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for designers

Graham van de Ruit

    5   Introduction

    7   General look

   9    The page grid

   15   The colour scheme

   19   The font scheme

   23      The baseline grid

   23      Body text

   23      Headers

   27      Bylines & pull quotes

   27      Captions, contributor information & credits

   28      General rules

   29   Using images

   29      Documentary photographs

   29      Illustrative photographs

   31      Photo essays

   31      Cartoons

        (Continued overleaf )
33     Information graphics

35   Possible changes and recommendations

37   End note

39   Quick reference

Setting up a template and style sheets is usually the first big step in designing a magazine or news-
paper. It creates a set of rules that guides the layout from that point on, and is central in creating the
look and feel of the publication. As such, it is essential that this is done properly, with careful attention
to detail. However, it is also vital that there is a thorough understanding of the style in order to success-
fully apply it. If the designer has done his job properly, he will have a very specific idea of how he wants
to see his styles used. There will always be exceptions to the rules, new challenges, and circumstances
that cannot be planned for. Thus the person applying the design styles must be able to think like the
original designer and anticipate his moves, sticking to the styles as closely as possible. He must under-
stand why the styles are set up as they are, so that he can apply the same logic to new conditions.
    In this document I will explain the processes behind setting up the style sheets for The Cape Town
GlobalisT when I took over the design work in 2008. I will run through the various elements of the
design, justifying my choices and showing how the styles can be applied. I hope that it will adequately
prepare the reader for the task of designing an edition of the magazine.
    At the end of the guide is a quick reference section. Here the reader should be able to find, at a
glance, all of the specifications needed for the design.
    I will not give in-depth explanations of design principles in general, software use, or the relevant
jargon. It is assumed that the designer has a basic knowledge of these, and can fill in the gaps.

general look

the primary function of good design is effective communication of information. If the designer
is successful in this regard, he shouldn’t have to worry about getting the design to look good—that will
come naturally. A news magazine such as The Cape Town GlobalisT contains vast amounts of infor-
mation, and this must be carefully structured and ordered if it is to be easy to navigate and understand.
The reader shouldn’t have to work to get information from the content—the designer must constantly
be trying to make life easier for the reader. This will involve editing down content to a manageable
amount, creating clear hierarchical structures that distinguish between different types of information
and indicate their relative importance, and the use of graphic devices to guide the reader around the
page and through the magazine. A level of consistency and predictability is vital. In order to do this
successfully, it is important to have a good understanding of language, typography, photography, and
the broader principles of graphic design. A designer who neglects any of these aspects is doing himself
a great disservice. They all relate directly to presentation of information, and attention to detail in every
area is very important.

   “Technical skill is mastery of complexity while creativity is mastery of simplicity.”
   –E.C. Zeeman, mathematician, b. 1923

    The value of simplicity in design cannot be underestimated. White space can often be more useful
than any other graphic device, and the designer should never feel that every space needs to be filled.
This is not to say, however, that large empty areas are always appropriate. The designer needs to assess
the value of the space, and create a balanced design in which the spaces play an active part.
    The greatest skill a designer can have is the ability to present large amounts of information in a sim-
ple and easy-to-understand way. This will often be very difficult, and an understanding of the content is
essential in order to be able to present it successfully.

there are a few conventionS that the designer must be aware of before starting on a project such
as The Cape Town GlobalisT. Most will be obvious to anyone who has an interest in magazine or
book design.
    Page numbering often starts with the cover as page one. If there is a lot of preliminary content, you
may wish to start numbering later. Whatever the case, odd page numbers should always fall on right-
hand pages. Similarly, the Contents page should occupy a right-hand page, unless it is to cover two
pages and form a spread (extravagant in cases such as this).

the page grid

there iS no Simple rule as to what sort of page grid should be used for a new project. Obviously it
is going to depend largely on the type of content to be presented. It is helpful to consider the project as
a whole, and try to anticipate what will be required of the grid. The simpler the grid the easier it is, in
general, to get a consistent look. However, a more complex grid could, if used well, give a more distinc-
tive appearance to the project.
    For The Cape Town GlobalisT, it is important to consider the different types of content that might
appear on any given spread. There could be a header, sub-header or byline, body text, photographs and
illustrations, captions, writer information, pull-quotes, and side boxes. Most pages will also have a sec-
tion header and page number (the folios). By its nature, the magazine will have lots of information that
needs to be fitted into a limited space. This means that it needs a versatile grid that can accommodate
most of the content without leaving big spaces.
    The easiest place to start is with the body text. Research has shown that, for ease of reading, be-
tween nine and twelve words to a line is optimal. Magazine columns will tend to be narrower than book
text in order to fit more onto a page. Given that the body text should nearly always be between 9 and
12 pt (probably 10 pt), it is easy to establish the approximate column width. Two columns spread across
the page gives wide columns that don’t allow for much variation. Three columns gives a more versatile
grid, but the lines of text become rather narrow. Here again it is important to consider the nature of the
magazine. Narrower columns make it look more like a newspaper, where the content is condensed into
short articles and is intended to be read quickly. Wider columns are more appropriate for extended texts
intended to be deliberated over for longer.
    For The Cape Town GlobalisT I used a two-and-a-half column setup that meets most of our
requirements. The outside column is very narrow and is never used for body text. It is a useful area
to place image captions and writer information, and allows for more creative use of images and infor-
mation boxes. It is important also to anticipate how the magazine will be held and read. The reader’s
thumb will often obscure the content at the outside of the page, and so by keeping the body text away
from the edge it is easier to read the main content. The text must also be far enough from the inside that
it doesn’t disappear into the centre fold, and far enough from the top of the page that it doesn’t appear
cramped. Images are generally more flexible, and so I created an outer boundary guide for graphic ele-
ments that can extend beyond the text columns. A horizontal guide is used for the vertical alignment of
some elements on the page, particularly pull quotes. This helps with visual consistency.

                                                                           Section header

             Outer graphics guides                                  Upper limit of text

     Outside column                                         Inner guides
                                                            for graphics

                     Body text columns                      Vertical-alignment guide

                     Bottom folios
                                                                                           Page number

    Having a large number of guides like this means that the grid is very versatile, and can accommo-
date nearly anything the designer may want to put on the page. However, it is important to be careful
and consistent in the use of the grid in order for it to be successful. Fitting content to the grid is not as
simple as just aligning its edges to the guides. The designer must consider how all the elements align
and interact with the other elements on the page, the spread, the article, adjacent pages, and the whole
    The example opposite from the Oct 2008 - April 2009 edition shows a basic spread with a mix of
content. The left-hand page (verso) is devoted to the title, byline and and image. The photo is fitted to
the outer graphic guides, aligned at the top. The bottom is not aligned to anything—the photo main-
tains its original shape. If there was another graphic on the facing page, it might be important to see
that they line-up, but in this case there is some freedom. The header and byline both align to the inside
edge of the body-text columns, but extend outwards as far as is needed to get good shapes and line
lengths (they could go all the way to the outer graphic guide if necessary). The text is right-aligned in
order to bring it closer to the rest of the spread. It could have been left-aligned to the body-text columns
(putting it any further out would have created too much empty space and put too much weight on the
outside of the page), but this would have changed the way it lined-up with the image and the rule. It
may also have pushed the byline onto another line, and this could have taken up too much space verti-
cally. The yellow rule picks up on the colour in the photo and is intended to link the image and the text.

As such it fits the same width as the image.
     The text on the right-hand page (recto) fits nicely within the body-text columns. Note the upper
limit if the text. This should never be pushed any higher. The pull-quote helps to break up the text and
links with the larger text and horizontal lines on the opposite page. It is very important that the pull-
quote has enough space above and below it to separate it from the body text, especially considering its
generous leading (line spacing). In the text wrap options, I have set all pull-quotes to have 10 mm of
space above and below. This should never be changed. It may be tempting to squash it just a little to fit
more onto the page, but I cannot emphasise enough how important it is to stick rigidly to rules such as
this. Changes will have to be made elsewhere to get things to fit.
     The image caption sits in the narrow column at the outside of the recto page. It is not necessary for
it to be on the same page as the image itself, and the designer should use his discretion to decide where
it looks best. As a general rule, the caption should have its upper edge placed as close to the vertical-
alignment guide as is comfortably possible, but other content takes priority in placement (as with the
pull-quote here). Writer and photographer information should, conversely, sit at the bottom of the
column, aligned with the bottom of the body-text columns.
     The section header occupies its usual spot at the outside top of the page (notice how it has been
removed from the verso page because of the image). If the text within this box is longer than the column
allows, it can be extended inwards. This should be done consistently.

    This spread from the Oct 2008 - April 2009 edition shows how the grid can be adapted to fit differ-
ent types of content. The body text of the article fits into the body-text columns, as with the rest of the
magazine. The photo on the right-hand page has its inside edge aligned to the gutter of the body-text
columns, but extends outwards to the outer graphic guide. The writer information sits in the outer col-
umn, as is done throughout the magazine. The section headers also sit in their usual spots.
    The rest of the content, however, breaks slightly from the normal grid. The “Wall Street’s $$$hit-list”
is a side box that does not need to fit into the main body of the article. A thin frame separates it from
the body text, and the formatting of the text also helps to distinguish it as a side box. By using the outer
of the two body-text columns combined with the outer page column, it gains some width that gives an
economical text measure. The box aligns vertically with the top and bottom of the body text.
    The “Crash Report” leading along the bottom of the two pages helps to unify the spread. The grey
rule was needed to join the content across the centre fold, and separate it from the body text higher
up. In cases such as this where the content is broken into multiple, short entries, it may be necessary to
break from the column structure of the page (see also the time-lines elsewhere in the 2008 editions).
Here it was convenient to use three columns on each page. The content is substantial enough that some
degree of uniformity is necessary, and the columns are all of equal width. This is far more important
than the bottoms of each entry finishing on the same line. The three columns fit between the outer and
inner graphics guides. No text should ever sit outside of these. In fact, only full-bleed images may leave

