Graham van de Ruit
7 General look
9 The page grid
15 The colour scheme
19 The font scheme
23 The baseline grid
23 Body text
27 Bylines & pull quotes
27 Captions, contributor information & credits
28 General rules
29 Using images
29 Documentary photographs
29 Illustrative photographs
31 Photo essays
(Continued overleaf )
33 Information graphics
35 Possible changes and recommendations
37 End note
39 Quick reference
Setting up a template and style sheets is usually the first big step in designing a magazine or news-
paper. It creates a set of rules that guides the layout from that point on, and is central in creating the
look and feel of the publication. As such, it is essential that this is done properly, with careful attention
to detail. However, it is also vital that there is a thorough understanding of the style in order to success-
fully apply it. If the designer has done his job properly, he will have a very specific idea of how he wants
to see his styles used. There will always be exceptions to the rules, new challenges, and circumstances
that cannot be planned for. Thus the person applying the design styles must be able to think like the
original designer and anticipate his moves, sticking to the styles as closely as possible. He must under-
stand why the styles are set up as they are, so that he can apply the same logic to new conditions.
In this document I will explain the processes behind setting up the style sheets for The Cape Town
GlobalisT when I took over the design work in 2008. I will run through the various elements of the
design, justifying my choices and showing how the styles can be applied. I hope that it will adequately
prepare the reader for the task of designing an edition of the magazine.
At the end of the guide is a quick reference section. Here the reader should be able to find, at a
glance, all of the specifications needed for the design.
I will not give in-depth explanations of design principles in general, software use, or the relevant
jargon. It is assumed that the designer has a basic knowledge of these, and can fill in the gaps.
the primary function of good design is effective communication of information. If the designer
is successful in this regard, he shouldn’t have to worry about getting the design to look good—that will
come naturally. A news magazine such as The Cape Town GlobalisT contains vast amounts of infor-
mation, and this must be carefully structured and ordered if it is to be easy to navigate and understand.
The reader shouldn’t have to work to get information from the content—the designer must constantly
be trying to make life easier for the reader. This will involve editing down content to a manageable
amount, creating clear hierarchical structures that distinguish between different types of information
and indicate their relative importance, and the use of graphic devices to guide the reader around the
page and through the magazine. A level of consistency and predictability is vital. In order to do this
successfully, it is important to have a good understanding of language, typography, photography, and
the broader principles of graphic design. A designer who neglects any of these aspects is doing himself
a great disservice. They all relate directly to presentation of information, and attention to detail in every
area is very important.
“Technical skill is mastery of complexity while creativity is mastery of simplicity.”
–E.C. Zeeman, mathematician, b. 1923
The value of simplicity in design cannot be underestimated. White space can often be more useful
than any other graphic device, and the designer should never feel that every space needs to be filled.
This is not to say, however, that large empty areas are always appropriate. The designer needs to assess
the value of the space, and create a balanced design in which the spaces play an active part.
The greatest skill a designer can have is the ability to present large amounts of information in a sim-
ple and easy-to-understand way. This will often be very difficult, and an understanding of the content is
essential in order to be able to present it successfully.
there are a few conventionS that the designer must be aware of before starting on a project such
as The Cape Town GlobalisT. Most will be obvious to anyone who has an interest in magazine or
Page numbering often starts with the cover as page one. If there is a lot of preliminary content, you
may wish to start numbering later. Whatever the case, odd page numbers should always fall on right-
hand pages. Similarly, the Contents page should occupy a right-hand page, unless it is to cover two
pages and form a spread (extravagant in cases such as this).
the page grid
there iS no Simple rule as to what sort of page grid should be used for a new project. Obviously it
is going to depend largely on the type of content to be presented. It is helpful to consider the project as
a whole, and try to anticipate what will be required of the grid. The simpler the grid the easier it is, in
general, to get a consistent look. However, a more complex grid could, if used well, give a more distinc-
tive appearance to the project.
For The Cape Town GlobalisT, it is important to consider the different types of content that might
appear on any given spread. There could be a header, sub-header or byline, body text, photographs and
illustrations, captions, writer information, pull-quotes, and side boxes. Most pages will also have a sec-
tion header and page number (the folios). By its nature, the magazine will have lots of information that
needs to be fitted into a limited space. This means that it needs a versatile grid that can accommodate
most of the content without leaving big spaces.
The easiest place to start is with the body text. Research has shown that, for ease of reading, be-
tween nine and twelve words to a line is optimal. Magazine columns will tend to be narrower than book
text in order to fit more onto a page. Given that the body text should nearly always be between 9 and
12 pt (probably 10 pt), it is easy to establish the approximate column width. Two columns spread across
the page gives wide columns that don’t allow for much variation. Three columns gives a more versatile
grid, but the lines of text become rather narrow. Here again it is important to consider the nature of the
magazine. Narrower columns make it look more like a newspaper, where the content is condensed into
short articles and is intended to be read quickly. Wider columns are more appropriate for extended texts
intended to be deliberated over for longer.
For The Cape Town GlobalisT I used a two-and-a-half column setup that meets most of our
requirements. The outside column is very narrow and is never used for body text. It is a useful area
to place image captions and writer information, and allows for more creative use of images and infor-
mation boxes. It is important also to anticipate how the magazine will be held and read. The reader’s
thumb will often obscure the content at the outside of the page, and so by keeping the body text away
from the edge it is easier to read the main content. The text must also be far enough from the inside that
it doesn’t disappear into the centre fold, and far enough from the top of the page that it doesn’t appear
cramped. Images are generally more flexible, and so I created an outer boundary guide for graphic ele-
ments that can extend beyond the text columns. A horizontal guide is used for the vertical alignment of
some elements on the page, particularly pull quotes. This helps with visual consistency.
Outer graphics guides Upper limit of text
Outside column Inner guides
Body text columns Vertical-alignment guide
Having a large number of guides like this means that the grid is very versatile, and can accommo-
date nearly anything the designer may want to put on the page. However, it is important to be careful
and consistent in the use of the grid in order for it to be successful. Fitting content to the grid is not as
simple as just aligning its edges to the guides. The designer must consider how all the elements align
and interact with the other elements on the page, the spread, the article, adjacent pages, and the whole
The example opposite from the Oct 2008 - April 2009 edition shows a basic spread with a mix of
content. The left-hand page (verso) is devoted to the title, byline and and image. The photo is fitted to
the outer graphic guides, aligned at the top. The bottom is not aligned to anything—the photo main-
tains its original shape. If there was another graphic on the facing page, it might be important to see
that they line-up, but in this case there is some freedom. The header and byline both align to the inside
edge of the body-text columns, but extend outwards as far as is needed to get good shapes and line
lengths (they could go all the way to the outer graphic guide if necessary). The text is right-aligned in
order to bring it closer to the rest of the spread. It could have been left-aligned to the body-text columns
(putting it any further out would have created too much empty space and put too much weight on the
outside of the page), but this would have changed the way it lined-up with the image and the rule. It
may also have pushed the byline onto another line, and this could have taken up too much space verti-
cally. The yellow rule picks up on the colour in the photo and is intended to link the image and the text.
As such it fits the same width as the image.
The text on the right-hand page (recto) fits nicely within the body-text columns. Note the upper
limit if the text. This should never be pushed any higher. The pull-quote helps to break up the text and
links with the larger text and horizontal lines on the opposite page. It is very important that the pull-
quote has enough space above and below it to separate it from the body text, especially considering its
generous leading (line spacing). In the text wrap options, I have set all pull-quotes to have 10 mm of
space above and below. This should never be changed. It may be tempting to squash it just a little to fit
more onto the page, but I cannot emphasise enough how important it is to stick rigidly to rules such as
this. Changes will have to be made elsewhere to get things to fit.
The image caption sits in the narrow column at the outside of the recto page. It is not necessary for
it to be on the same page as the image itself, and the designer should use his discretion to decide where
it looks best. As a general rule, the caption should have its upper edge placed as close to the vertical-
alignment guide as is comfortably possible, but other content takes priority in placement (as with the
pull-quote here). Writer and photographer information should, conversely, sit at the bottom of the
column, aligned with the bottom of the body-text columns.
The section header occupies its usual spot at the outside top of the page (notice how it has been
removed from the verso page because of the image). If the text within this box is longer than the column
allows, it can be extended inwards. This should be done consistently.
This spread from the Oct 2008 - April 2009 edition shows how the grid can be adapted to fit differ-
ent types of content. The body text of the article fits into the body-text columns, as with the rest of the
magazine. The photo on the right-hand page has its inside edge aligned to the gutter of the body-text
columns, but extends outwards to the outer graphic guide. The writer information sits in the outer col-
umn, as is done throughout the magazine. The section headers also sit in their usual spots.
The rest of the content, however, breaks slightly from the normal grid. The “Wall Street’s $$$hit-list”
is a side box that does not need to fit into the main body of the article. A thin frame separates it from
the body text, and the formatting of the text also helps to distinguish it as a side box. By using the outer
of the two body-text columns combined with the outer page column, it gains some width that gives an
economical text measure. The box aligns vertically with the top and bottom of the body text.
The “Crash Report” leading along the bottom of the two pages helps to unify the spread. The grey
rule was needed to join the content across the centre fold, and separate it from the body text higher
up. In cases such as this where the content is broken into multiple, short entries, it may be necessary to
break from the column structure of the page (see also the time-lines elsewhere in the 2008 editions).
