September 22nd, 1801~May 1st, 1888
                              and her husband
                       DR. JESSE HARVEY
                    November 26th, 1801 ~ May 12th, 1848

      This Friend, wife of the late Dr. Harvey and daughter of Bettie Hendricks and Thomas Burgess, is
      now living in this city (Indianapolis), in the 85th year of her age. The years of her early married
      life were devoted to teaching the neglected races, Indians as well as Negroes. She, with other
      Friends, did much to modify the felling of prejudice against the colored people in the village of
      Harveysburg. ~~ Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson

      Dr. Jesse Harvey commenced the practice in Harveysburg in 1830. He was a native of North
      Carolina, but received his education in Ohio. He was distinguished for his knowledge of the
      natural sciences, zeal in the cause of education and his philanthropic efforts to elevate the Negro
      and Indian races. In 1847, he went as a missionary of the Society of Friends to the Shawnee
      Indians of Kansas Territory, where he died the next year, in the forty-seventh year of his age. ~~
      Beer‟s 1882 History of Warren County, Ohio

Elizabeth Burgess and Dr. Jesse Harvey lived in interesting and challenging
times. They came to Ohio with their parents who migrated from Virginia and
North Carolina to make a new life away from of institution of slavery. Elizabeth
and Jesse were also pioneer builders, living in the newly founded village of
Harveysburg (1828) surrounded by rich farmland, a village that became in its early
history a thriving center of pork packing and of the wool and grain trades. The
Burgesses, the Harvey’s and the Hams were the early settlers of Harveysburg and
they were all inter-married. Elizabeth and Jesse helped to establish schools and
promoted education. They were faithful members of the Society of Friends. They
had weathered the devastation of the Hicksite Separation among Friends in 1828
and were fervent Orthodox Quakers. Their faith and the witness and commitment
of their parents lead them into difficult and dangerous ministries: the Underground
Railroad, the education of freed African-Americans and the education of Native-
Americans. They treated the freed African-Americans living in and around
Harveysburg as equals and embraced and safeguarded the children placed in their
charge. They lived lives of service to others and worked for justice and peace on
the edge of the American frontier as it moved ever west.
During the process of research for this study, the author has begun to unearth some
interesting but previously unknown facts about Harveysburg‟s history. The author
believes that many untold stories of struggle and heroism lie beneath the surface of
what is now known. The politically radical villages of Harveysburg, Oakland and
Selma, Ohio cut a swath deeply through an area strongly anti-slavery as well as
Quaker. The stories are only beginning to be told. Harveysburg‟s connection with
the Shawnee Native Americans also needs more study since the “Black School”
was, according to legend, open for the education of Indians, too.
Elizabeth Burgess was the oldest child of Thomas and Elizabeth, also known as
Bettie, (Hendricks) Burgess of Virginia.ii Thomas was from Campbell Co.,
Virginia. He married Elizabeth (Bettie) Hendricks of Halifax Co., Virginia at the
Banister Meetinghouse (a preparative meeting of South River Monthly Meeting that
was located at Lynchburg, Va.iii) on 10th mo. 16th 1799. Their eight children were:
          o ELIZABETH BURGESS, b. September 22, 1801 m. Dr. Jesse
            Harvey, son of Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey of Clinton Co., Ohio
               (The subjects of this chapter.)
          o JOSEPH H. BURGESS, b. October 9, 1803 (Joseph was married to
            Ruth Wales who died 5 months after the birth of their only child,
            Isaac W. Burgess who was born on September 1, 1831. On
            September 24, 1832, Joseph H. Burgess and Simon D. Harvey take
            out a Guardian Bond for Isaac W. Burgess, the child of said Joseph
            W. Burgess.v Joseph H. Burgess started a tannery in Harveysburg
            and made boots and shoes.vi However, he moved to Highland County
            and married Juliet Johnson Burgess at Fairfield Meeting in 1843.
            He did not take his son with him. It is possible that his child, Isaac
            W. Burgess, stayed with his grandmother Ruth Wales, or perhaps
            more likely in light of the guardianship document, with his aunt and
            uncle, Simon D. Harvey and Mary H. Burgess in Harveysburg. In
            1848 Joseph H. Burgess and his second wife, Juliet Johnson
            Burgess, and three children, which included Isaac W. Burgess,
            moved to Pleasant Plain Meeting in Iowa.vii
         o JESSE W. BURGESS, b. November 11, 1805 (Became a physician
           and was a farmer ~ studied with Dr. Jesse Harvey, his sister
           Elizabeth‟s husband, graduated from medical school in Cincinnati
           and practiced in Highland Co. and eventually moved to Harveysburg.
           He married Elizabeth Harvey.)viii Jesse Burgess is buried in the
           Harveysburg Quaker Orthodox Cemetery. His daughter Mary Emily
           Burgess is buried next to him.
         o MOSES BURGESS, b. April 28, 1807 (Moved to Kansas).ix
         o MARY H. BURGESS, b. February 1, 1809 ~ d. August 9, 1862.
           (Married Simon D. Harvey, the son of Isaac and Lydia Dicks
           Harvey. They were married on October 1, 1827 in Fairfield Twp,
           Highland Co. Simon D. and Mary H. Harvey also served at the
           Quaker Shawnee Mission and School in Kansas, 1858-1860.x Simon
           D. was a brother of William Harvey who founded Harveysburg in
           1828.) Mary and Simon had four children of their own and possibly
           helped to raise or did raise Isaac W. Burgess, the son of Joseph H.
           Burgess by his first wife.
         o TACY BURGESS, b. September 5, 1811(Married Job Hadley, the
           son of Joshua and Rebecca Hinshaw Hadley. They married in
           Harveysburg February 19, 1846. They lived in Hendricks Co.,
           Indiana).xi Tacy‟s twin sister is:
         o MARTHA BURGESS, b. September 5, 1811xii (Married William
           Hamxiii, the son of Rhoden and Abigail McKinsey Ham. Rhoden
           Ham in 1815 was the second owner of the land upon which
           Harveysburg would be built.xiv)
         o JOHN TOMPKINS BURGESS, b. October 13, 1813 (Married
           Elizabeth Harvey, daughter of Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey of
           Clinton Co., Ohio.          She is Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s sister).
           John Tompkins and Elizabeth Harvey Burgess lived in Hendricks
           County, Indiana.
South River Monthly Meeting in Virginia was named South River since it was
located south of the James River. Lynchburg, Virginia was a city initially settled
by Quakers.
                                        The third and last South River meeting house was
                                        built in 1798, and served the Quakers until 1839
                                        when it was abandoned (most Quakers had left the
                                        area in the 1820's due to their opposition to slavery).
                                        The building soon fell into ruins (pictured to the
                                        left), but was restored in the early 1900's after the
                                        land was purchased by area Presbyterians (across
                                        from the intersection of Fort Avenue and Sandusky
                                        Drive).See, http://www.lynchburgonline.com/history.html
Elizabeth‟s mother, Betty, was the overseer of Banister Meeting and had kept this
Preparative Meeting going even when the population of members had declined
severely. In 1801 she was released from her position of overseer. Betty was also
an advocate of freeing the slaves.xv Jane F. Wales Nicholson in her memoir tells
how her family traveled to Ohio from Virginia to southwest Ohio and she
remembers Bettie Hendrick Burgess:
      We stopped first in Highland County, where we had many relatives in and around
      Hillsboro. They emigrated there from Virginia in 1790. These relatives were
      sisters of my grandmother (Chloe Hendrick who married Samuel Welch, whose
      daughter Ruth Welch married Isaac Wales, the father of Jane F. Wales
      Nicholson), and when she arrived there were seven in all; they were the
      daughters of Ruth Eckels and Moses Hendricks of Halifax County, Virginia. So
      many of their descendants are still living in southern Ohio that I will mention
      their married names: Mary Slaughter, Anna Milner, Chloe Welch, Judith
      Borum, Sallie Terrell, Bettie Burgess, Ruth Kirby. Just before the Civil War,
      relatives who were Hendricks came from Tennessee to visit Harveysburg, and in
      that vicinity alone, eighty of the third and fourth generations from Moses
      Hendricks, of Virginia assembled at a picnic.
      Bettie Hendricks was a zealous Friend and opposed the “laying down” of
      Banister meeting near Halifax Court House, because there was no other Friends
      meeting nearer than South River, near Lynchburg, fifty miles away. She went
      regularly to meeting and stayed alone a silent hour for several weeks. It was
      wintertime, some woodchoppers working in sight of the road, wondered to see a
      young woman walk by at regular hours on certain days of the week. Their
      curiosity led them to follow, and they were interested to see a young woman
      sitting alone in silent worship. They went again and again and were instrumental
      in inducing others to come, thus the meeting grew and continues.
      Thomas Scatterwood, an acceptable minister of the Society, sent her a letter of
      encouragement, but her good work did not stop here; slaves belonged to her
      mother by will of her deceased husband. Bettie induced her to free them. She
      afterwards went to live with her daughter in Highland County, Ohio. The
      Negroes were so loathe to part with “old mistress” that she told them she would
      pay toll and fare-age (and item then) for as many as would want to go along.
      Twenty-five came, and their descendants live among those of their former mistress
      to this day.”xvi

Three times before moving to Ohio Elizabeth‟s father, Thomas Burgess, refusing
to pay muster fines, had personal property seized by the local sheriff in 1808, 1809
and 1810.xvii
In 1813, Thomas, Betty and their children moved from Banister Preparative
Meeting (part of South River MM) to Fairfield Monthly Meeting in Highland
County, Ohio near Leesburg where many of their relatives had settled. Many of
their freed slaves came with them when they migrated. In 1835, Thomas and
Betty Hendricks Burgess moved to Harveysburg, Ohio.xviii
Elizabeth Burgess was a well-educated woman for her times. On September 15th,
1824, Elizabeth Burgess married Jesse Harvey, the son of Caleb and Sarah
Towel Harvey of Clinton Co., Ohio at the Fairfield Monthly Meeting
Meetinghouse near Leesburg.xix Caleb was one of the Harvey brothers, sons of
William and Elizabeth Carter Harvey of North Carolina, who settled in Adams
Township of Clinton Co, in an area known as the “Harvey Settlement” part of
which is the site of Springfield Monthly Meeting along Todd‟s Fork. Dr. Jesse‟s
siblings were:

        JOSHUA HARVEY b: November 24, 1803 in Guilford Co., N.C., d. in
       Clinton County, Ohio, January 15, 1831.
       HANNAH HARVEY b. June 26, 1806 in Guilford Co., N.C. ~ d.
       January 16,1851, married Jesse Lewis on June 24, 1828 at Springfield
       Monthly Meeting, Clinton Co., Ohio.
       ELI HARVEY b: December 12, 1808, d. January 7,1809 in Clinton
       County, Ohio.
       REBECCA HARVEY b: September 15, 1813, m. William Pool of
       Wayne Co., Indiana on February 20,1834 at Miami Monthly Meeting in
       Waynesville, Ohio.
       ELIZABETH HARVEY b: November 9, 1816, d. June 29,1894 in
       Hendrick Co., Indiana, married John Tompkins Burgess, the brother of
       Elizabeth Burgess Harvey Mendenhall (see above) on June 13, 1837 in
       Springfield Monthly Meeting, Clinton Co., Ohio.
       ISAAC H. HARVEY b: in Clinton County, Ohio, married Sarah
       Edwards (See below for details about their journey to visit Abraham

Jesse‟s father, Caleb (1776-1830), was an advocate for Native Americans. He had
been appointed a member of the Committee on Indian Civilization by Ohio Valley
Yearly Meeting and after 1821 was on the same committee of the Indiana Yearly
Meeting.xx He often visited the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians at
Wapakoneta, Ohio. He always said that he wanted to leave his concern about
Indian welfare as an inheritance to his children. Jesse, his wife and their children,
would accept that inheritance.xxi
Consequently, it is easy to see, considering their families‟ concerns about justice
and education as strong Quakers, why Elizabeth Burgess Harvey felt morally
compelled to educate ex-slaves and why Dr. Jesse Harvey, her husband, felt a
moral imperative to minister to Native Americans and conduct slaves on the
Underground Railroad. Elizabeth would establish the first black school in Ohio at
Harveysburg in 1831. Dr. Jesse Harvey would establish the Harveysburg
Academy in 1837 and become the superintendent of the Quaker Shawnee School
and Farm in Kansas taking his family with him in 1847.
Elizabeth Burgess Harvey founded what is thought to be the first black school in
Ohio around 1831 according to Beer‟s 1882 History of Warren County, p. 653.
She is also mentioned in the book Ohio Builds A Nation by Samuel Hardin
      The first free Negro school in Ohio devoted to the education of the unfortunate
      people was opened in Harveysburg, over thirty years before the Civil War. The
      school was opened and conducted by Elizabeth Harvey. She was the first woman
      to devote her life to the advancement and education of the Negro race. Her name
      should be entered on the roll of honor of those noble people who gave their lives
      to a great cause.xxii

 Although its title as “first” may be in question by some, it is certainly one of the
earliest black schools in Ohio. In 1829 Ohio School law refused to allow freed
African-Americans into the newly developing public school system. Because of
this unjust law, various people and organizations began to open segregated schools
for blacks. Another potent catalyst for the establishment of black schools in the
early to mid 1830s was the benchmark abolitionist event of the emancipation of all
the slaves in the British Empire on August 23, 1833. Internal affairs within the
United States also affected the black population of Ohio. For example, from 1826
on the state of North Carolina passed severe laws against freed slaves, which
encouraged their leaving the state altogether, many of which came to Ohio in spite
of the severity of the Ohio Black Laws. It is not inconceivable that the Harvey’s
and other Friends who had migrated to Ohio from North Carolina were in contact
with Friends who remained in North Carolina and the Yearly Meeting, which
helped, freed slaves to migrate north. The Ohio Laws in the late 1840s finally
allowed public monies for education of Blacks but only when segregated.
According to the 1850 Federal Census many of the black/mulatto families living in
Harveysburg had at least one older member who had been born in North Carolina:
                 The patriarch of the Brantley family
                 The Wall children (children of Stephen Wall, master)
                 The patriarch of the Winslow family
                 The matriarch of the Wallace family
                 The Bennett family
                 The matriarch of the Dudley family
                 The patriarch of the Hill family
Donations from the Harvey’s, from other Friends in Harveysburg, and the tuition
paid by the families of the students funded the Black School initially in 1831.
Sadly, the names of the first students of the Black School are not known. Perhaps
the black families listed above constitute some of the earliest patrons of the Black
School? Jane F. Wales Nicholson‟s following statement indicates that Colonel
Stephen Wall, a wealthy North Carolina plantation owner and, most likely, a slave
dealer, contacted Dr. Harvey to provide a home and school for his mulatto
children. Perhaps Wall‟s agents had heard about Elizabeth Harvey‟s school
through the Quaker network. Indeed, the author has been unable to find
advertisements in the local papers for the Black School and Harvey‟s Academy in
their earliest days. This may indicate that the schools were advertised through
word of mouth and in Quaker circles only to protect the ministry.

