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					                      EU Law

The European Union Is Unique Among International Organizations in
Having a Complex and Highly Developed System of Internal Law
Which Has Direct Effect Within the Legal Systems of Its Member
There Are Three Sources of European Union Law:

 •Primary Legislation: the Treaties
 •Secondary Legislation: Regulations, Directives, Decisions,
 Recommendations and Opinions Made by the Union's Institutions in
 Accordance With the Treaties
 •Decisions of the European Court of Justice and the Court of First
The Treaties of the European Union Are Effectively Its Constitutional Law,
Making up the EU's Primary Legislation. They Lay Down the Basic Policies of
the Union, Establish Its Institutional Structure, Legislative Procedures, and the
Powers of the Union. The Treaties That Make up the Primary Legislation
  •The ECSC Treaty of 1951 (Treaty of Paris)
  •The EEC Treaty of 1957 (Treaty of Rome)
  •The EURATOM Treaty of 1957 (Treaty of Rome)
  •The Merger Treaty of 1965
  •The Single European Act of 1986
  •The Treaty of Maastricht of 1992
  •The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997
  •The Treaty of Nice of 2001
  •The Treaty of Accession 2003 of 2003
The Various Annexes and Protocols Attached to These Treaties Are Also
Considered a Source of Primary Legislation.

EU Regulations Have a General Scope, and Are Obligatory in All Its
Elements and Directly Applicable in All Member States of the
European Union. For This Reason It Constitutes One of the Most
Powerful or Influential Form of EU Law.
Because Regulations Have Direct Effect, the Individual Countries Do
Not Need to Pass Local Laws to Bring Them Into Effect, and Indeed
Any Local Laws Contrary to the Regulation Are Overruled, As
European Union Law Is Supreme Over the Laws of the Member States.
Member States Therefore Have to Legislate in the Light Of, and
Consistently With the Requirements Of EU Regulations.

A European Union Directive Is the Collective Decision Made by the
Member States, Acting Through Their National Government Ministers
in the Council of the European Union and the Parliament. It Is
Customary to Group Discussions Around a Specific Topic in the
Council, Allowing the Member States to Send the Minister Which Is
Competent for This Area to the Meeting.
A Directive Fixes the Objectives to Be Pursued by the EU Member
States, but Leaves Freedom of Choice for the Ways of Obtaining Them
(Maintaining an Obligation to Achieve the Result): "A Directive Shall
Be Binding, As to the Result to Be Achieved, Upon Each Member State
to Which It Is Addressed, but Shall Leave to the National Authorities
the Choice of Form and Methods."

The Legislative Procedure for Adoption of a Decision Varies
Depending on Its Subject Matter. The Codecision Procedure Requires
Agreement of and Allows Amendments by Both the European
Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The Assent
Procedure Requires Agreement of Both Parliament and Council, but
the Parliament Can Only Agree or Disagree to the Text As a Whole - It
Cannot Propose Amendments. The Consultation Procedure Requires
Agreement of the Council Alone, the Parliament Merely Being
Consulted on the Text. In Some Areas, Such As Competition Policy, the
Commission May Itself Issue Decisions.

A Recommendation in the European Union Is One of Two Kinds of Non-
binding Acts Cited in the Treaty of Rome. They Are Without Legal Force but
Are Negotiated and Voted on According to the Appropriate Procedure (Eg
Codecision Procedure Etc). Recommendations Differ From Regulations,
Directives and Decisions, in That They Are Not Binding for Member States
but Have a Political Weight.
Concretely Recommendation Can Be Used by the Commission in Order to
Avoid a Distortion of Competition Due to the Establishment or the
Modification of Internal Norms of a Member State. If This Country Does Not
Conform Itself to This Recommendation, the Commission Cannot Propose to
the Council the Adoption of a Directive Directed to Other Member Countries,
in Order to Elide This Distortion. The Recommendation Is an Instrument of
Indirect Action Aiming at the Approach of Legislation of Member States,
Differing From the Directive Only by the Absence of Obligatory Power.
  European Court of Justice