Here it was convenient to use three columns on each page. The content is substantial enough that some
degree of uniformity is necessary, and the columns are all of equal width. This is far more important
than the bottoms of each entry finishing on the same line. The three columns fit between the outer and
inner graphics guides. No text should ever sit outside of these. In fact, only full-bleed images may leave
To save, but not spoil or bails out a struggling bank with taxpayers’ money,
Wall Street’s $$$hit-list it creates “a serious moral hazard”. He elaborates:
smother “Once you bail out a big bank, then it sets a dan-
Bear Stearns was one of the world’s biggest independent invest- gerous precedent because others may begin to think
ment banks. It collapsed in March and was acquired by JP Mor- clear solution to the question of what to that they are infallible, and enter into even greater
gan Chase in May . do about this inherent instability. All the parties af- risk.” Because of the huge growth in the industry
Lehman Brothers ﬁled for bankruptcy in September . It was fected have their own views on what should be done. over the last ten years, some institutions have sim-
one of the ﬁve largest independent investment banks. For many regular people, the answer appears to be ply become too large to be allowed to fail. An entity
e Federal Reserve, like any other central banking system, is re- a no-brainer: increased regulation of the ﬁnancial becomes “too big to fail” when their collapse would
sponsible for developing monetary policy. It also has regulatory sector, and greater intervention form governments cause intolerable consequences in the eyes of the
and supervisory responsibilities. and central banks. government. is is the case with the two mortgage
Fannie Mae (Federal National Mortgage Association) was created e problem is that regulation needs to prevent giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. If these insti-
in to provide easier housing loans in the post-Depres- immense failures like the ones seen recently but also tutions were to collapse, “the American real estate
sion years. A publically traded company, it backed loans in the allow for immense proﬁts in the good times. Even market would suﬀer a terrible short term shock,”
secondary mortgage industry. Together with Freddie Mac, Fan- if one accepts that modern economics is cyclical, says Economics Professor Don Ross.
nie Mae was taken into Federal hands after increasing liquidity it’s always tempting to intervene to try to moder- Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s histories make
troubles in . ate the economic slumps. ough central banks and them, in part, the responsibility of the govern-
Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation) was cre- the are drafting new policy in this regard, it is ment. “Fannie Mae was created during the Great Photo by Nicole Velleman
ated in the s as a competitor for Fannie Mae in the second- mostly focused short-term solutions: trying to pro- Depression by Roosevelt in order to provide af-
ary mortgage industry. mote transparency, improve rating techniques for fordable housing to the people,” explains ’s Dr
American International Group (), one of the world’s largest the debt packages, and restore investor conﬁdence. Tchana Tchana. Freddie Mac was established in a to thrive. Yet this must be the bitterest pill for the
insurance ﬁrms, was bailed out by the Federal Bank of New York Nevertheless, there’s a lingering question about similar vein in . ey were quasi-private com- millions of people whose only part in this was their
in September after suﬀering a liquidity crisis. hard policy: Can we restrict banks’ ﬁnancial activity panies with their shares publicly tradable. us, they pension fund. is research editor at
Bank of America is the United States’ largest commercial bank to stop them from hurting themselves and the rest were responsible to their shareholders although ere is no denying that the ﬁnancial system as .
and, after the acquisition of Merrill Lynch, the largest ﬁnancial of us? they remained under congressional oversight. With it stands regularly hurts a lot of people, but neither
services company in the world. For mainstream economists and ﬁnanciers, in- Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae having lent or under- can we ignore that it makes them and others a great
Merrill Lynch was another large independent investment bank that creased regulation is not a comfortable solution. written . trillion of the United States’ trillion deal of money the rest of the time. It would be nar- is a third-year
was sold to Bank of America in September . “Regulation is dangerous because you do not want mortgage debt, it is quite clear that the fallout of row-minded to suggest that the status quo is the student.
JP Morgan Chase is one of the oldest traditional bank holding com- to discourage innovation,” argues Brian Kantor, an their bankruptcy would have been disastrous. is best or only viable way to run a global economy, but
panies in the world. It purchased Bear Sterns in May . Investec strategist in Cape Town. “Any regulation does not apply to private banks, as the govern- there is as yet no alternative with real traction be-
Goldman Sachs & Morgan Stanley are the two largest investment may inhibit innovation.” With the capitalist econo- ment made clear in the case of Lehman Brothers. yond the few members of the group that conceived
banks in the world. In light of recent ﬁnancial market develop- my built on entrepreneurship and innovation, any- Economic orthodoxy says the answer lies in a it. While the economists and bankers work on it is a second-year business
ments they changed their status to bank holding companies in thing that might stiﬂe this is unappealing. competitive, almost Darwinian, environment. Some though, the restt of us will be stuck with the up-and- science student
order to be eligible for emergency government funding. Greater government involvement also brings banks need to fall to teach others a lesson. Inter- down, boom-and-bust cycle that makes modern
complications. Kantor feels that when government vention only allows ineﬃciency and malpractice economic life so interesting.
is editor-in-chief at
September October October October February
Black Friday Bankers’ Panic e Wall Street Crash Black Monday Barings gets buggered
of speculators named Gould ’ attempt to corner the prosperity on Wall Street of healthy trade, stock , ’ merchant bank,
and Fisk caused ﬁnancial panic after trying copper market caused general panic at a memorably gave out due to over-conﬁdence markets across the globe took a nose dive in was toppled by the rogue tradings of one
to corner the gold market. e men used fragile time for the stock market (there had and speculation. In a week, the market lost a what became history’s biggest one-day crash. Nick Leeson, a trader in their Singapore
inﬂuence with President Grant and his already been a crash that year thanks to staggering -billion, more than the had e Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped oﬃce. Leeson had made big proﬁts for Bar-
Treasurer, using inside information to antici- speculation). ere were runs on several spent in the whole First World War. Com- . percent in one day – almost twice as ings, but when his luck changed, he hid his
century, there have been doz- pate prices. ey bought large amounts of large banks, as millions were withdrawn. e pounded by protectionist government reac- much as ever before or since. Interestingly, losses from the bank and tried to recoup
ens of major stock market crises of varying cheap gold, intending to sell once prices rose stock market fell by nearly percent over a tions, this humbling of the market tipped us markets rallied with record gains over the them through increasingly desperate deals.
degrees of severity. With many of these at due to government withholding the sale of year and the city of New York was dragged to the Great Depression (and, some claim, following days and took only two years to By the time his bosses realised what was
least partly due to reckless proﬁt-seeking by its gold. Prices did rise astronomically. When to the brink of bankruptcy. e Treasury contributed to the start of ). recover completely. Quite what happened happening, there was a . billion gap in
individuals or small groups, some people are the government responded with increased pumped -million to save the day, and Taking oﬃce in , Franklin Roosevelt’s remains largely a mystery. e collapse has their budget. e bank went insolvent, and
starting to wonder how many times we need federal gold sales, the gold price plummeted banker JP Morgan personally came to the administration brought in an ambitious New been the subject of much subsequent debate, was bought by a Dutch bank for one British
to crash before we buy a new car. within minutes. e economy suﬀered rescue. Six years later, the Federal Reserve Deal to provide Relief, encourage Reform even necessitating the creation of a number pound. Leeson ﬂed but got dragged back to
severe disruption and several brokerages Bank was created to prevent future ﬁnancial and speed Recovery, but it was not until well of new models. A lot of the blame probably Singapore for a six-year prison stint.
Sources: New York Times, Market oughts. went belly up, but Gould and Fisk emerged calamities. e biggest ﬁnancial calamity in after the war that employment returned lies with irrational investor behaviour and
com, e Economist, Wikipedia.org, Time. relatively unscathed. history was just sixteen years away. to pre-Depression levels. computerised trading systems.
these bounds, and they will extend right up to the bleed guides.
Note that the body text sits at the top of the page. There are several reasons for this. The reader
could have turned to this spread midway through reading the article. If he has to search for the continu-
ation of the body text, he may lose interest. It should be in a predictable place. Secondly, the “Crash
Report” section creates a useful grounding for the spread, graphically speaking. The designer should
constantly be aware of the effective visual weights of elements on the page. There is no rule as to how
weight should be distributed, but it is important to be aware of the effect of having, for example, a large,
dark image on the outside of the page, at the top or the bottom.
There are some notable exceptions to the rule of the page grid. The first is the Contents page. It has a
similar two-and-a-half column setup, but here the half column sits on the inside of the page. It contains
a list of staff and contributors—information that is not important enough to justify placement on the
outside of the page. This column has been widened, and the two main columns narrowed accordingly.
The outside margins are 15 mm, the inside 60 mm. (On the standard template, the inside margins are 15
mm, and the outside 45 mm.)
News bites uses a three-column grid to fit more text onto the spread. The margins are 15 mm on all
sides, and the gutter has been reduced to 5 mm (from 8,466 mm). The page folios, however, sit in their
Some of the editorial pages in the May-Sept 2008 edition used a two-column grid, and the Q&A
with Wilf Mbanga used three columns. The intention was that these would be regular column slots, and
the different grids would help to establish their individual identities in this context, while being more
suitable, perhaps, to the specific content likely to appear in these slots. We moved away from this plan,
however, with the following edition.
the colour scheme
the cape town globaliSt uSeS two variations of red in its brand identity. For the title banner (and
in other situations where it appears in a block), it has CMYK values of 15 100 100 0. For text and rules,
it is 34 100 100 0. This is a slightly darker version that works better for fine print against a white back-
ground, but would be dark and lifeless in large block applications. The only other colours used consist-
ently are black and grey tints—usually not below 80% for text, and not above 10% for blocks and large
rules. The red has a strong appearance that is made more authoritative by its use with black and grey.
Colours throughout the magazine are largely based on the images within the articles. The designer
can pick out a dominant colour from the photographs, and use this (or a similar colour) for the headers,
sub-headers, pull quotes, rules, or any combination of these as he sees fit. This helps to tie the article
together, and separates it from adjacent pages. It makes it easier for the reader to tell where the article
begins and ends, and makes it easier to find when flicking quickly through the magazine. The dominant
colour in an image may not always be appropriate for setting text, however, and the designer should be
careful not to use tints that are too light and will disappear against the white of the page. It is vital that
all images are converted to CMYK, and that all swatches are also CMYK. RGb colours could change drasti-
cally when printed, and what looks like a striking colour scheme on screen could appear muddy and
dull on the page. It is also vital that, for black and grey tints, the Black swatch is used. The Registration
swatch prints on all plates, and even the slightest misalignment of the plates in the printing process will
make text fuzzy and greatly reduce legibility at small sizes. This risk is inherent in any swatch that uses a
mix of inks.
of people, “ e land issue must properly be addressed
as part of a long-term solution to the crisis that
faced the country two months ago.” All this shows
how the issue of land ownership and distribution,
together with aspects of tribal preference, have been
an underlying factor in the recent conﬂict.
form one of the greatest
obstacles to Kenyan development. It is widely be-
lieved that the presidency and other government
posts are avenues to enriching oneself ﬁnancially, as
well as one’s own community or tribe. ose close
to the presidency (either directly or through proxy)
are given plum jobs and are able to help their friends
and relatives to get government contracts, as well as
exclusive land in urban areas. Analysts have suggest-
A treacherous calm
ed that this sort of petty corruption has been one
of the main reasons for Kenyans’ desire for change.