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                      To save, but not spoil or                                           bails out a struggling bank with taxpayers’ money,
      Wall Street’s $$$hit-list                                                                                                                           it creates “a serious moral hazard”. He elaborates:
                                                                                      smother                                                             “Once you bail out a big bank, then it sets a dan-
      Bear Stearns was one of the world’s biggest independent invest-                                                                                     gerous precedent because others may begin to think
          ment banks. It collapsed in March and was acquired by JP Mor-                  clear solution to the question of what to               that they are infallible, and enter into even greater
          gan Chase in May .                                                      do about this inherent instability. All the parties af-             risk.” Because of the huge growth in the industry
      Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy in September . It was                   fected have their own views on what should be done.                 over the last ten years, some institutions have sim-
          one of the five largest independent investment banks.                        For many regular people, the answer appears to be                   ply become too large to be allowed to fail. An entity
         e Federal Reserve, like any other central banking system, is re-             a no-brainer: increased regulation of the financial                  becomes “too big to fail” when their collapse would
          sponsible for developing monetary policy. It also has regulatory            sector, and greater intervention form governments                   cause intolerable consequences in the eyes of the
          and supervisory responsibilities.                                           and central banks.                                                  government. is is the case with the two mortgage
      Fannie Mae (Federal National Mortgage Association) was created                          e problem is that regulation needs to prevent               giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. If these insti-
          in  to provide easier housing loans in the post-Depres-                 immense failures like the ones seen recently but also               tutions were to collapse, “the American real estate
          sion years. A publically traded company, it backed loans in the             allow for immense profits in the good times. Even                    market would suffer a terrible short term shock,”
          secondary mortgage industry. Together with Freddie Mac, Fan-                if one accepts that modern economics is cyclical,                   says  Economics Professor Don Ross.
          nie Mae was taken into Federal hands after increasing liquidity             it’s always tempting to intervene to try to moder-                      Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s histories make
          troubles in .                                                           ate the economic slumps. ough central banks and                     them, in part, the responsibility of the  govern-
      Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) was cre-                   the  are drafting new policy in this regard, it is               ment. “Fannie Mae was created during the Great             Photo by Nicole Velleman
          ated in the s as a competitor for Fannie Mae in the second-             mostly focused short-term solutions: trying to pro-                 Depression by Roosevelt in order to provide af-
          ary mortgage industry.                                                      mote transparency, improve rating techniques for                    fordable housing to the people,” explains ’s Dr
      American International Group (), one of the world’s largest                  the debt packages, and restore investor confidence.                  Tchana Tchana. Freddie Mac was established in a            to thrive. Yet this must be the bitterest pill for the    
          insurance firms, was bailed out by the Federal Bank of New York              Nevertheless, there’s a lingering question about                    similar vein in . ey were quasi-private com-           millions of people whose only part in this was their      
          in September  after suffering a liquidity crisis.                        hard policy: Can we restrict banks’ financial activity               panies with their shares publicly tradable. us, they       pension fund.                                             is research editor at 
      Bank of America is the United States’ largest commercial bank                   to stop them from hurting themselves and the rest                   were responsible to their shareholders although                   ere is no denying that the financial system as        .
          and, after the acquisition of Merrill Lynch, the largest financial           of us?                                                              they remained under congressional oversight. With          it stands regularly hurts a lot of people, but neither
          services company in the world.                                                   For mainstream economists and financiers, in-                   Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae having lent or under-           can we ignore that it makes them and others a great        
      Merrill Lynch was another large independent investment bank that                creased regulation is not a comfortable solution.                   written . trillion of the United States’  trillion     deal of money the rest of the time. It would be nar-      is a third-year 
          was sold to Bank of America in September .                              “Regulation is dangerous because you do not want                    mortgage debt, it is quite clear that the fallout of       row-minded to suggest that the status quo is the          student.
      JP Morgan Chase is one of the oldest traditional bank holding com-              to discourage innovation,” argues Brian Kantor, an                  their bankruptcy would have been disastrous. is            best or only viable way to run a global economy, but
          panies in the world. It purchased Bear Sterns in May .                  Investec strategist in Cape Town. “Any regulation                   does not apply to private banks, as the  govern-         there is as yet no alternative with real traction be-     
      Goldman Sachs & Morgan Stanley are the two largest investment                   may inhibit innovation.” With the capitalist econo-                 ment made clear in the case of Lehman Brothers.            yond the few members of the group that conceived          
          banks in the world. In light of recent financial market develop-             my built on entrepreneurship and innovation, any-                       Economic orthodoxy says the answer lies in a           it. While the economists and bankers work on it           is a second-year business
          ments they changed their status to bank holding companies in                thing that might stifle this is unappealing.                         competitive, almost Darwinian, environment. Some           though, the restt of us will be stuck with the up-and-    science student
          order to be eligible for emergency government funding.                           Greater government involvement also brings                     banks need to fall to teach others a lesson. Inter-        down, boom-and-bust cycle that makes modern
                                                                                      complications. Kantor feels that when government                    vention only allows inefficiency and malpractice             economic life so interesting.                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               is editor-in-chief at 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 .

 Crash Report
                                                  September                                 October                                        October                                        October                                   February 
                                                 Black Friday                                     Bankers’ Panic                                        e Wall Street Crash                            Black Monday                                     Barings gets buggered
                                                    of speculators named Gould          ’  attempt to corner the                prosperity on Wall Street                of healthy trade, stock      , ’  merchant bank,
                                                 and Fisk caused financial panic after trying      copper market caused general panic at a            memorably gave out due to over-confidence          markets across the globe took a nose dive in     was toppled by the rogue tradings of one
                                                 to corner the  gold market. e men used         fragile time for the stock market (there had       and speculation. In a week, the market lost a     what became history’s biggest one-day crash.     Nick Leeson, a trader in their Singapore
                                                 influence with  President Grant and his         already been a crash that year thanks to           staggering -billion, more than the  had          e Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped        office. Leeson had made big profits for Bar-
                                                 Treasurer, using inside information to antici-   speculation). ere were runs on several             spent in the whole First World War. Com-          . percent in one day – almost twice as        ings, but when his luck changed, he hid his
    century, there have been doz-       pate prices. ey bought large amounts of          large banks, as millions were withdrawn. e         pounded by protectionist government reac-         much as ever before or since. Interestingly,     losses from the bank and tried to recoup
 ens of major stock market crises of varying     cheap gold, intending to sell once prices rose   stock market fell by nearly  percent over a      tions, this humbling of the market tipped us      markets rallied with record gains over the       them through increasingly desperate deals.
 degrees of severity. With many of these at      due to government withholding the sale of        year and the city of New York was dragged          to the Great Depression (and, some claim,         following days and took only two years to        By the time his bosses realised what was
 least partly due to reckless profit-seeking by   its gold. Prices did rise astronomically. When   to the brink of bankruptcy. e  Treasury          contributed to the start of ).                recover completely. Quite what happened          happening, there was a . billion gap in
 individuals or small groups, some people are    the government responded with increased          pumped -million to save the day, and                 Taking office in , Franklin Roosevelt’s     remains largely a mystery. e collapse has        their budget. e bank went insolvent, and
 starting to wonder how many times we need       federal gold sales, the gold price plummeted     banker JP Morgan personally came to the            administration brought in an ambitious New        been the subject of much subsequent debate,      was bought by a Dutch bank for one British
 to crash before we buy a new car.               within minutes. e  economy suffered             rescue. Six years later, the Federal Reserve       Deal to provide Relief, encourage Reform          even necessitating the creation of a number      pound. Leeson fled but got dragged back to
                                                 severe disruption and several brokerages         Bank was created to prevent future financial        and speed Recovery, but it was not until well     of new models. A lot of the blame probably       Singapore for a six-year prison stint.
 Sources: New York Times, Market oughts.         went belly up, but Gould and Fisk emerged        calamities. e biggest financial calamity in         after the war that  employment returned         lies with irrational investor behaviour and
 com, e Economist,, Time.          relatively unscathed.                             history was just sixteen years away.            to pre-Depression levels.                         computerised trading systems.

                                                                                                                         -                                                                                                                                   

these bounds, and they will extend right up to the bleed guides.
    Note that the body text sits at the top of the page. There are several reasons for this. The reader
could have turned to this spread midway through reading the article. If he has to search for the continu-
ation of the body text, he may lose interest. It should be in a predictable place. Secondly, the “Crash
Report” section creates a useful grounding for the spread, graphically speaking. The designer should
constantly be aware of the effective visual weights of elements on the page. There is no rule as to how
weight should be distributed, but it is important to be aware of the effect of having, for example, a large,
dark image on the outside of the page, at the top or the bottom.

     There are some notable exceptions to the rule of the page grid. The first is the Contents page. It has a
similar two-and-a-half column setup, but here the half column sits on the inside of the page. It contains
a list of staff and contributors—information that is not important enough to justify placement on the
outside of the page. This column has been widened, and the two main columns narrowed accordingly.
The outside margins are 15 mm, the inside 60 mm. (On the standard template, the inside margins are 15
mm, and the outside 45 mm.)
     News bites uses a three-column grid to fit more text onto the spread. The margins are 15 mm on all
sides, and the gutter has been reduced to 5 mm (from 8,466 mm). The page folios, however, sit in their
usual positions.
     Some of the editorial pages in the May-Sept 2008 edition used a two-column grid, and the Q&A
with Wilf Mbanga used three columns. The intention was that these would be regular column slots, and
the different grids would help to establish their individual identities in this context, while being more
suitable, perhaps, to the specific content likely to appear in these slots. We moved away from this plan,
however, with the following edition.

the colour scheme

the cape town globaliSt uSeS two variations of red in its brand identity. For the title banner (and
in other situations where it appears in a block), it has CMYK values of 15 100 100 0. For text and rules,
it is 34 100 100 0. This is a slightly darker version that works better for fine print against a white back-
ground, but would be dark and lifeless in large block applications. The only other colours used consist-
ently are black and grey tints—usually not below 80% for text, and not above 10% for blocks and large
rules. The red has a strong appearance that is made more authoritative by its use with black and grey.
     Colours throughout the magazine are largely based on the images within the articles. The designer
can pick out a dominant colour from the photographs, and use this (or a similar colour) for the headers,
sub-headers, pull quotes, rules, or any combination of these as he sees fit. This helps to tie the article
together, and separates it from adjacent pages. It makes it easier for the reader to tell where the article
begins and ends, and makes it easier to find when flicking quickly through the magazine. The dominant
colour in an image may not always be appropriate for setting text, however, and the designer should be
careful not to use tints that are too light and will disappear against the white of the page. It is vital that
all images are converted to CMYK, and that all swatches are also CMYK. RGb colours could change drasti-
cally when printed, and what looks like a striking colour scheme on screen could appear muddy and
dull on the page. It is also vital that, for black and grey tints, the Black swatch is used. The Registration
swatch prints on all plates, and even the slightest misalignment of the plates in the printing process will
make text fuzzy and greatly reduce legibility at small sizes. This risk is inherent in any swatch that uses a
mix of inks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                           of people, “ e land issue must properly be addressed
                                                                                                           as part of a long-term solution to the crisis that
                                                                                                    faced the country two months ago.” All this shows
                                                                                                           how the issue of land ownership and distribution,
                                                                                                           together with aspects of tribal preference, have been
                                                                                                           an underlying factor in the recent conflict.
                         

                                                                                                         
                                                                                                       form one of the greatest
                                                                                                           obstacles to Kenyan development. It is widely be-
                                                                                                           lieved that the presidency and other government
                                                                                                    posts are avenues to enriching oneself financially, as
                                                                                                     well as one’s own community or tribe. ose close
                                                                                                           to the presidency (either directly or through proxy)
                                                                                                    are given plum jobs and are able to help their friends
                                                                                                           and relatives to get government contracts, as well as
                                                                                                           exclusive land in urban areas. Analysts have suggest-

                                                                                                                                                                                   A treacherous calm
                                                                                                      ed that this sort of petty corruption has been one
                                                                                                           of the main reasons for Kenyans’ desire for change.
                                                                                                           In fact, illegal or irregular allocation of government
                                                                                                           land became so rampant during ’s –year
                                                                                               rule, the Kibaki administration set up the Ndungu
      Population: , m ()                                                                            Commission of Inquiry to investigate such alloca-
                                                                                                           tions. Unfortunately, the commission’s recommen-
                                                                                                           dations are yet to be implemented.
               Kikuyu                     , m                                                                When President Kibaki came to power in ,                        Is Kenya’s power-sharing a betrayal of its political future, asks  ?
                                                                                                           many Kenyans believed that things were to change
               Luo & Kisii                , m                                                            for the better. In fact, Kibaki’s coming to power
                                                                                                           became an opportunity for his closest allies and
                                                                                                           supporters to regain what they had lost during the 