Stephen Wall brought some of his children to the Harvey’s just before the
Harveysburg Academy opened in 1837; six years after Elizabeth‟s Black School
had opened its door. The arrival of the Wall children may be the stimulus for Dr.
Harvey‟s attempt to have a “separate department for blacks” in the Academy.
However, Jane Nicholson continues speaking about the Black School without
further reference to the Harveysburg Academy:
      A planter of North Carolina (Stephen Wallxxiii), who also had a fishery on
      Poedee River, wishing to liberate some of his slaves, sent agents North to find a
      location, if possible, where they could be educated.xxiv He was recommended to
      Dr. Harvey who promised to open a colored school if they were sent to him. In the
      fall just before the opening of the high school, he came again and brought a
      number of bright young mulattoes, the children of three mothers and one father,
      their master. When they arrived Dr. Harvey and wife were in Richmond Yearly
      Meeting. The agent, anxious to see them and to attend the meeting also, went
      immediately to Richmond. He afterwards said that the meeting was the most
      impressive sight he ever beheld. He sat upstairs where he could see the entire
      congregation, and was charmed with the uniform dress of the large assembly. He
      admitted that the prettiest sight he ever beheld was the white silk and satin
      bonnets around the calm faces of the women.
      These young colored people sent north for the purpose of being educated were the
      first to form the colored school. It was taught two years by Elizabeth Harvey.
      She had twenty-five pupils. Afterwards, Isaac Woodward took the school and
      after his death the first teacher had it again.
      The father and former master came north to see how the children were doing.
      Their teacher told me, she had many long and full talks with him, about their
      condition and his own. He saw that these bright yellow young people would be
      outlawed by both black and white, that their social condition would be truly sad.
      “And whom do I have to blame for all this?” he said, “whom, but myself?”
      Seeing him thus moved, she ventured to ask him if he would not, someday, liberate
      all his slaves and provide for them. This, he promise to do. He was past the
      prime of life ~ had never been married, and had no near legal heirs. He went
      home and made the full promise, but he came north once too often, for the good of
      his laborers at the plantation. He had been the guest of Friends of moderate
      views. This time he saw hot abolitionists. They were holding a convention at
      Oakland, in the large anti-slavery shed, built on the farm of Dr. Brook. The
      speakers were employed by the New England Anti-Slavery Society, to come west
      and hold one hundred conventions, as near the border as possible. Many of the
      speakers as, Septimus S. Foster, Theodore Wald and others, had studied for the
      Congregational ministry and had left the pulpit for the platform; where their
      puritan training knew no mercy on what they thought to be wrong.
      Dr. Harvey, fearing the southerner would be irritated against the north tried to
      dissuade him from going, but he went and was greatly exasperated. A second
      time he went around, for he said, “they are so furious, they might stab me in the
      back, and I will sell my life as dearly as possible.” This time, upon his return
      home, he destroyed the will he had made.xxv

He obviously had second thoughts after he cooled off and did free his children and
provided for their futures. The mulatto children of Stephen Wall placed in the
care of Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were:
             Ordindatus S. B. Wall ~ son of Pricilla, b. 1825
             Caroline (“Carrie”) ~ daughter of Pricilla, b. 1833
             Benjamin Franklin ~ son of Pricilla, 1837
             Sarah K. ~ daughter of Jane, b. 1833 (Jane was a sister of Pricilla)
             Napoleon ~ son of Jane, b. 1822
             John ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1829
             Albert G. ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1843
             Peter ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1845, was born just before his
            father Stephen died. There is no evidence that Peter came to
Orindatus S. B. Wall and four other children (Caroline, Sarah and Benjamin F.,
and Napoleon) were freed by Stephen Wall when they were first sent to
Harveysburg around 1837. Stephen Wall, who died on September 9th, 1845xxvi,
would complete the emancipation of all of his eight children and their families
through his Last Will and Testament, dated August 28, 1845. He left them
$1,000.00 each, all the lands that he had purchased for them in Ohio, and $5,000 to
help support their settlement in Harveysburg and the surrounding area. He
entrusted Dr. Jesse Harvey with the responsibility to care for, teach and purchase
land for his children (see his Last Will and Testament below). The 1856 map of
Warren County (below) shows Harvey and Wall property adjoiningxxvii. The J.
Harvey on this 1856 map is most likely Joseph D. Harvey (December 11th, 1819
~ October 5th, 1889), one of the sons of William Harvey, the founder of
Harveysburg. The J. Harvey property is part of Outlot #2, the lot upon which the
Black School was built. This may indicate that the lot was given over to
Elizabeth‟s project by William Harvey himself, founder of the town.
In the 1830 Federal Census Jesse Harvey is listed having one freed male colored
person (between the age of 24 and 35) living on his premises. xxviii In the 1840
Census Jesse Harvey (spelled as Hervey) has listed two freed male colored
persons (between the age of 24 and 35) living on his premises.xxix The
circumstances surrounding these nameless freed slaves is unknown although they
could have a connection with Stephen Wall. It is not known if Stephen Wall
placed any of his other slaves in the Harvey‟s care. Perhaps these early freed
blacks were Betty Burgess‟ former slaves? Further research needs to be done.
There are many stories here just under the surface relating to the freed black
community of Harveysburg that deserve further research and need to be told. The
Quaker custom concerning their boarding schools was to provide homes for the
outlying students (their room and board) in the homes of the Friends living near the
Twenty-eight year old Napoleon Wall, one of Stephen Wall‟s children, is listed
as a mulatto and a farmer in the 1850 Federal Census and is living just east of
Harveysburg on a farm in Clinton County, Chester Township. He was married to
Tura (?) Wall and they had six children: William (3), E. A. (1), S. J. (8), J. (9),
Albert (7), and Ed (4) (1850 Federal Census, Chester Twp., Clinton Co.,
Ohio; Roll: M432_668; Page: 291). Napoleon, unlike his siblings, never moved
away from the Harveysburg area to Oberlin, Ohio or attended the college.
In the 1850 Census of Harveysburg, Datis Wall (Orindatus), age 26, a
shoemaker, is listed as a mulatto. Caroline (“Carrie”) Wall (b. 1833 - d. 1915),
age 17, is listed as a mulatto. We also know that “Carrie” was enrolled in the
“Ladies Preparative School” of Oberlin College that same year.xxx Sarah Wall,
age 16, is listed as a mulatto in the census. Sarah Kelly Wall (who became Mrs.
Abram Fidler of Chillicothe) also was enrolled as a student at Oberlin College in
1850.xxxi All the Walls are listed in the 1850 Census as being born in North
Carolina. Orindatis and Caroline are living with the Caucasian Jacob Randall
family. Sarah is living with the Caucasian Dr. John W. Scroggs and family. As
the oldest sibling, Orindatus took the responsibility of making sure his sibling
attained a high education. He did not attend classes at Oberlin although he moved
to the town.
A number of other mulattos are recorded living in Harveysburg in the 1850 Census
with different surnames as well as black families (Winslow, Wallace and Hill).
May Wall is four years old and living with the Winslow family. She was also
born in North Carolina.xxxii
According to Dallas Bogan, the following was found in Stephen Wall‟s will:
      “Mr. Wall, in his last will and testament, filed in 1846, set free the following
      slaves; "Little John and Albert, children of Rody, also $1000 from my estate.
      Also to John and Albert all the land I now own in the State, $5000 to Dr. Harvey
      to be laid out in land, $200 to Moses Burgers."xxxiii (This is most likely “Moses
      Burgess”, one of Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s brothers-in-law).
                                                                 Black School. The old
                                                                 Harveysburg Academy
                                                                 was located across
                                                                 (directly south of the
                                                                 Black School). Note
                                                                 the land owned by J.
                                                                 Harvey and directly
                                                                 north is land owned by
                                                                 S. Wall.

There is some evidence that the Burgess family was also involved with Stephen
Wall and his children. There is the hint above in Wall‟s will. Another piece of
evidence that points to Burgess participation is found in the 1840 Tax Duplicate of
Warren County, Ohio. Dr. Jesse Burgess, another one of Elizabeth Burgess
Harvey‟s brothers, deeded the east half of Lot # 13 in Harveysburg to Stephen
The most distinguished of the children of Stephen Wall was Orindatus Simon
Bolivar Wall who was born August 12, 1825 in Rockingham, Richmond Co.,
North Carolina and died in Washington, D. C. on April 26, 1891. His first name
was incorrectly written as “Oliver” during his indictment for his participation in
the John Price Rescue at Oberlin, Ohio, also known as the Oberlin-Wellington
Rescue of 1858. He would have been in his pre-teens when Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s
Academy, with the “separate department for blacks” opened. His mother‟s name
was Priscilla or Prissy Ely, a sister of Jane, one of Stephen Wall‟s two other
slave wives. Nothing else is known about Priscilla except that she also, at some
point, lived in Harveysburg. It was reported that she said that her “old master”
should have been “burned at the stake a long time ago.”xxxiv

The following short biography is found in The Town That Started the Civil War by
Nat Brandt. Stephen Wall provided for his children‟s higher education beyond
what could be offered at Harveysburg. All the children, except Napoleon and
Orindatus, pursued a collegiate education at Oberlin College. Between 1850 and
1853, when Orindatus arrived in Oberlin and began establishing his business,
Caroline, Sarah, and Benjamin were enrolled in the college. John and Albert
would enroll in 1860. Sarah was the only one of the siblings to complete the
requisite courses and graduated from Oberlin College.
         All but one child came to Oberlin (Napoleon), and all his daughters and sons but
         Orindatus entered the Preparatory Department. In October 1854, sister Caroline,
         then a senior in the Literary Department, married John Mercer Lansgton. He
         and John Mercer swapped properties in 1856, Wall giving John Mercer a new
         two-story frame house on East College Street in return for a farm in Brownhelm
         Township. In the same month that Caroline married Langston, Orindatus
         married Amanda A. Thomas, a mulatto born in Virginia who was then living in
         town . . . He first opened a boot and shoemaking business on East College Street
         in partnership with Rescuer David Watson. Current store is down from the
         Palmer House on the north side of East College between Main and Pleasant
         streets. Resides two blocks away on East College between the homes of Rescuers
         Henry Peck and Ralph Plumb. A heavyset, robust-looking man, well established
         in the community, having served at one time temporarily as a village marshal.xxxv

  Print from Black Phalanx: A History of the United states in the Wars of 1775-
                     1812, 1861-1965 by Joseph T. Wilson.                         Arlington Cemetery ~ Site 124B

Captain O. S. B. Wall was one of the one hundred African-American officers
during the Civil War. He was the first regularly commissioned African-American
Captain in the U. S. Army. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor. O. S. B.
Wall and his wife, Amanda Ann Thomas Wall (1837-1902), are buried in
Arlington Cemetery, Virginia.
When living in Oberlin, Ohio, O. S. B. Wall is known to have assisted in the
Underground Railroad. On September 13, 1858, the United States Marshall of
Oberlin had arrested the fugitive slave, John Price. He was obliged under the
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 to return John Price to his master. Knowing the anti-
slavery sentiments of the citizens of Oberlin, he transferred Price to the nearby
town of Wellington. This became common knowledge in Oberlin and a group of
whites and blacks, thirty-seven persons in all, rushed to Wellington to stop the
removal of John Price and his return south. They took Price forcibly, after
negotiations failed, and returned him to Oberlin. They hid him in the home of the
president of Oberlin College. They then secreted him off to Canada and freedom.
Only two of the thirty-seven Rescuers went to trail. The other thirty-five indicted
were released, one of whom was Orindatus S. B. Wall.

      In the picture above of the Oberlin Rescuers of John Price, Orindatus S. B. Wall
                        is the second from the left wearing the top hat.

At some point Ordinatus became a lawyer (perhaps he studied with his brother-in-
law) and became a partner with his brother-in-law, John Mercer Langston, who
was the first practicing African-American lawyer in Ohio (passed the Bar in 1854).
John M. Langston also founded the Law School at Howard University in 1869
located in Washington, D.C.       John M. Langston was also the founder of the
Ohio State Anti-Slavery Society, an African-American organization and he
organized many anti-slavery societies on the local level and state level in Ohio.
Like his friend and partner, John M. Langston (1829-1897), was a son of a
wealthy plantation owner in Louisa county, Virginia, John Quarles, and his
mother Lucy Jane Langston was a freed slave with Indian and Black ancestry.
When his parents died he and his brothers were left independently wealthy. Due to
the increasing pressure on freed blacks to move out of the south and due to
education and employment opportunities in Ohio, they moved to Ohio and lived
with a friend of their fathers in Chillicothe until moving to Oberlin in 1838. John
M. Langston had an illustrious career. He was a:
         He was the first African-American to be elected to a public office.
         He was a city councilman in Oberlin and on the Board of Education.
          He conspired with John Brown to raid Harpers Ferry but declined to
        He led the National Equal Rights League in 1864.
        He was Educational Inspector for the Freedman's Bureau.
        He organized the Law Department of Howard University in 1869 and
        served as Acting President for a while.
        He served as consul-general in Haiti.
        He was the president of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate School
        He was the first African-American elected to a seat in the U. S.
        Congress in 1888.xxxvi
O. S. B. Wall and John M. Langston were successful recruiters of African-
American troops during the Civil War. They recruited for the famous African-
American regiment, the Massachusetts 54th. Two of those recruits from Ohio were
Orindatus‟ two younger brothers, John and Albert Wall. Both brothers survived
their service in the Massachusetts 54th. John became a sergeant serving until the
end of the war. Albert was disabled and did not serve his entire enlistment.
O. S. B. Wall and John M. Langston also organized the 127th O.V.I which
became the 5th, U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment. In 1865 after receiving his
commission as Captain, Orindatis became a Quartermaster in the Bureau for
Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands at Charleston, South Carolina. He was
recognized and honored for his service at Oberlin in 1865. The following quote is
taken from They Stopped In Oberlin by William E. Bigglestone:
      Oberlin honored his efforts in March 1865, when at a public meeting held in the
      college chapel; Professor Henry Peck presented him an eighty dollar sword with
      the scabbard inscribed, “God Speed the Right”.xxxvii

By 1870 O. S. B. Wall was living in Washington D. C. with his wife Amanda and
four of their children: Edward C. (13), Stephen R. (12), Sallie (8), and Isabella
(5). He was listed as a police magistrate in the 1870 Census. In the 1890
Washington, D. C. Directory, O. S. B. Wall was listed as a “Lawyer” located at 5th
and Pomeroy Northwest, east of 7th Street. He also worked for the Federal
Government. His youngest daughter, Laura Gertrude, attended Oberlin College
in 1889. The descendants of O. S. B. Wall changed their name twice in the 20th
century and that has caused some difficulty in tracing the family. The names
chosen were Gates and Murphy.
Seven of the eight children of Orindatus S. B. and Amanda Thomas Wall are:
      EDWARD C. WALL ~ Lived and died in Canada
      STEPHEN ROSCOE WALL ~ b. October 10, 1857 ~ d. May 22, 1934,
       m. Lillie Ada Slee around 1900 in Washington, D. C. Stephen R. Wall
       changed his name to Russell S. Gates. He changed the family name after a
       nasty controversy over admitting his daughter into a white school in
       Washington, D. C.
      SALLIE WALL ~ b. 1861, M. Bell
      LILLIAN WALL ~ b. 1862
      ISABELLA WALL ~ m. German O. Elterich, d. 1907 in London,
      LAURA GERTRUDE WALL ~ b. September 1878
      HELEN WALL ~ m. Edmonston Easton.