In fact, illegal or irregular allocation of government
land became so rampant during ’s –year
rule, the Kibaki administration set up the Ndungu
Population: , m () Commission of Inquiry to investigate such alloca-
tions. Unfortunately, the commission’s recommen-
dations are yet to be implemented.
Kikuyu , m When President Kibaki came to power in , Is Kenya’s power-sharing a betrayal of its political future, asks ?
many Kenyans believed that things were to change
Luo & Kisii , m for the better. In fact, Kibaki’s coming to power
became an opportunity for his closest allies and
supporters to regain what they had lost during the
Meru, Embu, Kamba m
years under former President Moi, a Kalenjin. is home and abroad, Ironically, each of the ministers in the coalition
resulted in a fast-tracked purging of civil servants Kenya’s recently abated violence and new cabinet is earning (or at least receiving) a monthly
Luhya majority , m
who came from areas that were strongholds of the coalition government may have created the salary of nearly () .
Orange Democratic Movement (). kind of hollow peace that masquerades as the real A high-level source in Nairobi told the
Kalenjin majority , m
e coalition government’s ability to deal with change Kenya so obviously needs. that trying to achieve lasting,
these grievances hinges on its willingness to work Kenya’s reputation as the region’s economic and positive change in Kenya is like “trying to walk
Mixed , m as a single unit, the willingness of both political political poster child is partially deserved (although through treacle”. He said they had to “ﬁght for tele-
parties to promote reconciliation between tribes, with neighbours like Somalia and Sudan it’s hard phones, e-mail and fax link-ups, ﬁght to protect our
Swahili-speaking , m (est) and whether or not Kenya’s national resources will to imagine how it could disappoint). Yet her major oﬃce accommodation against territorial demands is a Kenyan post-
be distributed fairly. structural ﬂaws made violence almost inevitable and by government, ﬁght for access to a lavatory, beg graduate specialising in
Somali majority m Unless Kenyans cast aside tribalism and tackle should have restrained the shrill international sur- for payment of our subsistence money.” Already it environmental law.
the land issue eﬀectively, Kenyan politics will prise at recent events. seems the will for real reform is fading behind the
continue to be mired in controversy. Persistent government underperformance, comfortable grins of the politicians.
: / Foreign Oﬃce & the widespread corruption, high unemployment, and e status quo is now attractive enough to the is in his second year,
decades of deep ethno-political division led to the right people that it will take a massive eﬀort to majoring in politics,
resentment that happened to ﬁnd its target in a sus- refocus attention on the problems that sparked the english, and media and
picious election result. e cessation of ﬁghting, ﬁre. Otherwise, those problems will continue to writing.
agreement on the terms of a coalition government, smoulder until the next opportune material, or the
e ﬁrst coalition After a series of alliances with By a vote of , In , a new party At the poll Kibaki international praise, and even Koﬁ Annan’s conﬁ- next opportunist’s fan, brings them to life again. It
government forms between opposition parties, Mwai Kenyans reject Kibaki’s formed by Kibaki beats Odinga’s Orange dence will not make these problems disappear; even will be slow, hard and unpopular work to mobilise is in her third year of a
Raila Odinga’s (Oginga’s Kibaki takes on in the attempt to hold on to allies, -Kenya Democratic Movement these positives should not distract from the urgency the political will for land reform, redistribution, degree, and is not
son) opposition party and elections, backed by the the executive powers wins out of (), though of the problem. reduced corruption, and more government nearly as cynical as this
. ere is resurgence National Rainbow Coalition extended to Kenya’s parliamentary seats. independent observers In a country famously wracked by corruption, accountability and ﬁscal responsibility. e work article would suggest.
in ethnic and political () and wins, He becomes leaders by its old His government has say the poll was corrupted it is hardly surprising that “power-sharing” talks fo- has only just begun.
violence. Moi names Uhuru Kenya’s third president. ere constitution. In response, recovered its defeat with irregularities. e cused on new ways to divide the pie rather than how However, without these changes the current
Kenyatta (Jomo’s son) as is widespread hope for a new Kibaki dismisses nearly in the constitutional results spark political and to bake a better one. Despite this, the crucial job of peace can be nothing more than a lull. For the is a third-year print
presidential successor. era of political leadership. the entire cabinet. referendum. ethnic violence. determining the truth of the recent elections, to cre- moment, we can only hope that the people doing the production student,
ate a sustainable electoral framework for the future, necessary work in Kenya continue to wade through majoring in english. and
– is being hamstrung by lack of funding and support. the treacle. media and writing.
e Tourist Curse
becomes a typical tourist in a traditional Peru.
of the tour bus, you forefront, to explore new avenues and opportunities.
Traditional attractions: could just catch the graﬃti sprawled on In short, so many of these destinations packed with
Adventure-seekers are the wall of yet another decaying building: cultural curiosities exist in a present built entirely
treated to the best of ‘Capitalismo = explotación, degradación y muerte’. in the past, with no observable enthusiasm for an
Peru, sometimes with e guide desperately directed our attention to the alternative future.
discomforting results. Spanish cathedral on the other side of the bus. He It seems it is the curse of those who travel far
Photos by Sydelle Willow later claimed he had not seen the writing and could away to ﬁnd themselves either in the past or right
Smith not imagine what it might mean. where they started. If you’re not being shepherded
After almost two weeks in Peru, I was an around a museum or ruin by an anxious local guide, If you’re not being shepherded around a museum
unexceptional tourist in knowing absolutely nothing you’re eating pizza surrounded by unnaturally loud
about it. Not its minimum wage ( per month), its tourists or staying in a hotel which, besides the or ruin by an anxious local guide, you’re eating
poverty level ( percent below the poverty line), or inevitable toilet troubles, someone has gone to great
even its president’s name (Alan Garcia). Of course, expense to make just like home. A holiday visit to pizza surrounded by unnaturally loud tourists or
I could tell you all about the Incas and the date another country, as opposed to a business trip, is
of the Spanish arrival that ended their reign (), more often than not a trip in time much more than staying in a hotel which, besides the inevitable toilet
the altitude of Machupicchu (about m) and in space. Time spent in tourist Peru is time spent
the name of the best Irish pub in Cusco (it’s Paddy’s in a tacky reﬂection of the th century. Similarly, a troubles, someone has gone to great expense to
and yes, there are two). Despite every attempt at an tourist in South Africa will probably ﬁnd themselves
‘authentic’ experience, I ﬂew away with nothing but either around or the s; in Egypt, it’ll be make just like home.
history, tourist lore and a knitted alpaca hat that my . e idea is presumably that these are
friends will never let me wear. histories and cultures worth preserving, but it may
Tourism accounts for only . percent of the also be the case that this is at the expense of those
Peruvian (as opposed to . percent in South trying to create fresh histories and cultures for the willing to pose nicely for the sake of a good photo.
Africa), but this statistic masks the dependence of st century. One little boy got so carried away by the sight of a
certain environmentally breathtaking but otherwise Remarkably, the appearance of authenticity is camera being passed around that he spontaneously
economically bleak regions on tourism-generated suﬃcient in the toursim trade. Tiny wrinkled women squealed ‘Photo! Photo!’ and wriggled until he was
employment. During the high season there are in red-trimmed skirts and long braids wander the in danger of coming oﬀ his mother’s back. Once
often more tourists than locals in the town of streets of Peruvian tourist towns, oﬀering themselves the lens was on him, however, his face froze into
Cusco, and a walk down any street is an endless and their brightly adorned llamas to the tourist a parody of that distant pensiveness that looks so
series of hostels, curio shops, camera specialists, camera in exchange for small change just as their good in sepia and allows the returned traveller to
micro-museums, laundromats, tour operators and distant ancestors oﬀered human and llama lives to wax lyrical about the depth of character and ‘organic
currency exchange centres. It is a region that exists the Gods in exchange for rain. ey do not dress this spirituality’ of the local people.
only for the dreadlocked American college students way at home, but wear the outﬁt by necessity, just Independent socio-economic development
on spring break, Australian adventure-seekers and as they have done since it was ﬁrst imposed by the would be of no use to the foreigners who come
middle-aged Swedes (hoping to tick another site oﬀ Spanish in accordance with the European fashions precisely for this image. ey come to eat deep-fried
the Seven Wonders list before they die) that throng of the time. But it is a more insidious, more frivolous guinea pig (not recommended) for under two dollars.
its streets. It is thus hardly surprising that every and altogether more twisted kind of colonialism ey come to buy hand-woven wall hangings that
building imitates Inca architecture, every painting that now shapes the lives of many in the ethnically took a woman three weeks to make in a mountain
is a reproduction and every trinket that the chorus ‘interesting’ third world. e tourist’s demand is weaving village in which there are no men except
of dusty children’s voices thrusts at you with that worse than a misguided concept of civilisation and those too old or sick to be porters on the Inca Trail.
relentless, heart-rending ‘Amiga, amiga! Iss very development; it is lack of development. To be worthy And so the progressive, social-minded, humanitarian th century comforts:
cheap, amiga. Please amiga. Please...’, is one you of a visit is to be as close as possible to the same as types among us return home from these exotic e Peruvian tourism
could imagine buying there years ago. you were as long as possible ago. destinations, smug with our cultural sensitivity and trade clings to the
ese ‘old ways’ are clung to for the sake Wealthy travellers would have no reason to respect for diverse ethnicities, but ultimately guilty romance of Incan
of tourism, which provides that much-needed tour Vietnamese villages, African townships, Latin of placing the most stiﬂing restriction of all on those culture.
is in her third year of a employment, but they also stiﬂe the development of American slums or Indian forts if these places were we have left behind us. We curse them with being Photo by Sydelle Willow
PPE degree. ‘new ways’. ere is no drive to change, to be at the not so poor as to depend on their interest and be eternally and inescapably quaint. Smith
afternoon in June, , Sarah dleston, this incident conﬁrmed what she had seen
Huddlestone was inspired. As she watched and felt after the Freedom Speech: “He is every sort
one of Africa’s prospective leaders on her of person’s idea of what a great person is.” Here was a
television in her Johannesburg home, she began to man unlike the leaders of the past and present.
believe in the future of the continent and its peo- Huddlestone relates another anecdote revealing
ple. e speaker was Morgan Tsvangirai. He boldly Tsvangirai’s down-to-earth character. Soon after Ts-
proclaimed, in what would become known as the vangirai’s appointment as vice president of the As-
Freedom Speech, that there was a “new wind whis- sociated Mine Workers Union in , there was an
pering through the people of Africa”. As Tsvangi- incident at a remote mine that needed his attention.
