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									 Conquering Space and
Domesticating Sam Patch:
Expansion and The Market
• Discuss the impact of territorial expansion on national unity
  between 1800 and 1850. (97)
• The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the
  era of the “common man.” To what extent did the period live up
  to its characterization? Consider the following in your response:
  Economic development, Politics, Reform movements (01)
• In what ways did developments in transportation bring
  about economic and social change in the US in the period
  1820 to 1860? (03)
• Developments in transportation, rather than in manufacturing
  and agriculture, sparked American economic growth in the first
  half of the nineteenth century. Assess the validity of this
  statement. (89)
• In the period 1815 to 1860, improvements in transportation and
  increased inter-regional trade should have united Americans,
  but instead produced sectional division and finally disunion.
  Discuss with reference to the impact of improved transportation
  and increased inter-regional trade on the Northeast (New
  England and Middle Atlantic states), the South, and the West.
• Discuss the impact of the “transportation revolution,” 1820 –
  1860, on the U.S. (73)
      I. Population Growth and
         Westward Expansion
• Am pop. doubled every 23 years
  – 1790: 4 million   1810: 7 million
• Overwhelmingly agrarian: to maintain
  standard of living, had to improve ag.
  tech or double acreage
  – Tech not keeping pace westward
• 1790-1810: needed to bring in as much land as
  had in all period before
  – 1810: 1 in 7 West of Appalachians
  – 1840: 1 in 3
• Louisiana Purchase vital (doubles size US)
• Most migrants native born, lower middle class
• Tend to move due West (NE to Midwest, S to
  lower Midwest and SW)
• Fed. gov wanted rapid settlement for $: required
  full payment in cash speculators buy up vast
• Squatters doing most of farming pre-emption
  law (1841): allows squatters to buy at low cost
               Images of Life
• 1) “Little House on the Prairie”:
  independent, self-sufficient, isolated
  homesteads but brought together
  for communal activities
• 2) Clint Eastwood: instability,
  constant motion no real
  community; fed by “strip-farming”:
  belief that resources unlimited;
  general rudeness and violence
   – Reality somewhere in between: most
     worked/wanted to replicate old lives
    II. Dispossession of Indians
         A. Legacy of War of 1812
• Collapse of Tecumseh’s pan-Indianism
  (Battle of Thames, War of 1812)
  Indians no longer able to effectively
  resist white settlement
• 1817-18: First Seminole War: Andrew
  Jackson invades Florida to attack
  Seminoles Adams-Onis Treaty ceding
  Florida to US
  – AJ exceeds order: hunts down Indians
  B. Five Civilized Tribes and the
           Trail of Tears
• Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw,
  Seminole: largely assimilated
• Farmers, built schools, developed alphabet,
  published newspapers, conversion, tribal
  Constitution based on US
• Integration into market economy
  dependence (debt + alcohol) facilitates
  removal (sell lands, socio-cultural disruption,
  pop decline)
  – War, disease, malnutrition 50% decline
• Logic of Fed Indian policy
  should have left alone, but
  own valuable lands + gov’t
  protects/supports whites
  (even illegal settlers)
• 1830: Georgia throws them
• AJ: Removal Bill of 1830:
  resettle all tribes west of
  Miss. racial rationale
  – 1824: Monroe suggests
    removal as protection
  – Not just AJ: before + after
• Cherokees sue Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
  and Worcester v. Georgia (1832): Marshall rules
  Indians cannot be removed
• AJ: “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him
  enforce it.”
• 1831-1838: Indians removed
• 1838: Cherokee Trail of Tears: forced march to
  Oklahoma ¼ die
• 1844: 3 of 4 Indians removed to West
  III. Transportation Revolution
• Poor transportation obstacle to migration:
  cost transport wheat KY to NYC 3x price
  of sale
  – Cheaper ship PhilaLondon than
• 1815: John C. Calhoun (SC): “Let us
  conquer space”
• 4 Major stages
             A. Turnpikes
• Paved roads, built by states + private
• Most connected Eastern cities
  – But, National Road
• Poor quality, expensive
             B. Steamboats
• Esp. impacted Miss +
  tributaries (Ohio)
• Transport at 1/10 cost
• Dangerous: snags,
  explosions, run
                   C. Canals
• Boom 1820s + ’30s
   – Erie Canal (1825): Buffalo to Albany; NY Gov. DeWitt
   – Major expenditures by states: 3/4 of $200 million from
     1815-1840s; far more than Fed
• Cost reduced 20¢ to 1¢ (1 ton Buffalo NYC)
• Eventually water system linking NYC to New Orleans
• Enormous impacts
   – Canal towns:
     industry, pop.
