Preparing School Leaders In The Electronic Age

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					Preparing School Leaders In
    The Electronic Age

              Dr. Gary Hoban
              National University
  National University

• Founded in 1971
•2 nd Largest private, non-

  profit university in California
• Enrollment: 22,000
           National University

        Five Schools and One College
•   School of Business and Management
•   School of Health and Human Services
•   School of Media and Technology
•   School of Engineering and Technology
•   School of Education
•   College of Letters and Sciences
   School of Education
• Department of Teacher Education
  - Current Enrollment: 7,000
• Department of Special Education
  - Current Enrollment: 3,500
• Department of Pupil Personnel & School
  - Current Enrollment: 1,000
• Department of Educational Administration
  -Current Enrollment: 1,500
        The National University
          Instructional Model
• On Ground-
  – One course a month,
  – Two nights a week
    (4.5 hrs. per class)
• Online-
  – One course a month
  – Two units per week, paralleling On-Ground format
  – Asynchronous and Synchronous
   Online Instruction at National University:
               A Time of Growth
Year of          What was               Student Enrollment
Implementation   implemented
1996             Distance Education     51 Students

1998             First Internet Offerings 395 Students

2001             100 courses a month    1,500 Students

2005             1,100 Online courses   14,000 students taking a
                 a month                minimum of one online
2007             3,000 Online courses   15,000 students taking a
                 a month                miniumum of one online
       The National University School
      Administrator Preparation Program

• Eight Content Courses
• Field Work
• Masters/Research Option

For more information on this program visit the National University website:
 The National University School
Administrator Preparation Program
               Average Student
                   Age 41
              1,500 Students
            (On Ground/Online)

   650 Students                  850 Students
      Online                      On Ground

      …And numbers are changing
         Issues Considered
• Accreditation-
  “A degree or certificate program delivered
    partially or entirely through elective
    means is coherent and complete and
    results in learning outcomes comparable
    to those delivered through other
Issues Considered continued….
• Synchronous or Asynchronous?
• Field Work- A hands on experience
• Keeping On Ground and Online
  programs consistent and parallel-
  “You can add but not subtract”
How It Works…
Sample Interaction…

     Expand All Show Options                                                                                   sort by: response | author | date | read | unread
     Author Date & Time Responses
         In thinking about a past princ                                                                                          10 Jul 07 10:24 PM MST
         Personal power definitely stem                                                                                          16 Jul 07 4:53 PM MST
                                                                                                                                  16 Jul 07 8:07 PM MST
     In my teaching career I have ran across some people that try to use position power before they have establish anything else. One year I had a grade level
     chair that wanted to do everything his way or the highway. Many of the other teachers in the department just went along with his ideas because they did not
     have to think or do anything, even if it was not the best thing for the department or the classroom. Of course I had a problem with this and by the end of the
     year everyone in the department did not think I was a team player but I knew I was doing the right thing for the students and the class. I was a new teacher
     and the other teachers in the department have been teaching for some time, I believe they just got use to doing what they can to get by instead of improving
     the program. Mentally and physical it was hard, I did not have anybody in my department I could really go to if there was a question, problem and mentally I
     knew they were waiting for me to do a mistake so they can say " we told you so." As time went by I learned not to worry about what they thought because I
     knew I was doing the best I could for the students and the class and that is what matter.
     Yes, William, it can be lonely                                                                                               17 Jul 07 7:55 AM MST
        Yes it was a lonely thing to g                                                                                            17 Jul 07 1:14 PM MST

     I agree about flaunting positi                                                                                            17 Jul 07   7:53 AM MST
     I agree too sometimes I think                                                                                             22 Jul 07   9:01 PM MST
Does Online Instruction adequately prepare
    our future school administrators?
• A research track
  - 2000-Present
• Measures
  -Student Surveys
  -Student evaluation of courses
  -Instructor Surveys
  -Employee Feedback
  -Exit Examination results
What we learned…
•   There was a high degree of
    comparability in the quality and rigor of
    the online and on-ground educational
    administration courses.
•   Online students were generally satisfied
    with the quality of instruction in their
          What we learned…
• Students, generally,
  academically performed
  comparably in online
  and on-ground school
  preparation courses.
• Both groups achieved
  their learning outcomes
  as indicated by similar
  results, online and on-
  site, on assessment
            What we learned…
• Online instructors were
  quite positive about the
  online educational
  administration program.
• Students enrolled in online
  courses, even if they had
  concerns, liked the
  flexibility, especially in
  managing their own time as
  allowed by the
  asynchronous nature of the
  course discussions, and
  planned to take more
  courses in this format.
  (Hoban, Neu, and Castle,
    What makes for a good online experience?

•    Interaction time between student and

    The amount of time an instructor spends in
       interacting with his or her students in an online
       class--specifically when the time spent is
       above and beyond normal activities--has
       strong implications for how students assess
       the quality of instruction they have received
       and answers any questions about effective or
       ineffective pedagogy one might have
       regarding the course. Strategies might differ
       from instructor to instructor, but what
       ultimately counts is being there and being
       receptive and interactive in a timely manner.
What makes for a good online
Students believed that they can improve their
ability in critical thinking, problem-solving, and
decision-making skills in an online course--a
factor that appeared to be in doubt in earlier
studies, as reported by students--provided
there is strong instructor/student interaction
and instructor guidance.
 What makes for a good online
Students can apply their learning to
diverse populations and situations, a factor
called into doubt in earlier studies,
provided that there is strong
instructor/student interaction in the online
course. (Hoban, Neu, and Castle, 2003)
    The Major Factors for Success
•   A consistent and structured curriculum that has
    on-ground and online courses being congruent
    in requirements, texts, and content
•   Opportunities for frequent and meaningful
    interaction between student and instructor
•   Clear expectations for student performance
•   Accessibility with asynchronous discussion
•   Consistent, timely, and meaningful
    student/instructor and student/student dialogue
   Another research track, to be

• Self-efficacy
• Self-directed learning
• Self-efficacy for online learning
  What do we need to do next?
• Increase and enhance student/instructor
  and student/student interaction.
• Balance synchronicity and asynchronicity
• Introduce different learning style
• The PEP (Premier E-Learning Process)
        Technology Upgrade

Utilize the latest technology to enhance the
learning process.
• Use power point lectures that have audio
  and include images that both engage the
  learner and enhance the material
• Use video clips.
• Use synchronous learning activities.
           Engage Candidates
• Select activities that
  involve audio, visual, and
• Connect delivery of
  material and
  assessments to a variety
  of learning styles.
• Using Web conferencing
  service, students utilize
  cooperative learning,
  group presentations,
  large and small group
  discussions, and other
  activities commonly used
  in On Ground classes.
         Final Thoughts…
• Online preparation of School
  Administration is here to stay
• Online preparation of school
  administrations will dominate the field
  in years to come
• We have no choice but to make it