               Meru, Embu, Kamba            m
                                                                                                           years under former President Moi, a Kalenjin. is                                     home and abroad,           Ironically, each of the  ministers in the coalition
                                                                                                           resulted in a fast-tracked purging of civil servants                              Kenya’s recently abated violence and new        cabinet is earning (or at least receiving) a monthly
               Luhya majority             , m
                                                                                                           who came from areas that were strongholds of the                                  coalition government may have created the       salary of nearly ()  .
                                                                                                           Orange Democratic Movement ().                                       kind of hollow peace that masquerades as the real             A high-level source in Nairobi told the 
               Kalenjin majority          , m
                                                                                                                  e coalition government’s ability to deal with                    change Kenya so obviously needs.                            that trying to achieve lasting,
                                                                                                           these grievances hinges on its willingness to work                           Kenya’s reputation as the region’s economic and      positive change in Kenya is like “trying to walk
               Mixed                      , m                                                            as a single unit, the willingness of both political                     political poster child is partially deserved (although    through treacle”. He said they had to “fight for tele-
                                                                                                           parties to promote reconciliation between tribes,                       with neighbours like Somalia and Sudan it’s hard          phones, e-mail and fax link-ups, fight to protect our        
               Mijikenda, Taita-Taveta,
               Swahili-speaking      , m (est)                                                           and whether or not Kenya’s national resources will                      to imagine how it could disappoint). Yet her major        office accommodation against territorial demands             is a Kenyan post-
                                                                                                           be distributed fairly.                                                  structural flaws made violence almost inevitable and       by government, fight for access to a lavatory, beg          graduate specialising in
               Somali majority              m                                                                 Unless Kenyans cast aside tribalism and tackle                      should have restrained the shrill international sur-      for payment of our subsistence money.” Already it          environmental law.
                                                                                                           the land issue effectively, Kenyan politics will                         prise at recent events.                                   seems the will for real reform is fading behind the
                                                                                                           continue to be mired in controversy.                                         Persistent government underperformance,              comfortable grins of the politicians.                       
      :  /  Foreign Office & the                                                                                                                                       widespread corruption, high unemployment, and                    e status quo is now attractive enough to the        is in his second year,
                                                                                                                                                                                   decades of deep ethno-political division led to the       right people that it will take a massive effort to          majoring in politics,
                                                                                                                                                                                   resentment that happened to find its target in a sus-      refocus attention on the problems that sparked the         english, and media and
                                                                                                                                                                                   picious election result.      e cessation of fighting,     fire. Otherwise, those problems will continue to            writing.
                                                                                                                                                                                   agreement on the terms of a coalition government,         smoulder until the next opportune material, or the
        e first coalition               After a series of alliances with       By a vote of  ,                     In , a new party        At the poll Kibaki                 international praise, and even Kofi Annan’s confi-          next opportunist’s fan, brings them to life again. It       
      government forms between         opposition parties, Mwai               Kenyans reject Kibaki’s               formed by Kibaki            beats Odinga’s Orange              dence will not make these problems disappear; even        will be slow, hard and unpopular work to mobilise          is in her third year of a
      Raila Odinga’s (Oginga’s         Kibaki takes on  in the            attempt to hold on to                 allies, -Kenya          Democratic Movement                these positives should not distract from the urgency      the political will for land reform, redistribution,         degree, and is not
      son) opposition party and         elections, backed by the          the executive powers                  wins  out of              (), though                      of the problem.                                           reduced corruption, and more government                    nearly as cynical as this
      . ere is resurgence          National Rainbow Coalition             extended to Kenya’s                   parliamentary seats.        independent observers                   In a country famously wracked by corruption,         accountability and fiscal responsibility.      e work       article would suggest.
      in ethnic and political          () and wins, He becomes            leaders by its old                    His government has          say the poll was corrupted         it is hardly surprising that “power-sharing” talks fo-    has only just begun.
      violence. Moi names Uhuru        Kenya’s third president. ere           constitution. In response,            recovered its defeat        with irregularities. e             cused on new ways to divide the pie rather than how           However, without these changes the current              
      Kenyatta (Jomo’s son) as         is widespread hope for a new           Kibaki dismisses nearly               in the constitutional       results spark political and        to bake a better one. Despite this, the crucial job of    peace can be nothing more than a lull. For the             is a third-year print
      presidential successor.          era of political leadership.           the entire cabinet.                   referendum.                 ethnic violence.                   determining the truth of the recent elections, to cre-    moment, we can only hope that the people doing the         production student,
                                                                                                                                                                                   ate a sustainable electoral framework for the future,     necessary work in Kenya continue to wade through           majoring in english. and
                                    –                                                                                                   is being hamstrung by lack of funding and support.        the treacle.                                               media and writing.

                                                                                                                                                        -                                                                                                                                          

        /                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   /

                             e Tourist Curse
        becomes a typical tourist in a traditional Peru.

                                                                                                               of the tour bus, you                         forefront, to explore new avenues and opportunities.
 Traditional attractions:                                                                                           could just catch the graffiti sprawled on                        In short, so many of these destinations packed with
 Adventure-seekers are                                                                                              the wall of yet another decaying building:                     cultural curiosities exist in a present built entirely
 treated to the best of                                                                                    ‘Capitalismo = explotación, degradación y muerte’.                      in the past, with no observable enthusiasm for an
 Peru, sometimes with                                                                                         e guide desperately directed our attention to the                    alternative future.
 discomforting results.                                                                                    Spanish cathedral on the other side of the bus. He                          It seems it is the curse of those who travel far
 Photos by Sydelle Willow                                                                                  later claimed he had not seen the writing and could                     away to find themselves either in the past or right
 Smith                                                                                                     not imagine what it might mean.                                         where they started. If you’re not being shepherded
                                                                                                               After almost two weeks in Peru, I was an                            around a museum or ruin by an anxious local guide,        If you’re not being shepherded around a museum
                                                                                                           unexceptional tourist in knowing absolutely nothing                     you’re eating pizza surrounded by unnaturally loud
                                                                                                           about it. Not its minimum wage (  per month), its                    tourists or staying in a hotel which, besides the         or ruin by an anxious local guide, you’re eating
                                                                                                           poverty level ( percent below the poverty line), or                   inevitable toilet troubles, someone has gone to great
                                                                                                           even its president’s name (Alan Garcia). Of course,                     expense to make just like home. A holiday visit to        pizza surrounded by unnaturally loud tourists or
                                                                                                           I could tell you all about the  Incas and the date                    another country, as opposed to a business trip, is
                                                                                                           of the Spanish arrival that ended their reign (),                   more often than not a trip in time much more than         staying in a hotel which, besides the inevitable toilet
                                                                                                           the altitude of Machupicchu (about m) and                           in space. Time spent in tourist Peru is time spent
                                                                                                           the name of the best Irish pub in Cusco (it’s Paddy’s                   in a tacky reflection of the th century. Similarly, a    troubles, someone has gone to great expense to
                                                                                                           and yes, there are two). Despite every attempt at an                    tourist in South Africa will probably find themselves
                                                                                                           ‘authentic’ experience, I flew away with nothing but                     either around  or the s; in Egypt, it’ll be       make just like home.
                                                                                                           history, tourist lore and a knitted alpaca hat that my                   .        e idea is presumably that these are
                                                                                                           friends will never let me wear.                                         histories and cultures worth preserving, but it may
                                                                                                               Tourism accounts for only . percent of the                        also be the case that this is at the expense of those
                                                                                                           Peruvian  (as opposed to . percent in South                        trying to create fresh histories and cultures for the     willing to pose nicely for the sake of a good photo.
                                                                                                           Africa), but this statistic masks the dependence of                     st century.                                             One little boy got so carried away by the sight of a
                                                                                                           certain environmentally breathtaking but otherwise                          Remarkably, the appearance of authenticity is         camera being passed around that he spontaneously
                                                                                                           economically bleak regions on tourism-generated                         sufficient in the toursim trade. Tiny wrinkled women        squealed ‘Photo! Photo!’ and wriggled until he was
                                                                                                           employment. During the high season there are                            in red-trimmed skirts and long braids wander the          in danger of coming off his mother’s back. Once
                                                                                                           often more tourists than locals in the town of                          streets of Peruvian tourist towns, offering themselves     the lens was on him, however, his face froze into
                                                                                                           Cusco, and a walk down any street is an endless                         and their brightly adorned llamas to the tourist          a parody of that distant pensiveness that looks so
                                                                                                           series of hostels, curio shops, camera specialists,                     camera in exchange for small change just as their         good in sepia and allows the returned traveller to
                                                                                                           micro-museums, laundromats, tour operators and                          distant ancestors offered human and llama lives to         wax lyrical about the depth of character and ‘organic
                                                                                                           currency exchange centres. It is a region that exists                   the Gods in exchange for rain. ey do not dress this       spirituality’ of the local people.
                                                                                                           only for the dreadlocked American college students                      way at home, but wear the outfit by necessity, just            Independent socio-economic development
                                                                                                           on spring break, Australian adventure-seekers and                       as they have done since it was first imposed by the        would be of no use to the foreigners who come
                                                                                                           middle-aged Swedes (hoping to tick another site off                      Spanish in accordance with the European fashions          precisely for this image. ey come to eat deep-fried
                                                                                                           the Seven Wonders list before they die) that throng                     of the time. But it is a more insidious, more frivolous   guinea pig (not recommended) for under two dollars.
                                                                                                           its streets. It is thus hardly surprising that every                    and altogether more twisted kind of colonialism              ey come to buy hand-woven wall hangings that
                                                                                                           building imitates Inca architecture, every painting                     that now shapes the lives of many in the ethnically       took a woman three weeks to make in a mountain
                                                                                                           is a reproduction and every trinket that the chorus                     ‘interesting’ third world.       e tourist’s demand is    weaving village in which there are no men except
                                                                                                           of dusty children’s voices thrusts at you with that                     worse than a misguided concept of civilisation and        those too old or sick to be porters on the Inca Trail.     
                                                                                                           relentless, heart-rending ‘Amiga, amiga! Iss very                       development; it is lack of development. To be worthy      And so the progressive, social-minded, humanitarian        th century comforts:
                                                                                                           cheap, amiga. Please amiga. Please...’, is one you                      of a visit is to be as close as possible to the same as   types among us return home from these exotic                  e Peruvian tourism
                                                                                                           could imagine buying there  years ago.                               you were as long as possible ago.                         destinations, smug with our cultural sensitivity and       trade clings to the
                                                                                                                  ese ‘old ways’ are clung to for the sake                             Wealthy travellers would have no reason to            respect for diverse ethnicities, but ultimately guilty     romance of Incan
                                                                                              of tourism, which provides that much-needed                             tour Vietnamese villages, African townships, Latin        of placing the most stifling restriction of all on those    culture.
 is in her third year of a                                                                                 employment, but they also stifle the development of                      American slums or Indian forts if these places were       we have left behind us. We curse them with being           Photo by Sydelle Willow
 PPE degree.                                                                                               ‘new ways’. ere is no drive to change, to be at the                     not so poor as to depend on their interest and be         eternally and inescapably quaint.                          Smith