rai stood in front of thousands of Zimbabweans in None of the union’s vehicles were running; unde-
the Rufaro Stadium in Zimbabwe’s capital, Harare, terred, Tsvangirai climbed on one of the ‘Shu Shine’
Huddlestone decided to begin a project that would buses, notorious for being mechanically unreliable
eventually culminate in her biography of Morgan and prone to breakdown in remote locations. For
Tsvangirai: e Face of Courage. Huddleston, like Edwin, it is this humility that has
e cynics among us might note that buttery been one of Tsvangirai’s principle qualities through-
speeches and powerful promises were also features out his political career.
of the ignoble careers of men like Robert Mugabe Although Tsvangirai says that in his youth he
and Idi Amin. Nevertheless, given the events of the would have “laid down” his life for Robert Mugabe,
eight years since then, there is no denying Tsvangi- he soon grew disillusioned with the ruling party. Ts-
rai’s earnestness, not to mention his charisma. But vangirai’s view was that Mugabe’s government had
what is it that makes him diﬀerent? At the time of developed an elitist attitude similar to the Smith-led
writing, the and Zanu- had signed a pow- Rhodesian state.
er-sharing deal, but hadn’t yet elected ministers to It was in this light that Tsvangirai, as Secretary
take on portfolios to run the country. Tsvangirai has General of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions
been named Prime Minister, but has compromised (), emerged as a prominent leader. He began
severely on his vows never to share power with Rob- to form an informal opposition to the ruling party,
ert Mugabe. Critics have called him indecisive and gradually leading the away from its alliance
said that this has cost the the chance to lead a with Zanu- because of disagreements on policy
post-Mugabe Zimbabwe. Despite this, support for and workers’ rights. Under Tsvangirai’s leadership
him abounds. the became an independent and proﬁtable or-
ganisation that served as a forum for discontented
workers. is time in his political career highlighted
, says his son, “He is still
of the state
Morgan.” Edwin Tsvangirai, the Zimbabwean politi-
cian’s eldest son, told ere’s concern that attached to Tsvangirai is a long
that his father’s personal and political perspectives
could not be separated from his upbringing, which chain of favours leading right back to the West.
was crucial to his development into a trade union-
ist and political activist. Born on March, , in
Gutu, in what was then Southern Rhodesia, Tsvan-
girai was the eldest of nine children. He took on re- his commitment to the people he represented, and
sponsibility for his siblings and grew to appreciate was to form the basis of his opposition to the ruling Tsvangirai has led
his family’s principles. For Edwin, the elder Tsvan- party. Edwin claims his father is “fearless about life”. an historic ﬁght
girai is “humble and not imposing,” and while peo- Despite this, there’s no shortage of critics to his for democracy in
ple may view this as a weakness, Edwin believes it approach. ey say he has lacked strength and has Zimbabwe, but
is a matter of principle for his father. He’s no elitist depended on Western backing for his party’s op- governance presents
and believes that accessibility and contact with the position of Zanu-. ere is also a concern among a diﬀerent set of
Zimbabwe’s new prime minister has fought hard to get to where he is. He’s earned people are what distinguish an ordinary man from many ordinary Zimbabweans that attached to Ts- challenges.
a leader. vangirai is a long chain of favours that leads right
worldwide recognition as a champion of the oppressed, but in Zim’s power-sharing In a telephone interview with back to the West. Image courtesy of John
, Huddlestone reveals that Tsvangirai is Baucher.
government, the struggle is just beginning. and report. an avid reader, particularly of biographies. When
they ﬁrst met, he was reading a book on Margaret
atcher, one of Britain’s longest serving prime min-
isters. As he told her about his reading habits, a man of Mbeki-mediated ne-
who was accompanying them challenged him, call- gotiations, on September , , Robert Mugabe,
ing the book “colonial drivel”. Tsvangirai’s response Morgan Tsvangirai and the leader of an faction,
was simple but ﬁrm: “I’m picking up tips.” For Hud- Arthur Mutambara, signed the much anticipated
These examples show spreads that have used colours from the images to establish a scheme for the
The pages from The Kenya Fallout section of the May-Sept 2008 edition (top left) show how the
colour scheme helped to connect two articles within the section. A third article preceded these, and the
time-line helped to link the first two. The sub-headers, pull-quotes, and bylines used a common colour
throughout. Even the map of Kenya used a limited pallet, though in retrospect perhaps a slightly greater
variation in colour would have made interpretation easier. Still, it demonstrates how even a graphic that
needs multiple colours can be made to fit into the scheme and look good. Imagine the effect of a badly-
drawn, rainbow-coloured Microsoft Excel graph. The designer’s duty extends right down to the content
of illustrations and graphics, and there is no excuse for using poor graphic content.
the font scheme
warnock pro iS the only typeface used in The Cape Town GlobalisT. I decided that a serif type
was needed, to give the magazine an authoritative and respectable look, and to help with ease of read-
ing extended text. At the same time, I wanted a typeface that would not look dated and would convey
the currency of the magazine and its content. Warnock proved versatile enough that I felt a sans serif
companion face was not needed.
In order to make effective use of the font scheme, the designer needs to understand the subtleties of
the typeface itself, and the differences between its 32 variations. It comes in four weights: light, regular,
semibold, and bold. Each weight has Regular, Caption, Display, and Subhead versions, and an italic of
each of these.
The differences between the weights is clear enough. The styles, however, are perhaps less obviously
distinct from each other. The Caption style is meant for text at small sizes. It is spaced appropriately
and has a low contrast between the thick and thin parts of the stroke. Its serifs are bulky and rounded
in order to remain visible at small sizes. At the opposite extreme, the Display style is intended for large,
display text. It has a greater contrast in the stroke width, and is more tightly spaced. The serifs are thin
and pointy. The Regular and Subhead styles fit in between.
While it may be convenient to simply used the Caption style for all the captions, the Display style for
headers, and so on, it is important to be aware of the visual effect of doing so. I felt that it was seldom
desirable to use the Display style, feeling that I preferred the fuller look of the Regular style. Changing to
a heavier weight didn’t solve the problem, as the thin parts of the stroke remained thin while the thick
parts became thicker.
10 pt Caption
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feum-
sandreet atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum
adignit lortion sequismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh
exercincin henit utet, sustie commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit
wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in
ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.
10 pt Regular
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet
atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion
sequismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit
utet, sustie commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh
ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum
10 pt Subhead
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet
atuercil ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion seq-
uismod tat, vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit utet, sustie
commy nim vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna
consend ipsuscip ex essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.
10 pt Display
Feum vel do odoloborper aut ver sequisim ing exerat dunt er am augiam zzriureetue te feumsandreet atuercil
ullutat nos nit niamconse faccum quatie modolessit aut augait augait eu feum adignit lortion sequismod tat,
vel utpatum volor sisi. Met ipit augiam vulputpate cons aliquat. Ibh exercincin henit utet, sustie commy nim
vel ullaore etuerit ametueros ero eum nisi bla facil irit wisit la accummy nibh ecte magna consend ipsuscip ex
essi blam iniat la facin verostis autpatum in ullaor ipis adio odolum vulla adionsequat.
72 pt Caption
72 pt Regular
72 pt Subhead
72 pt Display
72 pt Light Caption
72 pt Light Display
72 pt Bold Caption
72 pt Bold Display
The Baseline grid
All the text within the magazine is aligned to the baseline grid. This is vital to maintaining a consistent,
organised look and in getting text to line up across the page. Only with creative use of display type may
the designer break from this rule, and even then it must be done with caution. Occasionally it is permis-
sible to use a small baseline shift within a side bar or graphic to, for example, separate a sub-header
from an entry. This should never be done with standardised text, such as the body of a story, captions,
or pull-quotes. Under no circumstances may body text be removed from the baseline grid in order to fit
into a limited space.
Another reason for sticking to the baseline grid (although arguably rather trivial) is to minimize the
effect of show-through. This would be more pronounced with a lighter paper, but is still worth knowing
about and considering.
The baseline grid starts at 15 mm from the top of the page, with increments every 4,233 mm (12 pt).
Body text is 10 pt Warnock Pro Light, set on 12 pt leading. It is left justified in most of the magazine, but
left aligned in the News bites. Figures should be set to Proportional Oldstyle in the OpenType menu.
This helps them to fit the shape of the body text, and not interrupt the visual rhythm of the words. For
the same reason acronyms should, in most cases, be set to All Small Caps in the OpenType menu. (liKe
This, NeveR LiKe This.) Collections of full-size upper-case letters tent to stand out on the page.
The body text must be as easy to read as possible, and everything the designer does should be with
this in mind. It should never be put on a coloured background, and should always be 100% Black. The
designer must be aware of how the body text flows through the pages, and must do everything he can
to aid it. While it is tempting in many cases to fit a page break between paragraphs, this creates an easy
stopping point for the reader. By breaking mid-sentence, there is a much greater chance of the reader
turning the page and continuing with the article. The same applies for interruptions by pull-quotes and
Headers allow for more creative treatment than any of the other text in the magazine. In many cases the
images and graphics will determine how the header is to be constructed. The spread as a whole must be
designed around the header and the main graphics. In fact, the header is as much a graphic component
as a photograph or illustration. For this reason it is important to know the exact wording of the header
as early as possible, as the length and shapes of the words will determine how they look on the page
and how they can be fitted in with the other content. Having to change the wording after the spread is
designed can cause major problems.
Although there is a lot of creative freedom with headers, there are still some guidelines which should
be kept in mind at all times. Remember that you are designing for print. It is easy to misjudge the text
sizing on screen. Print out test pages to see how it looks in print at its proper size. Making headers too
big will be counter-productive. Remember that, with the exception of the cover, the magazine will be
viewed from a distance of about 40 cm. Very large type will be less easy to read at a glance, as the letter
and word shapes become more abstract and lose their context. 60 pt is probably a good upper limit.
Remember also that there is no point in having two article headers competing for attention on one
spread. Making the text large implies that it is the most important lead-in on that spread. It becomes a
bit overwhelming when two adjacent pages have similar large-text treatments.
In most cases headers are Warnock Pro Semibold Display. Leading should be the same as the text
size. It is very important, with display type especially, that the space around the text is greater than the
leading. See below for an example.