Located in Luxembourg, It Was Founded in 1958 As the Joint Court
for the Three Treaty Organizations That Were Consolidated Into the
European Community (the Predecessor of the EU) in 1967. The Court
Interprets EU Treaties and Legislation. Although It May Attempt to
Reconcile Differences Between National and EU Laws, Ultimately Its
Decisions Overrule Those of National Courts.
Increased Litigation Over the Years Led to the Establishment of a
Lower Court, the Court of First Instances. International Law Cases
Involving Nations Outside the EU Are Heard by the World Court in
The Hague. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg,
France, Is Recognized by the Members of the Council of Europe and
Hears Cases Relating to the European Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Personal Freedoms.
           Court of First Instance
The Court of First Instance, Was Created in 1988, and Is Currently
Composed of 25 Judges, at Least One From Each Member State. The
Judges Are Appointed for a Renewable Term of Six Years by Common
Accord of the Governments of the Member States.
The Members of the Court of First Instance Elect Their President and the
Presidents of the Chambers of Five Judges From Among Their Number for
a Renewable Period of Three Years.
The Creation of the Court of First Instance Instituted a Judicial System
Based on Two Levels of Jurisdiction: All Cases Heard at First Instance by
the Court of First Instance May Be Subject to a Right of Appeal to the
Court of Justice on Points of Law Only.
In View of the Increasing Number of Cases Brought Before the Court of
First Instance in the Last Five Years, in Order to Relieve It of Some of the
Caseload, the Treaty of Nice, Provides for the Creation of „Judicial Panels‟
in Certain Specific Areas.
                          EU Pillars
It Was Desired to Add Powers to the Community in the Areas of Foreign Policy,
Security and Defence Policy, Asylum and Immigration Policy, Criminal Co-
operation, and Judicial Co-operation. However, Some Member-states Opposed
the Addition of These Powers to the Community on the Grounds That They Were
Too Sensitive to National Sovereignty for the Community Method to Be Used, and
That These Matters Were Better Handled Intergovernmentally. As a Result,
These Additional Matters Were Not Included in the European Community, But
Were Tacked on Externally to the European Community in the Form of Two
Additional 'Pillars„. These Pillars Are:

1. The First or 'Community' Pillar Concerns Economic, Social and
Environmental Policies.
2. The Second or 'Common Foreign and Security Policy' (CFSP) Pillar Concerns
Foreign Policy and Military Matters.
3. The Third or 'Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters' (PJCC)
Pillar Concerns Co-operation in the Fight Against Crime. This Pillar Was
Originally Named 'Justice and Home Affairs'.
              The Three Pillars
                             Common Foreign and Police and Judicial Co-
                                Security Policy           operation in Criminal
 Communities (EC)
                                     (CFSP)                  Matters (PJCC)

Customs Union and Single           Foreign policy:        Drug trafficking and weapons
         market                                                    smuggling
Common Agricultural Policy                                         Terrorism
 Common Fisheries Policy     EU battle groups, European   Trafficking in human beings
                               Rapid Reaction Force
    EU competition law             Peacekeeping                 Organized crime
 Economic and Monetary             Human rights                Bribery and fraud
      EU-Citizenship                Democracy
  Education and Culture             Foreign aid
Trans-European Networks
   Consumer protection            Security policy:
   Research (e.g. Sixth        European Security and
 Framework Programme)              Defence Policy
    Environmental law
       Social policy
      Asylum policy
     Schengen treaty
    Immigration policy
      European Communities