                                                                                                                                                        -                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                       afternoon in June, , Sarah         dleston, this incident confirmed what she had seen
                                                                                                                      Huddlestone was inspired. As she watched        and felt after the Freedom Speech: “He is every sort
                                                                                                                      one of Africa’s prospective leaders on her      of person’s idea of what a great person is.” Here was a
                                                                                                           television in her Johannesburg home, she began to          man unlike the leaders of the past and present.
                                                                                                           believe in the future of the continent and its peo-             Huddlestone relates another anecdote revealing
                                                                                                           ple. e speaker was Morgan Tsvangirai. He boldly            Tsvangirai’s down-to-earth character. Soon after Ts-
                                                                                                           proclaimed, in what would become known as the              vangirai’s appointment as vice president of the As-
                                                                                                           Freedom Speech, that there was a “new wind whis-           sociated Mine Workers Union in , there was an
                                                                                                           pering through the people of Africa”. As Tsvangi-          incident at a remote mine that needed his attention.
                                                                                                           rai stood in front of thousands of Zimbabweans in          None of the union’s vehicles were running; unde-
                                                                                                           the Rufaro Stadium in Zimbabwe’s capital, Harare,          terred, Tsvangirai climbed on one of the ‘Shu Shine’
                                                                                                           Huddlestone decided to begin a project that would          buses, notorious for being mechanically unreliable
                                                                                                           eventually culminate in her biography of Morgan            and prone to breakdown in remote locations. For
                                                                                                           Tsvangirai: e Face of Courage.                             Huddleston, like Edwin, it is this humility that has
                                                                                                                   e cynics among us might note that buttery          been one of Tsvangirai’s principle qualities through-
                                                                                                           speeches and powerful promises were also features          out his political career.
                                                                                                           of the ignoble careers of men like Robert Mugabe               Although Tsvangirai says that in his youth he
                                                                                                           and Idi Amin. Nevertheless, given the events of the        would have “laid down” his life for Robert Mugabe,
                                                                                                           eight years since then, there is no denying Tsvangi-       he soon grew disillusioned with the ruling party. Ts-
                                                                                                           rai’s earnestness, not to mention his charisma. But        vangirai’s view was that Mugabe’s government had
                                                                                                           what is it that makes him different? At the time of         developed an elitist attitude similar to the Smith-led
                                                                                                           writing, the  and Zanu- had signed a pow-             Rhodesian state.
                                                                                                           er-sharing deal, but hadn’t yet elected ministers to           It was in this light that Tsvangirai, as Secretary
                                                                                                           take on portfolios to run the country. Tsvangirai has      General of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions
                                                                                                           been named Prime Minister, but has compromised             (), emerged as a prominent leader. He began
                                                                                                           severely on his vows never to share power with Rob-        to form an informal opposition to the ruling party,
                                                                                                           ert Mugabe. Critics have called him indecisive and         gradually leading the  away from its alliance

                       A (m)organ
                                                                                                           said that this has cost the  the chance to lead a       with Zanu- because of disagreements on policy
                                                                                                           post-Mugabe Zimbabwe. Despite this, support for            and workers’ rights. Under Tsvangirai’s leadership
                                                                                                           him abounds.                                               the  became an independent and profitable or-
                                                                                                                                                                      ganisation that served as a forum for discontented
                                                                                                                                                     workers. is time in his political career highlighted

                                                                                                             , says his son, “He is still

                       of the state
                                                                                                           Morgan.” Edwin Tsvangirai, the Zimbabwean politi-
                                                                                                           cian’s eldest son, told                    ere’s concern that attached to Tsvangirai is a long
                                                                                                           that his father’s personal and political perspectives
                                                                                                           could not be separated from his upbringing, which          chain of favours leading right back to the West.
                                                                                                           was crucial to his development into a trade union-
                                                                                                           ist and political activist. Born on  March, , in
                                                                                                           Gutu, in what was then Southern Rhodesia, Tsvan-
                                                                                                           girai was the eldest of nine children. He took on re-      his commitment to the people he represented, and           
                                                                                                           sponsibility for his siblings and grew to appreciate       was to form the basis of his opposition to the ruling      Tsvangirai has led
                                                                                                           his family’s principles. For Edwin, the elder Tsvan-       party. Edwin claims his father is “fearless about life”.   an historic fight
                                                                                                           girai is “humble and not imposing,” and while peo-             Despite this, there’s no shortage of critics to his    for democracy in
                                                                                                           ple may view this as a weakness, Edwin believes it         approach. ey say he has lacked strength and has            Zimbabwe, but
                                                                                                           is a matter of principle for his father. He’s no elitist   depended on Western backing for his party’s op-            governance presents
                                                                                                           and believes that accessibility and contact with the       position of Zanu-. ere is also a concern among           a different set of
      Zimbabwe’s new prime minister has fought hard to get to where he is. He’s earned                     people are what distinguish an ordinary man from           many ordinary Zimbabweans that attached to Ts-             challenges.
                                                                                                           a leader.                                                  vangirai is a long chain of favours that leads right
      worldwide recognition as a champion of the oppressed, but in Zim’s power-sharing                          In a telephone interview with              back to the West.                                          Image courtesy of John
                                                                                                           , Huddlestone reveals that Tsvangirai is                                                                     Baucher.
      government, the struggle is just beginning.   and   report.                      an avid reader, particularly of biographies. When               
                                                                                                           they first met, he was reading a book on Margaret            
                                                                                                               atcher, one of Britain’s longest serving prime min-
                                                                                                           isters. As he told her about his reading habits, a man        of Mbeki-mediated ne-
                                                                                                           who was accompanying them challenged him, call-            gotiations, on September , , Robert Mugabe,
                                                                                                           ing the book “colonial drivel”. Tsvangirai’s response      Morgan Tsvangirai and the leader of an  faction,
                                                                                                           was simple but firm: “I’m picking up tips.” For Hud-        Arthur Mutambara, signed the much anticipated

                                                                          -                                                                                                                                     

    These examples show spreads that have used colours from the images to establish a scheme for the
whole article.
    The pages from The Kenya Fallout section of the May-Sept 2008 edition (top left) show how the
colour scheme helped to connect two articles within the section. A third article preceded these, and the
time-line helped to link the first two. The sub-headers, pull-quotes, and bylines used a common colour
throughout. Even the map of Kenya used a limited pallet, though in retrospect perhaps a slightly greater
variation in colour would have made interpretation easier. Still, it demonstrates how even a graphic that
needs multiple colours can be made to fit into the scheme and look good. Imagine the effect of a badly-
drawn, rainbow-coloured Microsoft Excel graph. The designer’s duty extends right down to the content
of illustrations and graphics, and there is no excuse for using poor graphic content.

the font scheme

warnock pro iS the only typeface used in The Cape Town GlobalisT. I decided that a serif type
was needed, to give the magazine an authoritative and respectable look, and to help with ease of read-
ing extended text. At the same time, I wanted a typeface that would not look dated and would convey
the currency of the magazine and its content. Warnock proved versatile enough that I felt a sans serif
companion face was not needed.
    In order to make effective use of the font scheme, the designer needs to understand the subtleties of
the typeface itself, and the differences between its 32 variations. It comes in four weights: light, regular,
semibold, and bold. Each weight has Regular, Caption, Display, and Subhead versions, and an italic of
each of these.
    The differences between the weights is clear enough. The styles, however, are perhaps less obviously
distinct from each other. The Caption style is meant for text at small sizes. It is spaced appropriately
and has a low contrast between the thick and thin parts of the stroke. Its serifs are bulky and rounded
in order to remain visible at small sizes. At the opposite extreme, the Display style is intended for large,
display text. It has a greater contrast in the stroke width, and is more tightly spaced. The serifs are thin
and pointy. The Regular and Subhead styles fit in between.
    While it may be convenient to simply used the Caption style for all the captions, the Display style for
headers, and so on, it is important to be aware of the visual effect of doing so. I felt that it was seldom
desirable to use the Display style, feeling that I preferred the fuller look of the Regular style. Changing to
a heavier weight didn’t solve the problem, as the thin parts of the stroke remained thin while the thick
parts became thicker.

10 pt Caption
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feum-
sandreet atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum
adignit lortion sequismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh
exercincin henit utet, sustie commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit
wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in
ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.

10 pt Regular
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet
atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion
sequismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit
utet, sustie commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh
ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum
vulla adionsequat.

10 pt Subhead
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet
atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion seq-
uismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit utet, sustie
commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna
consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.

10 pt Display
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet atuercil
ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion sequismod tat,
vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit utet, sustie commy nim
vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex
essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.

72 pt Caption

72 pt Regular

72 pt Subhead

72 pt Display

72 pt Light Caption

72 pt Light Display

72 pt Bold Caption

72 pt Bold Display

The Baseline grid

All the text within the magazine is aligned to the baseline grid. This is vital to maintaining a consistent,
organised look and in getting text to line up across the page. Only with creative use of display type may
the designer break from this rule, and even then it must be done with caution. Occasionally it is permis-
sible to use a small baseline shift within a side bar or graphic to, for example, separate a sub-header
from an entry. This should never be done with standardised text, such as the body of a story, captions,
or pull-quotes. Under no circumstances may body text be removed from the baseline grid in order to fit
into a limited space.
    Another reason for sticking to the baseline grid (although arguably rather trivial) is to minimize the
effect of show-through. This would be more pronounced with a lighter paper, but is still worth knowing
about and considering.
    The baseline grid starts at 15 mm from the top of the page, with increments every 4,233 mm (12 pt).

Body TexT

Body text is 10 pt Warnock Pro Light, set on 12 pt leading. It is left justified in most of the magazine, but
left aligned in the News bites. Figures should be set to Proportional Oldstyle in the OpenType menu.
This helps them to fit the shape of the body text, and not interrupt the visual rhythm of the words. For
the same reason acronyms should, in most cases, be set to All Small Caps in the OpenType menu. (liKe
This, NeveR LiKe This.) Collections of full-size upper-case letters tent to stand out on the page.
    The body text must be as easy to read as possible, and everything the designer does should be with
this in mind. It should never be put on a coloured background, and should always be 100% Black. The
designer must be aware of how the body text flows through the pages, and must do everything he can
to aid it. While it is tempting in many cases to fit a page break between paragraphs, this creates an easy
stopping point for the reader. By breaking mid-sentence, there is a much greater chance of the reader
turning the page and continuing with the article. The same applies for interruptions by pull-quotes and


Headers allow for more creative treatment than any of the other text in the magazine. In many cases the
images and graphics will determine how the header is to be constructed. The spread as a whole must be

designed around the header and the main graphics. In fact, the header is as much a graphic component
as a photograph or illustration. For this reason it is important to know the exact wording of the header
as early as possible, as the length and shapes of the words will determine how they look on the page
and how they can be fitted in with the other content. Having to change the wording after the spread is
designed can cause major problems.
    Although there is a lot of creative freedom with headers, there are still some guidelines which should
be kept in mind at all times. Remember that you are designing for print. It is easy to misjudge the text
sizing on screen. Print out test pages to see how it looks in print at its proper size. Making headers too
big will be counter-productive. Remember that, with the exception of the cover, the magazine will be
viewed from a distance of about 40 cm. Very large type will be less easy to read at a glance, as the letter
and word shapes become more abstract and lose their context. 60 pt is probably a good upper limit.
Remember also that there is no point in having two article headers competing for attention on one
spread. Making the text large implies that it is the most important lead-in on that spread. It becomes a
bit overwhelming when two adjacent pages have similar large-text treatments.
    In most cases headers are Warnock Pro Semibold Display. Leading should be the same as the text
size. It is very important, with display type especially, that the space around the text is greater than the
leading. See below for an example.


Here is a two-
line header
And here is the byline, far too close to the header.


Less leading
on this one
And more room for the byline. Now that’s much better.

     Keeping the header and byline text in the baseline grid will also help to get good, consistent spacing.
Don’t ever squash the text to make it fit. Changes will have to be made elsewhere. The value of a well-
designed, good looking spread must not be underestimated. Bad design, in many cases, will do more
damage than cutting content, and the designer should negotiate with the editors and sub-editors to get
the content to fit the design.
     When setting header text, it is important to note the ascenders and descenders and space the words
with them in mind. In the example above, the absence of descenders on the first line until the g means
that the lower line can be moved up to get a good fit. A descender clashing with an ascender may neces-
sitate an increase in the leading. There are no set rules, and the designer should use his discretion and
common sense to decide how to modify the text. Remember also that you can negotiate with the editors
and sub-editors to change the wording for a better fit, but don’t expect to have the final say in this.
     Most headers will be set left or right aligned—never centred. However, there is room here to impro-
vise and be creative with the alignment. See the following page for some examples of headers that don’t
fit the normal style. Note the changes in text size within some of the headers, the use of fills and strokes,
the use of reversed text on an image, and the variation in alignment (depending, in some cases, on the
positions of the ascenders and descenders).