Here is a two-
And here is the byline, far too close to the header.
on this one
And more room for the byline. Now that’s much better.
Keeping the header and byline text in the baseline grid will also help to get good, consistent spacing.
Don’t ever squash the text to make it fit. Changes will have to be made elsewhere. The value of a well-
designed, good looking spread must not be underestimated. Bad design, in many cases, will do more
damage than cutting content, and the designer should negotiate with the editors and sub-editors to get
the content to fit the design.
When setting header text, it is important to note the ascenders and descenders and space the words
with them in mind. In the example above, the absence of descenders on the first line until the g means
that the lower line can be moved up to get a good fit. A descender clashing with an ascender may neces-
sitate an increase in the leading. There are no set rules, and the designer should use his discretion and
common sense to decide how to modify the text. Remember also that you can negotiate with the editors
and sub-editors to change the wording for a better fit, but don’t expect to have the final say in this.
Most headers will be set left or right aligned—never centred. However, there is room here to impro-
vise and be creative with the alignment. See the following page for some examples of headers that don’t
fit the normal style. Note the changes in text size within some of the headers, the use of fills and strokes,
the use of reversed text on an image, and the variation in alignment (depending, in some cases, on the
positions of the ascenders and descenders).
education for our kids, good hospitals for
the poor and sick, life expectancy that is
normal – not what it is today. We used
to be the breadbasket of southern Africa.
Now we’re a basket case! I want to live in
my own country! I don’t want to live in
Britain. We’ve got lovely weather in Zim-
babwe. I’ve got a house in Harare, and I
with want to live in it. at’s where I want to
be. at’s where I was born and that’s
where I want to be buried. at’s why I’m
How much currency does Mugabe still
have in that self-constructed image as a
editor of e Zimbabwean defender against imperialism?
Mugabe was a great supporter of Brit-
met Rob- We asked the people to vote, to choose ain. He loved the Royal Family. He loved
ert Mugabe in , he says the men they want to govern them. wearing Saville Row suits. His wife loved
he worshipped the man. As ey’ve chosen Morgan Tsvangirai. en shopping at Harrod’s. And I remember in
a young journalist, he followed Mugabe we say, “Let’s bring in a compromise, let’s the days when I used to travel with him,
around the world, wrote his ﬁrst biogra- bring in someone else who’s not been whenever we went anywhere, we always
phy, considered him a friend, defended elected.” Why? I don’t understand that. passed through London. is anti-British
his presidency. irty-four years later, the Why did we bother to have the election? rhetoric only started in when things
journalist has become one of Mugabe’s If you got to an election, what you’re say- weren’t going his way. He’s always loved
ﬁercest critics – and there’s no shortage ing is that people are free to choose who Britain.
of those. Now in “self-imposed exile” in they want. ey have spoken.
Britain, he is founding editor of e Zim- abo Mbeki’s sustained a lot of criti-
babwean, a weekly newspaper-in-exile Some say the ’s ambition to de- cism for his “quiet diplomacy”, but some
that aims to bring the news from within throne Zanu- has been put at risk by in- say he’s one of the more powerful leaders
Zim’s media blackout, using loopholes in ternal tensions. Do you think the factions still able to engage with Mugabe. What do
Mugabe’s laws that give more freedom should do more to unify for “the cause”? you think of this?
to newspapers printed outside the coun-
try. In its third year, e Zimbabwean is If [ leaders] don’t agree, if they He’s not been a fair moderator. He’s
Zimbabwe’s highest selling newspaper. don’t share the same ideology, then [they come out openly on Mugabe’s side. He
should] split. I am one of those people talks of this quiet diplomacy, which had
With a run-oﬀ beckoning and who does not believe you should force a been appeasement for Mugabe. Have you
widespread government intimidation marriage of inconvenience. You’re head- ever seen a photograph of Mbeki holding
reported, many observers are doubtful ing for trouble. You’re postponing the in- Morgan Tsvangirai’s hand anywhere? No.
that the can win the vote. How evitable. If they don’t agree, you should go Yet you’ve seen a photograph of Mbeki
hopeful are you? separate ways. ey () still won. [Ed’s holding Robert Mugabe’s hand and laugh-
note: at time of going to print, fac- ing, when Zimbabweans are dying. And
I learnt very early in life, you can’t say tions have united behind Tsvangirai.] he says there’s no crisis.
“never” in politics. Mugabe likes to use
the word “never”. Ian Smith used it in the You’ve said in interviews that before Mbeki aside, do you see signs that the
mid-s: “ ere will never, ever be a black , you thought Mugabe was “the best region is hardening against Mugabe?
government.” He lived to regret that. Mu- pow-
thing on two legs”. Yet you joined a
gabe is the same: “Morgan Tsvangirai will erful chorus of people who were once Mu- e people are [hardening] but not
never, ever rule Zimbabwe.” He will also gabe’s supporters and are now his critics. the governments. Botswana, Zambia and
live to regret that. e problem we have Where do you position yourself in a space Tanzania are beginning to harden their
in Zimbabwe is that we have an unpre- where Mugabe constructs himself as so attitudes towards Zimbabwe, but the oth-
dictable, unstable man with his ﬁnger on Zimbabwean that anyone against him is ers are not. I think South Africans have
the trigger. We don’t know how he’s go- anti-Zimbabwean? a better understanding of what is going
ing to react. If (Zimbabwean Election on. e , for example, has changed
of the Luckiest
Committee) comes along and says, “Sorry ey dismiss us as puppets of the its tune, lead by Cosatu and the Youth
mister president, we’ve had a recount and British. But of course I’m a Zimbabwean, League and the Communist Party. ey’re
you’ve lost,” is he going to pack up his bags and I’m critical of him because I love my leading the way in South Africa, and the
and go? I don’t think so. country. I want Zimbabwe to be the best has always understood the conditions.
country in the world; I don’t want it to be South Africans are now beginning to un-
How attractive is the possibility of second best. I want a proper democracy, derstand what’s going on, but it’s a recent
a compromise candidate, like Simba I want respect for human rights, I want development.
e nursing crisis Makoni?lack of basic facilities have aﬀected to see respect for the rule of law. Good
and the Image courtesy of e Why there’s no quick ﬁx – and no easy ﬁx at all
– to Wall Street’s problems
government healthcare’s ability to serve poor South Africans in need of
medical care. e private sector has fared better, but exclusive attention
is costly, prompting claims of proﬁteering, reports .
“So, this credit crunch... How crunchy is it?”
Are you still confused? We sum up the mess in case you haven’t been paying attention.
the crisis go back as far as eight years. e global However, these debt packages would prove to be deadly practice
economy had been growing rapidly, while interest rates had been for many ﬁnancial institutions. Instead of protecting the banks from
consistently low. Banks had plenty of capital but were receiving low excessive risk, the packages spread the bad debt among everyone.
yields because of the low interest rates. In an eﬀort to boost returns, Because the packages had been bundled up and re-sold many
investment banks came up with new investment packages. times, it was diﬃcult to rate how much bad debt everyone was
e point of these packages was to spread the risk inherent in carrying. Traders relied on the credit rating agencies like Moody’s
holding a loan. rough investment vehicles like collateralised debt and Standard & Poor’s to do just that.
obligations (), traders hoped to limit the risk any single entity e systems proved to be inadequate. e sub-prime crisis
was exposed to. In the event of default, everyone would take up a made shockingly clear how much bad debt everyone had carried
little of the bad debt and no one would be severely set back. and investors lost conﬁdence. Banks have written oﬀ billions of
Bylines & Pull QuoTes
Bylines and pull quotes are set at 14 pt Warnock Pro Regular on 24 pt leading. This means that they fit
the baseline grid (which is spaced every 12 pts). The generous leading relative to the text size gives them
a very different appearance to the body text, headers and captions without needing large type, bold or
italics. It is important to appreciate that this requires different treatment on the page, and they must
be given ample breathing room above and below (pull quotes are set to have 10 mm above and 10 mm
below, as mentioned on page 11). In the bylines, the writer’s name should be in Semibold and set to All
Small Caps in the OpenType menu.
Bylines and pull quotes will generally be aligned towards the spine, though this is not a hard and
fast rule. A lot will depend on the rest of the spread—how the header is aligned, for example—and the
designer should consider the text in the context of the spread and all its graphic elements.
CaPTions, ConTriBuTor informaTion & CrediTs
Captions and contributor information will always fit in the outside column of the page. There is very lit-
tle variation in the way they are presented, but it is important to be aware of how they differ from each
Captions consist of two parts. First comes an intro—a few words that form a sort of header for the
image and are intended to lead the reader into the rest of the caption. This is set in Warnock Pro Regu-
lar at 10 pt, set to All Small Caps in the OpenType menu. After a line break comes the caption body.
This is Warnock Pro Regular at 8 pt, set in a 70% tint of black (in normal case). Hyphenation is turned
off for captions. With such are a narrow column, hyphenation breaks up the flow of the text more than
it helps to keep a consistent measure. The text is left aligned, with no justification. Leading is 12 pt
throughout, in keeping with the baseline grid.
Contributor information is set the same way as captions, with a few important differences. Above
the contributor’s name is a rule. This is set up in the paragraph style as a Rule Above, and is a 1 pt Black
solid line set to column width and offset by 4 mm. If there are multiple contributors, only the top one
has a rule. Each entry thereafter is separated by a line break. The text is set as with the Captions, but in
the italic equivalents of the font. The contributor information should always be aligned with the bottom
of the body text columns on the page, except where a graphic or side box forces it further up the page.
Since it sits at the bottom of the information hierarchy on the page, it should be placed after the article
content and graphics have been laid out. It needn’t necessarily be placed at the back or the front of the
article—the designer should use his judgement to decide where it is least obtrusive and fits best.
Image credits are used when the photographer or cartoonist is not named with the writer in the
byline. They appear either below the caption after a line break, or next to the image itself when it has no
caption. They are set the same as the body of the writer information: Warnock Pro Italic at 8 pt in a 70%
tint of black. As with all other text in the magazine, credits should be aligned to the baseline grid. There
is no strict rule about placement (when there is no caption), but the credit would usually be aligned left
or right with the image, about 3 mm below it. It should not be placed on top of the image.