European Communities Is the Name Given Collectively to the European
Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community
(EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), When in
1968, They Were First Merged Under a Single Institutional Framework
With the Merger Treaty.
EEC Soon Became the Most Important of These Three Communities,
Subsequent Treaties Adding It Further Areas of Competence That
Extended Beyond the Purely Economic Areas. In 1992 the Word
'Economic' Was Removed From Its Name by the Maastricht Treaty.
The Maastricht Treaty Turned the European Communities As a Whole
Into the First of Three Pillars of the European Union, Also Known As the
Community Pillar or Communities Pillar. In Community Pillar Policy
Areas Decisions Are Made Collectively by Qualified Majority Voting
     Common Foreign and Security
The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP Was Established As the Second of
the Three Pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht Treaty and Further Defined
and Broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty. According to the Treaties, the European
Union Defines and Implements a Common Foreign and Security Policy, With the
Following Objectives:
• To Safeguard the Common Values, Fundamental Interests, Independence and
Integrity of the Union in Conformity With the Principles of the United Nations
• To Strengthen the Security of the Union in All Ways;
• To Preserve Peace and Strengthen International Security, in Accordance With the
Principles of the United Nations Charter, As Well As the Principles of the Helsinki
Final Act and the Objectives of the Paris Charter, Including Those on External
• To Promote International Cooperation;
• To Develop and Consolidate Democracy and the Rule of Law, and Respect for Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
       Police and Judicial Co-operation
             in Criminal Matters
Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters Is the Third of the Three Pillars
of the European Union, Focusing on Co-operation in Law Enforcement and Combating
Racism. It Was Created As the Justice and Home Affairs Pillar in the Treaty of
Maastricht. Justice and Home Affairs Co-operation Aims at Reinforcing Actions Taken
by Member States While Allowing a More Coherent Approach of These Actions, by
Offering New Tools for Coordinating Actions. It Was Established That, While Reaching
the Objectives of the Union, and Notably the Freedom of Movement, the Member States
Consider the Following As Areas of Common Interest:
1. Asylum;
2. Rules Concerning the Entrance of External Borders;
3. Immigration Policies and Policies Concerning Third Countries Citizens;
4. Combating Illicit Drugs;
5. Fight Against International Fraud;
6. Judicial Co-operation in Civil Matters;
7. Judicial Co-operation in Penal Matters;
8. Customs Co-operation;
9. Police Co-operation for Preventing and Fighting Terrorism, Drugs Trade and Other
Grave Forms of International Criminality, Comprising, If Necessary, Certain Aspects of
Customs Co-operation.
            Acquis Communautaire
"The Acquis Communautaire or Community Patrimony Is the Body of Common
Rights and Obligations Which Bind All the Member States Together Within the
European Union. It Is the Concept of the «Acquis Communautaire» Which Permits
the EU to Maintain Its Cohesion and to Proceed With Its Objective of Deepening,
Despite Its Increasing Number of Members. It Constitutes an Indivisible Whole
That Each New Member State Is Obliged to Accept and Effectively Implement. As It
Stands Today, the Acquis Consists of :

• The Content, Principles and Political Objectives of the Treaties (Including Those of
the Treaty of Amsterdam);
• Legislation Adopted Pursuant to the Treaties, and the Case Law of the Court of
• Statements and Resolutions Adopted Within the Union Framework;
• Joint Actions, Common Positions, Declarations, Conclusions and Other Acts
Within the Framework of the Common Foreign and Security Policy;
• Joint Actions, Joint Positions, Conventions Signed, Resolutions, Statements and
Other Acts Agreed Within the Framework of Justice and Home Affairs;
• International Agreements Concluded by the Community and Those Concluded
Among Themselves by the Member States With Regard to Union Activities.
        Access Negotiations

Before Full Membership the Union Community Must Determine If the
New Member States Legal Framework Is Accordingly With the
Europeans One. If Such Doesn‟t Happen Then an Harmonization Is
Required Otherwise Current Union‟s Achievements Such As the
Common Market Could Be at Stake. This Analysis and
Synchronization Consist of Two Phases the «Acquis Screening» and the
«Substantive Negotiations».
            Acquis Screening

Acquis Screening Refers to the Examination in Great Detail of the
Degree to Which the Body of Law, Institutions and Procedures of the
Candidate Country Comply With Those of the EU. It Consists in a
Meeting of Delegates From the EU Commission With Delegates From
the Respective Candidate Country, to Discuss the Extent of Adaptation
Necessary to Conform to the Acquis Communautaire. The Acquis
Screening Is a Prerequisite for the Commencement of Concrete
Accession Negotiations, by the Foreign Ministers.
Acquis Screening Consists in the Examination of 31 Chapters, Each
Treated Separately.
   Substantive Negotiations