The newspaper quotations below shed more light on the prominent life of
Orindatus S. B. Wall:
      “A NEW AID SOCIETY: At a meeting at Capt. O. S. B. Wall‟s office last night,
      an association was formed for the purpose of assisting the destitute in the vicinity
      of Howard University. The association was named the Howard Hill Aid Society.
      Capt. O. S. B. Wall was elected president, Chas. N. Otey, vice-president; W. J.
      Simmons, secretary, and Prof Jas. M. Gregory, treasurer” (The Washington
      Post, March 1, 1879).
      “STRICKEN WITH PARALYSIS: O. S. B. Wall, one of the best known colored
      lawyers in the city, was attacked in the police court yesterday morning with
      paralysis and fell to the floor. He was removed to his home, corner of Linden
      Avenue and Pomeroy Street, in a carriage, accompanied by Messrs. Hewlett and
      Ricks . . . Squire Wall, as he is know to all citizens of this city, is a native of North
      Carolina. He was brought up and education at Oberlin, Ohio, and has resided in
      Washington for about twenty-five years. He served in the Army during the war,
      and since then has held several offices under the District government, and when
      not in public life he has practiced his profession before the local courts. Mr.
      Wall is a large man, of a very light complexion, and, to judge from his face, is
      always in a good humor. He has many friends in this city among all classes of
      men . . . (The Washington Post, April 13, 1890).
      DISTINGUISHED SOLDIER: Capt. O. S. B. Wall, a well-known citizen of the
      District, died at his residence Sunday evening at 7:45 o‟clock. On the 12th of
      April, 1890 he had a stroke of paralysis in the courtroom, and from that time his
      health has been feeble. The end was peaceful and without a struggle. Capt. Wall
      was born of a white father, Col. Stephen Wall, in Richmond County, N. C. in
      1823. When he was twelve years old his father removed to Harveysburg, a
      Quaker settlement in Ohio, near Columbus. When he was twenty-six he went to
      Oberlin to educate his sisters, having previously learned the trade of a shoemaker
      and kept the only boot and shoe store in that town. During the Civil War he
      raised in Ohio, under the encouragement of Gen. Andrew of Massachusetts,
      soldiers for the first colored regiment of volunteers. He was the first and only
      colored man ever commissioned as captain. This was on March 3, 1865, in the
      Regular Army. It was done under the eye and by the direct orders of Secretary
      Stanton, a subordinate in the War Department at first declining to examine him.
      He was detailed to Charleston, S. C., as provost marshal in the spring of that year
      and he served till the war closed, receiving his honorable discharge February 5,
      1865. During that year he settled in Washington and began the practice of law.
      He has held the following offices: magistrate of police precinct, representative in
      District legislature, notary public and justice of the peace. He was president of
      the organization, which assisted in the exodus of hundreds of colored people from
      North Carolina to Indiana. He was one of the colored men who insisted on
      membership in the First Congregational Church, just before the secession under
      Dr. Boynton, and the first man ever baptized in Dr. Rankin‟s pastorate. In`1854
      he married Miss Amanda Thomas of Cincinnati, who was studying at Oberlin.
      They have had eight children, five of whom are still living. Three brothers and
      two sisters survive him. One of the sisters is the wife of Hon. John M. Langston,
      member of Congress from Virginia. At a large meeting of colored citizens last
      night at Carson Hotel, Col. P. H. Carson presided with Charles S. Morris
      secretary, and resolutions on the death of Captain Wall, presented by a
      committee, Alexander G. Davis, Charles S. Morris, Walter Y. Class, R. Wormly,
      and John D. Powell, Jr. were adopted. The resolutions expressed profound
      sorrow at the death of Captain Wall, and pay a tribute to his service to the
      colored race in the public offices he held in the District” (The Washington Post,
      April 28, 1891).

The funeral service was held in his home on April 29, 1891. He was first buried
in Graceland Cemeteryxxxviii in Washington, D.C. but his remains were later
removed to Arlington Cemetery in 1895.
Sarah Kelly Wall graduated from Oberlin College, the Literary Course, in 1856
and married Abram Fidler, a mulatto, in 1863 in Chillicothe, Ohio. In 1870 he
owned a livery stable there. They had two children: Mary Cruett (12) and Wade
Barnett (15). After her husband‟s death, she remained in Chillicothe and became a
prominent teacher in the Black Department of the public school system. Eventually
she moved to Washington, D. C. and lived with Caroline and John Mercer
Langston until her death in 1886.
Benjamin F. Wall left Oberlin in 1858 and died on Salt Spring Island, British
Columbia on May 22, 1869.
After the Civil War Albert G. Wall returned to Oberlin College. There he married
Ella P. Fidler, Abram Fidler‟s sister, in 1866 or 1867. By 1880 they are living on
a farm in the District of Columbia. They have four daughters: Catherine (12),
Albertie (8), Gina (5), and Etta (2) (1880 Census, Washington, District of
Columbia, District of Columbia; Roll: T9_121; Page: 165.4000; Enumeration
District: 8). Albert died May 31, 1897 at the Freedman‟s Hospital in the District
of Columbia.
After the Civil War John Wall also returned to Oberlin, Ohio where he was a
plasterer, wallpaper hanger, house painter, and mason. He was the constable of
Oberlin for fourteen years. In 1879 he married Fannie Mary Shanks and they had
seven children. The members of the John Wall family were practicing Quakers.
John Wall died in Oberlin on March 23, 1912.xxxix
It is interesting to note that O. S. B. Wall and his law partner, John Mercer
Langston, owned property in Harveysburg from 1852 to 1860. The lots in
question were lots 53, 54, 64 and 63. Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s Academy sat on the
north end of lot 54. This may indicate that four years after the Doctor‟s death in
Kansas in 1848 and shortly after the controversy that closed the first Academy, O.
S. B. Wall and his law partner John M. Langston, took over stewardship of the
school, or perhaps bought these properties with the intended purpose to use the
fabric of the old Academy to build Zion Baptist Church (Warren County Deed
Books: 32, page 79; 36, page 368; 36, page 603; and 38, page 495). Orindatus
also owned outlots #4 and #5 on the northeast edge of town for a short time in the
early 1850s (Warren County Deed Books: 32, page 79; 32, page 491; 31, page 197;
and 32, page 491). In 1847 Orindatus also bought Lot 13 (east half) at a Sheriff‟s
Sale, which his father, Stephen had originally bought from Dr. Jesse Burgess. He
sold it within a year to George B. Scroggy (Deed Book 29, page 71). The Wall
children and the Harveys moved on to Indian Territory in Kansas and Oberlin,
Ohio around the same time.
The African-American Zion Baptist Church in Harveysburg is probably named
after “Big Zion”, the Zion Baptist Church in Cincinnati, which was founded in
1842 and was a vital station on the Underground Railroad.

           Zion Baptist Church in Harveysburg ~ The old Harveysburg Academy
                                    No longer extant.
Orindatus S. B. Wall stayed in contact with family and friends in Harveysburg. It
was reported in the “Harveysburg Column” in the Miami-Gazette newspaper of
Waynesville on June 21, 1876:
      ~~The Republicans here are joyful over the nomination of Governor Hayes for
      President, and there was a large and enthusiastic meeting held here last Saturday
      night, addressed by Captain O. S. B. Wall of Washington, D. C., and some of our
      home talent. The preliminary steps were taken for organizing a Hayes and
      Wheeler Club.

Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Burgess Harvey can be very proud of all the African-
American children placed in their charge back in the 1830s.
Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were Orthodox Friends and members of Springfield
Monthly Meeting at Todd‟s Fork, which had been founded at the “Harvey
Settlement” in Clinton County and not members of the Hicksite Grove Preparative
and Meeting for Worship in Harveysburgxl. Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth were more
moderate in their views on how to deal with the incredibly thorny political issues
revolving around slavery and abolition. They were not as radical as the
Garrisonian abolitionists and tried to work against slavery through persuasion and
not outright condemnation of southern slave owners. The Garrisonians thought of
them as compromisers, since the followers of William Lloyd Garrison advocated
“immediate abolition” and felt that slave owners were in grave moral danger. The
Harveys were also bound by Ohio Law, which did not permit integrated, or
“mixed” schools. That Dr. Harvey even tried to integrate the Harveysburg
Academy displays a great deal of courage during a particularly violent time in
southwest Ohio over abolition issues. Perhaps Jesse and Elizabeth were more
moderate in their views because Elizabeth‟s grandmother had been a slave owner
(although she had freed them) and because both their families had been raised in
the south. Since many freed slaves had come with her grandmother, Ruth Eckels,
when she moved to Highland County, Ohio, the family had learned the importance
of helping freed African-American parents to educate their children. They made
black education their priority in a very disapproving world. The relationship
between freed slaves and their former Quaker owners would, in itself, make a
fascinating study. The open-minded presence of Quakers in the area doubtless
encouraged the establishment of black/mulatto communities.

Harveysburg had a large and strong black/mulatto community located in the
northern section of the village and just outside of it:
       The Black School itself was built just outside the original boundary of the
       village on the north side (Out Lot #2) during the early 1830s.
       On Lot 66 in the village, the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church was
       founded in 1846.xli
        Antioch Chapel of the Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church of
       Harveysburg was founded on January 13, 1862. The trustees of this
       organization were: Henry Wiggins, Charlott Dudley, Sarah Brantley,
       Nancy A. Dawson, and Mahala Brantly were elected trustees and John
       Dodson was elected clerk. The exact location is not clear although it is
       most likely that this Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church developed into
       the Zion Baptist Church (see below).xlii One of the concerns of Anti-
       Slavery societies was to promote Anti-Slavery churches to provide moral
       suasion for the movement. Many mainline churches had been severely
       divided on the slavery and war issues.
       On Lot 64 was located Zion Baptist Church, an African American
       Church. It was built using the old materials from the Harveysburg Academy
       founded by Dr. Jesse Harvey in 1861. Zion Baptist Church was rebuilt on
       the same site of the old academy. The cemetery of the Zion Baptist Church
       is located outside of the village across Rte. 73 in Fifty Springs Picnic Area
       of Caesar‟s Creek State Park. The Black School was located behind (north
       of) the Academy/Zion Baptist Church building outside of the village limit.
       In 1872 the Corner Stone Lodge #7 Masonic Lodge (Prince Hall) was
       established and built on Lot 68.xliii
Another African American community north of Harveysburg developed in a valley
named Brim Stone along Caesar‟s Creek, which became known as Canbytown
where mills were located. This area is now all underwater since the creation of
Caesar‟s Creek Lake.
Just a mile north of Waynesville was a small hamlet named Crosswick, which also
was the home of a black/mulatto community, on the property of John Moss, with
members involved in the anti-slavery movement (see Miami-Visitor, August 22

      Black School in Harveysburg.                  Back of school and outhouse.