You will notice that, with the exception of the masthead and editorial list on the Contents page, none
of the type in The Cape Town GlobalisT is centred. Centring seems to be one of those things, like jus-
tification, that many people assume needs to be done for type to look professional. In fact, centring type
can make it less readable, as the line beginnings move around. It is also a cheap trick for reducing white
space (or at least breaking it up). As discussed on page 7, white space is not necessarily undesirable and
should certainly not be feared. Well considered left-aligned text, even with lots of space to the right,
will draw attention to itself more effectively and be easier to read, in general, than centred text. Remem-
ber, the primary goal of good design should be to communicate fluently and effectively. Anything that
hinders the reading process is only going to limit the success of the design. Centring is a tradition that
seems to be strongest in American page design, and, like most things American, should be treated with
a healthy dose of skepticism.
Justification, too, should be carefully considered when applied. At narrow measures (anything less
than about 8 words a line), it tends to create large spaces between words and letters that break up the
flow of the text. Rivers of white space form, and the whole rhythm of the text on the page is ruined. It
should not be used for headers, sub-headers, bylines, pull-quotes, or any other text that appears at large
sizes, in narrow measures, or over very few lines (including entries in side bars). Justification empha-
sises the column structure. Sometimes this is desirable, sometimes not. In extended and body text it can
help to lead the reader through the article and help with general neatness in the page design. Consist-
ency is key in creating readable text, and when justification jeopardises this, it should not be used.
There will always be circumstances that are not accounted for in the style sheets, and the designer
will have to improvise. Side bars, graphics and some headers will need creative type treatment, and
rules may need to be broken. Understanding the way type is used in the magazine, an appreciation of
type and design principles in general, and a good measure of common sense should see the designer
through any situation.
there are no Style SheetS for graphics and images in The Cape Town GlobalisT, and there are no
formal sets of rules. The content and sources vary so much that it is almost impossible to create a set of
guides to cover every possibility. It is possible, however, to categorise the main types of image content,
and give some brief guidelines to these. I will not go into image editing techniques, the principles of
photography, or the drawing of cartoons, as these are subjects far beyond the scope of this guide.
It is difficult to define a documentary photograph and how it differs from an illustrative photograph. For
the purposes of this guide, ‘documentary photograph’ refers to a photograph that was taken of a specific
event, person or place, and that offers an understanding about its subject matter. It serves as a record
of the ‘truth’ (which is itself a contestable notion, but I won’t go into that here) in some form, and the
context in which it is presented will determine its validity as such.
This would be, in many cases, the ideal way to illustrate a news article. Remember, this is a current-
affairs, news-style magazine, and the graphics should represent the written content as accurately as
possible. Unfortunately it can be very difficult for a magazine with such limited resources as The Cape
Town GlobalisT to get hold of suitable high quality images. Still, if they are available to the designer,
he should know how to use them. Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind is that documen-
tary images completely lose their value if they look ‘untruthful’. Extensive editing is usually noticeable,
and special effects are right out. It is difficult to know exactly where to draw the line with editing, but a
small levels adjustment is generally considered acceptable. Cropping should usually be limited to a small
frame-shape adjustment, but obviously this depends on the nature of the photograph. Consider how the
framing would affect the meaning of the image.
These could generally be described as photographs used to illustrate an article, in much the same way as
a drawing could be used. The value of the image lies in its ability to communicate an idea to the reader,
and is not dependant on a ‘truth’ measure.
These photos would usually be used for features and opinion pieces. Often they will be setup specifi-
cally for the article, and so the photographer, photo editor and designer have a great deal of freedom in
the editing process. If several images are to be used for an article, think about creating a colour scheme
and a consistent visual theme that will hold the article together. This can be as simple as using a col-
oured backdrop for photos. Creating a narrative can also be very effective, and introducing characters
If you’re a bit fuzzy on details when you think
of the Arms Deal, don’t worry. It’s a common
problem. e gives a
brief history of what the public knows, what it
doesn’t, and why the Arms Deal is one of the
most formative events in our nation’s infancy.
government’s arms procurement – the Arms Deal, as the media called it – has
been one of the most important and most controversial exercises of the ’s political power. In the
late s, the South African government courted foreign arms companies for major sales of military
equipment. Billions of rands and nearly ten years later, there have been accusations, mud-slinging, investiga- of voters wanted
tions and court cases into corruption and wrongdoing in which some government oﬃcials were sentenced, the arms deal cancelled
some dismissed and some merely accused. Investigators in Britain and Germany are probing foreign arms
companies for bribery and corruption. On home soil, the South African government has intervened in all
inquiries. Businessman Schabir Shaik is in jail. His brother, Chippy Shaik resigned from government under
pressure. Tony Yengeni was found guilty of corruption. Jacob Zuma awaits trial. Yet as the dust rises, the public
can ﬁnd little clarity, and ten years of seeking answers have only led to more questions.
wanted it cut
Allegations of corruption abound
called for a commission of inquiry in parliament.
Minister of Finance, Trevor Manuel signed the In September , the Auditor General’s oﬃce – supported it
contract in January . ree months before, South Africa’s main ﬁnancial watchdog – responded
Patricia de Lille, then a member of the , handed to the allegations by conducting a review of the arms
a document to Judge Heath concerning the arms deal. Based on the review, parliament called on the
procurement. e De Lille Dossier, as the document Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa),
became known, contained information from sources the oversight committee for public spending, to
inside the , concerned about the integrity of conduct an investigation.
the arms acquisition process. e De Lille Dossier (Findings of a study
alleged that members of government involved in the ’ by the Helen Suzman
deal got ‘kickbacks’ from arms companies. De Lille Scopa’s report released in November found Foundation.)
, assures us that community mem-
bers have become used to large herds of curious tourists
ﬂashing cameras through their neighborhood and their
homes, preferring it to the large buses that formerly
passed through. e inequities that characterise this ex-
perience make some visitors uneasy. “It was strange,” one
of the women on the tour said. “ ey were staring at us.
We were staring at them. But there was no interaction,
no real communication.” is remains a drawback of the
township tour. It speaks to a lasting reality of Cape Town,
a city deﬁned by legislative co-existence but embodied by
continued division that is largely racial and increasingly
, publicly owned housing that formerly accommodated single past a lady enthusiastically swinging animal intestines before throw-
men, now houses families. While some are being renovated, the original dwellings ing them on a braai, her hips swaying, I smile. With a type of green paste on her
seem to embody all the horrors of poverty in a minute, crowded space. Sugar, a local face to protect it from the heat of the ﬂame, she laughs. is is not something
resident and guide for the walking portion of the tour, ushered us into the hostel. e you see in Cape Town. It is, in my naivety or their sincerity, the tours’ strongest
men drinking in the communal space greeted us enthusiastically as we squeezed into appeal. ey are not constructed to incite pity or merely showcase poverty. e
a room that was too small to ﬁt our group but was home to three families. It is shock- opposite is strived for. In three hours it attempts to tackle the complex geo-
ing that the state-owned property continues to exist in this state while shacks typically graphic reality of Cape Town while showcasing details otherwise glossed over:
associated with squalor are more private, aesthetically pleasing and expansive in com- the challenges and the slow processes of rejuvenation, and the renovation and
parison. Two women are busy frying cabbage, barely looking up from their hot plate. reconciliation that make up the social and historical fabric of this space within
I take my exit to ask Sugar if the women mind us coming into the room. Without the greater city of Cape Town.
hesitation she answers, “No. ey want you to see how they live, how they have been
made to live, how the government lets them live.” Her answer is both discomforting
is a “graduated tourist” on exchange from the University of
British Columbia, studying international relations.
is in ﬁrst year, studying ﬁlm, media, Spanish and social settlement of Langa, near a table of
anthropology. She holds a diploma in photography. crafts, Sydelle, our photographer, pointed towards gaping
jaws staring at groups of unsuspecting tourists: a graveyard
of animal skulls, remnants of the thriving braai businesses
run by women catering historically to migrant laborers. A
glance left and we stumbled upon the subtle reminder of
this continued reality. It became symbolic of the general
tourist move beyond the “middle class tourist experience in Cape Town. e path is well beaten
holiday” of wine routes and leisure hiking? If one and deliberate, yet it can lead to potential tangents, to of-
comes to the southern tip of Africa not for a shop- ten hidden stories. ese tours are not easily condoned or
ping mall at a waterfront named after an imperial applauded, as they oscillate between cultural encounters
power, what other options exist? How can tourists and unimaginable distance, between moments of human-
visit this city ethically? Culturally? Politically? Af- ity and moments of awkwardness. While they have been
ricanly? Further, can townships and their residents accused of further ‘ghettoising’ the townships and spatial
become part of the tourist experience in a sustaina- division of Cape Town, they are an eﬀect of this reality
ble, ethical and equally beneﬁcial way? Can this area and not the cause. e tour allows visitors to visualise the
be sought out without essentialising or stereotyping very real physical, cultural, political and economic sepa-
a particular notion of ‘africanness’? rations that continue to deﬁne it.
helps to make the article more personal. See “Up In Arms” starting on page 25 of the May-Sept 2008
edition for a good example of this (first page shown opposite, at top).
The only limits with illustrative photographs, really, are the implications of using the images in the
context of The Cape Town GlobalisT and the effect they would have on the magazine as a whole. It is
important to remember the target audience and the aims and values of the magazine.
In photo essays the photographs themselves are the primary content, and do not need to reference a
written article. In most cases they would be treated as documentary photographs, but it depends on
the nature of the subject matter. It is important to let the images speak for themselves. The designer
should resist all temptation to go wild with the editing and special effects, and try to remain as neutral
as possible. If the photographs are not strong enough for a very simple graphic treatment they should
not be used at all. Space restrictions will make things difficult, and using the page grid can make it easier
to organise the images into a strong layout. The grid is versatile enough that images can be presented in
a variety of shapes and sizes on one page, but it does require a very thorough and considered approach
from the designer. It might be necessary, in the case of photo essays alone, to create a new grid for an
article, but I would strongly discourage anyone from abandoning the grid altogether. Variation is impor-
tant, but so is consistency. The two are not necessarily exclusive. Again, the designer must not be afraid
of white space, even where space is tight. It helps to focus attention on the individual photographs, and
that can only be a good thing.
Cartoons are different to most other types of images in that they can be drawn for the space. The
designer should remember this and use it to its full advantage. The results can be very effective, but
good planning is essential. Cartoons are also less strictly bound by a frame. As such, they can easily be
integrated with other types of content, such as headers and graphs. It can help to unify a spread.