Substantive Negotiations Refers to the Negotiation of Transitional
Arrangements or Derogations, This Is the Changes to Be Made to the
Countries Laws. Formal Bilateral Sessions Are Held Between EU
Governments and the Candidate Government at Either the Heads of
State And Governments, Ministerial or the Ambassador Level. These
Sessions Are Chaired by the Government Holding the Presidency,
Assisted by the Commission and Council Secretariat. After All of the
Chapters Are Closed, a Final Accession Treaty Is Adopted by the
European Council.
 Transitional Arrangements

No Permanent Derogation From the Acquis Communautaire Is
Permitted. However in Exceptional Circumstances Temporary
Derogations and Transitional Periods May Be Agreed, With the Aim of
Allowing the New Member State to Gradually Harmonize Itself
Towards the Acquis in Sectors Where Exceptional Difficulties Are
Confronted. But the Principle Must Be Retained of Acceptance of the
Acquis to Safeguard the Achievements of the Union.
               Chapters of the Acquis
      During the Process of the Enlargement of the European Union, the Acquis Was
      Divided Into 31 Chapters for the Purpose of Negotiation Between the EU and
      the Candidate Member States. These Chapters Are:

1.    Free Movement of Goods                17. Science and Research
2.    Free Movement of Persons              18. Education and Training
3.    Freedom to Provide Services           19. Telecommunication and Information
4.    Free Movement of Capital              20. Culture and Audio-visual Policy
5.    Company Law                           21. Regional Policy and Coordination of
6.    Competition Policy                        Structural Instruments
7.    Agriculture                           22. Environment
8.    Fisheries                             23. Consumers and Health Protection
9.    Transport Policy                      24. Cooperation in the Field of Justice and
                                                Home Affairs
10.   Taxation                              25. Customs Union
11.   Economic and Monetary Union           26. External Relations
12.   Statistics                            27. Common Foreign and Security Policy
13.   Social Policy and Employment              (CFSP)
14.   Energy                                28. Financial Control
15.   Industrial Policy                     29. Financial and Budgetary Provisions
16.   Small and Medium-sized Enterprises    30. Institutions
                                            31. Others
  Free Movement of Goods

The Free Movement of Goods Is a Fundamental Feature of the
Objective of Establishing a Single Market Within the EU. Goods
Produced in Member Countries and Goods Imported (Once Inside the
Union) Should Be Able to Move Freely From One Member State to
Another Without Impediment. This Is Achieved Not Only Through the
Elimination of Tariffs and Quotas, but by the Elimination or
Harmonization of All Measures That May Impede Internal Trade.
         Free Movement of Persons
Another of the Cornerstones of Europe‟s Development Is the Free Movement of Persons.
Accessing Countries Must Harmonize Their Current Regulations So As to Include:

• The Removal of Checks at Common Borders, Replacing Them With External Border
• A Common Definition of the Rules for Crossing External Borders;
• Separation in Air Terminals and Ports of People Traveling Within the Schengen Area
From Those Arriving From Countries Outwith the Area;
• Harmonization of the Rules Regarding Conditions of Entry and Visas for Short Stays;
• Coordination Between Administrations on Surveillance of Borders (Liaison Officers,
Harmonization of Instructions and Staff Training);
• The Definition of the Role of Carriers in the Fight Against Illegal Immigration;
• Requirement for All Non EU Nationals Moving From One Country to Another to Lodge
a Declaration;
• The Drawing up of Rules for Asylum Seekers ( Dublin Convention );
• The Introduction of Rights of Surveillance and Not Pursuit;
• The Strengthening of Legal Cooperation Through a Faster Extradition System and
Faster Distribution of Information About the Implementation of Criminal Judgments;
• The Creation of the Schengen Information System (SIS).
Freedom to Provide Services

There Is Only True Market Prices When Competition Among Companies
Is Stimulated. That Is Why the Freedom to Provide Services Is Crucial in
Europe and Distortions Must Be Mended. So It Is Europe‟s Goal To
Provide Economic Operators and Member States With the Commission's
Interpretation, Specifically in the Context of the Insurance Directives, of
the Concepts of Freedom to Provide Services and the General Good
The Main Objective Is to Allow Any Insurer Authorized in a Member
State to Carry on Its Insurance Activities Throughout the European
Union, Whether Under the Rules on Branches or Under the Freedom to
Provide Services
    Free Movement of Capital