Harveysburg tradition states that Elizabeth with the help of Jesse had earlier
established what was in effect a segregated elementary school for African-
Americans in 1831 when the newly platted village of Harveysburg (1828)
established its first elementary common school. Tradition also claims that Native
American children were taught in the “Black School”. This is highly possible since
the Harveys were very much involved in the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee
Indians in Ohio and also Kansas.
Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were early settlers of Harveysburg, a small
village perched 100 feet above Caesar‟s Creek on its high east bank. Dr. Jesse
was a cousin of William Harvey, the founder of the village, and besides being a
physician and concerning himself with educational matters; he also started a
carding mill on the bank of Caesar‟s Creek at the foot of the town. Jesse and
Elizabeth Harvey owned a great deal of land within the village of Harveysburg
and also immediately outside of the village boundary on the south and northeast:
        They owned all of Lot 2 on Main Street in Harveysburg and then sold off
       the two halves of the lot individually (Deed Book, 16, page 60, September
       5, 1829, Deed Book 16, page 494, July 8, 1831, and Deed Book 24, page
       143, March 12, 1839).
       They owned Lot 11 (Deed Book, 25, page 114, August 12, 1841).
       They owned Lot 12, the entire lot (Deed Book, 24, page 202, Sept. 27,
       1834, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6, 1854, sold by his heirs). The
       house on this lot is possibly their family home.
       They owned the west half of Lot 13 (Deed Book 24, page 515, Feb. 22,
       1841, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6. 1854, sold by his heirs). The
       east half of Lot 13 was owned by Stephen Wall, which he had bought
       from Dr. Jesse Burgess. This may indicate that Stephen Wall provided a
       home for his children once they were older, next to the home of their
       guardians and teachers, Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey.
       They owned the very large Lot 14 and sold sections of it over the years
       (Deed Book 16, page 63, April 8, 1831, and Deed Book 30, page 449,
       March 29, 1850, sold by his heirs).
       They owned Lot 15 and sold off parts of it over the years (Deed Book 24,
       page 395, March 11, 1840, and Deed Book 30, page 449, March 29, 1850,
       sold by his heirs).
       They owned Lot 16 the entire lot (Deed Book 24, page 395, March 11,
       1840, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6, 1854, sold by his heirs.)
       They owned Lot 17 and divided and sold three parts of it (Deed Book 25,
       page 67, August 26, 1841, Deed Book 25, page 114, December 13, 1841,
       and Deed Book, 30, page 516, Dec. 25, 1843.)
       They owned a large lot adjoining Lots 27, 38, 29, and the west half of lot
       30 on the south side of Harveysburg (Deed Book 24, page 209, February
       27, 1839). 24 acres.
           They owned a large Out Lot adjoining the northeast side of Harveysburg
          (Deed Book 27, page 461, June 27, 1842). 14 acres.
The Harveys also owned Lot 46 on the north side of Main Street in Harveysburg,
which they bought in its entirety, in 1831 (Deed Book 16, page 324). They sold
the west part of this Lot in 1842 to Azel Waters (Deed Book 25, page 281).
Shortly before they left for Indian Territory in Kansas, they sold their Lot 46
property (the east part upon which stood a house) to John T. Burgess on July 17,
1847(Deed Book 38, page 492). This is John Tompkins Burgess, Elizabeth
Burgess Harvey‟s brother and a brother-in- law to Dr. Jesse Harvey. John T.
Burgess was married to a sister of Dr. Jesse Harvey. Their house on Lot 12,
which was located directly across the street from Lot 46, was not sold until after
Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s death by his heirs to William Ham (Deed Book, 35, page
287). It is possible that they retained this house, their home, on Lot 12 so they
could return to it after their two-year stint as superintendents at the Quaker
Shawnee Mission. Sadly, Dr. Jesse Harvey would not be returning. Both houses
were probably used in the Underground Railroad. Further research needs to be
done. Both houses are still standing.
We know that Dr. Jesse was one of the earliest teachers in the first school in
Harveysburg.xliv Consequently, it is quite likely that Dr. Jesse Harvey was
involved in the establishment of the first Harveysburg common school and then he
and Elizabeth established the parallel Black School in 1831 because Ohio Law
would not allow an integrated or “mixed” school system.xlv Since many Quakers
who had migrated from the south brought their freed ex-slaves with them to Ohio,
the need for African-American education was most likely an issue for Harveysburg
from the time of its establishment.xlvi
Due to the intense racial dispute of the times, the little Black School could have
included high school age black students from 1837 on when vacillating popular
opinion and state law would not allow an integrated Harveysburg Academy (high
school level and beyond). Did the original Black School become the “separate
department for blacks” for the Harveysburg Academy when teaching blacks and
whites in the same building became untenable and even dangerous? The location
of the Harveysburg Academy was “in front of the” little one-room Black School,
which was originally located just outside the boundary of the village. Location in
this situation may unfortunately illustrate the racial attitudes of the day. Dr.
Thomas Hamm of Earlham College has this to say about the situation:
      At least some Friends, when establishing schools that were not under the auspices
      of monthly or quarterly meetings, either refused to admit black students or
      provided for their separate education. Dr. Jesse Harvey of Harveysburg, Ohio,
      was an outspoken abolitionist whose family had been involved in helping local
      African Americans establish a school in the community as early as 1830. In 1837,
      when Harvey founded an academy not limited to Quaker students he admitted
      black students, but educated them in a separate department; unfortunately, he left
      no record of his motive. Within a few years, however, he faced such intense
      criticism from local abolitionists that he changed policy and integrated his
      classrooms. After Harvey went west to teach the Shawnee Indians, Wilson
      Hobbsxlvii, a member of a prominent Indiana Quaker family, took over. He created
      a new controversy by wavering on the admission of African-American students. At
      first he accepted, then rejected, a student of mixed European and African
      ancestry,     Margaret      Campbellxlviii.  Local     abolitionists, particularly
      Congregational Friend Valentine Nicholson, scored Hobbs for the decision.
      Significantly, Hobbs's response was not a straight-out defense of white
      supremacy. Instead, he insisted that he was bound by the wishes of a majority of
      the stockholders in the school, who were not Friends. Privately, he confided to
      Nicholson that he would gladly have admitted Campbell had the decision been
      left to him, and that he was sure that the other students would have accepted her.
      If the Harveysburg case is typical, Friends were embarrassed to be accused of
      ties to racial segregation.xlix

The storm over admitting African-Americans into Dr. Harvey‟s Academy was
strident enough and long enough to be mention in one of John Harvey‟s poems,
“To E. & D. Hobbs of Indiana”l, published in 1848. The poem mentions that part
of the controversy was over utilizing the school building for lectures promoting
abolition. John Harvey also emphasizes the moderate Quaker‟s belief in
upholding the law of the yearly meeting, a compromise that radicals like Valentine
Nicholson could not accept. He is tweaking the nose of the Progressive Friends
who separated from Indiana Yearly Meeting (Hicksite). John Harvey also seems
to suggest that the radical meetings held in Dr. Harvey‟s Academy that caused the
fervor, when they were transferred to a “meetinghouse” caused the conflict to
decline. This could refer to one of the Friends Meetinghouses in the village, but
most likely to Valentine Nicholson‟s “free town hall”.
                        The School at Harveysburg has been sustain‟d,
                    And through the country has some credit gain‟d‟
                    „Tis an advantage to our little town,
                    Though some are wishing that it might go down.
                    I feel a secret joy to hear the bell,
                    Which long I hope may of its being tell,
                    And still continue there to hang and ring,
                    When my poor feeble muse shall cease to sing;
                    „Tis not because I love the bell to hear,
                    But that the subject to my heart is dear.
                    The opposition which it long withstood
                    Has mostly terminated for its good,
                    Yet some their children to it will not send,
                    Because its founder is the negro‟s friend;
                    A color‟d school exists so near the white;
                    They have a notion all cannot be right:
                    “Some abolition bears a little sway,
                    And that won‟t do in this enlighten‟d day,
                   For this to an equality would tend,
                   Which in disgrace to all the whites would end;
                   Black men, of course, would white companions choose,
                   And our fair daughters could not well refuse.
                       While thus they try our object to defeat,
                   They think the triumph of their wit complete,
                   But still I think some of their arguments
                   Have no foundation in good sober sense.
                       Some of our friends their patronage refused,
                   Because the house by lecturers was used,
                   For liberty which Dr. Harvey gave,
                   To plead the cause of the afflicted slave;
                   But now a meeting house is occupied,
                   And in this case we are no longer tried.
                       Most Friends just here are friendly to the cause,
                   But will not break the yearly meeting‟s laws,
                   This brings me to a thing which I proposed
                   To write some thoughts upon before I closed;
                   Some think that we cannot befriend the slave,
                   Unless we spurn advice the meeting gave;
                   But such a thing, according to my mind,
                   Was never on the part of friends design‟d,
                   That we should cease to act in every way,
                   The meeting‟s rules in order to obey,
                   But that we only cease to act with those
                   Who do not with our other doctrines close, ~
                   That we may stand on our own Christina ground,
                   Against the sins which in the world abound:
                   Intemp‟rance, slavery, dueling, and war,
                   And all these things that anti-christian are,
                   To move with firm and cautious steps along,
                   Clear of excitement and the bustling throng;
                   While ev‟ry proper measure we embrace,
                   To aid the cause of Afric‟s injured race,
                   A compromise for abolition‟s sake.li

After the Jesse Harvey and family left for the Shawnee Indian Mission in Kansas
and after the Margaret Campbell controversy in the old Harveysburg Academy,
Valentine Nicholson, a local farmer who lived in Caesar‟s Creek valley below
Harveysburg, and Isaiah Fallis, owner of the Harveysburg Mill on Caesar‟s
Creek, took up the torch promoting integrated education in Harveysburg. They
both were disowned from their Quaker meetings due to their radical opinions.lii
Their solution would free them from any complaints against integration generated
by the stockholders of the old Harveysburg Academy. In Nicholson‟s obituary it
      The need of a free town hall was at one time apparent to a few philanthropic
      people at Harveysburg, Ohio. The chief contributors to this movement were
      Isaiah Fallis and Valentine Nicholson. They built an academy, with a hall
      above, which they dedicated to free speech. In school and recitation rooms below
      there was to be no distinction of color. The tuition was to be the compensation
      for the teacher. Members of the Society of Friends were instructors. The late Dr.
      Wilson Hobbs was the first, then Dr. O. W. Nixon and his brother William Penn
      Nixonliii, also the late Israel Taylor of Indianapolis (These are the same teachers
      associated with the old Harveysburg Academy.). The school was a success; the
      few colored pupils who availed themselves of its privileges became leading
      citizens in Oberlin and Washington.liv

In effect, another Harveysburg Academy, this one integrated, was founded in a
different location on the edge of Harveysburg. The site included the west part of
Lot 39 in the village on west Main Street. On October 22, 1849, Isaiah Fallis sold
part of the west part of this lot to A. L. Autram et al., school trustees (Deed Book
29, page 583). Actually, the building‟s location was directly north of adjoining
Lots 38 and 39 and the school property ran in the shape of a sharp wedge from
Main Street back to the school building site, see map below. Minutes of the
founding of the “Harveysburg School Company” are in the Archive of the Probate
Court in the Courthouse in Lebanon, Ohio. The company was a stock company,
which had collected $1,400.00 in subscriptions to fund the new academy:
      COMPANY: Pursuant to previous notice, the stockholders of the Harveysburg
      Seminary met at said building on the 14th day of April 1849 at 2 P.M. for the
      purpose of organizing and availing themselves to the advantages of a law passed
      by the Legislature of the State of Ohio, March 10, 1845, authorizing Literary and
      other Societies to acquire corporate powers without applying to and obtaining
      letters of incorporation from the Legislature of the State. On motion Wm. Crow (a
      teacher from Illinois who was living directly east of Harveysburglv) was called to
      the chair and John W. Scroggs (a physician in Harveysburg) appointed Clerk.
      The meeting then proceeded to and adopted a constitution and bylaws for the
      government of the company. On motion it was unanimously resolved that this
      society shall be called the Harveysburg School Company. The meeting then
      proceeded in conformity to the requisitions of the constitution to elect the
      permanent officers of the company which resulted in the election of R. B.
      Edwards for President (a judge), J. G. Stevenson (a coachmaker)lvi, Clerk, A. L.
      Antram (a merchant in Harveysburg), Hiram Yeo (a merchant in Harveysburg),
      and J. W. Scroggs, Trustees. On motion adjourned. J. W. Scroggs, Clerk.

This integrated academy seems to have survived in Harveysburg up until 1852.
The last advertisement for the Harveysburg Academy was printed in the Miami-
Visitor newspaper of Waynesville on October 17, 1851, with N. Doan as the
principal and teacher. The Academy building was also used for radical meetings,
i.e. for the founding of The Anti-Slavery Society of Clinton & Warren County. On
April 17, 1854, the property was sold by Nicholson, V., et. al. (school trustees) to
the Township Board of Education (Deed Book 34, page 94).lvii Like most private
academies of this time, it was rolled over into the public school system. This site,
just behind Lot 39, is the location of the old Harveysburg High School building,
which was built in 1891 and is still standing.
As the second Harveysburg Academy was phasing out of existence, it participated
in the establishment of the Clinton & Warren County Anti-Slavery Society, which
also was an integrated organization with Caucasian and African-American
members. There was no segregation of blacks or of women. African-American
members included: O. D. Wall (Orindatus), Caroline Wall, Sarah Wall, Asa
Pratt, and A. Winslow. Article 6 of the bylaws stated, “Any person who desired
to labor for the abolition of slavery may become a member by subscribing to this
constitution” (Miami-Visitor, December 19, 1851). White members included:
Valentine and Jane Nicholson, A. Brooke, Aaron Harvey, and J. G. Stevenson.
The liberal attitude towards this subject continued in Harveysburg. On May 7 th,
1852 it was reported in the Miami-Visitor of Waynesville, “The celebrate
Frederick Douglas lectured in Harveysburg, Ohio, on last Sunday afternoon, we
have been informed.” He had been attending an Anti-Slavery Convention in
Cincinnati and he was invited by a church in Harveysburg to come and speak. A
copy of his speech can be found on the Ohio Historical Society website:
e%2075%20Page%203. Brilliant Thoughts and Important Truths: A Speech of
Frederick Douglass edited by Larry Gara, Ohio History (Vol. 75, pp. 3-9).
     Second Academy ~                  Old Harveysburg Academy and     Corner Stone Lodge            Black School
     Fallis & Nicholson                  later Zion Baptist Church     #37 (Prince Hall)

                                        Colored Methodist
                                        Episcopal Church

                                                                                                   Hicksite Friends
                                                                                                   and Cemetery

      Dr. Jesse
      properties                                                            Stephen Wall ~ O.
                                                                            S. B. Wall (Lot 13,
                                                                            east side). Directly
                                                                               east of what is
                                                               U. B.         probably the Dr.
                                     Methodist Church         Church        Jesse Harvey home
                                        for whites                               on Lot 12.



                                     1875 Map of Harveysburg, Ohio

Years later, a Harveysburg columnist spoke of the illustrious educational tradition
in Harveysburg thusly (in the Harveysburg Column in the Miami-Gazette):
      Many of your readers some of whom are on the shady side of life, remember with
      pleasure the prosperous old days of Harvey‟s Academy; and many of our old men
      now, in their social chats, refer with pleasure to those bright days of their past
      lives, while the younger ones keep fresh the memory of the second academic
      epoch, during the days of Nixons, Doanes, and Nickersons (this probably refers
      to “Nickolsons”); so you see we have had our bright periods of educational
      history (Miami-Gazette, June 21, 1876).

