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Kimberly Porter Martin Ph

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Kimberly Porter Martin Ph Powered By Docstoc
					The Study of Speech
      Sounds
     Speech Sounds
PHONETICS
How are speech sounds made?


PHONOLOGY
How are speech sounds classified?
       What is Phonetics?
                     COMPONENTS OF PHONETICS
DEFINITION           • Identifying the place of
                       articulation in the vocal
• The study of how     tract, mouth and nose.
  speech sounds      • Identifying the manner of
  are made, and        articulation, including how
                       air is channeled and/or
  which sounds are
                       stopped during speech
  used in a given      sounds.
  language.          • Identifying which speech
                       sounds are used in any given
                       language, and which are not.
Types of Speech Sounds


Consonants   Consonants are formed by the
             slowing or stopping of air
             somewhere in the vocal tract




Vowels       Vowels are formed by changes
             in the shape of the vocal tract as
             air passes through unimpeded
The Phonetics of Consonants
      Place of articulation
    means where the vocal tract is
    shut off or narrowed
      Manner of Articulation
  means how the vocal tract is shut off
  or narrowed
                Voicing
  means whether air is forced through the
  larynx or not
The Anatomy of the
    Vocal Tract  Your
                 homework
                    is to go
                    online and
                    find out
                    what the
                    following
                    articulatory
                    places are
                    and where
                    they are
                    located:
                    Glottis
                    Uvula
   Consonant Place of
Articulation 1: Bilabials


 Bilabials are accomplished by narrowing
      the vocal tract using both lips



  pin           map             boy
     Consonant Place of
Articulation 2: Labiodentals


   Labiodentals are accomplished by narrowing
  the vocal tract using both the lips and the teeth



                fan           van
    Consonant Place of
      Articulation 3:
Apicodental (Interdentals)
   Apicodentals, also called interdentals are
  accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract
 using the tip (apex) of the tongue between the
         teeth to narrow the vocal tract


              there         thing
  Consonant Place of
     Articulation 4:
Apicoalveolar (Alveolar)
   Apicoalveolar, also called alveolars are
 accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract
using the tip (apex) of the tongue against the
       alveolar ridge behind the teeth


                dip          tip
    Consonant Place of
      Articulation 5:
     Alveolarpalatal
     Alveolarpalatal are accomplished by
narrowing the vocal tract using the tip (apex)
of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge at the
           front edge of the palate

        shout      judge    child
  Consonant Place of
Articulation 6: Velums


Velums are accomplished by completely
  closing the vocal tract at the velum


          get           cat
Manner of Articulation

  means how the shutting off or
  narrowing of the vocal tract is
              done
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 1: Stops


Stops are accomplished by completely
      obstructing the airstream


 pick           get           dig
  Consonant Manner of
Articulation 2: Fricatives


  Fricatives are accomplished by almost
  completely obstructing the airstream
              causing friction


    fish          kiss           shell
   Consonant Manner of
Articulation 3: Affricatives


  Affricatives are accomplished by stopping
  the air flow and then releasing air to cause
                    friction


      child          gym           judge
 Consonant Manner of
 Articulation 4: Nasals


Nasals are accomplished by closing the vocal
 tract at the velum and forcing air through
              the nasal passages


  nickel           man             ring
 Consonant Manner of
Articulation 5: Liquids


Liquids are accomplished by restricting but
          not closing off air flow



     leave                 ring
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 6: Glides


Glides are accomplished by restricting but
not closing off air flow followed by a slight
         opening of the vocal tract


   yet           wash           whistle
 Consonant Manner of
 Articulation 7: Taps


 Taps are accomplished by quickly tapping
the tongue against another part of the vocal
 tract and is frequently found in the middle
                  of a word

            letter        ladder
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 8: Trills


Trills are accomplished by forcing the
    tongue, uvula or lips to vibrate



 In Spanish         perro barrio
  Two Types of Voicing
Voiced     sounds are made by narrowing
           the vocal cords and forcing air
           between them
                      got       bit
Unvoiced   sounds are made by opening the
           vocal cords and allowing air to
           flow past them
                   caught       pit
Classification of Vowels
  Four Criteria for Classifying Vowels:
               Tongue Height
    Tongue Location (toward back or front)
            Mouth & Lip Tension
         Lip Rounding Vs stretching
    Tongue Height
        Three Positions:
High:        bit     straight   pool    cook
Mid Mouth:         get   wait    spot   rope
Low:    bat        got
 Tongue Location
          Three Positions:
Back: pool        cook      rope     got
Center:     but    around
Front:    hit     heat   pet       wait    bat
Mouth &Lip Tension
        Two States:
Tense                 Relaxed
 heat                  hit
 soon                  soot
 wait                  wet
       Lip Rounding
          Two States:
Rounded            Not Rounded
pool                    hit
look                    heat
wrote                   pat
caught                  pet
                        wait
       Websites That Make
        Speech Sounds

