TBI and Schools - Traumatic Brain Injury Collaboration Space

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					     Traumatic Brain Injury and
        Children and Youth

[Insert Presenter’s Name]
[Insert Event/Meeting Name]
[Insert Date]
 What is Traumatic Brain Injury?

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs
as a result of a sudden physical insult
to the brain.
Prevalence of TBI
Of the 1.4 million Americans known to
 sustain a brain injury each year:

 50,000 die;
 235,000 are hospitalized; and
 1.1 million are treated and released
  from emergency departments.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Facts about Traumatic Brain Injury (Fact
       Sheet), Updated July 2006. (Available at:
Comparison of Annual Incidence
   1,600,000                                                    Brain Injuries





                 Multiple   Spinal Cord               183,500
     200,000    Sclerosis     Injuries    HIV/AIDS
                 10,400        11,000      39,000

  Data originally compiled and arranged by the Brain Injury Association of
     America based on data from the Centers for Disease Control and
     Prevention, the American Cancer Society, and the National Multiple
     Sclerosis Society.
TBI and Children and Youth
            Brain injury is
    most often associated with the
           leading cause
               of death
           and disability
       (unintentional injuries)
              in children
          and young adults.
Kraus, JF, Fife D, Cox P, Ramstein K, Conroy C. Incidence, severity, and external causes of
   pediatric traumatic brain injury. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:687-693.
TBI and Children and Youth
   435,000 children and youth are treated
    in hospital emergency departments
    each year
   37,000 are hospitalized each year due
    to TBI
   An estimated 2,700 children and youth
    die each year from TBI
Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Thomas KE. The Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury Among
    Children in the United States: Differences by Race. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005 May-
IDEA Definition of Brain Injury
   An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external
    physical force resulting in total or partial functional
    disability or psychosocial impairment or both, that
    adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
    The term applies to open or closed head injuries
    resulting in impairments in one or more areas such
    as cognition; language; memory; attention;
    reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-
    solving; sensory, perceptual and motor abilities;
    psychosocial behavior; physical functions;
    information processing; and speech. The term does
    not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or
    degenerative, or brain injuries induced by birth
Signs and Symptoms of TBI
Physical difficulties (e.g., difficulties
        with speaking, hearing, seeing)
       Symptoms might include:
        Persistent headache
        Neck pain
Signs and Symptoms of TBI
Difficulties with thinking
 Symptoms might include:
   Short term memory loss
   Slowness in thinking, acting, speaking
    or reading
   Difficulty paying attention or
Signs and Symptoms of TBI
Social, behavioral, or emotional
 Symptoms might include:
   Feeling, sad, anxious, or listless
   Poor impulse control

   Lack of motivation
Specific Learning Difficulties
   Reading
   New Learning
   Note-Taking
   Expressive Language
   Social Skills
   Test-Taking
   Problem Solving
   Long Range Projects
Challenges – Three Myths
   Myth One

    Low incidence population and schools do
    not need to be worried about this
              Student Under-Identification—
              National Statistics






                           1992     1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998     1999
                               Rate of increase of Children with TBI (est.)
                               Rate of increase of Students with TBI
National Pediatric Trauma Registry 1993
                                                                              Todis & Glang, 2005
U.S. Department of Education
Student Under-Identification—
State Statistics
    [Insert your State’s IDEA
     data/hospitalization data comparison
     here. See Tip #1 or the slide notes for

    [Insert source citations for your State’s data and the source IDEA data table from
             https://www.ideadata.org/PartBReport.asp. (For the most current IDEA table click
             the desired year listed in the ―Child Count‖ line, then select the desired table. Table
             1-3 includes the above number for children ages 6 through 21.)]
Challenges - Three Myths
   Myth Two

    Children and youth will grow out of the
    brain injury.
Challenges – Three Myths
   Myth Three

    Mild injuries (concussions) are not a
    real problem.
Local Resources
   [Insert State BIA Affiliate]
   [Insert State TBI Program]
   [Insert State Protection and Advocacy
    System Program]
National Resources
   Brain Injury Association of America at
   Centers for Disease Control & Prevention at
   HRSA’s Federal TBI Program at
   National Association of State Head Injury
    Administrators at http://www.nashia.org
   Building Statewide Capacity to Serve Students with
    Traumatic Brain Injury Web cast*†
   Building Capacity of Educators to Serve Students with
    TBI: A Regional Team Approach Report†
   Behavior Assessment and Problem Solving Using
    Positive Behavior Supports for Students with
    Traumatic Brain Injury Web cast*
   Selected Resources for School Personnel and Families
    of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury
*These Web casts are available for download from HRSA’s Maternal and Child Health Bureau at:

†This Web cast and report are also available for order on CD-ROM from the National Association of State Head
    Injury Administrators at: http://www.nashia.org/store/index.aspx.
   Robin Castle
       TBI Implementation Grant Manager, VT
   Jeanne Dise-Lewis, PhD
       University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, The
        Children’s Hospital of Denver, CO
   Roberta DePompei, PhD
       University of Akron, School of Speech Language Pathology,
   Ann Glang, PhD
       Teaching Research Institute, OR
   Janet Tyler, PhD
       Neurologic Support Disabilities Project, University of Kansas
        Medical Center, KS

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