                                          

                                                                                                                                                    education for our kids, good hospitals for
                                                                                                                                                    the poor and sick, life expectancy that is
                                                                                                                                                    normal – not what it is today. We used
                                                                                                                                                    to be the breadbasket of southern Africa.
                                                                                                                                                    Now we’re a basket case! I want to live in
                                                                                                                                                    my own country! I don’t want to live in
                                                                                                                                                    Britain. We’ve got lovely weather in Zim-

                                                                                                                                                    babwe. I’ve got a house in Harare, and I

                                                                                         with                                                       want to live in it. at’s where I want to
                                                                                                                                                    be.     at’s where I was born and that’s

                                                                                                                                                    where I want to be buried. at’s why I’m

                                                                                                                                                        How much currency does Mugabe still
                                                                                                                                                    have in that self-constructed image as a
                                                                                      editor of      e Zimbabwean                                   defender against imperialism?

                                                                                                                                                        Mugabe was a great supporter of Brit-

                                                             met Rob-                 We asked the people to vote, to choose           ain. He loved the Royal Family. He loved
                                                           ert Mugabe in , he says        the men they want to govern them.                     wearing Saville Row suits. His wife loved
                                                           he worshipped the man. As              ey’ve chosen Morgan Tsvangirai. en                shopping at Harrod’s. And I remember in
                                             a young journalist, he followed Mugabe           we say, “Let’s bring in a compromise, let’s           the days when I used to travel with him,
                                             around the world, wrote his first biogra-         bring in someone else who’s not been                  whenever we went anywhere, we always
                                             phy, considered him a friend, defended           elected.” Why? I don’t understand that.               passed through London. is anti-British
                                             his presidency. irty-four years later, the       Why did we bother to have the election?               rhetoric only started in  when things
                                             journalist has become one of Mugabe’s            If you got to an election, what you’re say-           weren’t going his way. He’s always loved
                                             fiercest critics – and there’s no shortage        ing is that people are free to choose who             Britain.
                                             of those. Now in “self-imposed exile” in         they want. ey have spoken.
  
                                             Britain, he is founding editor of e Zim-                                                                       abo Mbeki’s sustained a lot of criti-
                                             babwean, a weekly newspaper-in-exile                 Some say the ’s ambition to de-                cism for his “quiet diplomacy”, but some
                                             that aims to bring the news from within          throne Zanu- has been put at risk by in-            say he’s one of the more powerful leaders
                                             Zim’s media blackout, using loopholes in         ternal tensions. Do you think the factions            still able to engage with Mugabe. What do
                                             Mugabe’s laws that give more freedom             should do more to unify for “the cause”?              you think of this?
                                             to newspapers printed outside the coun-
                                             try. In its third year, e Zimbabwean is              If [ leaders] don’t agree, if they                 He’s not been a fair moderator. He’s
                                             Zimbabwe’s highest selling newspaper.            don’t share the same ideology, then [they             come out openly on Mugabe’s side. He
                                                                                              should] split. I am one of those people               talks of this quiet diplomacy, which had
                                                With a run-off beckoning and                   who does not believe you should force a               been appeasement for Mugabe. Have you
                                             widespread government intimidation               marriage of inconvenience. You’re head-               ever seen a photograph of Mbeki holding
                                             reported, many observers are doubtful            ing for trouble. You’re postponing the in-            Morgan Tsvangirai’s hand anywhere? No.
                                             that the  can win the vote. How               evitable. If they don’t agree, you should go          Yet you’ve seen a photograph of Mbeki
                                             hopeful are you?                                 separate ways. ey () still won. [Ed’s              holding Robert Mugabe’s hand and laugh-
                                                                                              note: at time of going to print,  fac-             ing, when Zimbabweans are dying. And
                                                 I learnt very early in life, you can’t say   tions have united behind Tsvangirai.]                 he says there’s no crisis.
                                             “never” in politics. Mugabe likes to use
                                             the word “never”. Ian Smith used it in the        You’ve said in interviews that before             Mbeki aside, do you see signs that the

                                             mid-s: “ ere will never, ever be a black    , you thought Mugabe was “the best region is hardening against Mugabe?
                                             government.” He lived to regret that. Mu-                                           pow-
                                                                                           thing on two legs”. Yet you joined a  
                                             gabe is the same: “Morgan Tsvangirai will     erful chorus of people who were once Mu-               e people are [hardening] but not
                                             never, ever rule Zimbabwe.” He will also      gabe’s supporters and are now his critics. the governments. Botswana, Zambia and
                                             live to regret that. e problem we have        Where do you position yourself in a space Tanzania are beginning to harden their
                                             in Zimbabwe is that we have an unpre-         where Mugabe constructs himself as so attitudes towards Zimbabwe, but the oth-

                                             dictable, unstable man with his finger on      Zimbabwean that anyone against him is ers are not. I think South Africans have
                                             the trigger. We don’t know how he’s go-       anti-Zimbabwean?                                 a better understanding of what is going
                                             ing to react. If  (Zimbabwean Election                                                      on.    e , for example, has changed

 of the Luckiest
                                             Committee) comes along and says, “Sorry              ey dismiss us as puppets of the its tune, lead by Cosatu and the Youth
                                             mister president, we’ve had a recount and     British. But of course I’m a Zimbabwean, League and the Communist Party. ey’re
                                             you’ve lost,” is he going to pack up his bags and I’m critical of him because I love my leading the way in South Africa, and the
                                             and go? I don’t think so.                     country. I want Zimbabwe to be the best  has always understood the conditions.
                                                                                           country in the world; I don’t want it to be South Africans are now beginning to un-
                                                 How attractive is the possibility of second best. I want a proper democracy, derstand what’s going on, but it’s a recent
                                              a compromise candidate, like Simba I want respect for human rights, I want development.
                             e nursing crisis Makoni?lack of basic facilities have affected to see respect for the rule of law. Good
                                              and the                                                                                                  Image courtesy of e Why there’s no quick fix – and no easy fix at all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             – to Wall Street’s problems
                        government healthcare’s ability to serve poor South Africans in need of
                                                                                                                                                                                                       - 
                        medical care.      e private sector has fared better, but exclusive attention
                        is costly, prompting claims of profiteering, reports  .

                                                                                                   - 

                                                                                                                                       “So, this credit crunch... How crunchy is it?”
                                                                                                                                       Are you still confused? We sum up the mess in case you haven’t been paying attention.

                                                                                                                                          the crisis go back as far as eight years. e global             However, these debt packages would prove to be deadly practice
                                                                                                                                       economy had been growing rapidly, while interest rates had been           for many financial institutions. Instead of protecting the banks from
                                                                                                                                       consistently low. Banks had plenty of capital but were receiving low      excessive risk, the packages spread the bad debt among everyone.
                                                                                                                                       yields because of the low interest rates. In an effort to boost returns,   Because the packages had been bundled up and re-sold many
                                                                                                                                       investment banks came up with new investment packages.                    times, it was difficult to rate how much bad debt everyone was
                                                                                                                                               e point of these packages was to spread the risk inherent in      carrying. Traders relied on the credit rating agencies like Moody’s
                                                                                                                                       holding a loan. rough investment vehicles like collateralised debt        and Standard & Poor’s to do just that.
                                                                                                                                       obligations (), traders hoped to limit the risk any single entity            e systems proved to be inadequate.         e sub-prime crisis
                                                                                                                                       was exposed to. In the event of default, everyone would take up a         made shockingly clear how much bad debt everyone had carried
                                                                                                                                       little of the bad debt and no one would be severely set back.             and investors lost confidence. Banks have written off billions of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -  

Bylines & Pull QuoTes

Bylines and pull quotes are set at 14 pt Warnock Pro Regular on 24 pt leading. This means that they fit
the baseline grid (which is spaced every 12 pts). The generous leading relative to the text size gives them
a very different appearance to the body text, headers and captions without needing large type, bold or
italics. It is important to appreciate that this requires different treatment on the page, and they must
be given ample breathing room above and below (pull quotes are set to have 10 mm above and 10 mm
below, as mentioned on page 11). In the bylines, the writer’s name should be in Semibold and set to All
Small Caps in the OpenType menu.
     Bylines and pull quotes will generally be aligned towards the spine, though this is not a hard and
fast rule. A lot will depend on the rest of the spread—how the header is aligned, for example—and the
designer should consider the text in the context of the spread and all its graphic elements.

CaPTions, ConTriBuTor informaTion & CrediTs

Captions and contributor information will always fit in the outside column of the page. There is very lit-
tle variation in the way they are presented, but it is important to be aware of how they differ from each
    Captions consist of two parts. First comes an intro—a few words that form a sort of header for the
image and are intended to lead the reader into the rest of the caption. This is set in Warnock Pro Regu-
lar at 10 pt, set to All Small Caps in the OpenType menu. After a line break comes the caption body.
This is Warnock Pro Regular at 8 pt, set in a 70% tint of black (in normal case). Hyphenation is turned
off for captions. With such are a narrow column, hyphenation breaks up the flow of the text more than
it helps to keep a consistent measure. The text is left aligned, with no justification. Leading is 12 pt
throughout, in keeping with the baseline grid.
    Contributor information is set the same way as captions, with a few important differences. Above
the contributor’s name is a rule. This is set up in the paragraph style as a Rule Above, and is a 1 pt Black
solid line set to column width and offset by 4 mm. If there are multiple contributors, only the top one
has a rule. Each entry thereafter is separated by a line break. The text is set as with the Captions, but in
the italic equivalents of the font. The contributor information should always be aligned with the bottom
of the body text columns on the page, except where a graphic or side box forces it further up the page.
Since it sits at the bottom of the information hierarchy on the page, it should be placed after the article
content and graphics have been laid out. It needn’t necessarily be placed at the back or the front of the
article—the designer should use his judgement to decide where it is least obtrusive and fits best.

    Image credits are used when the photographer or cartoonist is not named with the writer in the
byline. They appear either below the caption after a line break, or next to the image itself when it has no
caption. They are set the same as the body of the writer information: Warnock Pro Italic at 8 pt in a 70%
tint of black. As with all other text in the magazine, credits should be aligned to the baseline grid. There
is no strict rule about placement (when there is no caption), but the credit would usually be aligned left
or right with the image, about 3 mm below it. It should not be placed on top of the image.

general rules

You will notice that, with the exception of the masthead and editorial list on the Contents page, none
of the type in The Cape Town GlobalisT is centred. Centring seems to be one of those things, like jus-
tification, that many people assume needs to be done for type to look professional. In fact, centring type
can make it less readable, as the line beginnings move around. It is also a cheap trick for reducing white
space (or at least breaking it up). As discussed on page 7, white space is not necessarily undesirable and
should certainly not be feared. Well considered left-aligned text, even with lots of space to the right,
will draw attention to itself more effectively and be easier to read, in general, than centred text. Remem-
ber, the primary goal of good design should be to communicate fluently and effectively. Anything that
hinders the reading process is only going to limit the success of the design. Centring is a tradition that
seems to be strongest in American page design, and, like most things American, should be treated with
a healthy dose of skepticism.
     Justification, too, should be carefully considered when applied. At narrow measures (anything less
than about 8 words a line), it tends to create large spaces between words and letters that break up the
flow of the text. Rivers of white space form, and the whole rhythm of the text on the page is ruined. It
should not be used for headers, sub-headers, bylines, pull-quotes, or any other text that appears at large
sizes, in narrow measures, or over very few lines (including entries in side bars). Justification empha-
sises the column structure. Sometimes this is desirable, sometimes not. In extended and body text it can
help to lead the reader through the article and help with general neatness in the page design. Consist-
ency is key in creating readable text, and when justification jeopardises this, it should not be used.
     There will always be circumstances that are not accounted for in the style sheets, and the designer
will have to improvise. Side bars, graphics and some headers will need creative type treatment, and
rules may need to be broken. Understanding the way type is used in the magazine, an appreciation of
type and design principles in general, and a good measure of common sense should see the designer
through any situation.