• web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/charts/IP
  Alab/IPAlab.htm

• www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/e
  nglish/frameset

• http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/c
  hapter1/flash.html
     The
International
  Phonetic
  Alphabet

!Kung Click
 Language
http://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=c24
      6fZ-7z1w
Phonemics
        Definition of Phoneme
• A minimal class of sounds which possess
  shared features that clearly contrast with
  those of other phonemes and form the
  basis of distinguishing one utterance from
  another.

• Eg.   English {s}, {z}   Spanish {s, z}
Most Languages have 50 or fewer
 phonemes.

No language uses all possible phonemes

The sounds contained in corresponding
 phonenemes in different languages may
 vary significantly.
English Phonemes 1-15 of 42
   • Phoneme        Spelling(s) and Example Words
   •   /A/     a (table), a_e (bake), ai (train), ay (say)
   •   /a/     a (flat)
   •   /b/     b (ball)
   •   /k/     c (cake), k (key), ck (back)
   •   /d/     d (door)
   •   /E/     e (me), ee (feet), ea (leap), y (baby)
   •   /e/     e (pet), ea (head)
   •   /f/     f (fix), ph (phone)
   •   /g/     g (gas)
   •   /h/     h (hot)
   •   /I/     i (I), i_e (bite), igh (light), y (sky)
   •   /i/     i (sit)
   •   /j/     j (jet), dge (edge), g[e, i, y] (gem)
   •   /l/     l (lamp)
   •   /m/     m (my)
English Phonemes 16-29 of 42
   • Phoneme Spellings and Example Words
   •   /n/            n (no), kn (knock)
   •   /O/            o (okay), o_e (bone), oa (soap), ow (low)
   •   /o/            o (hot)
   •   /p/            p (pie)
   •   /kw/           qu (quick)
   •   /r/            r (road), wr (wrong), er (her), ir (sir), ur (fur)
   •   /s/            s (say), c[e, i, y] (cent)
   •   /t/            t (time)
   •   /U/            u (future), u_e (use), ew (few)
   •   /u/            u (thumb), a (about), e (loaded), o (wagon)
   •   /v/            v (voice)
   •   /w/            w (wash)
   •   /ks/ or /gz/   x (box, exam)
English Phonemes 30-42 of 42
    • Phoneme          Spellings and Example Words
    •   /y/            y (yes)
    •   /z/            z (zoo), s (nose)
    •   /OO/           oo (boot), u (truth), u_e (rude), ew (chew)
    •   /oo/           oo (book), u (put)
    •   /oi/           oi (soil), oy (toy)
    •   /ou/           ou (out), ow (cow)
    •   /aw/           aw (saw), au (caught), a[l] (tall)
    •   /ar/           ar (car)
    •   /sh/           sh (ship), ti (nation), ci (special)
    •   /hw/           wh (white)
    •   /ch/            ch (chest), tch (catch)
    •   /th/ or /th/   th (thick, this)
    •   /ng/           ng (sing), n (think)
    •   /zh/            s (measure)
Spanish Phonemes 1-14 of 25
  • Phoneme   Spellings and Example Words
  •   /a/     a (casa)
  •   /e/     e (pesebre)
  •   /i/     i (mi), y (y)
  •   /o/     o (pozo
  •   /u/     u (tuyo)
  •   /b/     b (baso), v (vaso), w (wagon)
  •   /d/     d (donde), d (pedid)
  •   /f/     f (fuego), f (filosofo)
  •   /g/     g (paga), p (pague), g (guitarra), g (guapo)
  •   /j/     io (comio), ie (pie), ie (hierro), y (cayo), ll (callo)
  •   /k/     q (quito), c (casa), k (kilo), cc (accion), x (taxi)
  •   /l/     l (cola), l (paralelo), l (el)
  •   /m/     m (campo), m (cama), n (invierno)
  •   /n/      n (cana)
Spanish Phonemes 15-25 of 25
  • Phoneme   Spellings and Example Words
  •   /n,/    n~ (can~a)
  •   /p/     p (pozo), p (pues), p (papa)
  •   /r/     r (caro), r ( carta), r (parar), r (trato)
  •   /r-/    rr (carro), r (honrado), r (rosa)
  •   /s/     s (sastre), s (casa), x (exito)
  •   /t/     t (tonto), t (tu)
  •   /tj/    ch (chato)
  •   /w/     u (cuerno), u (ruego), hu (ahuecar), u (causa)
  •   /x/     j (juego), g (pagina), j (escojo), g (escoge), x (Mexico)
  •   /iya/   ll (callo), ll (llamar)
  •   /0-/    z (lapiz), c (lapices), c (cierra), z (caza)
Some Differences between the Spanish
  and the English Written Language