     growth, social
     change, alcohol
   – Midwest: greater
     access resources +
     needs eastern
     industry +tech 
• Canal boom short
  lived: overtaken by…
            D. Railroads
• 1830: National system begun Baltimore
  and Ohio RxR (13 miles)
• 1840: 3328 miles (2x track in Europe)
• 1850: 9000 miles (majority in N)
• Biggest jump transport exp. (speed) in
  Am. history: 4 mph to 40/50
• Annihilated space + time (time zones)
• Uniquely adapted to size US
   IV. Market Revolution and the
       Machine in the Garden
           A. Agrarian Revolution
• Transport rev. bound growing nation
  econ. transformation: western farmers
  switch subsistence to commercial:
  specialization, orient to profit, mechanize
  – NE + Mid Atlantic: terrain unable use
    machines move West, move cities, or dairy
    + fruit farmers
  – 1820: 1/3 all food for market; 1850: 50+%
• South: cotton gin (1793) + northern industry
  (1820s) cotton
• South most tied inter’l markets, but least
  affected internally: depended on outsiders for
  marketing + financing, capital tied up in land and
  esp. slaves colonial economy
• Southerners profit motivated, but slavery made
  “peculiar system”
         Ambivalence to Revolution:
• Huck Finn: steamboat destroys idyllic life on raft
• Escape to Walden Pond: Henry David Thoreau
  and Transcendentalists
• Death knell of Jeffersonian yeoman farmers
   – 1800: 6 of 7 workers farmers
   – 1860: 50% farmers
   – 1990: 1.6%
• But, “machine happy”: boom in “labor saving
  devices” (mechanical apple peelers)
     B. The American System
• “Borrowed” early British
  – 1790 Samuel Slater textile mill
• Eli Whitney: precision
  machinery for interchangeable
  parts (firearms, cotton gin)
  American system: machines
  make machines consumer
  items (clocks, watches, sewing
• Mechanized industry social
  restructuring: replace “putting
  out” system w/centralized
• Francis Cabot Lowell (1813),
  power loom (water): Lowell,
   – Boston Manufacturing
     Company: Waltham, Mass.
• 1817: 4 million yards cotton
  cloth; 1840: 323 million
• 1840: 80,000 workers (50+%
   – Huge impact on South King
        C. Taming Sam Patch
• Difficulty of factory: pre-industrial sense of time
   – 1st clocks only had hour hand; 1830s 1st mass-
     produced home clocks
• Rhythmic, seasonal, nature, task not clock
  Saint Monday
• Rich variety of entertainments (that then
  affected work): Alcohol, dancing, athletics,
  horse races, circuses, magic, balloons, Sam
   – Left work when these options available
• Patch a highly-skilled mill worker,
  jumped off of things: bridges, flag
  poles, waterfalls (Niagara twice)
• Working class hero: “possession of
  an art made a man independent and
  useful and, therefore, the sovereign
  equal of any other man”
• Middle class threat: reason to fear full
  democracy, undermined beauty of
  nature (Hudson River School),
  passed laws against jumping
   – 6 November 1829: Upper Falls of the
     Genesee in Rochester, New York (100
     ft), accompanied by a pet bear
   – Friday 13th: same jump, no bear, dies,
     age 30
• Changed through: incentives + institutions:
  church (2nd Great Awakening: temperance,
  hard work, perseverance), schools (tech., time
  discipline), local gov’t (police)
• 1827, Lynn, MA: Society for the Promotion of
  Industry, Frugality, and Temperance: hiring
  pact, boycotts, by-laws, truant officers,
  ministers alter personality entire class to
  further capitalist goals
• Successful? 2 measures: 1) liquor and 2)
  – 1800-1860: avg. # kids 7 5.2
  – Less sex (no new birth control), less alcohol, kids
    econ drain in industrial society, some honestly

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