using images

there are no Style SheetS for graphics and images in The Cape Town GlobalisT, and there are no
formal sets of rules. The content and sources vary so much that it is almost impossible to create a set of
guides to cover every possibility. It is possible, however, to categorise the main types of image content,
and give some brief guidelines to these. I will not go into image editing techniques, the principles of
photography, or the drawing of cartoons, as these are subjects far beyond the scope of this guide.

doCumenTary PhoTograPhs

It is difficult to define a documentary photograph and how it differs from an illustrative photograph. For
the purposes of this guide, ‘documentary photograph’ refers to a photograph that was taken of a specific
event, person or place, and that offers an understanding about its subject matter. It serves as a record
of the ‘truth’ (which is itself a contestable notion, but I won’t go into that here) in some form, and the
context in which it is presented will determine its validity as such.
     This would be, in many cases, the ideal way to illustrate a news article. Remember, this is a current-
affairs, news-style magazine, and the graphics should represent the written content as accurately as
possible. Unfortunately it can be very difficult for a magazine with such limited resources as The Cape
Town GlobalisT to get hold of suitable high quality images. Still, if they are available to the designer,
he should know how to use them. Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind is that documen-
tary images completely lose their value if they look ‘untruthful’. Extensive editing is usually noticeable,
and special effects are right out. It is difficult to know exactly where to draw the line with editing, but a
small levels adjustment is generally considered acceptable. Cropping should usually be limited to a small
frame-shape adjustment, but obviously this depends on the nature of the photograph. Consider how the
framing would affect the meaning of the image.

illusTraTive PhoTograPhs

These could generally be described as photographs used to illustrate an article, in much the same way as
a drawing could be used. The value of the image lies in its ability to communicate an idea to the reader,
and is not dependant on a ‘truth’ measure.
    These photos would usually be used for features and opinion pieces. Often they will be setup specifi-
cally for the article, and so the photographer, photo editor and designer have a great deal of freedom in
the editing process. If several images are to be used for an article, think about creating a colour scheme
and a consistent visual theme that will hold the article together. This can be as simple as using a col-
oured backdrop for photos. Creating a narrative can also be very effective, and introducing characters

                                                   up in
                                                   If you’re a bit fuzzy on details when you think
                                                   of the Arms Deal, don’t worry. It’s a common
                                                   problem.           e    gives a
                                                   brief history of what the public knows, what it
                                                   doesn’t, and why the Arms Deal is one of the
                                                   most formative events in our nation’s infancy.

                                                   Report by  

                                                              government’s arms procurement – the Arms Deal, as the media called it – has
                                                           been one of the most important and most controversial exercises of the ’s political power. In the
                                                           late s, the South African government courted foreign arms companies for major sales of military
                                                   equipment. Billions of rands and nearly ten years later, there have been accusations, mud-slinging, investiga-         of  voters wanted
                                                   tions and court cases into corruption and wrongdoing in which some government officials were sentenced,                  the arms deal cancelled
                                                   some dismissed and some merely accused. Investigators in Britain and Germany are probing foreign arms

                                                   companies for bribery and corruption. On home soil, the South African government has intervened in all
                                                   inquiries. Businessman Schabir Shaik is in jail. His brother, Chippy Shaik resigned from government under
                                                   pressure. Tony Yengeni was found guilty of corruption. Jacob Zuma awaits trial. Yet as the dust rises, the public
                                                   can find little clarity, and ten years of seeking answers have only led to more questions.
                                                                                                                                                                          wanted it cut

                                                   Allegations of corruption abound
                                                                                                called for a commission of inquiry in parliament.
                                                   Minister of Finance, Trevor Manuel signed the               In September , the Auditor General’s office –            supported it
                                                   contract in January .      ree months before,           South Africa’s main financial watchdog – responded
                                                   Patricia de Lille, then a member of the , handed         to the allegations by conducting a review of the arms
                                                   a document to Judge Heath concerning the arms               deal. Based on the review, parliament called on the
                                                   procurement. e De Lille Dossier, as the document            Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa),
                                                   became known, contained information from sources            the oversight committee for public spending, to
                                                   inside the , concerned about the integrity of            conduct an investigation.
                                                   the arms acquisition process. e De Lille Dossier                                                                       (Findings of a  study
                                                   alleged that members of government involved in the          ’                                         by the Helen Suzman
                                                   deal got ‘kickbacks’ from arms companies. De Lille          Scopa’s report released in November  found             Foundation.)

                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                        ,  assures us that community mem-
                                                                                                                                                                       bers have become used to large herds of curious tourists
                                                                                                                                                                       flashing cameras through their neighborhood and their
                                                                                                                                                                       homes, preferring it to the large buses that formerly
                                                                                                                                                                       passed through. e inequities that characterise this ex-
                                                                                                                                                                       perience make some visitors uneasy. “It was strange,” one
                                                                                                                                                                       of the women on the tour said. “ ey were staring at us.
                                                                                                                                                                       We were staring at them. But there was no interaction,
                                                                                                                                                                       no real communication.” is remains a drawback of the
                                                                                                                                                                       township tour. It speaks to a lasting reality of Cape Town,
                                                                                                                                                                       a city defined by legislative co-existence but embodied by
                                                                                                                                                                       continued division that is largely racial and increasingly

                                                                      , publicly owned housing that formerly accommodated single                                                                                         past a lady enthusiastically swinging animal intestines before throw-
                                                                    men, now houses families. While some are being renovated, the original dwellings                                                                                   ing them on a braai, her hips swaying, I smile. With a type of green paste on her
                                                                    seem to embody all the horrors of poverty in a minute, crowded space. Sugar, a local                                                                               face to protect it from the heat of the flame, she laughs.      is is not something
                                                                    resident and guide for the walking portion of the tour, ushered us into the hostel. e                                                                              you see in Cape Town. It is, in my naivety or their sincerity, the tours’ strongest
                                                                    men drinking in the communal space greeted us enthusiastically as we squeezed into                                                                                 appeal.    ey are not constructed to incite pity or merely showcase poverty.      e
                                                                    a room that was too small to fit our group but was home to three families. It is shock-                                                                             opposite is strived for. In three hours it attempts to tackle the complex geo-
                                                                    ing that the state-owned property continues to exist in this state while shacks typically                                                                          graphic reality of Cape Town while showcasing details otherwise glossed over:
                                                                    associated with squalor are more private, aesthetically pleasing and expansive in com-                                                                             the challenges and the slow processes of rejuvenation, and the renovation and
                                                                    parison. Two women are busy frying cabbage, barely looking up from their hot plate.                                                                                reconciliation that make up the social and historical fabric of this space within
                                                                    I take my exit to ask Sugar if the women mind us coming into the room. Without                                                                                     the greater city of Cape Town.
                                                                    hesitation she answers, “No. ey want you to see how they live, how they have been
                                                                    made to live, how the government lets them live.” Her answer is both discomforting
                                                       and reassuring.
 is a “graduated tourist” on exchange from the University of
 British Columbia, studying international relations.

   
 is in first year, studying film, media, Spanish and social                                                                                                                 settlement of Langa, near a table of
 anthropology. She holds a diploma in photography.                                                                                                                     crafts, Sydelle, our photographer, pointed towards gaping
                                                                                                                                                                       jaws staring at groups of unsuspecting tourists: a graveyard
                                                                                                                                                                       of animal skulls, remnants of the thriving braai businesses
                                                                                                                                                                       run by women catering historically to migrant laborers. A
                                                                                                                                                                       glance left and we stumbled upon the subtle reminder of
                                                                                                                                                                       this continued reality. It became symbolic of the general
    tourist move beyond the “middle class                                                                                                                       tourist experience in Cape Town. e path is well beaten
 holiday” of wine routes and leisure hiking? If one                                                                                                                    and deliberate, yet it can lead to potential tangents, to of-
 comes to the southern tip of Africa not for a shop-                                                                                                                   ten hidden stories. ese tours are not easily condoned or
 ping mall at a waterfront named after an imperial                                                                                                                     applauded, as they oscillate between cultural encounters
 power, what other options exist? How can tourists                                                                                                                     and unimaginable distance, between moments of human-
 visit this city ethically? Culturally? Politically? Af-                                                                                                               ity and moments of awkwardness. While they have been
 ricanly? Further, can townships and their residents                                                                                                                   accused of further ‘ghettoising’ the townships and spatial
 become part of the tourist experience in a sustaina-                                                                                                                  division of Cape Town, they are an effect of this reality
 ble, ethical and equally beneficial way? Can this area                                                                                                                 and not the cause. e tour allows visitors to visualise the
 be sought out without essentialising or stereotyping                                                                                                                  very real physical, cultural, political and economic sepa-
 a particular notion of ‘africanness’?                                                                                                                                 rations that continue to define it.

                                                                                                                                             -                                                                                                                                         

helps to make the article more personal. See “Up In Arms” starting on page 25 of the May-Sept 2008
edition for a good example of this (first page shown opposite, at top).
    The only limits with illustrative photographs, really, are the implications of using the images in the
context of The Cape Town GlobalisT and the effect they would have on the magazine as a whole. It is
important to remember the target audience and the aims and values of the magazine.

PhoTo essays

In photo essays the photographs themselves are the primary content, and do not need to reference a
written article. In most cases they would be treated as documentary photographs, but it depends on
the nature of the subject matter. It is important to let the images speak for themselves. The designer
should resist all temptation to go wild with the editing and special effects, and try to remain as neutral
as possible. If the photographs are not strong enough for a very simple graphic treatment they should
not be used at all. Space restrictions will make things difficult, and using the page grid can make it easier
to organise the images into a strong layout. The grid is versatile enough that images can be presented in
a variety of shapes and sizes on one page, but it does require a very thorough and considered approach
from the designer. It might be necessary, in the case of photo essays alone, to create a new grid for an
article, but I would strongly discourage anyone from abandoning the grid altogether. Variation is impor-
tant, but so is consistency. The two are not necessarily exclusive. Again, the designer must not be afraid
of white space, even where space is tight. It helps to focus attention on the individual photographs, and
that can only be a good thing.