Legend also states that the Harvey homes in Harveysburg were stations on The
Underground Railroad. According to Valentine Nicholson in his memories, Dr.
Jesse Harvey introduced him to John O. Wattleslviii, the Agent of the Ohio
Antislavery Society, in his home in Harveysburg:
      It was along the lines of these exciting times when I first met with John O.
      Wattles. He was at Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s in Harveysburg. Had come up from the
      vicinity of Cincinnati on business connected with “The Underground Railroad.”
      Thomas Wales and myself called there and Dr. Harvey introduced him to us and
      told us that he was the Agent of the Ohio Antislavery Society.lix
The controversy over the racial integration of the old Harveysburg Academy
illustrates the differing opinions concerning slavery and emancipation among
Quakers themselves, which is also reflected in the location of the two Quaker
meetinghouses in the village at opposite ends of the town. Valentine Nicholson,
the husband of Jane F. Wales Nicholson, was a radical, who left the Hicksite
Friends over abolition issues and joined the Progressive Friends who were
Garrisonian in their opinions. Like Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey, Valentine
and Jane were conductors on The Underground Railroad, too. The integration
controversy over the admittance of Margaret Campbell, after Dr. Jesse Harvey
and his family left for Kansas, eventually closed the old Harveysburg Academy.
From our perspective, Jesse and Elizabeth may perhaps appear paternalistic, since
they practiced segregation in their education efforts for African-Americans, and
also later in their ministry to the Shawnee in Kansas. Friends, as enlightened as
they were about treating these minorities justly, embraced the common belief of
the day that both African-Americans and Native Americans needed to be
assimilated into the larger white culture to survive by letting go of most of their
heritage. They were dealing with the harsh realities of the horrible racial situation
forced upon them, trying to keep education open to blacks in a village within a
state that was severely dichotomized in its racial opinions. The Ohio Black Laws
and entrenched prejudice against freed African-American migrating to southern
Ohio made these issues vitriolic. Irate whites that wanted to deny freed Blacks all
civil rights and education would destroy many black schools in Ohio. Jesse and
Elizabeth Harvey had shown great courage in championing the education of freed
slaves and they hoped that persuasion and a little compromise would also educate
the larger and skeptical white population. In the 19 th century, segregation did not
have the negative connotation that it has today. Often segregation was seen as a
positive way to protect African-Americans or Native-Americans from the
prejudice, violence, vices, and evil influences of the surrounding white culture.
Another educational endeavor that Elizabeth Harvey was engaged in was the
development of the first library at Springfield Monthly Meeting. She was on the
first library committee of six women balanced by another library committee made
up of men.lx Springfield Monthly Meeting of Friends established its own school in
1835 for Quaker children. It eventually became a district school.
Dr. Jesse Harvey was born November 26th, 1801 in Orange County, North
Carolina. He was six when his parents, Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey settled
near Todd‟s Fork in Clinton County, Ohio. Being naturally inquisitive and
intelligent he decided to learn medicine but encountered some resistance since it
was commonly believed at the time that higher education would lead one to be
irreligious. However, at the age of 22 he became a student of Dr. Uriah Farquer
of Wilmington, Ohio. He entered the Medical College of Ohio, 1826-7, attained
his license to practice and settled in Harveysburg in 1830. He also erected a
carding mill at Harveysburglxi. He was one of the founding members of the
Lebanon Medical Society in 1837lxii. He was an extremely well read man and was
knowledgeable about the Law and many scientific subjects. His interest in
education leads him to establish the Harveysburg High School (Academy), a
boarding school, in 1837-8. As with other Quaker boarding schools, the students
most likely would have roomed in nearby Quaker homes when school was in
session. He erected the frame building and went to considerable expense to furnish
it with competent teachers and equipment from the east. He initially paid for the
school, which lasted through harsh economic times for eight or nine years. He
taught twice a week classes on history, languages and the natural sciences. Other
teachers associated with the first Harveysburg Academy were Dr. David Burson, a
graduate of Haverford College, Wilson Hobbslxiii, Israel Taylor, Oliver Nixon
and William P. Nixon. His efforts put him into considerable debt and so after a
couple of years he established a company of 16 members, which included himself
and was incorporated. The school had an excellent reputation drawing students
from all over southwest Ohio, but financial difficulties and political strife over
abolition, as we have seen, would eventually close the Harveysburg Academy and
Boarding School after the Harveys had moved to the Kansas Territory. The
incorporation, which probably saved the school financially for a while, also
unfortunately opened up a hornet‟s nest of conflicting feeling over the integration
of the Academy. A cadre of Harveysburgers criticized him for even allowing
African-Americans to participate in his school but then a few years later, radical
abolitionists criticized him for segregating the black pupils from the white. When
he united the blacks and the whites, many white folk took their children out of the
school. Eventually, the building was used by the African American community for
Zion Baptist Church. The later Nicholson-Fallis integrated academy was
purchased by the Board of Education and became a district school.lxiv
Because of his great interest in the natural sciences, Dr. Jesse also had a botanical
garden, a good museum and specimens of wild animals.lxv Following in his father‟s
footsteps, Dr. Jesse was also interested in educating Native Americans and often
visited the Quaker Mission in Wapakoneta, Ohio.lxvi
Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey had four children:
   o WILLIAM FOSTER HARVEY, b. September 20th, 1825 ~ d. January 27,
      1901 in Indianapolis.lxvii Married Esther Jane Coffin. He was a Quaker
   o SARAH T. HARVEY, b. September 22nd, 1826. Married Solomon Blair
      Jr. in Indiana. Solomon Blair was a Judge.
   o THOMAS B. HARVEY, b. November 29th, 1827 ~ d. December 5th, 1889.
      Married Delitha Butler.
   o ELISHA B. HARVEY, b. September 10th, 1830 ~ April 8th, 1836 (Buried in
     Harveysburg, probably the Orthodox Friends Cemetery. He is not in the
     Hicksite Friends Cemetery)lxviii
In 1847, Elizabeth, Jesse and their children moved to Kansas to superintend the
Shawnee Indians Mission Boarding School and Farmlxix, the successor of the
Quaker Mission Boarding School and Farm at Wapakoneta, Ohio.lxx It had been
established after the last Shawnee removal from Ohio in 1834. The mission was
built on section seven, township twelve, range twenty-four, one-half mile east and
one-fourth mile south of the present town of Merriam in Johnson County, Kansas.
In 1845, shortly before the Harveys arrived in Kansas Territory, the Stanleyslxxi
had erected a new central building. It was 24 by 70 feet and had three stories.
There was an orchard on the property.lxxii The following description of the new
edifice is taken from the memoirs of Dr. Wilson Hobbs, M.D.:
      The year 1844 was a very wet one, causing a general failure of crops;
      consequently great destitution among the Indians. Thomas H. Stanley informed
      eastern Friends, and almost all the yearly meetings, through their meeting for
      sufferings, contributed to their relief. Thomas Wells, who was several times
      connected with the work, came west and received and distributed the donations.
      In 1845 finding there had been more funds sent than was really necessary for the
      relief of the Indians, permission was obtained of the donors to use the surplus in
      building a good house, which was greatly needed. The plan proposed by Thomas
      H. Stanley, and adopted, was to construct a house 24‟ X 70‟, three stories high ~
      the basement of stone, for kitchen, dining room and cellar; the upper stories of
      frame, school rooms in each end, dormitories above, with four rooms in the
      middle of the building for the family. Thomas and James Stanley went into the
      forest chopped and hauled the logs to the mill for the lumber, hewed the framing
      timber, and did most of the work in erecting the building, which still stands
      (1903), within a few miles of Kansas City (then an insignificant place, known as
      Westport Landing), a monument to their integrity, energy, and faithfulness.lxxiii

They, just like the superintendents and matrons before them, supervised the
teaching of husbandry, domestic skills, and other topics to Native American
families and children hoping to help them adapt to white culture.lxxiv
In comparison to their anti-slavery and abolition activities in Ohio, the situation in
Kansas would not prove any easier. If anything, the issues were even more
complicated and difficult. In Pre-Territorial Kansas, slavery was a huge issue due
to the political opinions of the missionaries who were trying to “civilize” the
Native Americans that had been removed from Ohio and elsewhere. The situation
was complicated because of the presence of the Methodists, the Baptists and the
Quakers who had all previously worked with the Shawnee in Ohio and moved their
ministry out west with the Indians. The Methodist church was severely divided
concerning slavery and would eventually divide into northern and southern
branches. Anti-slavery issues created rather unsavory denomination rivalry among
the northern and southern Methodists and their relationships with the missions of
other denominations in Indian Territory. The Baptists would also experience a
sectional split over slavery.lxxv Dissension over slavery and abolition and
competition among the missionaries helped to lay the foundation of the future
violence of “Bleeding Kansas”. The southern Methodists advocated slave
ownership and were criticized by both Baptists and Quakers. The Ohio and
Missouri bands of Shawnee also often quarreled over money and land. There were
more mixed-blood leaders than full-blood Shawnee. The mixed-blood leaders were
more open to assimilation via the southern Methodists. They had founded the
Shawnee Manual Labor School, which overshadowed the Baptist and Quaker
missions. Some mixed-bloods owned slaves. The full-blood Shawnee were anti-
slavery in opinion. The Shawnee were as divided among themselves as were the
Christian missionaries. There were Shawnees espousing their traditional Native
American faith and Christian Shawnees (southern and northern Methodist, Baptist,
Quaker), It was into this difficult situation that Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey
The Quaker Mission in Kansas was run by Orthodox Quakers and so their agenda
was more evangelical in tone compared to the previous efforts in Ohio at
Wapakoneta, where conversion to Christian conversion was not the top priority.
According to Baltimore Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) minutes (Indian Concerns
Report) and the Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes of the same committee:
   o 1847~ Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey with their three living children moved to
     Kansas to superintend the Shawnee Mission Boarding School and Farm.
     Eight Quakers were employed to carry on the work of the mission and the
     school: Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey (superintendents), William F. Harvey
     and Sarah Harvey (teachers in the school), Thomas B. Harvey (assistant
     farmer), Richard Mendenhall (principal farmer), Rachel P. Hall (sewing
     and oversight over girls when out of school) and Sarah Nixon (cook).
          The School has been kept up with about 39 Girls and 28 Boys during the
          past Year. Thomas and Hannah Wells left the establishment in the 6th
          month last, and the School and Farm have been under the care of the Young
          Friends who were there and who were assisted by two of the Indian Girls, in
          the School at 50¢ per week. The committee have contracted with Jesse
          Harvey and his wife as Superintendents, and their two sons and one
          daughter, two of whom are to teach the School, and one of the sons to work
          on the Farm, for the term of two years, at $800.00 per year for the five
          persons. They arrived at the establishment the 29th of 7th month last (Ohio
          Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1847, p. 4)

      The following is a full description of the farm and the daily routine at the
      mission and school made by the previous superintendent, Thomas Wells to
      Baltimore Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) in 1847:
The school has been kept up without vacation the past year, and about 64
children of both sexes, belonging to four tribes, viz.: Shawnees,
Delawares, Stockbridges and Ottawa, have received instruction in
reading, writing, arithmetic and geography, and the pupils have made
satisfactory progress. The hours set apart for school are 7 in each day,
except 7th day afternoon, part of which is given them for their own
recreation. The time not occupied in the schoolrooms, is devoted to
manual labor; the boys are employed in all the branches of husbandry,
and the girls at housewifery, and their services rendered to the institution
in this way are considerable. During the winter evenings the larger
children are exercised in declaiming and composition, and such evenings
which are not set apart for this purpose are devoted to the recitation of
geography, in both of which they take a deep interest, and this has been of
use to them in removing that natural shyness which is characteristic of the
All unnecessary labor on the First Day of the week is avoided, that day
being set apart for the improvement of the mind; about 2 hours in the
morning before meeting is devoted to committing Scripture passages to
memory, and many recite from 15 to 30 verses, and are expert in
answering Scripture questions. In the afternoon they have access to a
Library provided for their use, to encourage them in private reading.
After supper all the family collect in the meeting room to spend the
evening in reading the dying sayings of pious person, and other religious
exercises which seem to present at that hour as a duty to be performed,
and to unfrequently such season have been owned by the good presence of
the great Shepherd, even to the constricting of the spirits of both children
and teachers, and the good effects of resolutions formed in those
opportunities have been seen in their general deportment for many days
The daily family reading of a portion of Scripture accompanied with a
suitable pause before and after reading has been observed, and sometimes
a few remarks are made on the leading features of the chapter read, which
are listened to with apparent attention; not unfrequently a few Indians are
present with us on occasions of this kind, whose decent and orderly
deportment does them much credit. A meeting for worship has been
regularly kept up twice in each week, and some few Indians continue their
attendance the sole manner in which the Indians, both children and adults
sit, is satisfactory to the family and a source of admiration to casual
visitors from the States.
The Queries recommended by Indian Yearly Meeting to be answered
Quarterly, and forwarded in the reports of the Superintendents, have been
attended to, and afford encouragement to believe that these regulations
will have their use both on the minds of the Indian children and the young
Friends engaged by the Committee to carry on the concern; such of our
Indian neighbors who are present with us during time of worship, also
keep their seats, and on being informed of the object of this discipline,
seem both pleased and interested.
         We have a farm of about 200 acres of land under fence, 132 of which are
         under cultivation, from which have been raised the past year about 1530
         dozens of wheat and 900 dozens of oats, both of which are very good;
         there are also 60 acres planted in corn, and 3 acres in garden vegetables,
         both are said to be good crops. The farm is well stocked with horses,
         cows, sheep and hogs, and from the proceeds of the farm the family is
         supplied with provisions, and considerable remains for sale, say about
         $400.00, which is appropriated to the wants of the household and farm.
         The new building 70 feet by 24, three stories high, the basement stone, the
         rest frame, is finished and adds greatly to the comfort and convenience of
         the family. This building seems to have given new impulse to the Indians
         to support our school, so that last fall and through the winter we had more
         applications for admittance than we could accommodate, and when they
         were encouraged to wait for the return of spring, as some of the larger
         ones were likely to leave, they seemed satisfied, and accordingly several
         new scholars were admitted this spring, so that the school continues full…
         Their farms vary from small lots to 200 acres, and their buildings are of
         hewed logs, though there has been one brick house two stories high, with
         two rooms on a floor, built within the last two years, and is finished in a
         workmanlike manner, the bricks were made on the spot, and Indian
         mechanics assisted in the building. During the last winter they cut and
         hauled 1000 cords of wood, and sold the same at $1.50 per cord. They
         are enlarging the size of their farms every year, and take an increasing
         interest in the improvement of their stock, and may with propriety be said
         to be improving in their habits of industry and economy. The women are
         more neat and clean in their persons and in their houses, and manifest
         more interest that their daughters should be taught the art of
         housekeeping as well as the use of books, this is seen in the increase of
         girls at their institution, they having exceeded the number of boys, a very
         odd occurrence in an Indian school.lxxvii

   The Quaker Shawnee Mission and School also had a policy of sending some
   of their students (between the ages of 15 and 20) to Ohio to live with Quaker
   families and learn trades, which they would then bring back to Kansas
   territory. We know that one Indian girl from the mission was brought by
   Thomas Wells to Waynesville according to the Miami-Visitor newspaper,
   October 3rd, 1851.
o 1848~ On May 12th, 1848, Dr. Jesse Harvey died but Elizabeth and her
  children stayed on at the Mission to superintend with the assistance of
  Richard Mendenhall. There is a small graveyard on the site and there is a
  marker that says, “Jesse Harvey of Harveysburg." It is the Indian Cemetery
  at Nieman Road & 59th Terrace in Shawnee, Johnson County, Kansas. lxxviii
       At a called meeting at Miami 10th of 6th month 1848 by a communication
       from Richard Mendenhall, this meeting is informed that Jesse Harvey, our
       Superintendent at Friend‟s establishment amongst the Shawnee Indians, has
              deceased, and that Elizabeth his widow and her children are willing to
              remain at the establishment, if it meets the approbation of the committee,
              which claiming consideration was united with and thought best that they
              continue in the service, and that Richard Mendenhall be requested to
              render her such assistance as may be necessary in Superintending the
              concern, and the right ordering of things amongst them.
              This meeting being brought into deep feeling and tender sympathy with our
              dear friend Elizabeth Harvey, and the young friends engaged with her at
              our establishment, in consequence of the trial brought on them, by the death
              of her husband, unite in appointing a committee to write to her on the
              occasion and send them the result of our deliberations (Ohio Yearly Meeting
              Minutes, 1848, pp. 13-14).

   o 1849~ The Harvey family is still superintending at the Mission. They stayed
     for the full term of two years.
              It appears from a communication received from the committee of Indian
              Concerns of Indiana Yearly Meeting, that our establishment among the
              Shawnee Indians has been under the superintendence of Elizabeth Harvey
              and family, since last year, with the assistance, during the Winter and
              Spring, of James Stanton and his niece Ann Stanton. This young woman
              had been engaged at the establishment some years before, and in
              consequence of Sarah Ann Nixon having left, and the family in great need
              of assistance, she, under a sense of duty, offered her services for six months,
              without any compensation only her expense in traveling, which we thought
              right to accept (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1849, p 18).

   o 1850~ The Harvey family moves back to Ohiolxxix
              Our former Superintendent Elizabeth Harvey having resigned, we have
              engaged with our Friends Thomas and Hannah Wells, who feel themselves
              bound to the cause to take charge of the Institute, who with four assistants
              are now satisfactorily engaged therein (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1850,
              p. 15).