In Accordance With the Conclusions of the Madrid European Council on 26
and 27 June 1989, the Liberalization of Capital Movements Corresponds to
the First Stage of Economic and Monetary Union . Free Movement of
Capital Remains a Necessity If We Are to Take Full Advantage of the
Benefits of the Single Market.
Therefore Accessing Countries Must Adopt the Principle of Full Freedom of
Capital Movements and Payments, Both Between Member States and
Between Member States and Third Countries. But There Is the Possibility of
Maintaining Certain Existing Restrictions and Possibility of Taking
Safeguard Measures If Movements of Capital to or From Third Countries
Cause Serious Difficulties for the Operation of Economic and Monetary
Union and Allows the Community or a Member State to Take Measures on
Movements of Capital to or From Third Countries for Security or Foreign
Policy Reasons.
                Company Law
The Aim of the Acquis on Company Law Is to Establish Basic
Minimum Rules for Companies Throughout the EU to Follow. The
Acquis in the Chapter on Company Law Breaks Down Into Six Areas:
(1) Company Law;
(2) Accounting Law;
(3) Law of Contracts;
(4) Enforcement of Court Judgements;
(5) Intellectual Property Rights;
(6) Industrial Property Rights.

With Respect to Company Law the Central Element of the of Acquis
Relates to Transparency, That Is the Release of Information and the
Publication of Accounts, Internal Management and the Operation of
Companies. In the Area of Intellectual Property Rights, and Industrial
Ownership Rights, the Main Features Relate to the Protection of
Intellectual Property Rights, Patents and Registered Trade Marks.
          Competition Policy
The Aim of Competition Policy Is to Ensure That Competitive Markets
Are Maintained in Order to Ensure Efficiency and Provide Protection
of Consumers From Cartels and Monopolistic Acts. The Competition
Acquis Has Two Main Aspects:
• Anti-trust Rules;
• Rules on State Aid.

Anti-trust Rules Relate to Mergers and to Agreements Between
Undertakings and They Further Aim at Avoiding the Abuse of
Dominance by Undertakings Which Have a Dominant Position in the
Market. As for the Rules Governing State Aid , They Impose Strict
Control on Aid Granted to Undertakings by the State or Through State
Each Member State Must Have a National Competition Authority,
Which, in the Field of Anti-trust Policy, Cooperates Closely With the
Commission, and a State Aid Authority, Which Co-ordinates the
Fulfillement of the Notification, Reporting and Information
Requirements of the Acquis
Agriculture Policy Is One of the Biggest Resource Consumers of the
EU. Whenever a New State Is to Join the Union Its Regulations,
Procedures and Information Systems Must be Analogous so he Will
Need to Set up an Integrated Administration and Control System

• A Computerized Data Base;
• An Identification System for Agricultural Parcels;
• A System for the Identification and Registration of Payment
• Aid Applications;
• An Integrated Control System;
• A Single System to Record the Identity of Each Farmer Who Submits
an Aid Application.

The Acquis With Respect to Fisheries Is Divided Into Four Sub-sectors
As Follows:
(A) Management of Resources and Control;
(B) International Agreements Relating to Fishing;
(C) Common Organization of Marketing;
(D) State Assistance and Activities Relating to Reorganization /

Special Attention Is Given to Establishing and Monitoring Mechanisms
and the Acquisition of the Capacity to Control Large Vessels Fishing in
International Waters.

