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The Drought Crisis and Impact in Agriculture 1992 2003 1992 2003 Zones for SAGAR productivity data (called CADERs) DDR 148 DR-018 DR-041 Agricultural Year 2003-2004 AREA UNDER IRRIGATION DURING THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004 IRRIGATION IRRIGTED WITH WITH WELLS DISTRICT AREA RESERVOIR URDERALES (has) (has) (has) 018, Colonias 18,000 18,000 - Yaquis 250 MCM AREA WHITH IRRIGATION DURING THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004 IRRIGATION IRRIGTED IRRIGATED AREA DISTRICT AREA AREA WITHOUT (has) (has) IRRIGATION (has) 041, Río yaqui 206,000 47,000 159,000 23 % 77 % AVAILABLE VOLUME OF WATER AT OCTOBER 1ST, 2003 IRRIGATION SURFACE GROUNDWATE TOTAL DISTRICT WATER R (MCM) 041 (MCM) (MCM) TOTAL 0.00 400.00 400.00 Water The criteria to decide who will receive water from the public well is based on distance from the well, in order to minimize conduction losses. Water This year’s water allocation on average is 8.5 mm3* Will vary depending on crops * mm3 = millares de metros cubicos = thousand cubic meters Water • During 1999, 2000 and 2001 the price of water remained stable at 50 pesos / MM3 • On 2002-2003 the price of water increased to 65 pesos / MM3. • On 2003-2004 the price of water increased to 130 pesos/ MM3 Main Yaqui Valley Crops 2001-2002 2002-2003 Wheat 190,718 179,000 Safflower 2,066 25,000 Garbanzo 5,313 8,000 Maize 16,502 24,000 Vegetables 9,439 10,000 Cotton 460 5,000 CROP PATTERN FOR THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2003-2004. CROP AREA (HECTARES) Corn 15,000 Wheat Oilseeds 14,000 Vegetables 11,000 Beans Potatoes Garbanzo Grass Alfalfa 4,500 Fruits 2,500 TOTAL 47,000 UCAY Farmers Union 30,000 hectares in 2002-2003 5,000 hectares in 2003-2004 16.6% They have 31 wells for 3,100 hectares the difference in water requirements they intend to purchase from the SRL. UCAY CROPS Maize Cotton Wheat Safflower AOASS Program for rain fed agriculture If there are good winter rains Government to provide seed and fertilizer for Safflower and Canola ECONOMIC SECTORS AFFECTED BY DROUGHT. SECTOR EFFECT ECONOMIC IMPACT NO IRRIGATION IN MORE 168 MILLION DOLLARS AGRICULTURAL THAN 160,000 HECTARES. (SOURCE: TASK FORCE OF DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE YAQUI BASIN) NO GENERATION OF 275,000 12 MILLION DOLLARS. ENERGY MW, WITH (SOURCE: C.F.E) (C.F.E) HYDROELECTRIC PLANT. “MEXICANA DEL COBRE” 48,000 DOLLARS/HOUR INDUSTRIAL MINER. (SOURCE: MINERA MEXICANA DEL COBRE) Organization that Depend on Farmer’s Planting Fees • PIEAES (Patronato para la Investigacion y Experimentacion Agricola del Estado de Sonora). • SRL (Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada). • JLSV (Junta Local de Sanidad Vegetal) • Modulos de Riego • Fondos de Aseguramiento Other Organizations Affected by the Drought • Livestock sector will have to bring grain from overseas or other regions of Mexico. • ProAOASS marketing arm of the farmers association has contracts in Guaymas and Hermosillo to be able to keep it’s markets in Algeria, Peru and Venezuela, 300 thousand tons. + 450 thousand for national market. Short Term Actions • Support crops with low water requirement • Special support for environmental conservation. • Better access to credit. • Crop price supports • Program for Order and Control (unique planting and irrigation permits). • Technical assistance for irrigation and agriculture • Training and extension Short Term Actions • Develop estimates of water availability • Development of a cropping and irrigation plan. • Compaction of agricultural land. • Reduction in the use of water for nonessential uses • Media campaign for water saving in the agriculture, urban and industrial sectors. • Temporal employment in the Valley. Long Term Actions • Support research that can help reduce the drought problems. • Strategies for changing crop patterns. • Support greenhouses. • Programs for water conservation. • Programs for forest management • Model for planning and managing surface water • Model for planning and managing aquifer water Long Term Actions • Determine the demand for water in the agricultural, urban and industrial sectors for the next 20 years. • Determine drought indexes for each hydrologic watershed. • Regulations for the operation of the reservoir system and for the aquifer. Agricultural Year 2002-2003 Summer Crops • 2003 summer only 12,684 has including perennials. Only 42% annual crops. Wheat Diseases problems, leaf rust • Y2002-2003 About 146,799 has, or 82% of the area sprayed with fungicide in Yaqui. • Folicur 620 pesos/1.0L – 310 pesos/ application – 210 airplane application = 520 pesos/ha. • 76,335,480 pesos spent on rust applications. • Jupare, rust resistant durum available for 2003- 2004. Wheat Insect problems, aphids • In 2001-2002, 120% of the wheat area applied. • In 2003-2003, 224,425 of the 179,161 has or 126% area under wheat in Yaqui was sprayed with insecticides. • Aflix (dimetoato) 75 pesos + 210 pesos for airplane application = 285 pesos/ha. • 63,961,125 pesos spent on fungicide applications Triticale • A program for 5,000 had to be postponed because of the drought. • Pork producers will sing a contract with farmers before planting. • When purchasing wheat they have to compete with human consumption industry, national and for export. Aquaculture • 13,000 hectares in Sonora under aquaculture farms. • The goal is to double the area and triple the production. Mainly in the Hermosillo area. • Aquaculture could become the second or third most important economic activity in Sonora.