Each cartoonist will have a unique style and working method. It is important to make sure that these
suit the content before commissioning the work. The designer and cartoonist should understand the
whole process before the work begins, from first sketches and early page planning right through to final
colouring and page layout. If drawings are to be done by hand, who is going to scan the artwork? Who
is going to add the colour? Is there a colour scheme to be adhered to? How will the images be cropped?
Good communication throughout the process is essential. Remember too that not all cartoonists are
Volume Issue Oct - April www.ctglobalist.za.org
e Cape Town Globalist
oﬀers an alternative,
but at a cost.
Cartoon by Murray Hunter
will, but the developing world in methods that read like a comprehensive list of
is always willing to be a little ‘out there’ to ac- what not-to-do.
complish what needs to get done. In China, Until fairly recently, the free trade story had been
for example, ﬁsh farmers clean out the bottom of the only one to tell. Mary Simons, a senior lecturer
their ﬁshponds towards the end of the year and of Political Science at , maintains that good de-
wade through not just muck and sludge, but also a velopment theory should never be “one size ﬁts all”.
thick layer of contraceptive pills. As it turns out, the She suggests that Africa should never have played to
Pill not only protects the ﬁsh from disease but also the Washington Consensus to begin with. Reﬂect-
accelerates their growth. Depending on your per- ing on her disapproval of the Consensus, she likens
spective, planned parenthood under-the-sea might it to rain: “When it falls, you have to protect yourself
be an alien concept or sharp innovation. Regard- or get wet.” Now that Africa ﬁnds itself still caught
less, as China continues its march through Africa its in the downpour, China may present the Dark Con-
ways are likely to catch on. tinent with something History has never been too
e as-yet unmatched economic dominance of generous with before: an alternative.
the United States means that what America dictates China’s economic game plan protects industries
becomes the norm in global policy. It comes down and maintains complete government control. In its
to a question of capacity: the has the ﬁnancial relations with Africa, without the complications
(and military) capabilities to ensure that the costs of of domestic consensus or pesky interest groups to
disobedience far exceed those of compliance. Some- consider, China has been able to keep up its foreign
where along the way the Golden Rules of “privatise” policy of non-interference and no-strings-attached
and “liberalise” became the Golden Straightjacket. trade and aid. We might call this policy mix the
Maybe it’s time we change the way we deal with money But just like its people’s sometimes unorthodox, ‘Beijing Consensus’, going against everything the
yet eﬀective, practices, Beijing has always played a principles of free trade teach us. is, along with its
fast-changing international market game by its own shared history of colonisation and the success of its
rules. It continues to disregard the Powers at Be alternative policies, has led many African leaders to
of the North, regardless of what the West and devel- the conclusion that Beijing might oﬀer more realis-
opment theory would have it do, and chases growth tic lessons in economic policy than the West.
Estimated cost R b ?
ree class Submarines (over twelve years)
German Submarine Consortium (), Germany.
Four Meko A Corvettes
R , b R , b
R , b
Light Utility Helicopters
Agusta Westland, Italy
Hawk Lead-in Fighter Trainers
Iraq seeks to build honeymoon island Systems, Great Britain. Green Zone, where the embassy and September US and North Korea in revived nuclear talks
most Iraqi government oﬃces can be
Gripen ﬁghter aircraft
ment to build a six-star hotel, an -hole
’ has invited inves- found, would attract foreign tourists.
, assistant secretary-
was a condition of the deal. Economically ese talks may be stalled by the
, Great Britain.
tors to submit plans for developing a golf course with a country club and a Developing the island is part of the of-state Christopher Hill visited North destitute and mostly isolated from world Bush administration’s decision to sell
e sub-primeﬁve-star spa on al-A’arass, among other
multi-billion dollar resort on Baghdad’s crisis originated in America where banks eﬀort to increase tourism in Iraq, which Korea to salvage the disarmament deal trade, North Korea would be more able billion in arms to Taiwan, announced
al-A’arass island, on tells
Confused? e Armchair Globalist the Tigris River. in the practice of lending money in the form of ‘hon-
engaged luxury facilities. At present, the home- gets over percent of its revenue from agreed upon in . to participate in international trade if the same week. China is vehemently
to less-than-ideal has limited recreational
Al-A’arass, whose name means ‘wed-bondseymoon island’ (sub-prime) candidates, i.e.
loans or the petroleum industry. Earlier this year In the weeks preceding Hill’s visit, they were removed from the list. opposed to such a deal. Beijing, as an
you everything you need to know about... those with
facilities, with Baghdad residents e
ding’, was described by the tourism board high risk of default (not repaying the loan).paying the government cleared a million North Korea had begun to revive work at Hill’s visit was concerned primarily ally of Pyongyang, was key to the suc-
institutions would require the property as collateral and this was
chief as having been a popular desti- method ofareducing theirentrance fee (about
their dinar risk. At the time, the American South Africa’s fall from trendsetter to arms peddlar
proposal to build a -room hotel in the its nuclear plant and test site. Pyongyang with a proposed veriﬁcation protocol cess of previous negotiations. It plays an
cents) to sit and so river.
nation for weddings and honeymoon market was boomingby the banks knew they could
property Green Zone opposite Saddam Hussein’s began reactivating the plant, capable of on North Korea’s nuclear disarmament important role in drawing North Korea
couples during the s. Since then the to people in order for them to buy homes and, in
Although roadside bomb-blasts former Adnan Palace. Sky News reported making weapons-grade plutonium, in programme. He returned stating that he into constructive talks with the other
the event that they couldn’t make repayments, the bank would
tourism industry has been hampered by Baghdad
and shootings still threatenthe market – that the country was seeking companies deﬁance of the deal. Pyongyang claimed had conducted “substantive and lengthy participant nations.
simply repossess the property and sell it back to
sanctions in the s and the -ledat a higher value than the loan. the city that banks
generally residents, security in is meant is improv- Septembera giant cantilevered observation
to build . e Arktis Pioneer left Port Control Committee () talks” withsame year,
the had not removed the Asian in the his North Korean counter-
invasion in . could make high proﬁts by charging high interestal-A’arass’s Elizabethinon a typical South African winter day
ing. Oﬃcials told that rates to sub- wheel Baghdad, similar to the ’s which a blacklist linking it to of arms control in
country fromformed the highest levelparts. Hill appeared positive the six-na-
prime applicants and covering any potential losses by selling oﬀ
e board hopes to secure invest- location near Baghdad’s highly fortiﬁed en route to the Yemeni port of Hodeidah.
m-tall ‘London Eye’.
property that would continuously increase in value.
e the country.
state-sponsored terrorist activity, which tion talks would continue.
is was dandy until the American housing market peaked ship would have seemed ordinary to anyone who In , South Africa made another highly
and prices began to slow and eventually recede. is implied
that the institutions’ neat little hedging policy could no longer cared to look. However, the Arktis Pioneer was not US-South policies.
progressive move in legitimising its arms American relations sour
save them from the risk to which they had exposed themselves.
us, when the candidates defaulted, the banks would ﬁnd
How the ordinary cargo – deep
transporting meat industry producesin its holds ,
In drafting Deforestation & on Defence, the
the White Paper
themselves making losses. Typically, this would only aﬀect a shipment gases
was greenhouseof - and G assault riﬂes with desertiﬁcation its months have
introduced issues of human rights torelationship seen a rapid opposition. Venezuela followed suit.
the American institutions, but they had packaged this debt deterioration of relations between the e events in Bolivia have caused
ammunition. Even so, the shipment might not have with the arms trade. e South African arms trade
and sold it oﬀ as a lucrative instrument to other institutions , Manure United States and several leftist Latin a shift in -South American politics.
world-wide. us, once the bubble burst, the eﬀects were felt seemed exceptional, except that Yemen was an would, as a result of the Paper, need to consider the
American countries. Bolivia and Ven- Chavez of Venezuela courted Russia,
internationally, with many banks having to write oﬀ debt and
illegal destination for South African-supplied arms. ezuela involved in a
human rights records of the parties expelled the ambassadors to China and Portugal on a recent visit to
sustain enormous losses. is dampened conﬁdence which led
to a bit of a self-fulﬁlling prophecy – the worse people expected
the institutions to perform, the worse they performed.
e newly elected -led government prohibited possible agreement before completing the deal. United States reacted the three countries, and Bolivia suspend-
their countries; the
in kind. Meanwhile, Honduras postponed ed Drug Enforcement Agency surveil-
e scale of the losses for the world economy was the sales of arms to any states that violated human trade was strikingly
e ’s stance on the armsthe appointment of the new ambassa- lance ﬂights over its territory. Venezuela
remarkable. A lot of expansion in the developed world is
fuelled by easy access to credit, and with ﬁnancial institutions rights. Yemen was one such state. progressive, and it seemed that it would become even country.
dor to the South American also recently took part in joint military
sustaining major losses and tightening credit controls, this Rapport broke the story to the public on more so as the Cameron Commission submitted a
Tensions broke out between opposi- exercises with Russia.
would herald the slowdown in the developed world (a major
September , stirring public outcry and tion groups and Evo Morales of Bolivia
second report. It suggested that parliament be given e United States, in turn, denied the
factor in America’s imminent recession) and deal a serious
blow to global economic growth. — when a constitutional referendum was allegations from Morales and Chavez.
international media attention. President Mandela the power to veto any arms trade agreements by the e referendum
passed in mid-August. e Bush administration claimed the
launched a commission of inquiry, the Cameron called Committee at
. But Kader Asmal, head of thefor more equal wealth distribution Latin American leaders resorted to such
Commission, into the apparent breach of policy and greater at for indigenous groups.
the time, rejected the recommendation. rights same actions because they were unable to
Afghan poppy farmers kick the habit Recruitment Opportunities
We are seeking entrepreneurial, talented, and energetic individuals by South Africa’s state-controlled arms company Morales expelled the
year, South Africa sold arms to Rwanda. Algeria,envoy after build constructive international support.