Covers Transport by Air, Water and Overland.
A Significant Part of the Acquis Consists of Regulations, Decisions and
Provisions of the EU Treaty, Which Will Apply Directly on the Day of
Accession and Do Not Require an Active Transposition Into National
Legislation. However, the Infrastructure Required for Their Effective
Implementation Will Have to Be in Place by the Day of Accession.
Another Part of the Acquis Consists of Directives, Which Need to Be
Transposed Into the Legal System of the Country Concerned. In the
Air and Maritime Sectors, a Number of Conventions,
Recommendations and Standards, Adopted by International
Organizations, Have Been Incorporated Into Community Law, Thus
Making Them Legally Binding for the Member States.
Harmonizing Taxation, Which Is a Symbol of National Sovereignty, Continues to Be
Problematic Because It Is Such a Complex Issue and Because Unanimity Is Required
for the Adoption of Decisions. Without Taxation Policy Coordination Between the
Member States, the Free Movement of Capital May Encourage Cross-frontier Fraud.
The Differences Between National Tax Systems Are Becoming More Visible and Are
Having an Even Greater Influence on Decisions Regarding Capital Allocation.
Therefore to Prevent “Tax Dumping” Countries Must Try to Harmonize Their
In Order to Tackle Harmful Tax Competition, the Commission Proposes Several
Measures That Can Form a Basis for Increased Coordination Between Member
States in Taxation Matters, in Particular:
• A Code of Conduct for Business Taxation, in Parallel With a Commission
Communication on State Aid in the Form of Taxation Measures;
• Measures to Eliminate Distortions in the Taxation of Capital Income;
• Measures to Eliminate Withholding Taxes on Cross-border Interest and Royalty
Payments Between Companies;
• Measures to Eliminate Significant Distortions in the Area of Indirect Taxation.
  Economic and Monetary Union
Under the Accession Treaty, the New Member States Must Go Directly Into Stage
Three (the Euro Adoption) of EMU and Have the Status of “Member State With a
Derogation”. Accession States Must Accept the Union As a Whole and Not Just the
Parts and in the Euro‟s Situation Local Law Must Allow It As the Current
With a View to Achieving the Necessary Budgetary Discipline to Join the Euro
Zone, the New Member States' Budgetary Policies Will Be Subject to Supervision.
They Are Required to Develop Multiannual Stability and Convergence
Programmes Which Include Objectives Concerning Their Progress Towards
Adopting the Euro. Convergence Criteria:

• Price Stability, Measured According to the Rate of Inflation in the Three Best
Performing Member States;
• Long-term Interest Rates Close to the Rates in the Countries With the Best
Inflation Results;
• An Annual Budget Deficit Which Does Not Exceed 3% of Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) and Total Government Debt Which Does Not Exceed 60% of GDP;
• Stability in the Exchange Rate of the National Currency on Exchange Markets.

The Aim of the Acquis Is to Ensure That Statistics Are Prepared on the
Same Basis, And, Therefore, Allow for Comparisons to Be Made
Between Member States. This Is Essential for the Determination of
To Ensure That EU Statistical Requirements Are Met, the Department
of Statistics and Research of Each Accessing Country Should
Cooperate With EUROSTAT.
    Social Policy / Employment
Social Policy Falls Under the Joint Responsibility of the European Community
and the Member States. The Fields of Social Policy/Employment Harmonization
Are Set Out and Are:
• The Promotion of Employment;
• Proper Social Protection;
• The Development of Human Resources With a View to Lasting High
Employment Workers' Health and Safety;
• Working Conditions;
• The Integration of Persons Excluded From the Labour Market;
• The Information and Consultation of Workers;
• Equality Between Men and Women With Regard to Labour Market
Opportunities and Treatment at Work;
• Social Security and Social Protection of Workers;
• Protection of Workers Where Their Employment Contract Is Terminated;
• Conditions of Employment for Third Country Nationals Legally Residing in
Community Territory.
The Acquis on This Matter Determines a Setting of Rules That Aim to Fulfill
the Fallowing Purposes:

• Price Transparency;
• Coordination of Procurement Procedures of Entities Operating in the
Energy Sector;
• Common Rules for the Internal Market in Electricity;
• Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas;
• Conditions for Granting and Using Authorizations for the Prospection,
Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons;
• Cross-border Exchanges in Electricity;
• Internal Energy Market: Supply of Gas and Electricity;
• Internal Energy Market: Access to the Gas Transmission Networks;
• Promotion of End-use Efficiency & Energy Services;
• Efficiency in Energy Using Products.
             Industrial Policy

The Acquis in This Chapter Is Very Limited and Not Binding on the
Member States. Therefore, It Does Not Require Transposition Into
National Law or Particular Measures for Implementation and
Enforcement. It Consists, in General, of Industrial Policy Guidelines
Established Both Overall and at the Horizontal and Sector-specific
Levels, Aiming at Increasing the Competitiveness of Each Members
State‟s Industry.
   Small and Medium-sized
In Recognition of the Importance of Small and Medium Sized
Enterprises in the Economy, the Main Objective Is to Facilitate the
Development of Such Companies. The First Ever EU Enterprise Policy
Was Formulated in 1986, and Has Since Then Been Extended and
Strengthened. The Main Aims of the Small and Medium Enterprise
(SME) Policy Are As Follows:
(A) Facilitate the Creation of an Environment Conducive to SME
(B) Improve Competitiveness;
(C) Encourage Business;
(D) Europeanize and Internationalize Their Activities.

