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Aquaculture

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 30

									The Drought Crisis and Impact in
         Agriculture
1992
2003
1992




2003
   Zones for SAGAR productivity data (called CADERs)




DDR 148

DR-018

DR-041
Agricultural Year
  2003-2004
 AREA UNDER IRRIGATION DURING
THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004



IRRIGATION      IRRIGTED     WITH      WITH WELLS
 DISTRICT         AREA     RESERVOIR   URDERALES
                  (has)       (has)       (has)

018, Colonias    18,000     18,000         -
Yaquis


                     250 MCM
 AREA WHITH IRRIGATION DURING
THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004



IRRIGATION       IRRIGTED   IRRIGATED      AREA
 DISTRICT          AREA       AREA       WITHOUT
                   (has)       (has)    IRRIGATION
                                           (has)
041, Río yaqui   206,000     47,000      159,000
                              23 %         77 %
  AVAILABLE VOLUME OF
WATER AT OCTOBER 1ST, 2003

IRRIGATION   SURFACE   GROUNDWATE   TOTAL
 DISTRICT     WATER        R        (MCM)
    041       (MCM)       (MCM)




 TOTAL        0.00       400.00     400.00
            Water

The criteria to decide who will
 receive water from the public
 well is based on distance
 from the well, in order to
 minimize conduction losses.
                    Water
This year’s water allocation on
 average is 8.5 mm3*

Will vary depending on crops
* mm3 = millares de metros cubicos = thousand
  cubic meters
                  Water
• During 1999, 2000 and 2001 the price of
  water remained stable at 50 pesos / MM3

• On 2002-2003 the price of water increased
  to 65 pesos / MM3.

• On 2003-2004 the price of water increased
  to 130 pesos/ MM3
Main Yaqui Valley Crops
           2001-2002 2002-2003
Wheat        190,718 179,000
Safflower      2,066    25,000
Garbanzo       5,313     8,000
Maize         16,502    24,000
Vegetables     9,439    10,000
Cotton           460     5,000
  CROP PATTERN FOR THE
AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004.
             CROP   AREA (HECTARES)
  Corn                   15,000
  Wheat
  Oilseeds               14,000
  Vegetables             11,000
  Beans
  Potatoes
  Garbanzo
  Grass
  Alfalfa                4,500
  Fruits                 2,500
  TOTAL                 47,000
                 UCAY
              Farmers Union
        30,000 hectares in 2002-2003
         5,000 hectares in 2003-2004
                   16.6%

They have 31 wells for 3,100 hectares the
 difference in water requirements they intend
 to purchase from the SRL.
UCAY
CROPS

 Maize
 Cotton
 Wheat
Safflower
                AOASS
      Program for rain fed agriculture
       If there are good winter rains

Government to provide seed and fertilizer for
           Safflower and Canola
      ECONOMIC SECTORS
    AFFECTED BY DROUGHT.
    SECTOR           EFFECT                   ECONOMIC
                                               IMPACT

               NO IRRIGATION IN MORE      168 MILLION DOLLARS
AGRICULTURAL   THAN 160,000 HECTARES.     (SOURCE: TASK FORCE OF
                                          DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN
                                          THE YAQUI BASIN)
               NO GENERATION OF 275,000   12 MILLION DOLLARS.
ENERGY         MW, WITH                   (SOURCE: C.F.E)
 (C.F.E)       HYDROELECTRIC PLANT.

               “MEXICANA DEL COBRE”       48,000 DOLLARS/HOUR
INDUSTRIAL     MINER.                     (SOURCE: MINERA MEXICANA
                                          DEL COBRE)
   Organization that Depend on
     Farmer’s Planting Fees
• PIEAES (Patronato para la Investigacion y
  Experimentacion Agricola del Estado de
  Sonora).
• SRL (Sociedad de Responsabilidad
  Limitada).
• JLSV (Junta Local de Sanidad Vegetal)
• Modulos de Riego
• Fondos de Aseguramiento
 Other Organizations Affected by
          the Drought
• Livestock sector will have to bring grain
  from overseas or other regions of Mexico.

• ProAOASS marketing arm of the farmers
  association has contracts in Guaymas and
  Hermosillo to be able to keep it’s markets in
  Algeria, Peru and Venezuela, 300 thousand
  tons. + 450 thousand for national market.
           Short Term Actions
• Support crops with low water requirement
• Special support for environmental conservation.
• Better access to credit.
• Crop price supports
• Program for Order and Control (unique planting
  and irrigation permits).
• Technical assistance for irrigation and agriculture
• Training and extension
           Short Term Actions
• Develop estimates of water availability
• Development of a cropping and irrigation plan.
• Compaction of agricultural land.
• Reduction in the use of water for nonessential uses
• Media campaign for water saving in the
  agriculture, urban and industrial sectors.
• Temporal employment in the Valley.
          Long Term Actions
• Support research that can help reduce the drought
  problems.
• Strategies for changing crop patterns.
• Support greenhouses.
• Programs for water conservation.
• Programs for forest management
• Model for planning and managing surface water
• Model for planning and managing aquifer water
           Long Term Actions
• Determine the demand for water in the
  agricultural, urban and industrial sectors for the
  next 20 years.
• Determine drought indexes for each hydrologic
  watershed.
• Regulations for the operation of the reservoir
  system and for the aquifer.
Agricultural Year
  2002-2003
           Summer Crops
• 2003 summer only 12,684 has including
  perennials. Only 42% annual crops.
                        Wheat
  Diseases problems, leaf rust
• Y2002-2003 About 146,799 has, or 82% of the
  area sprayed with fungicide in Yaqui.
• Folicur 620 pesos/1.0L
   – 310 pesos/ application
   – 210 airplane application = 520 pesos/ha.
• 76,335,480 pesos spent on rust applications.
• Jupare, rust resistant durum available for 2003-
  2004.
                      Wheat
    Insect problems, aphids
•   In 2001-2002, 120% of the wheat area applied.
•   In 2003-2003, 224,425 of the 179,161 has or
    126% area under wheat in Yaqui was sprayed with
    insecticides.
•   Aflix (dimetoato) 75 pesos + 210 pesos for
    airplane application = 285 pesos/ha.
•   63,961,125 pesos spent on fungicide applications
               Triticale
• A program for 5,000 had to be postponed
  because of the drought.
• Pork producers will sing a contract with
  farmers before planting.
• When purchasing wheat they have to
  compete with human consumption industry,
  national and for export.
              Aquaculture
• 13,000 hectares in Sonora under aquaculture
  farms.
• The goal is to double the area and triple the
  production. Mainly in the Hermosillo area.
• Aquaculture could become the second or third
  most important economic activity in Sonora.

								
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