The death of Dr. Jesse Harvey inspired John Harveylxxx to write a poem in his
 But when to Eaton we had come,                       At such a place how souls unite,
 The news no pleasure gave.                           Though under different names;
 That Dr. Harvey, far from home,                      And all, when they are aiming right,
 Was in the silent grave;                             The good have equal claims.

 My cousin, and my constant friend,                   A solemn meeting first was held,
 Through many trials past,                            Where all could take a part,
 Whose funeral I could not attend,                    And sympathetic drops distill‟d,
 Nor see of him the last.                             From every feeling heart.
 For those who had been thus bereaved,               An Indian spoke in soothing strains,
 Of one to them so dear,                             Then silence fill‟d the room,
 My sympathizing bosom heaved                        And they conveyed their friend‟s remains
 A sigh they could not hear.                         To the cold, silent tomb.

 Their loss, in solitude, they mourn,                A corner of the orchard ground,
 Upon the Kansas shore,                              Is now his resting place;
 And if they to this land return,                    Who felt himself in duty bound
 They see his grave no more.                         To aid the Indian race.

 One consolation, still, we have:                    And thus, far in the west, is made
 He died in that true faith,                         A consecrated spot,
 Which points to bliss beyond the grave,             Where other friends may yet be laid
 And triumphs over death.                            Who find an equal lot.

 The neighb‟ring missionaries came
 Fraternal tears to shed,
 And the poor Indians did the same
 In sorrow for the dead.

The following is his obituary taken from the Western Star (June 2, 1848):

       DEATH OF A GOOD MAN. Friend‟s Mission among the Shawnee Indians, 5th
       mo. 14th, 1848.
       Friend W. H. P. Denny: ~ I write to thee at this time to inform thee that mourning
       on account of death has entered our dwelling here in this Territory, surrounded
       by savages and half-civilized Indians. My dear father, Dr. Jesse Harvey, departed
       this life the day before yesterday at a quarter before 2 o‟clock of dropsy. He had
       been sick for the last three months; most in fact nearly all of that time, confined to
       his bed.
       At first he was attacked with Bilious Pneumonia, which after pretty severe
       medical treatment, yielded, but it left him in a very prostrate condition. His
       constitution was broken down, and all efforts to rebuild it were in vain. About
       four weeks from the time he was first taken sick, his feet and hands began to
       swell; but it was thought that nothing serious or alarming would attend the
       swelling. It was thought by his physician in attendance at the time that he would
       soon gain strength, and that as he gained strength the swelling would recede. He,
       however, kept getting gradually worse, and the swelling increasing, but it was not
       till within three weeks of his death that the physicians (five in number, who came
       to see him occasionally, but not regularly) decided that dropsy was working its
       way in his system to a final dissolution. From that time on the (illness?) increased
       very rapidly, in the abdomen, feet and hands, at first, and then became general
       throughout his whole system. His breathing began to be heavier, and more
       labored about 4 o‟clock P.M., of the day previous to his decease. He was also
       somewhat delirious at times, at his decease, when he sank into a deep and very
       oppressive sleep, from which he never awoke. After a hard struggle of some three
       hours or more he quietly breathed out his spirit.
       He seemed resigned to the will of his good Master; he said that if he required him
       to sacrifice his life here in a foreign land, he was willing. His remains were
       quietly interred yesterday, about 4 o‟clock in the evening, after a solemn meeting
       had been held on the occasion. The spot of ground where he was buried is a part
      of the farm not far from the house, which he selected for a burying place soon
      after he moved here. I will, in addition of a few stanzas conclude:
                    Another loved one‟s lost to Earth
                    Another gain‟d in Heaven. ~
                    His light was more like morning‟s star,
                    Than . . .
                    (There are five more stanzas to this poem, but they are

      Respectfully thy friend, Wm. F. Harvey (William Foster Harvey)

 Elizabeth Burgess Harvey eventually remarried.             She married Elijah
                            th                             th
Mendenhall (b. February 6 , 1797 in N.C, ~ d. July 20 , 1875) in Plainfield,
Indiana) on April 13th, 1854 in Parke Co., Indiana. It was a second marriage for
both of them. She moved to Plainfield, Indiana with her second husband.
The 1880 Federal Census lists her as living with one of her sons, Thomas B.
Harvey, a physician, and his family in Indianapolis. According to her obituary
and death notices, she remained an active Quaker involved in Quakerly issues up
to the end, i.e. Temperance. She died May 1, 1888 in Indianapolis, Indiana in her
87th year. She is buried in Crown Hill Cemetery. She was buried on May 5th,
1888, Section 3, Marker N, Lot 49.lxxxii The following are death notices and
obituaries for Elizabeth Burgess Harvey Mendenhall:

      Elizabeth Mendenhall, the aged mother of Dr. T. B. Harvey (Thomas B.
      Harvey), is lying dangerously ill at his residence, No. 302 North Delaware Street.
      Mrs. Mendenhall is eighty-six years of age and is one of the best-known women in
      this section of the state. She formerly lived near Plainfield, and is a member of
      the Society of Friends (Indianapolis Journal, May 1st, 1888, P-5, C-5).

      Mrs. Elizabeth Mendenhall is dangerously ill at the residence of her son, Dr. T.
      B. Harvey. Her recovery is doubtful, as she is eighty years old. Mrs.
      Mendenhall is well known in the city and state (Indianapolis Sentinel, May 1st,
      1888, P-2, C-3).
      MENDENHALL ~ May 1, 1888, 7:30 A. M. Elizabeth Harvey Mendenhall,
      mother of Dr. T. B. Harvey, at his residence. Funeral Thursday 2 p.m., at the
      residence, 302 N. Delaware. Friends invited. No flowers (Indianapolis News,
      May 2nd, 1888, P-3, C-3).
      W. C. T. U. ~ The regular meeting of the Central will be postponed till Friday
      afternoon. With sympathetic respect, the Union will attend the funeral of Mrs.
      Elizabeth Mendenhall, the venerable mother of Dr. Harvey, President of the
      Union. Mrs. K Loftin, Vice Pres., Mrs. M.M. Finch, Secretary (Indianapolis
      News, May 2nd, 1888, P-3, C-3).
      The regular meeting of the Central W. C. T. U. has been postponed until Friday
      afternoon. The Union will attend with sympathetic effect the funeral of Mrs.
      Elizabeth Mendenhall, president of the Union (Indianapolis Sentinel, May 3rd,
      1888, P-1, C-4).
      SKETCH OF MRS. MENDENHALL. An Active Christian Life, Complete in
      Good Works, Closes in Peaceful Death. ~~
      Yesterday morning, at the residence of her son, Dr. T. B. Harvey, Elizabeth
      Harvey Mendenhall died in the eighty-seventh year of her age. She was born
      near Lynchburg, Virginia and in 1812 her parents removed to Ohio. They were
      members of the Society of Friends, and she was always a faithful and active
      member of the society, and held in it various positions of trust and confidence.
      Her faith was manifested by her works, and her whole life was characterized by
      words and acts said and done for the benefit of others. While this was prompted
      by her kind and gentle nature, it was also the reflex of the experience and
      teachings of her parents. Her father, Thomas Burgess, endured the hardships
      incident to standing for principle in the early days of the Friends in the Penn
      colonies, and her mother, Elizabeth Burgess, nee Hendricks, was among the first
      to maintain that the colored man was entitled to freedom, and her inheritance was
      much lessened by the liberation of slaves she otherwise would have owned.
      When her parents moved from Virginia to Ohio they were followed by many of
      their colored people who had been freed. Mrs. Mendenhall was at this time
      twelve years of age, and her education was superior for those days. She and her
      first husband, Dr. Jesse Harvey, were instrumental in forwarding education in
      and about Harveysburg, Ohio. About 1840 they invested a large portion of their
      means in establishing an academy and erecting a building therefore, and devoted
      much time therein as teachers. At a time when it was very unpopular, even
      among those who afterwards became warm Abolitionists, Mrs. Harvey in one
      room of the academy, taught a class of colored children and continued so to do,
      although the patronage of whites was largely withdrawn from this school on this
      account. This was the first school for colored children in Ohio.
      In 1847 she removed with her husband and family to the Friends‟ mission among
      the Shawnee Indians in Kansas, and there conducted a school of Indian children
      and aided the Indians in acquiring the advantages of civilization. After the death,
      in Kansas, of her husband, she returned with her children to Ohio, and afterwards
      removed to Plainfield, Ind., since which time her life has been largely spent in
      quiet Christian work. Since the death of her second husband she has made her
      home with Dr. Harvey, of this city. She leaves another son, Dr. Wm. F. Harvey,
      of Kansas City. Her only daughter was the first wife of the late Judge Solomon
      Blair. Her last illness was brief and her death almost painless. She retained her
      mental faculties to the last. Last evening the members of the Marion County
      Medical Society passed resolutions of condolence with their associate, Dr.

Both of her sons became physicians.
THOMAS B. HARVEY married Delitha Butler at White Lick Meetinghouse,
Morgan County, Indiana on March 5th, 1853. Their children were:
    o   EMMA B. HARVEY b: 1854 - d. 1855
    o   LAWSON M. HARVEY b: 1856 - d. 1920
    o   FRANK H. HARVEY b: 1859 - d. 1880
    o   JESSE B. HARVEY b: 1865lxxxiii

WILLIAM FOSTER HARVEY was educated in his father‟s Harveysburg
Academy and began his study of medicine with his father, Jesse. In 1847 he moved
with his parents and siblings to Kansas to work on the Shawnee Mission Farm and
School. He and his brother taught classes to the boys and his sister to the girls. In
1849 he returned to Ohio and entered the Ohio Medical College in Cincinnati. In
1851 he opened his practice in Hendricks Co., Indiana. In 1853 he moved near
Lawrence, Kansas but in 1855 moved back to Indiana and resumed his practice
there till 1876. On February 28th, 1873 he graduated from Indiana Medical
College. In 1876 he moved out west again to Iowa and practiced medicine in
Union, Hardin County. In 1881 he went to the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency in
Indian Territory assigned as the government physician. In 1882 he moved to
Lawrence, Kansas and opened his practice there.lxxxiv
William F. Harvey and Esther Jane Coffin of Wayne Co., Ind. were married on
February 13th, 1853 in Parke Co., Indiana.lxxxv
The 1870 Federal Census recordslxxxvi show that William Foster Harvey and his
wife Esther are living in Plainfield, Indiana with their children:

     o DELLA (DELPHINA M.) HARVEY, age 16
     o HORACE G(reely). HARVEY, age 12
     o SUSAN E. HARVEY, age 9 (married an Albertson)
The 1880 Federal Census records show that William F. Harvey (54), his wife
Esther J. (49) and their daughter, Delphina M. (25) were living in Union, Hardin
Co., Iowa. William is listed as a physician. Delphina is listed as a milliner.lxxxvii