Most of the Actions in Favour of Sme‟s Are Taken at National Level,
but the EU Has a Number of Instruments Which Target Sme‟s.
Science and Research (RTD)

The Aim of the Acquis Is to Encourage Science and Research and to
Coordinate Regulations for Such Programmes. The EU Basic Acquis
for Science and Research Consists Mainly of International Agreements
and Council Decisions Adopting the Framework Programmes for
Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, As Well As
Specific Programmes.
Education, Vocational Training
          and Youth

Education, Training and Youth Is Primarily the Competence of the
Member States. The Acquis Aims at Encouraging Better Cooperation
Between the EU and Its Member States, and Between Member States,
and to Ameliorate Specific Problems Such As Lack of Equality of
Opportunity, Illiteracy, Safety in Schools, and Facilities for Minorities.
   Telecommunications and
  Information Technologies
The Main Aim of the Acquis Is to Ensure Technical Compatibility
Between Different Systems, and to Encourage Competition in the
The Binding Components of the Acquis Mainly Relate to Liberalization
of Service Provision in the Field of Telephony, Satellite Services,
Mobile Phones and Subjects Relating to Economic Supervision of
Telecommunications and the Separation of Regulatory From
Operational Functions. With Respect to Postal Services, the Binding
Acquis Establishes Common Rules Relating to the Provision of
Universal Postal Services, the Criteria for Reserved or Non-reserved
Services, Tariff Principles and Transparency of Accounts, Quality
Standards, Harmonization of Technical Standards and the Creation of
National Regulatory Authorities.
The Six Subject Headings of the Acquis Cover Technical Issues,
Liberalization (That Is the Encouragement of Competition), Licencing,
Access to Leased Lines, Protection of Data and Privacy, and Inter-
connection Between Systems.
Culture and Audio-visual Policy

 The Acquis for This Chapter Aims at Establishing the Procedures
 Related to the Establishment, Installation and Operation of Radio and
 Television Stations. The Provisions of the Law Concerning the Public
 Broadcaster and of Transfrontier Television Is of Special Importance.
Regional Policy / Structural
At Present, the European Union Grants Financial Assistance Under
Multiannual Regional Development Programmes Negotiated Between
the Regions, the Member States and the Commission, As Well As Under
Specific Community Initiatives and Schemes. During Accession
Negotiations the Framework of Pre-accession and Membership Funding
Must Be Determined. Some of the Funds and Programmes Involved in
the Negociations Are:

• The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF);
• The European Social Fund (ESF);
• The European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF);
• The Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG);
• The Cohesion Fund;
• The Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-accession (ISPA);
• The Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural
Development (Sapard).
Because Damage to the Environment Has Been Growing Steadily Worse in Recent
Decades. Every Year, Some 2 Billion Tonnes of Waste Are Produced in the Member
States and This Figure Is Rising by 10% Annually, While CO2 Emissions From Our
Homes and Vehicles Are Increasing, As Is Our Consumption of "Dirty" Energy. The
Quality of Life for People Living in Europe, Especially in Urban Areas, Has Declined
Considerably. Protection of the Environment Is Therefore One of the Major
Challenges Facing Europe. The European Community Has Been Strongly Criticised
for Putting Trade and Economic Development Before Environmental Considerations.
This Is Why Community and New Accession States Must Implement a Set of Rules
• Waste Management;
• Noise Pollution;
• Water Pollution;
• Air Pollution;
• Nature Conservation;
• Natural and Technological Hazards;
• Protection Of Nature And Biodiversity;
• Soil Protection;
• Chemical Products;
• Civil Protection.
Consumers and Health Protection