Cartoons are different to most other types of images in that they can be drawn for the space. The
designer should remember this and use it to its full advantage. The results can be very effective, but
good planning is essential. Cartoons are also less strictly bound by a frame. As such, they can easily be
integrated with other types of content, such as headers and graphs. It can help to unify a spread.
    Each cartoonist will have a unique style and working method. It is important to make sure that these
suit the content before commissioning the work. The designer and cartoonist should understand the
whole process before the work begins, from first sketches and early page planning right through to final
colouring and page layout. If drawings are to be done by hand, who is going to scan the artwork? Who
is going to add the colour? Is there a colour scheme to be adhered to? How will the images be cropped?
Good communication throughout the process is essential. Remember too that not all cartoonists are

Volume  Issue    Oct  - April                                                                               

            e Cape Town Globalist                                                                                                                                                                                          
         ’    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Chasing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         For African
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         economies, China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         offers an alternative,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         but at a cost.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         By  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cartoon by Murray Hunter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    will, but the developing world           in methods that read like a comprehensive list of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                is always willing to be a little ‘out there’ to ac-   what not-to-do.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                complish what needs to get done. In China,                 Until fairly recently, the free trade story had been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         for example, fish farmers clean out the bottom of             the only one to tell. Mary Simons, a senior lecturer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         their fishponds towards the end of the year and               of Political Science at , maintains that good de-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         wade through not just muck and sludge, but also a            velopment theory should never be “one size fits all”.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         thick layer of contraceptive pills. As it turns out, the     She suggests that Africa should never have played to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Pill not only protects the fish from disease but also         the Washington Consensus to begin with. Reflect-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         accelerates their growth. Depending on your per-             ing on her disapproval of the Consensus, she likens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         spective, planned parenthood under-the-sea might             it to rain: “When it falls, you have to protect yourself

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         be an alien concept or sharp innovation. Regard-             or get wet.” Now that Africa finds itself still caught

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         less, as China continues its march through Africa its        in the downpour, China may present the Dark Con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ways are likely to catch on.                                 tinent with something History has never been too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e as-yet unmatched economic dominance of             generous with before: an alternative.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the United States means that what America dictates                China’s economic game plan protects industries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         becomes the norm in global policy. It comes down             and maintains complete government control. In its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to a question of capacity: the  has the financial           relations with Africa, without the complications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (and military) capabilities to ensure that the costs of      of domestic consensus or pesky interest groups to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         disobedience far exceed those of compliance. Some-           consider, China has been able to keep up its foreign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         where along the way the Golden Rules of “privatise”          policy of non-interference and no-strings-attached
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and “liberalise” became the Golden Straightjacket.           trade and aid. We might call this policy mix the
Maybe it’s time we change the way we deal with money                                                                                                                                                                                                     But just like its people’s sometimes unorthodox,             ‘Beijing Consensus’, going against everything the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         yet effective, practices, Beijing has always played a         principles of free trade teach us. is, along with its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fast-changing international market game by its own           shared history of colonisation and the success of its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rules. It continues to disregard the Powers at Be            alternative policies, has led many African leaders to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of the North, regardless of what the West and devel-         the conclusion that Beijing might offer more realis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         opment theory would have it do, and chases growth            tic lessons in economic policy than the West.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -  

                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                               ’   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Estimated cost                                               R  b ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                             News bites
                                                                                                                                                         ree class  Submarines                                                                                         (over twelve years)
                                                                                                                                                     German Submarine Consortium (), Germany.

                                                                                                                                                     Four Meko A Corvettes
                                                                                                                                                        yssenKrupp, Germany.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               R , b                         R , b
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R , b
                                                                                                                                                      Light Utility Helicopters
                                                                                                                                                     Agusta Westland, Italy

                                                                                                                                                      Hawk Lead-in Fighter Trainers
                                                             Iraq seeks to build honeymoon island                           Systems, Great Britain. Green Zone, where the  embassy and September                                                                          US and North Korea in revived nuclear talks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                November        September
                                                                                                                                                          most Iraqi government offices can be
                                                                                                                            Gripen fighter aircraft
                                                                                                   ment to build a six-star hotel, an -hole
                                                             ’   has invited inves-                                                      found, would attract foreign tourists.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ,  assistant secretary-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          was a condition of the deal. Economically                   ese talks may be stalled by the
                                                                                                                                 , Great Britain.
                                                                                                                            Systems & 
                                                 tors to submit plans for developing a             golf course with a country club and a                      Developing the island is part of the                                                                             of-state Christopher Hill visited North destitute and mostly isolated from world               Bush administration’s decision to sell 
                                                                                      e sub-primefive-star spa on al-A’arass, among other
                                                 multi-billion dollar resort on Baghdad’s            crisis originated in America where banks             effort to increase tourism in Iraq, which                                                                             Korea to salvage the disarmament deal trade, North Korea would be more able                    billion in arms to Taiwan, announced
                                                 al-A’arass island, on tells
                                Confused? e Armchair Globalist the Tigris River. in the practice of lending money in the form of ‘hon-
                                                                                   engaged         luxury facilities. At present, the home-               gets over  percent of its revenue from                                                                             agreed upon in .                       to participate in international trade if            the same week. China is vehemently
                                                                                                    to less-than-ideal has limited recreational
                                                     Al-A’arass, whose name means ‘wed-bondseymoon island’ (sub-prime) candidates, i.e.
                                                                                   loans or                                                               the petroleum industry. Earlier this year                                                                                 In the weeks preceding Hill’s visit,  they were removed from the list.                    opposed to such a deal. Beijing, as an
                                you everything you need to know about...           those with
                                                                                                   facilities, with Baghdad residents e
                                                 ding’, was described by the tourism board high risk of default (not repaying the loan).paying            the government cleared a  million                                                                                 North Korea had begun to revive work at        Hill’s visit was concerned primarily            ally of Pyongyang, was key to the suc-
                                                                                   institutions would require the property as collateral and this was
                                                 chief as having been a popular desti- method ofareducing theirentrance fee (about  
                                                                                   their              dinar risk. At the time, the American                                    South Africa’s fall from trendsetter to arms peddlar
                                                                                                                                                          proposal to build a -room hotel in the                                                                            its nuclear plant and test site. Pyongyang with a proposed verification protocol                cess of previous negotiations. It plays an
                                                                                                   cents) to sit and so river.
                                                 nation for weddings and honeymoon market was boomingby the banks knew they could
                                                                                   property                                                               Green Zone opposite Saddam Hussein’s                                                                                 began reactivating the plant, capable of   on North Korea’s nuclear disarmament                important role in drawing North Korea
                                                                                   lend money
                                                 couples during the s. Since then the to people in order for them to buy homes and, in
                                                                                                        Although roadside bomb-blasts                     former Adnan Palace. Sky News reported                                                                               making weapons-grade plutonium, in         programme. He returned stating that he              into constructive talks with the other
                                                                                   the event that they couldn’t make repayments, the bank would
                                                 tourism industry has been hampered by                                                   Baghdad
                                                                                                   and shootings still threatenthe market –               that the country was seeking companies                                                                               defiance of the deal. Pyongyang claimed     had conducted “substantive and lengthy              participant nations.
                                                                                   simply repossess the property and sell it back to
                                                  sanctions in the s and the -ledat a higher value than the loan. the city that banks
                                                                                   generally       residents, security in is meant is improv-         Septembera giant cantilevered observation
                                                                                                                                                          to build .          e Arktis Pioneer left Port                                                                         Control Committee () talks” withsame year,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the  had not removed the Asian           in the his North Korean counter-
                                                 invasion in .                 could make high profits by charging high interestal-A’arass’s Elizabethinon a typical South African winter day
                                                                                                   ing. Officials told  that rates to sub-               wheel Baghdad, similar to the ’s                                                                                         which a blacklist linking it to        of arms control in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               country fromformed the highest levelparts. Hill appeared positive the six-na-
                                                                                   prime applicants and covering any potential losses by selling off
                                                        e board hopes to secure invest-            location near Baghdad’s highly fortified en route to the Yemeni port of Hodeidah.
                                                                                                                                                          m-tall ‘London Eye’.
                                                                                                           property that would continuously increase in value.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           e                                                                         the country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               state-sponsored terrorist activity, which  tion talks would continue.
                                                                                                                  is was dandy until the American housing market peaked                                          ship would have seemed ordinary to anyone who                          In , South Africa made another highly
                                                                                                           and prices began to slow and eventually recede. is implied
                                                                                                           that the institutions’ neat little hedging policy could no longer                                     cared to look. However, the Arktis Pioneer was not                                                   US-South policies.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   progressive move in legitimising its arms American relations sour
                                                                                                           save them from the risk to which they had exposed themselves.
                                                                                                              us, when the candidates defaulted, the banks would find
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      How the ordinary cargo – deep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 transporting meat industry producesin its holds                       ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In drafting Deforestation & on Defence, the 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the White Paper
                                                                                                           themselves making losses. Typically, this would only affect                                                  a shipment gases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 was greenhouseof - and G assault rifles with                                  desertification  its  months have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   introduced issues of human rights torelationship seen a rapid opposition. Venezuela followed suit.
                                                                                                           the American institutions, but they had packaged this debt                                                                                                                                                 deterioration of relations between the           e events in Bolivia have caused
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ammunition. Even so, the shipment might not have                  with the arms trade.      e South African arms trade
                                                                                                           and sold it off as a lucrative instrument to other institutions                                                                                                                        ,     Manure United States and several leftist Latin a shift in -South American politics.
                                                                                                           world-wide. us, once the bubble burst, the effects were felt                                           seemed exceptional, except that Yemen was an                      would, as a result of the Paper, need to consider the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      American countries. Bolivia and Ven- Chavez of Venezuela courted Russia,
                                                                                                           internationally, with many banks having to write off debt and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 illegal destination for South African-supplied arms.                                                 ezuela involved in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   human rights records of the parties expelled the  ambassadors to China and Portugal on a recent visit to

                                   e sub-
                                                                                                           sustain enormous losses. is dampened confidence which led
                                                                                                           to a bit of a self-fulfilling prophecy – the worse people expected
                                                                                                           the institutions to perform, the worse they performed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e newly elected -led government prohibited                 possible agreement before completing the deal. United States reacted the three countries, and Bolivia suspend-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      their countries; the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in kind. Meanwhile, Honduras postponed ed  Drug Enforcement Agency surveil-
                                                                                                                  e scale of the losses for the world economy was                                                the sales of arms to any states that violated human                                                   trade was strikingly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e ’s stance on the armsthe appointment of the new  ambassa- lance flights over its territory. Venezuela