    “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio
in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 20.
    . . .Thomas and Betty Burgess, he a native of Pennsylvania and she of Virginia. Thomas was a son of Joseph
Burgess, and he a son of Samuel Burgess, who emigrated from England to America and settled in a very early day,
and is said to have lived for a time in a cave. Thomas Burgess, while a young man, emigrated with his parents from
Pennsylvania to Virginia, where he married and resided till about 1813; emigrated with his family to Ohio, and
located in Highland Co, and resided till in the fall of 1835, he removed to Harveysburg and resided till his death in
the summer of 1836, aged 73 years; his wife died at the home of one of her children in Indiana (The History of
Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 995.
      South River Monthly Meeting was also known as Bedford MM. It was founded in 1757 and was laid down in
1847. It was a meeting for worship before 1670. It had three Preparative Meetings: Lower Goose Creek until 1785,
Halifax and Banister. The original minutes of South River MM are located at Haverford College (Monthly Meetings
in North America: An Index, 1992 Formal Edition by Thomas C. Hill [Published by Author], p. 316.)
     They were married SEPT 15th, 1824 in Fairfield Twp, Highland Co., Ohio at Fairfield MM (Encyclopedia of
American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 244).
    Old C. P. Box 55, #7 Docket 0, Page 479, Isaac W. Burgess, Minor. The document is signed by Joseph H. Burgess
and Simon D. Harvey on September 24, 1832 (Warren County Probate Court Archive, Warren County Courthouse,
Lebanon, Ohio). In the packet is found a receipt signed by Isaac W. Burgess on December 14, 1852, “Rec‟d of
Joseph H. Burgess my guardian as appointed by the Court of Common Pleas from Warren Co., Ohio the sum of
$312.00 full of what came into his hands of my estate and Simon D. Harvey his security it being a part of my
mother‟s interest in her father‟s estate.” Also see, Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy,
Volume V, OHIO, pp. 30.
      The 1832 Tax Duplicate of Warren County, Ohio lists Joseph Burgess as the owner of Lots # 37, 38, Tannery
(39) and the west half of 40.
     A Joseph W. Burgess, a farmer, is listed in the Federal Census, Iowa, as being born in Virginia in 1803. He is
married and has two children. They are living near Pleasant Plains, Penn Township, Jefferson County, Iowa.
Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census [database online]. Provo, Utah: M653_328, page 71. A Joseph
H. Burgess is mentioned starting a tannery in Harveysburg in The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H.
Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653.
     Jesse W. (Burgess) was about 8 years of age when brought to Ohio by his parents; was raised to farm labor, and
grew to manhood, receiving a good common school education, and entered upon the study of medicine, with Dr.
Jesse Harvey, in Clinton, Oh.; in 1831, 1832 and 1833 attended medical lectures at Cincinnati, and graduated in the
later year; he entered upon the practice of his profession in Highland Co., thence located at Harveysburg. But Mr.
Burgess had more pleasure and relish in farming than for his profession, and he soon gave his leading attention to
the occupation of farming. In 1835, the farm where Clarkson and his mother now live was purchased, and in 1838,
he and his family moved on to the farm; here he spent the balance of his life, engaged mainly in the management of
the farm, but was forced to continue his practice more or less, as many of his friends placed such confidence in his
skill and knowledge that in severe and critical cases of sickness he was sure to be called upon to treat these patients.
But the brightest and most shining trait in the Doctor‟s character was the great interest he took in the subject of
education. He was the active man ~ the motive power ~ in every step of progress in his neighborhood and
community, in elevating the standard of schools and teachers; was School Director for many years; he also filled
most of the offices of his township during his life. He gave all his children a thorough education, and most of them
became graduates of college. In his death the community lost a most worthy citizen, and the family a kind father
and a devoted husband. He died Dec. 19, 1868 . . . (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers &
Co., 1882), pp. 995-996). Dr. Jesse Burgess and his family‟s movements can be traced in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia
of American Quaker Genealogy: In Springfield Monthly Meeting minutes it is reported that he and his wife Elizabeth
and family moved their membership to Cincinnati Monthly Meeting on 1831.11.15. They returned to Springfield
Monthly Meeting from Cincinnati on 1832.7.17. They moved their membership to Fairfield Monthly Meeting in
Highland Co., Ohio, 1834.12.16. They moved their membership again 1836.1.27 to Miami Monthly Meeting
(attending the preparative meeting in Harveysburg), (Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V,
OHIO, pp. 30 and 552.
    Moses Burgess, a farmer, is listed with his family in the 1880 Federal Census, with his wife and four children. His
youngest daughter is named Tacy Emily. Tacy was the name of his sister. Year: 1880; Census Place: Garden,
Cherokee, Kansas; Roll: T9_376; Family History Film: 1254376; Page: 461A; Enumeration District: 41; Image:
0003. Ii is reported in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy that Moses Burgess was reinstated
as a member of the Society of Friends in Kansas Monthly Meeting on 1866.6.20 ((Encyclopedia of American
Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 30).
    They were married OCT 1st, 1827 in Fairfield twp, Highland Co., Ohio at Fairfield MM (Encyclopedia of
American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 244). They are mentioned as superintendent and matron at the
Shawnee Mission in a report about the Delaware and Shawnee Indians in Friends‟ Review, Vol. 13 (1860), pp. 613-
    Descendants of Joshua Hadley and Ruth Lindley, p. V2 52.
     The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Virginia, Vol. VI by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical
Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 300-301.
      William Ham was married three times. Martha Burgess was his second wife. They married in December of
1837. Martha Burgess Hamm died in the fall of 1852. “Mr. Ham, when a young man, learned the blacksmith trade,
located in Harveysburg and carried on his trade very successfully for twenty-five years; thence he entered upon the
mercantile business, which he followed twelve years; four of which were in the dry goods and grocery trade, in
which he was not so successful, meeting with heavy losses; the last eight years he was engaged in the drug trade, in
which he was very successful. In January 1881 he sold out to his grandson Arthur L. Ham, and returned from all
active business to pass the balance of his days in quiet and rest . . .” (The History of Warren County, Ohio
(Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 1008.
     Rhoden Ham sold his land in 1828 to William Harvey and the Ham family moved to Montgomery Co., Indiana .
Rhoden Ham died on October 25th, 1859 in Fountain County, Cain Twp, Indiana (The History of Warren County,
Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 650 1008 and The McKinsey‟s: McKensey, McKensie, McKinsey
Family: Descendants of George W. McKinsey and his wife Sarah (Thomas) McKinsey of Newberry County, South
Carolina and Warren County, Ohio, etc., compiled and published by Ruby Mundell Barry, pp. 56-73.
    Dictionary of Quaker Biography (Haverford College, Quaker Collection), Elizabeth Harvey Mendenhall
     “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson, originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio
in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), pp. 12-13.
      The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Virginia, Vol. VI by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical
Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), p.
       Their movements can be traced in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy: On 1813. 10. 30
Thomas and wife Elizabeth and their children were received at Fairfield Monthly Meeting from South River Monthly
Meeting in Virginia. On 1835.7.23 Thomas and Betty and Tacy and Martha moved their membership to Miami
Monthly Meeting, Harveysburg Preparative Meeting (The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Ohio, Vol.
V by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 30 and 226.
      The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Ohio, Vol. V by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical
Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 67 and 225.
    Indiana Yearly Meeting was organized in 1821, set off by Ohio Yearly Meeting and was composed of Western
Ohio, Illinois and Indiana. It at once entered into active co-operation with Ohio and Baltimore Yearly Meetings.
Members of the first „Active Committee‟ on Indian concerns of Indiana Y.M. were: Isaac Harvey, Aaron Brown,
Jonathan Wright, Caleb Harvey, Robert Furnas, William Stanton, Caleb Wickersham, Thomas Frazier, Henry
Pickeral, William Hadley, Patience Whitacre, Jane Smith, Agatha Harvey (Quaker Historical Collections:
Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille Hadley, p. 49).
     The obituary of Caleb Harvey, “The Friend” (Philadelphia: 4 [1832], p. 160, and, Memorials of Deceased Friends
Who were Members of Indiana Yearly Meeting, Published by Direction of the Yearly Meeting (Cincinnati: E.
Morgan & Sons, No. 111 Main Street, 1857), pp. 32-35), “Testimony of Springfield Monthly Meeting, Ohio,
concerning Caleb Harvey, deceased.”
      Ohio Builds A Nation by Samuel Harden Stille (Chicago, Lower Salem, Ohio and New York City: The Arlendale
Book House, 1939), p. 118.
         Col. Stephen Wall was born March 26, 1791 in Virginia and died September 19, 1845 in Rockingham,
Richmond Co., North Carolina. He was the second son of Col. John Wall and his wife Martha Cole Wall. His
siblings were James Wall (b. 1782) and Mia Wall (b. 1801). He never married. Stephen Wall is buried in the Mia
Wall Family Cemetery in Rockingham, Richmond Co., North Carolina.
          Stephen Wall owned 61 slaves in 1830 (1830 Census, Rockingham, Richmond, North Carolina; Roll:
124; Page: 206). In 1840 he had 104 slaves (1840 Census, Black Jack District, Richmond, North Carolina; Roll:
370; Page: 235).
      “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio
in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 19-20.
compiled by the Craighead-Dunlap Chapter DAR, Wadesboro, North Carolina, 1972, "Histories of the Webb, Wall
and Cole Families" by Capt. W. I. Everett, deceased, 1927, page 138; located in the Rockingham - Richmond
County Library, Rockingham, North Carolina.), http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-in/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=capenoch&id
       Map of Warren County, Ohio from actual survey by P. O‟Beirne, C.E., 1856.
          1830 Census, Harveysburg, Warren, Ohio; Roll: 142; Page: 263.
          1840 Census, Wayne, Warren, Ohio; Roll: 431; Page: 159.
       Oberlin College. Oberlin. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio: James M.
Fitch., MDCCCL. [1850]) Page 24.
        Oberlin College. Oberlin. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio: James M.
Fitch., MDCCCL. [1850]) Page 24.
          1850     Federal    Census,    M432_737,       pp.    358-365.        See,     http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-
         Dallas Bogan, Warren County, Ohio and Beyond (Bowie Maryland: Heritage Press, 1979) page 54.
        History of Harveysburg & Massie Township (The Harveysburg Community Committee), p. 9.
        The Town That Started the Civil War by Nat Brandt (Syracuse University Press, 1990), pp. 122-123.
               Information taken from Electronic Oberlin Group: John Mercer Langston (1829-1897),
         They Stopped in Oberlin: Black Residents and Visitors of The Nineteenth Century, by William E. Bigglestone
(Oberlin, Ohio: Gertrude F. Jacobs Publications Fund, Oberlin College, 2002), p. 208.
         Certificate of Death for Orindatus S. B. Wall, No. 77381, District of Columbia, Permit No. 77452, date of
death, April 26, 1891
        Ibid., pp. 207-211.
     Grove Meeting was established as an indulged meeting of Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville, Ohio on
1.29.1817. In 1823 it became a “meeting for worship” and a “Preparative Meeting” of Miami Monthly Meeting in
Waynesville. The original Grove Meetinghouse was located on an eight-acre lot about one and one-half miles south
of Harveysburg (Survey 1045). It was the first church in the area to be built. Richard Moon originally owned the
land. The first house was built of logs and was used as both a meeting and schoolhouse. It had a thriving school.
The Hicksite Separation wrecked its havoc on Grove Meeting in 1828. The meeting divided into Hicksite and
Orthodox groups and both groups moved into the new village of Harveysburg. The Hicksite Meetinghouse,
continuing on as an indulged, preparative and meeting for worship under the jurisdiction of Miami Monthly Meeting
(Hicksite) in Waynesville, survived until was laid down in 1907. The Hicksite meetinghouse still stands as a private
residence at the end East Main Street. There is a small cemetery next to the building. The Orthodox group became
known as Harveysburg Preparative Meeting. It became known as Miami Monthly Meeting (Orthodox) in 1942. It
was laid down in 1960. The Orthodox Meetinghouse still stands as a private residence at the fork of the road created
by Maple and Clark Streets in Harveysburg. Its cemetery is located across the street behind a white house. Also
see, The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 651.
      The deed for this land is in the name of Napoleon B. Wall, et al. (Trustees), Book 28, page 10, the north 2/3 of lot
(found in “Harveyburg Corp, Lots, Plats & Conveyances Index”, Deed Room, Warren County Courthouse,
Lebanon, Ohio).
       The following is recorded in a Institutions Book found in the Probate Court Archive of the Warren County, Ohio
Courthouse in Lebanon, Ohio: “Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Ohio. At a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Colored
Baptist Church of Harveysburg, Warren County, Ohio, called for the purpose of organizing in conformity with the
Statute of Ohio passed March 13, 1844, there being a majority of the members of Said Society present, they
proceeded to elect five Trustees with a Clerk. Thereupon Henry Wiggins, Charlott Dudley, Sarah Brantley, Nancy
A. Dawson, and Mahala Branntley were elected Trustees and John Dodson, Clerk. It was Resolved that the Church
should be known as Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Warren Co., Ohio. I hereby certify that the above is a true
copy of the proceedings of the members of Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Ohio, held January 13, 1862, John
Dodson, Clerk. Rec‟d. and Recorded Feb. 10, 1862.”
       The History of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio, 1849-1960 by Charles H. Wesley (Wilberforce, Ohio:
Central State Press, 1961), p. 85.
      The first schools of the town were taught by Richard Clegg, George Baily, Dr. Jesse Harvey, Simon D. Harvey,
Charles Mills, and others (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653.
      According to the chronology of Springfield Monthly Meeting in Clinton County, Ohio, “At an extra session of the
trustees in June, 1829, the schools were redistricted „agreeably to the provisions of a law passed Feb. 10, 1829.‟
This was but four years after “a general law establishing a school system and levying a tax for its‟ support.” was
passed. A list of householders by districts follows for it shows the heads of families in the township that time:
District No. 8, householders: John Newlin, Eli Newlin, Ezekiel Hornada, Eli Harvey, William Harvey, Jesse
Burgess, William Harvey, Mary Harvey, John Pyle, Elias Fisher, David Nickerson, John C. Harlan, Elizabeth
Harlan, Wm. Harlan, Sr., Nathan Harlan, Jonathan Harlan, Enoch Harlan, Jr., Martin Ryan, Hannah Hornada,
Elias Fisher, William Sabin, John Hadley, Caleb Harvey, Jesse Harvey, Eli Hadley, Jerre Kimbrough, Hiram Crew,
David K. Harlan, Jesse Lewis (Quaker Historical Collections: Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille
Hadley, p 52) .
      Dr. Jesse Harvey was a cousin of William Harvey who founded Harveysburg in 1828 (Combination Atlas Map of
Warren County, Ohio by L. H. Everts, 1875), p. l7½. The village was named after William Harvey,
       Wilson Hobbs was a teacher in Harveysburg at the Harveysburg Academy who was also reading and studying to
be a physician. The salary of a teacher was not sufficient, however, to allow him to continue his medial studies by
attending medical lectures at a college and so he decided, when asked to be the superintendent at the Quaker
Shawnee Mission in Kansas, to accept that appointment hoping he could gain a great deal of good experience as the
superintendent. He did eventually become a physician (“The Friends Establishment in Kansas Territory”,
Transactions of the Kansas Historical Society, 1903-1904, Vol. 8, [Topeka, Geo. A. Clark, State Printer, 1904), pp.
       A Margaret Campbell, mulatto, is listed in the 1850 Federal Census of Highland Co., Ohio, Liberty Township.
She would have been 17 at the time of this controversy, high school age. Roll: M432_694, page 68.
      “A Great and Good People: Midwestern Quakers and the Struggle Against Slavery” by Thomas D. Hamm, April
Beckman, Marissa Florio, Kirsti Giles, and Marie Hopper (Indiana Magazine of History, March 2004 (Vol. 100, #1),
    E. & D. Hobbs are Elisha and Deborah Harvey Hobbs of Indiana. Deborah Harvey was one of the children of
Isaac and Lydia Dicks Harvey.
       Miscellaneous Poems; Moral, Religious, and Sentimental by John Harvey (Cincinnati: Published by James
Harvey, 1848), pp. 236-238.
       Valentine Nicholson was disowned from Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville on June 26, 1844 and Isaiah
Fallis was disowned from Center Meeting (Clinton County) on December 19, 1850 (see Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of
American Quaker Genealogy, Vol. V., pp. 105 and 489.