The Acquis for the Chapter on Consumers and Health Protection Aims
at Protecting Consumers From Dangerous Products, Misleading
Advertising, and Unscrupulous Selling Practices. The Acquis Is
Composed of 14 Directives Covering Consumer Protection Including
Product Safety, Unfair Terms, Price Indications, Etc. It Also
Comprises a Community System of Information on Home and Leisure
Accidents (EHLASS) and Three Commission Decisions on a Consumer
Committee and Scientific Committees. On-the-spot Checks in the
Veterinary Field Carried Out by Commission Experts in the Member
States and in Third Countries Complete the Acquis for the Chapter.
   Cooperation in Justice and
        Home Affairs
Cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs Is a Very Sensible Topic but
the Acquis Must Ensure a High Level of Harmonization and
Compliance in the Fallowing Subjects:

• Judicial Cooperation In Civil Matters;
• Judicial Cooperation In Criminal Matters;
• Police And Customs Cooperation;
• Citizenship Of The Union;
• Combating Discrimination;
• Fight Against Terrorism And Organised Crime;
• Fight Against Trafficking In Human Beings;
• Combating Drugs;
• Combating Fraud And Corruption.
               Customs Union

The Acquis Refers to the Effective Protection and Control of External
Borders. It Includes Customs Tariffs, Trade Preferences, Quotas,
Tariff Suspensions and Other Customs Related Legislation, Much of
Which Is Derived From International Conventions or Agreements. The
Aim Is the Adoption of the EU‟s Common External Tariff and Customs
Provisions. Effective Implementation of the Acquis Requires
Computerization and Electronic Coordination of Customs Services.
           External Relations

The Acquis in This Chapter Covers the Community‟s Economic and
Trade Relations With Third Countries As Well As Co-operation and
Assistance. The Acquis Consists Mainly of Community Legislation,
Which Is Directly Binding on the Member States and So, Does Not
Require Transposition Into National Law. Competence in the Field of
External Relations Is Shared Between the Community and the Member
Common Foreign and Security
     Policy (CFSP)

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) Aims at
Safeguarding the Common Values, Interests, Independence and
Integrity of the Union, Its Security, the Preservation of Peace, and the
Development of Democracy, the Rule of Law and Respect for Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Acquis Is Implemented
Through Cooperation of Member States, and the Taking of Positive or
Negative Measures (I.E. Sanctions). Often Such Negative Measures Are
Applied for a Limited Time and May Not Be Applicable by the Time of
Accession. Owing to the Nature of This Chapter No Transposition Into
National Law or Technical Adaptations Requiring the Provision of
Information by the Applicant Countries Are Necessary.
              Financial Control

Regarding Financial Control the Acquis Establishes That New Accessing
Countries Financial Law Takes in Account the Fallowing Principles:

• Principle of Specification;
• Principle of Annuality;
• Principle of Equilibrium;
• Principle of Unit of Account;
• Principle of Universality;
• Principle of Sound Financial Management;
• Principle of Transparency.
   Financial and Budgetary

The 29th Chapter of the Acquis, Financial and Budgetary Provisions
Assembles the Negotiations Concerning Derogations Applicable to the
Financial Management Of:
•The European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF),
Guarantee Section;
•The Structural Funds;
•Research and Technological Development Activities;
•External Action Financed by the Budget;
•The European Offices (Administrative Structures Set up by One or
More Institutions to Perform Specific Cross-cutting Tasks);
•Administrative Appropriations.
Accessing Countries Legislation Must Ensure That European
Institutions Are Respected and Their Role and Activities Will Be
Accepted and Implemented.
Some of Those Institutions Are:
• European Parliament;
• Council of the European Union;
• European Commission;
• Judicial Bodies;
• European Court of Auditors;
• European Economic and Social Committee;
• Committee of the Regions;
• European Central Bank (ECB);
• European Investment Bank (EIB) and European Investment Fund
• The European Ombudsman;
• The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS).

Here Will Be Discussed the Areas That Do Not Include in the Previous
Chapters but the Community Fells It‟s Needed to Developed So As to
Reach a More Beneficial Level of Integration.

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