                                prime crisis
                                                                                                           remarkable. A lot of expansion in the developed world is
                                                                                                           fuelled by easy access to credit, and with financial institutions                                      rights. Yemen was one such state.                                 progressive, and it seemed that it would become even country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      dor to the South American                 also recently took part in joint military
                                                                                                           sustaining major losses and tightening credit controls, this                                               Rapport broke the story to the public on                     more so as the Cameron Commission submitted a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tensions broke out between opposi-    exercises with Russia.
                                                                                                           would herald the slowdown in the developed world (a major
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  September , stirring public outcry and                                                        tion groups and Evo Morales of Bolivia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   second report. It suggested that parliament be given                                e United States, in turn, denied the
                                                                                                           factor in America’s imminent recession) and deal a serious
                                                                                                           blow to global economic growth. —                                                                                                                                                             when a constitutional referendum was      allegations from Morales and Chavez.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 international media attention. President Mandela                  the power to veto any arms trade agreements by the e referendum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      passed in mid-August.                        e Bush administration claimed the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 launched a commission of inquiry, the Cameron                                                        called Committee at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   . But Kader Asmal, head of thefor more equal wealth distribution Latin American leaders resorted to such
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Commission, into the apparent breach of policy                                                       and greater at for indigenous groups.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the time, rejected the recommendation. rights same                           actions because they were unable to
                                                                      Afghan poppy farmers kick the habit                        Recruitment Opportunities
                                                                                                                                 We are seeking entrepreneurial, talented, and energetic individuals             by South Africa’s state-controlled arms company                                                      Morales expelled the 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   year, South Africa sold arms to Rwanda. Algeria,envoy after                  build constructive international support.
                                                                                                                                 who want to make a meaningful contribution to the company’s growth                                                                                                                   accusing the  of giving support to the
                                                                         and rising food                       and success, and who value insurgents and criminals are
                                                                                                                                                    Taliban the tangible impact BroadReach makes on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Armscor. In March , he told the world, “Never                 Saudi Arabia and Syria got arms from South Africa
                                                                                                                                 the lives of its clients. BroadReach is actively recruiting in a variety of
                                                                      prices have led some Afghan farmers rangingmost active. to engagement manager for its
                                                                                                                                 positions            from business analyst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 again shall South Africa be the fountainhead of                   in , and Sudan in . All these countries were elections a partial successful
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Landmark Angolan
                                                                                                                                 offices                   and official in the Afghan ministry ofconflict in the region and further afield. Never again
                                                                      to abandon poppy farming for wheat in South Africa Anthe US. The ideal candidate will have:                                                                                                                  designated human rights violators, but the 
                                Overview                              farming. is, together with bad weather,                     • Undergraduate and/or graduate degrees from top-tier universities
                                                                                                                                                    agriculture told e Guardian that mostshall our country be the source of armaments used                                                                              , Angola hosted its      absent at some stations and other polling
                                BroadReach Healthcare is a rapidly growing global healthcare solutions                            • Demonstrated success as a leader                                                                                                               did not stop the deals.
                                                                                                                                                    farmers and the ability stronghold areas are
                                                                      contributed to the first fall in Afghani- quantitative skills in Taliban to analyze problems
                                                                                                                                  • Proven                                                                                                                                                                            first legislative election in  years. As points opened late. Human Rights Watch
                                                                                                                                                    afraid wheat and                                     to suppress communities and to wage aggressive                                                       was widely the arms-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Having flirted with strict regulation ofexpected, the ruling party,
                                company with offices in Washington DC, Cape Town, Johannesburg, and
                                                                                                                                                              to start planting
                                Nairobi. The company is a worldwide leader in healthcare management seven years, to thrive in rapidly changing and uncertain environments that
                                                                      stan’s opium production in                                  • Ability                                                                                                                                                                                                                     later said that the pre-election atmos-
                                consulting and in developing, implementing, and managing innovative                                                          
                                                                                                                                  • Willingness to travel locally and internationally as work demands
                                                                                                                                                    they written communication skills with
                                                                      according to the United Nations. • Exceptional oral and may be put off by difficulties in                                                     wars against neighbours. Never again shall we spend               trade, the South African government seemedfor the Liberation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Popular Movement to                       phere was not “free from intimidation or
                                healthcare systems and delivery networks that promote high-quality
                                healthcare across the globe. The company has particular expertise in produced 
                                                                            Last year Afghanistan                                     demonstrated ability is work with peoplecrops to the market. our people’s resources to develop weapons of mass
                                                                                                                                                    transporting their atstudent in
                                                                                                                                                             to an honours all organizational                                                                                      bow to pressure from international and local arms Eduardo dos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Angola () led by José                 pressure”.
                                                                      percent of the world’s opium, with its
                                the management and scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Africa.                                               In Helmand, fighting between British                                                                                                                               Santos, took the majority to win the par-     Dos Santos has been president of
                                The company has been awarded a number of high-profile contracts from                                                          history. Louis Pienaar,
                                                                                                                                  • Familiarity with Microsoft Office Suite of products, including Excel,         destruction.”                                                     traders.
                                                                      poppy industry employing one in every                                         troops
                                                                                                                                      PowerPoint, and Word and Taliban insurgents pose fur-                                                                                                                           liamentary election. e party took just    Angola since , one year longer than
                                leading global institutions including governments, multi-lateral agencies,
                                                                      seven Afghans. Eighteen of
                                international donors, top universities, NGOs, and Fortune 100 companies. Afghanistan’s            • Work experience in the private sector – e.g.and Alexconsulting
                                                                                                                                                             Meghan to transporting perish-
                                                                                                                                                    ther challengesFinn management de                                 ,  , contributes ato reshape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ese words showed a commitment                                                     whose more than percent of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          e government, Other change offace was the vote.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ,                                                         Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe.
                                                                       improving the are now poppy-free, com-
                                Through its initiatives, BroadReach isprovinces lives of thousands of                                 firms, healthcare organizations, etc. – for students with graduate
                                                                                                                                                             Comarmond contributed
                                                                                                                                                    able produce to markets.                                     the fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, according to a rogue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Apartheid South Africa’s legacy as                          so abruptly revealed, gained supremacythe elections, independent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Prior to over the
                                individuals every day.
                                                                      pared to  provinces last year.                                                        their efforts
                                                                                                                                                          Inreporting. to combat Afghani- state steeped in underhand weapons trading and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      recent reports. is is more than cars, planes                                                    observers from the  and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   legislative in . e National Conventional Arms the  ex-
                                                                            Yet opium production fell by only                                       stan’s opium trade, authorities have sent                         and all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               policies of transport put together.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 aggressiveother formsof destabilisation.                                                             pressed concern that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Control Act stated that the  should bend the lead-up to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to                For the full story, see Jennifer Hotsko on
                                                                       percent, from , tonnesApply             To to ,                    security forces to destroy poppy fields,                                                                                                                           event was poorly organised. When polls    democracy and development in Angola at
                                                                      tonnes. While there has been progress                                                   
                                    If you are interested in this opportunity, or would like to learn more about BroadReach, please visit us at Applications and cover letters for
                                       opportunities in South Africa should be emailed to For opportunities in the US, applications and cover letters should be emailed to poppy
                                                                                                                                                    paid farmers to destroy their own                                    e meat-eating cost report,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Does Commission’syou more? released in June ,            the government’s will when it came to buying registration lists were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cow farts opened in Luanda, and
                                                                                           BroadReach Healthcare offers a competitive                                                                                  to Wayne Idas milestone for South
                                                                                                                                                    crops and urged clerics to tell villagers was See become a on the economics of meat- African arms-
                                                                      in the north, almost all the country’s compensation package. produced the images. She                                                                                                                        selling arms, which turned a control committee into
                                                                      poppy cultivation now happens in seven                                        that growing the drug is un-Islamic.
                                                                                                                                                             is a first-year film and                                   eating at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 trade policy. Its recommendations led, in part, to                a puppet of the government.          ,  ,  , 
                                                                      provinces in the south and west where                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                         media studies student.                              the creation of the National Conventional Arms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                                                e government                                 Shabir Shaik                              Zuma dismissed                             Britain’s Serious Fraud Offices looks                     Zuma goes
                                                                                                                                             gives a statement                               is convicted                              on June  due                             into R million of commissions                        to court.
                                                                                                                                             endorsing the                                   of corruption                             to connections                             paid by arms company  to people

                                                                                                                                             Scopa report.                                   on June .                                to convicted                               close to the arms deal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Shabir Shaik.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          - 
familiar with digital imaging techniques. The designer may need to supervise to make sure that all
scans and raster images are large enough for print. Having said that, the cartoonist should still be given
enough creative freedom to stay interested in and comfortable with the project.

informaTion graPhiCs

Tables, graphs, maps, and time lines could all be described as information graphics. They can be used
to support an article or as standalone devices, but in all instances the importance of good design in
constructing them should not be underestimated. A well designed graphic will help the reader, in one
glance, to understand a complex issue or idea, and the designer must do everything in his power to
simplify the process of interpretation.
    Information graphics are central components in the page design. Often combining text, lines, shapes
and images, they need to fit with the visual styles of the magazine without blending into the back-
ground. Stick to the house font—Warnock Pro—but don’t be constrained by the style sheets.

possible changes and

both editionS of the magazine done under my watch have many mistakes. I am pleased to say that
these are mostly small subbing errors, but there are a few things that I would have liked to have done
differently on the design side.
    The weakest spreads, I think, happened when we tried to put too much content into the space—a
half-page advert where we hadn’t planned it, one more paragraph of body text, or a little extra side-bar
information. The designer will always be battling with the editors to get content cut, shuffled around or
changed, and the editors will always be trying to fit in a little more content, often at the expense of an
image or the last bit of white space. That’s the way magazines work. The challenge is to find the right
balance, and, unfortunately, this is often only visible with hindsight.
    Throughout the design process, but particularly when arranging the page order, it is important to
consider which pages will end up opposite which other ones. Be aware of where the content will be
positioned in the spread, not just on the single page on which it sits. There was at least one instance—
on pages 8 and 9 in the May-Sept 2008 edition—where we had two very text-heavy pages placed next
to each other, with the two small graphics on the outsides of the pages. This made for a very dull design
and wasted the effort that had gone into the individual pages.
    There is only one major change that I would consider for the basic design template. Many of the arti-
cles in the magazine are only one or two pages long, yet nearly all have large, display-style headers. Not
only does it take up space, it becomes a bit confusing and overwhelming when every second page has a
header fighting for prominence. I would suggest that only the longer, more important articles follow this
style, and the shorter ones become more standardised with smaller, single-line headers. This would have
to be consistent in order to be effective, but I think it could help to make the more substantial articles
appear that way while saving a bit of space in the shorter articles. It wouldn’t have to be a dramatic
change, but could have a big impact.

end note

the cape town globaliSt iS bound to change each year, with every change in editorial staff. That is
part of the joy of working on a project like this—there is room for growth and improvement, and the
magazine can adapt to the personal styles of the people producing it. It is a fantastic learning opportu-
nity for anyone involved.
     This design guide is not meant to stop change. I have strong beliefs in a lot of what I have imple-
mented, but I accept that the magazine will have to move beyond my ideas for it. I hope that at least this
guide will help the reader to understand why I have designed the magazine the way I have, and what
is involved in planning and using the templates and style sheets. I hope that any changes the designer
makes are based on informed decisions and are done for the right reasons. I hope that the reader learns
something from this guide, and is able to make the most of it at The Cape Town GlobalisT and in
other projects. Lastly, I hope that new members of The Cape Town GlobalisT editorial enjoy their
experience of the project and are able to give new and exciting input.

Thanks for reading. Please feel free to contact me for more information or guidance. I’m always happy
to help.

Graham van de Ruit

084 521 8710

quick reference

These specifications do not account for every         ParagraPh sTyles
situation in the magazine. For more informa-
tion, read the relevant chapters in the guide.        Body text Warnock Pro + Light + size: 9,5 pt +
All measurements are in millimetres unless                leading: 12 pt + proportional oldstyle + align:
otherwise specified.                                       justified, last left + first indent: 5 mm + Grid
                                                                                         Alignment: Baseline
                                                      First paragraph Body Text + drop cap lines: 3 +
doCumenT sPeCs                                            drop cap characters: 1 + first indent: 0 mm +
                                                                  nested styles(2): [First Letter through 1
Page size                          a4 (210 × 297)              characters], [First Line through 3 words]
Bleeds                                          3     New section paragraph                  Body text + first
                                                             indent: 0 mm + nested styles(1): [First Line
                                                                                            through 3 words]
margins & guides                                      Header Body Text + Semibold Display + size:
                                                         60 pt + leading: 60 pt + align: flush left + first
Top                                              15                           indent: 0 mm - hyphenation
Bottom                                           15   Sub-header Body Text + Semibold + size: 12 pt
Inside                                           15         + (colour) + oT all small caps + first indent:
Outside                                         45                                                     0 mm
Number of columns                                 2   Byline        Warnock Pro + size: 14 pt + leading:
Gutter                                       8,466       24 pt + proportional oldstyle - hyphenation +
Vertical guides   7,5; 37; 202,5; 217,5; 383; 412,5                              Grid Alignment: Baseline
Horizontal guides             7,5; 30; 167,5; 289,5   Caption         Warnock Pro + size: 8 pt + leading:
                                                         12 pt + proportional oldstyle - hyphenation +
                                                                   tint: 70% + Grid Alignment: Baseline
Colour swaTChes (CmyK)                                Caption intro           Caption + size: 10 pt + oT all
                                                                                     small caps + tint: 100%
Title banner red (block)             15 100 100 0     Pull quote                                       Byline
Main red (text and rules)            34 100 100 0     Writer’s name (in byline) Byline + Semibold +
                                                                                             oT all small caps
                                                      Contributor name Caption Intro + Italic + rule
CharaCTer sTyles                                                         above offset: 4 mm + rule above
                                                      Contributor information                 Caption + Italic
First line     Warnock Pro + Light + size: 9 pt +     Image credit                Contributor Information
                leading: 12 pt + oT all small caps    Website lead Body Text + colour: main red +
First letter          First line + (colour) - caps                           align: flush left - hyphenation


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