  29 letters represent 25     26 letters represent 42
  phonemes                    phonemes

  pronunciation of words is    sometimes the
  based on their spelling     pronunciation varies:
                              spelling represents more
                              than one word (read)
  some phonemes are            some letters do not have
  spelled using more than     direct relation to the
  one letter (me llamo)       sounds in the word
                              (height)
Some Differences between the Spanish
  and the English Written Language

  if a letter is doubled both    doubled letters represent
  letters are pronounced        only one phoneme
  (leer)                        (school)
   also applies to
  diphthongs (Euro)
  5 vowel letters and 5          5 vowel letters and 15
  vowel sounds                  vowel sounds
  a few phonemes can be          19 consonant phonemes
  spelled in more than one      are spelled using more
  way (/h/= g or j)             than one letter (enough)
     Phonemic Categories Differ from One
           Language to Another
In English, trilled and untrilled     In Spanish, trilled and
   r’s are in the same                untrilled r’s are in different
   phoneme.                           phonemes.
                                           pero vs. perro
In English b and v are in           In Spanish, b and v are in the
   different phonemes.                 same phoneme.
        berry vs. very

In English r and l are in           In Chinese r and l are in the
   different phonemes                  same phoneme
        river vs. liver
      Allophones


Definition: Phones that occupy the
 same phoneme are called
 allophones.
 Goals of a Phonemic Analysis
1. To identify a minimal set of phonemes for
   the language
2. To identify which phones from the
   language are classified together in a
   given phoneme as allophones
3. To identify the contexts in which a given
   allophone will be used instead of others
   in the same phoneme
Kinds of Allophones
 Free variation allophones

Complementary distribution
       allophones
          Free Variation
          Allophones
 Where the use of a particular allophone overlaps
              with the use of others

Two sounds are used indiscriminately in different
               phonetic contexts

   The variation is due to dialectical variation or
              personal linguistic habits.
http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/103/A
                 llophones/index.htm
     Complementary
 Distribution Allophones
  Two allophones are in complementary distribution if
   the contexts in which they appear do not overlap.

   Two sounds are never used in the same phonetic
                      context.

E.g. [pʰ] always occurs when it comes at the beginning
  of a syllable and is followed by a stressed vowel (as
  in the word pin). [p] occurs in all other situations (as
                     in the word spin).
 Kinds of Phonetic Context
               Some Examples
• Immediate context = the sounds which immediately
  precede and follow the allophone
• The stress of the sounds that follow or precede the
  allophone -
• Whether the allophone begins or ends a word
• When the allophone begins a word, the sound with which
  the word preceding the allophone ends
• When the allophone ends a word, the sound with which
  the word following the allophone begins
Immediate Context Example
           She vs. Shoe

 The vowel following the “sh” sound
 changes the way the sound is made. The
 two “sh” sounds are allophones of the
 same phoneme, but are used in different
 contexts, one following the “oo” and one
 following the “ee” sound.
Immediate Context Example
               Pin vs. Spot vs. Top

P at the beginning of the word is asperated.
P in the middle of the word is not asperated.
P at the end of the word is not asperated.
          PowerPoint Study Guide
Phonetics                Palate            Nasals
Phonology                Larynx            Glides
Place of articulation    Glottis           Liquids
Manner of articulation   Velum             Taps
Voicing                  Bilabial          Trills
Consonants               Labiodental       Tongue height
Vowels                   Apicodental       Tongue location
Nasal passage            Apicoalveolar     Mouth tension
Lips                     Alveolarpalatal   Lip rounding
Teeth                    Velum             Phonemes
Apex of the tongue       Stops             Allophones
Blade of the tongue      Fricative         Free variation allophones
Alveolar ridge           Affricative       Complementary allophones

				
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