who want to make a meaningful contribution to the company’s growth accusing the of giving support to the
and rising food and success, and who value insurgents and criminals are
Taliban the tangible impact BroadReach makes on
Armscor. In March , he told the world, “Never Saudi Arabia and Syria got arms from South Africa
the lives of its clients. BroadReach is actively recruiting in a variety of
prices have led some Afghan farmers rangingmost active. to engagement manager for its
positions from business analyst
again shall South Africa be the fountainhead of in , and Sudan in . All these countries were elections a partial successful
ofﬁces and oﬃcial in the Afghan ministry ofconﬂict in the region and further aﬁeld. Never again
to abandon poppy farming for wheat in South Africa Anthe US. The ideal candidate will have: designated human rights violators, but the
Overview farming. is, together with bad weather, • Undergraduate and/or graduate degrees from top-tier universities
agriculture told e Guardian that mostshall our country be the source of armaments used , Angola hosted its absent at some stations and other polling
BroadReach Healthcare is a rapidly growing global healthcare solutions • Demonstrated success as a leader did not stop the deals.
farmers and the ability stronghold areas are
contributed to the ﬁrst fall in Afghani- quantitative skills in Taliban to analyze problems
• Proven ﬁrst legislative election in years. As points opened late. Human Rights Watch
afraid wheat and to suppress communities and to wage aggressive was widely the arms-
Having ﬂirted with strict regulation ofexpected, the ruling party,
company with ofﬁces in Washington DC, Cape Town, Johannesburg, and
to start planting
Nairobi. The company is a worldwide leader in healthcare management seven years, to thrive in rapidly changing and uncertain environments that
stan’s opium production in • Ability later said that the pre-election atmos-
consulting and in developing, implementing, and managing innovative
• Willingness to travel locally and internationally as work demands
they written communication skills with
according to the United Nations. • Exceptional oral and may be put oﬀ by diﬃculties in wars against neighbours. Never again shall we spend trade, the South African government seemedfor the Liberation of
Popular Movement to phere was not “free from intimidation or
healthcare systems and delivery networks that promote high-quality
healthcare across the globe. The company has particular expertise in produced
Last year Afghanistan demonstrated ability is work with peoplecrops to the market. our people’s resources to develop weapons of mass
transporting their atstudent in
to an honours all organizational bow to pressure from international and local arms Eduardo dos
Angola () led by José pressure”.
percent of the world’s opium, with its
the management and scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Africa. In Helmand, ﬁghting between British Santos, took the majority to win the par- Dos Santos has been president of
The company has been awarded a number of high-proﬁle contracts from history. Louis Pienaar,
• Familiarity with Microsoft Ofﬁce Suite of products, including Excel, destruction.” traders.
poppy industry employing one in every troops
PowerPoint, and Word and Taliban insurgents pose fur- liamentary election. e party took just Angola since , one year longer than
leading global institutions including governments, multi-lateral agencies,
seven Afghans. Eighteen of
international donors, top universities, NGOs, and Fortune 100 companies. Afghanistan’s • Work experience in the private sector – e.g.and Alexconsulting
Meghan to transporting perish-
ther challengesFinn management de , , contributes ato reshape
ese words showed a commitment whose more than percent of
e government, Other change offace was the vote.
, Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe.
improving the are now poppy-free, com-
Through its initiatives, BroadReach isprovinces lives of thousands of ﬁrms, healthcare organizations, etc. – for students with graduate
able produce to markets. the ﬁfth of greenhouse gas emissions, according to a rogue
Apartheid South Africa’s legacy as so abruptly revealed, gained supremacythe elections, independent
Prior to over the
individuals every day.
pared to provinces last year. their eﬀorts
Inreporting. to combat Afghani- state steeped in underhand weapons trading and
recent reports. is is more than cars, planes observers from the and
legislative in . e National Conventional Arms the ex-
Yet opium production fell by only stan’s opium trade, authorities have sent and all
policies of transport put together.
aggressiveother formsof destabilisation. pressed concern that
Control Act stated that the should bend the lead-up to the
to For the full story, see Jennifer Hotsko on
percent, from , tonnesApply To to , security forces to destroy poppy ﬁelds, event was poorly organised. When polls democracy and development in Angola at
tonnes. While there has been progress
If you are interested in this opportunity, or would like to learn more about BroadReach, please visit us at www.broadreachhealthcare.com. Applications and cover letters for
opportunities in South Africa should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. For opportunities in the US, applications and cover letters should be emailed to email@example.com. poppy
paid farmers to destroy their own e meat-eating cost report,
Does Commission’syou more? released in June , the government’s will when it came to buying registration lists were www.ctglobalist.za.org.
Cow farts opened in Luanda, and
BroadReach Healthcare offers a competitive to Wayne Idas milestone for South
crops and urged clerics to tell villagers was See become a on the economics of meat- African arms-
in the north, almost all the country’s compensation package. produced the images. She selling arms, which turned a control committee into
poppy cultivation now happens in seven that growing the drug is un-Islamic.
is a ﬁrst-year ﬁlm and eating at www.ctglobalist.za.org.
trade policy. Its recommendations led, in part, to a puppet of the government. , , ,
provinces in the south and west where
media studies student. the creation of the National Conventional Arms
e government Shabir Shaik Zuma dismissed Britain’s Serious Fraud Oﬃces looks Zuma goes
gives a statement is convicted on June due into R million of commissions to court.
endorsing the of corruption to connections paid by arms company to people
Scopa report. on June . to convicted close to the arms deal.
familiar with digital imaging techniques. The designer may need to supervise to make sure that all
scans and raster images are large enough for print. Having said that, the cartoonist should still be given
enough creative freedom to stay interested in and comfortable with the project.
Tables, graphs, maps, and time lines could all be described as information graphics. They can be used
to support an article or as standalone devices, but in all instances the importance of good design in
constructing them should not be underestimated. A well designed graphic will help the reader, in one
glance, to understand a complex issue or idea, and the designer must do everything in his power to
simplify the process of interpretation.
Information graphics are central components in the page design. Often combining text, lines, shapes
and images, they need to fit with the visual styles of the magazine without blending into the back-
ground. Stick to the house font—Warnock Pro—but don’t be constrained by the style sheets.
possible changes and
both editionS of the magazine done under my watch have many mistakes. I am pleased to say that
these are mostly small subbing errors, but there are a few things that I would have liked to have done
differently on the design side.
The weakest spreads, I think, happened when we tried to put too much content into the space—a
half-page advert where we hadn’t planned it, one more paragraph of body text, or a little extra side-bar
information. The designer will always be battling with the editors to get content cut, shuffled around or
changed, and the editors will always be trying to fit in a little more content, often at the expense of an
image or the last bit of white space. That’s the way magazines work. The challenge is to find the right
balance, and, unfortunately, this is often only visible with hindsight.
Throughout the design process, but particularly when arranging the page order, it is important to
consider which pages will end up opposite which other ones. Be aware of where the content will be
positioned in the spread, not just on the single page on which it sits. There was at least one instance—
on pages 8 and 9 in the May-Sept 2008 edition—where we had two very text-heavy pages placed next
to each other, with the two small graphics on the outsides of the pages. This made for a very dull design
and wasted the effort that had gone into the individual pages.
There is only one major change that I would consider for the basic design template. Many of the arti-
cles in the magazine are only one or two pages long, yet nearly all have large, display-style headers. Not
only does it take up space, it becomes a bit confusing and overwhelming when every second page has a
header fighting for prominence. I would suggest that only the longer, more important articles follow this
style, and the shorter ones become more standardised with smaller, single-line headers. This would have
to be consistent in order to be effective, but I think it could help to make the more substantial articles
appear that way while saving a bit of space in the shorter articles. It wouldn’t have to be a dramatic
change, but could have a big impact.
the cape town globaliSt iS bound to change each year, with every change in editorial staff. That is
part of the joy of working on a project like this—there is room for growth and improvement, and the
magazine can adapt to the personal styles of the people producing it. It is a fantastic learning opportu-
nity for anyone involved.
This design guide is not meant to stop change. I have strong beliefs in a lot of what I have imple-
mented, but I accept that the magazine will have to move beyond my ideas for it. I hope that at least this
guide will help the reader to understand why I have designed the magazine the way I have, and what
is involved in planning and using the templates and style sheets. I hope that any changes the designer
makes are based on informed decisions and are done for the right reasons. I hope that the reader learns
something from this guide, and is able to make the most of it at The Cape Town GlobalisT and in
other projects. Lastly, I hope that new members of The Cape Town GlobalisT editorial enjoy their
experience of the project and are able to give new and exciting input.
Thanks for reading. Please feel free to contact me for more information or guidance. I’m always happy
Graham van de Ruit
084 521 8710
These specifications do not account for every ParagraPh sTyles
situation in the magazine. For more informa-
tion, read the relevant chapters in the guide. Body text Warnock Pro + Light + size: 9,5 pt +
All measurements are in millimetres unless leading: 12 pt + proportional oldstyle + align:
otherwise specified. justified, last left + first indent: 5 mm + Grid
First paragraph Body Text + drop cap lines: 3 +
doCumenT sPeCs drop cap characters: 1 + first indent: 0 mm +
nested styles(2): [First Letter through 1
Page size a4 (210 × 297) characters], [First Line through 3 words]
Bleeds 3 New section paragraph Body text + first
indent: 0 mm + nested styles(1): [First Line
through 3 words]
margins & guides Header Body Text + Semibold Display + size:
60 pt + leading: 60 pt + align: flush left + first
Top 15 indent: 0 mm - hyphenation
Bottom 15 Sub-header Body Text + Semibold + size: 12 pt
Inside 15 + (colour) + oT all small caps + first indent:
Outside 45 0 mm
Number of columns 2 Byline Warnock Pro + size: 14 pt + leading:
Gutter 8,466 24 pt + proportional oldstyle - hyphenation +
Vertical guides 7,5; 37; 202,5; 217,5; 383; 412,5 Grid Alignment: Baseline
Horizontal guides 7,5; 30; 167,5; 289,5 Caption Warnock Pro + size: 8 pt + leading:
12 pt + proportional oldstyle - hyphenation +
tint: 70% + Grid Alignment: Baseline
Colour swaTChes (CmyK) Caption intro Caption + size: 10 pt + oT all
small caps + tint: 100%
Title banner red (block) 15 100 100 0 Pull quote Byline
Main red (text and rules) 34 100 100 0 Writer’s name (in byline) Byline + Semibold +
oT all small caps
Contributor name Caption Intro + Italic + rule
CharaCTer sTyles above offset: 4 mm + rule above
Contributor information Caption + Italic
First line Warnock Pro + Light + size: 9 pt + Image credit Contributor Information
leading: 12 pt + oT all small caps Website lead Body Text + colour: main red +
First letter First line + (colour) - caps align: flush left - hyphenation