILS, FULL FACE ROUNDS, SLASH ROUNDS, HOLE THRU ROUNDS) – DETAILS OF EXPLOSIVE TYPE, AMOUNTS, INITIATION, PRIMING, DELAY PERIODS, STEMMING TYPES, CHARGE WEIGHTS – DETAILS OF BLAST MONITORING EQUIPMENT, TRAINING – DETAILS OF DRILLING EQUIPMENT, ALIGNMENT TECHNIQUES, AND CONTROL OF OVER DRILLING – HOLE CHARGING METHODS – INITIATION SYSTEM HOOK UP – PLAN FOR SPILL PREVENTION (EXPLOSIVES OR DRILLING FLUIDS) – CONSULTANTS – HRS OF BLASTING Rock Conditions • Massive – defined break, good presplit, minimal ground support • Layered – sedimentary, energy loss, cutoffs • Seamy with Slips – Weathering, faulting, gouging, cutoffs • Soft / Spongy – Sandstone, saprolite • Wet / Dry – Will determine powder cost and advance rate Explosives • Stick Powder • Bulk Explosives • Detonators • Storage Stick Powder • Dynamites – Wide range of densities – Wide range of packaging – Wide range of dimensions – Water resistance is good – Fumes are not good • Emulsions – Wide range of densities but les than dynamites – Wide range of packaging – Wide range of dimensions – Water resistance is good – Fumes are not good Bulk Explosives • Anfo – Ammonia nitrate and fuel oil blend • Cheap, storage is easier, breaks good • Bulk Loading, Storage, poured, pumped, augered • Does not mix with water • Can be blended hot or cold • Slurry – Oxidized solution of ammonia nitrate • Cheap, storage is easier, breaks good • Bulk Loading, Storage, poured, pumped, augered • Does mix with water • Can be blended hot or cold Detonators • Blasting Caps – Nonel (LP, MS) (Lengths, delay periods) – Electric initiation • Boosters (cast, stingers, slip on) – High explosives – Gets the column of explosives moving – Used in vertical holes mostly • Detonating Cords – High Explosives to initiate timing devices – Cords burn at 40,000 fps Storage • FEDS – STATE – FEDERAL (ATF) – STATE (Department of labor) – LOCAL (Fire Marshal and Police) – Community (They usually know the job better than we do) • MAGAZINES – Scaled Distance (From Highways, Schools, ETC., buildings) – Quanity per magazine / Distance between magazines – Deliveries (neighborhoods, boats, Coast Guard) Round Design • Cross Section • Round Design • Round Length • Quantity Cross Section • Full Face – Horseshoe, Modified Horseshoe, Arch & Vertical Sidewalls • Center Cut and Slash – Dimensions of Slash and Leads • Top Heading and Bench – Dimensions of TH & BB • Pilot Tunnel – Drive Pilot for design and geologic mapping Round Design • Holes per round – DLF / NCY or HOLES / SF +/- 2.5 ‘ PATTERN • Burn holes per round – Do not cheat = Low vibration, Good snap break, Dollars • Perimeter Holes – Safety, 10% OB = 50% more Concrete • Lifter Holes – Ease of mucking, key to RAT • Hole Diameter – Powder dimensions, Drill Production, Cleanliness of holes Round Length • Per Specification – Spec will call out round length, contractors choice • Test Rounds – Verification for designer / owner • Lbs per cubic yard – High = sm x section – Low = lg x section – Overall = Loading technique • Loadability – Cleanliness of holes / Blowing holes – Packaging for explosives Quantify • Total drilled linear ft – 750 ft per round x rounds = total dlf (dollars) • Total time of drilling – 3.2 hrs per round x rounds = days, shifts, wks (dollars) • Consumables – Drill bits and steel = 750 ft per round x 300 rnds = 225,000 dlf x .45 = $101,250 – Drill repair = 225,000 dlf x 1.00 = $225,000 – Explosives = 5000 lf of tunnel x 7.25 ncy per ft x $20.00 per ncy = $725,000 Any Questions ? Biography • Ken Quintana / 51 years old • My wife Karen and I have been married for 25 years, we have 2 daughters, one graduated from the University of San Diego this past year and the other is a freshman at the University of Nebraska. • I finished High School and went underground with my family for the summer and never to return. • I have come up through the ranks and, and feel very fortunate to have spent the majority of my career with t he Kiewit Company (Not the biggest just the Best) • I have 33 years of Tunneling and Mining experience, and would not trade this experience for any other occupation in the world. Although a fly by in an F-17 or a dive in a Submarine would be cool. • I have worked in 14 states, and have never been in a town that I didn’t like. I feel our family is stronger due to the travel. • I have 25 miles of Tunnel Boring Experience. • I have 28,000 ft of Drill and Blast experience. • I have 3000 VF of Shaft experience. • So, do not call me an expert, I am just a person who has made all the mistakes first.