        Oliver Woodson Nixon and William Penn Nixon were the sons of Samuel Nixon and Rhoda Hubbard Nixon.
Oliver Woodson Nixon would later write Whitman's Ride Through Savage Lands with Sketches of Indian Life in
1905, How Marcus Whitman Saved Oregon: A True Romance Of Patriotic Heroism, Christian Devotion And Final
Martyrdom, With Sketches of Life on The Plains And Mountains in Pioneer Days by Oliver W. Nixon; introduction
by Frank W. Gunsaulus in 1895, and Reminiscences of the First Year of the War in Missouri in 1888.
     Valentine Nicholson obituary, Miami-Gazette newspaper of Waynesville, March 30th, 1904).
      William Crow is listed in the 1850 Census, Wayne Township, Warren, Ohio; Roll: M432_737; Page: 356. He
was 28 years old in 1850, married with a baby.
      J. G. Stevenson also became the first president of the Anti-Slavery Society for Clinton and Warren Counties. On
December 19, 1851 it was reported in the Miami-Visitor newspaper of Waynesville, that on November 30th a
meeting was convened in the (second) Academy in Harveysburg. The object was to organize an Anti-Slavery Society
for Clinton and Warren Counties. J. G. Stevenson was the Chairman of this meeting and Valentine Nicholson was
chosen secretary. They advocate the immediate and unconditional emancipation of slaves. The preamble of
constitution signed by: Dr. A. Brooke, Aaron Harvey, V. Nicholson, F. G. Birdsell, Abram Allen, Wm. F. Hilles, J.
G. Stevenson, Asa Pratt, O. D. Wall, Wm. McCune, J. W. Scroggs, Sarah Allen, J. F. Crew, Lydia W. Vandeburg,
Hannah Birdsell, Jane F. Nicholson, Deborah Lafettra, E. F. Varner, Mary B. Birdsell, Caroline Wall, Martha M.
Dakin, Elijah Howe, W. H. Birdsell, A. Winslow, Sarah Wall, Jona. A. Ballard, T. D. Ryse, N. Doan, Jesse A.
Ballard. The full constitution was printed in the paper: “Clinton and Warren Anti-Slavery Society”. Officers
elected were: J. G. Stevenson, President, Deborah Lafetta, Vice President, Mary B. Birdsell, Secretary and
Valentine Nicholson, Treasurer. In the 1850 Federal Census of Harveysburg, J. G. Stevenson is listed as Joseph G.
Stephenson, a coach maker. He is married with five children, see 1850 Census, Harveysburg, Warren, Ohio; Roll:
M432_737; Page: 362.
      By the time they sold the second Harveysburg Academy to the Massie Township Board of Education, Valentine
Nicholson, John W. Scroggs, and William Wilson were the elected Trustees (elected on April 3, 1852). In the deed
itself is written, “And whereas, as a special meeting of the stockholders in said School Company held in the school
house on said premises on or about the 11 th day of June in the year 1853, in pursuance of written notice fifteen days
previously given for that purpose, said stockholders adopted a resolution which is in the following words and
figures, to wit: „Resolve that we hereby authorize the Trustees of the Harveysburg School Company to sell the
entire premises known as the Harveysburg Academy to the Board of Education for Massie Township, or any other
board for the use of schools provided the sale can be effected for any sum not less that 50 percent of the original
stock subscribed to said premises‟ ~ . . .” The property was sold to the Board of Education for $700.00 which was
half of the original subscription from stockholders (Deed Book 34, pages 94-95).
          John Otis Wattles (1809-1859) was an ardent abolitionist, spiritualist, advocate of women‟s rights, and
experimenter in communal utopias. The Wattles participated in Valentine Nicholson‟s ill fated Utopian experiment,
“Prairie Home," a farm near Urbana, Ohio. He and his family moved from Oakland, Ohio in Clinton County to
Utopia, Ohio along the Ohio River (an Owenite experiment which also failed), and then finally moved to Moneka,
Linn County, Kansas in 1854. His brother Augustus also moved out to Kansas. John O. Wattles wrote two books:
A Few Thoughts on Marriage (1844) and Annual Report of the Educational Condition of the Colored People of
Cincinnati: Including the Sentiment in Mercer County, Ohio, presented at the Exhibition of the Cincinnati High
School, April, 1847.
     Memories of Long Ago written by Valentine Nicholson, Stone Bluff, Fountain City, Indiana, July 1881 for his
daughter Libbie (Copy sent by Willard Heiss, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1984 to the Ohioana Room, Mary L. Cook
Public Library, Waynesville), Ohio, p. 9.
     Quaker Historical Collections: Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille Hadley, p. 52.
      History of Harveysburg and Massie Township by Lucy McCarren (Published by the Harveysburg Historical
Society),p. 3.
     The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 307.
      Wilson Hobbs moved to the Quaker Shawnee Mission and School in Kansas as a missionary in 1850. According
to the minutes of Ohio Yearly Meeting, 1852, Wilson Hobbs was a teacher in the school and had the care of the
smaller boys when out of school. Wilson Hobbs also surveyed and plotted the farm. There were 228 acres under
fence 190 of which had been ploughed (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1852, pp. 9-10).
      The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653.
     “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio
in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 19.
      The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), pp. 654-660.
       County Board of Health, Indianapolis. The source of this record is the book H-9 on page 13 within the series
produced by the Indiana Works Progress Administration.
      Rootsweb.com: Quaker Roots L Archives: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/QUAKER-ROOTS/2000-
       THE SHAWNEE QUAKER MISSION: The friends, or Quakers, were the friends of the Indians. When the Ohio
branch of Shawnees came to Kansas in 1832 the Quakers obtained permission from the government and sent a
deputation to visit them at their new homes. By the report of that deputation it appears the Shawnoes were located in
a rich and healthy country, and well pleased with their change. The Indians received the deputation with gladness,
manifesting gratitude for former labors to ameliorate their condition.
In 1834 a donation of three hundred pounds was received from Friends of London yearly meeting, for the Christian
instruction and civilization of the Shawnee Indians. The donation was accompanied by a communication expressing
much sympathy with Friends in their good work, and a desire that a "meeting for worship might be established."
In 1835 the committees of the Maryland, Ohio and Indiana yearly meetings, met at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and
revised the "plan of operations for the Christian institution and civilization of the Shawnee Indians," which, being
submitted to the secretary of war, was approved. A deputation was then sent to visit the Indians, to submit the plan
to them, for approval. During the year 1836 the committees were engaged in erecting the necessary buildings and
opening a farm. In 1837 superintendents were employed, a school was opened and a meeting for worship was
established. The superintendents were directed to have portions of the Holy Scripture read daily in the school and in
the family, and to take particular care to instruct the Indian children in the doctrines and precepts of the Gospel.
A report of the work of the mission says: "From this time the committee continued to labor among them with pretty
good success for several years, the school numbering from fifteen to forty scholars, who were boarded, lodged and
clothed at the expense of Friends. During this period many of the Indians built comfortable houses, opened farms
and prepared to enjoy the comforts of civilized life. A considerable number of the Indians were brought under
conviction, and embraced the doctrines of the Gospel, but no provision having been made by our yearly meeting for
their reception into membership with Friends they united themselves with the Baptist and Methodist churches. Some
of the Shawnees, however, continued to attend Friend's meeting, and in 1852 an Indian by the name of Kako ("a" as
in "far"), not feeling at liberty to join either of these societies, made application to the committee and was finally
received into membership by Friends of Miami monthly meeting (Ohio), and during the remainder of his life his
conduct and conversation were circumspect and exemplary. The closing scene of his life was rather remarkable. He
had a large number of Indians collected, and was enabled to address them in a very feeling and impressive manner.
His death was triumphant, exhibiting in a striking manner the power of faith."
SOCIAL LIFE ABOUT THE MISSIONS. Eli Thayer was superintendent of the Quaker Mission in the early fifties.
He had come out from Miami county, Ohio, bringing his wife and two children, a son and a daughter. Eli was an
invalid and was seldom out of the house. Mrs. Thayer was an excellent Quaker woman and she was a mother to the
Indian children. Elizabeth, the daughter, a handsome young woman, reflected much sunshine about the Mission and
the Indian girls all loved her for her kindness and goodness of heart. The boy, James, twelve years old, was a
favorite with the Indians. The teacher was Richard Mendenhall, who had come from Plainfield, Indiana, with his
wife, Sarah Ann, a plain, motherly Quaker woman, and their son Charles, who was ten years old and said "thee" and
"thou." Cyrus Rogers, also from Plainfield, was the Mission farmer.
One fine Sunday afternoon while James Little of Indiana was visiting at the mission after his trip across the plains, a
party was made up for a visit to the Chouteaus. The party included Rogers, Little, Elizabeth Thayer and four of the
Indian girls. This story of the trip is told by Little: "The Chouteaus lived about two miles to the west. There were
three brothers, all married to squaws. They were intelligent Frenchmen and owned slaves when Kansas was a
territory. The girls were walking in a group a little ahead of us. Cyrus said: 'Jim, I will walk with Elizabeth and you
walk with one of the Indian girls.'
"So I sprang forward and overtook them and offered my services to Mahala, as she was the most civilized one of
them. It was a great surprise to her. She suddenly bucked, then I halted; then she pitched forward, and I ran and
caught up; then she would dodge back and forth, and finally retreated back to the mission. I discovered I was not
popular with the Indian girls. They never seemed to like me. The meanest thing they could say was to call me a
white man. They thought the Quakers were a different tribe. I did not use the plain language. I told Cyrus that I
would walk with Elizabeth and for him to walk with one of the girls. So he said he would make the attempt, but he
did not have any better success than I. He had a terrible chase after one, and she got away and went back to the
mission. So that only left us two. Matters were not right. We did not know how to proceed but we held a council and
it was decided that I should make another advance. It was a forlorn hope, but I had orders and must not show
cowardice; so I made another effort and completely failed. She would pitch out ahead of me and then jump back
behind me, and I would charge up to her side. She called me all sorts of names, some in Indian and some in English.
One I remember was 'Skunk.' She went back to the mission, so that only left us one and we did not want to lose her,
so concluded not to try to go with her until we returned. We thought that certainly by the time we got back we would
have her civilized so we could go with her.
"We finally arrived at the Chouteau house and entered. We found two old squaws sitting in the room and neither
could speak a word of English, but they soon brought the two daughters in and they invited us into the Indian parlor.
The house was a large, double-room log house with a kitchen shedded to one side. The parlor was neatly furnished.
The young ladies were educated at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, South. They were rather good looking and
reasonably intelligent, but adopted the custom of white people and made themselves agreeable. We had a pleasant
evening and remained quite a while.
"When we started to return the Chouteau girls went a short distance with us. They then bade us good-bye and started
to return to the house. By that time we reached the timber which extended to the Quaker Mission. So the time had
now fully arrived to make an effort to break in on our only remaining wild Indian girl. We felt sure we had the cinch
on her; she was a long distance from the mission. it was dark and the road was quite lonely and certainly she would
accept an escort and be delighted with the opportunity. Taking all into consideration it gave me great confidence; so
I approached her in as gentle a manner as possible and she started to run as fast as she could go, so I could not do
anything but run after her. When I would overtake her she would dodge to one side and run back. I gave her several
chances and she took to the brush, so she escaped from me and the last I heard of her she was making the brush
crack so I gave up the chase. We never saw her any more and were afraid she would not be able to make her way
back to the mission. We approached, with fear and trembling. But when we got to the house Richard Mendenhall
came out meeting us and said with great earnestness: 'Cyrus, what have you and James been doing to the Indian
"We answered by saying that the object at the mission was to civilize them and teach them the customs of white
people and we had only been giving them a lesson. He said they had been coming in one at a time ever since we
started, and every one had told a bad story about how they had been treated. The one that got away and made her
escape, had got in a long time before our arrival.
"I found out later where we had made a mistake. We trespassed on Indian customs. The saying is, 'when you are in
Rome do as Rome does.' When a young buck Indian goes with a young squaw he either goes in front of her or
behind her. It is bad manners to walk at her side. Indians while traveling on ponies always go single. It shows a lack
of sociability, which Indians are much noted for,” History of Wyandotte County Kansas and its people ed. and
comp. by Perl W. Morgan (Chicago, The Lewis publishing company, 1911). 2 vols.,
     The Kansas historical marker at the site states: In 1825 the Federal government began moving Eastern
Indians to new lands west of the Mississippi. This sign is on a 2,500 acre tract assigned to the Shawnees. With this
tribe came Methodist, Baptist and Quaker missionaries. One mile east and a little north the Quakers erected
buildings in 1836 and opened a school the following year. Indian students, who lived at the mission, received
elementary schooling, religious instruction and training in agriculture and domestic arts. Highest recorded
enrollment was 76. In later years the school was attended mainly by Indian orphans. The mission operated almost
continuously until 1869. A marker designates the site of the main building, which was torn down in 1917 (The
marker is located along Carter Drive, southwest of I-35 and Shawnee Mission Parkway
Johnson County, Kansas.
     Thomas H. Stanley (b. November 20,1818 ~ d. May 19, 1902) and Mary Wilson Stanley (d. January 9, 1909)
were married October 30, 1840 at Concord Meeting. They were members of Short Creek Monthly Meeting near Mt.
Pleasant, Ohio. They moved their membership from Short Creek to Salem Monthly Meeting, Iowa on November 23,
1847 (Short Creek Monthly Meeting Minutes, Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Vol. IV,
Ohio, p. 279). The story of the Stanley ministry among the Native Americans can be found in Sixty Years Among
the Indians: A Short Life Sketch of Thomas H. and Mary W. Stanley, Quaker Missionaries to the Indians by H.
Pearl Dixon (Published by Author, a copy can be found at the Lyon County Historical Society, Emporia, Kansas).
After their experience at the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee they moved to Iowa in 1848. Thomas H. Stanley
would make many trips during his life east to solicit for funds among Friends to aid Native Americans and also to
visit Presidents: Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and President Grant. The Stanleys were involved in the founding
of the White‟s Manual Labor School in Iowa in 1854. In 1857 the family moved to Americus, Kansas nine miles
north of Emporia since Thomas felt called to work with the Kaw Indians. Like Henry Harvey, Thomas Stanley
traveled east to gather funds in the face of the horrible 1860 drought. He traveled through New England. In 1865,
Thomas and Mary became the superintendents of the governments mission to the Kaw Indians, which was located a
few miles from their home. In 1872, Thomas began a new ministry to the Absentee Shawnee who had settled near
Arkansas City. Upon his recommendation a station and a school was built for them. In 1873 he was appointed
farmer for the Kaw Indians in Indian Territory.
       “The Shawnee~Quaker Missions”, http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kansas/kansaskansans/page20.htm.
        “The Friends‟ Establishment in Kansas Territory” by Wilson Hobbs, M.D., Transactions of the Kansas State
Historical Society, 1903-1904, Vol. 8 (Topeka, George A. Clark, State Printer, 1904),p. 268.
       Elizabeth Burgess and Dr. Jesse Harvey are mentioned in footnote #19 on page 144 of Friends and the Indians,
1655-1917 by Rayner Wickersham Kelsey (Philadelphia, The Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian
Affairs, 1917).
       The Shawnee Baptist Mission was located in Mission, Kansas.
       “Before Bleeding Kansas: Christian Missionaries, Slavery, and the Shawnee Indians in Pre-Territorial Kansas,
1844-1854” by Kevin Abing (Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains, 24, Spring 2001), pp. 54-71.
        Extracts of Minutes of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 1847, pp. 6-9.
          Rootsweb.com: Quaker Roots L Archives: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/QUAKER-ROOTS/2000-
01/0948726441 and http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/johnson/library/indiancem.txt . Sadly the cemetery is in very
bad shape. Many stones have disappeared or have been damaged. Native Americans and Quaker missionaries are
buried together in the cemetery. It is also the resting place of Shawnee chief Captain Joseph Parks,
      "A Holy Battleground: Methodist, Baptist and Quaker Missionaries Among the Shawnee Indians, 1830-1844."
Kansas History, Summer 1998 http://www.kshs.org/publicat/history/1998summer_abing.pdf. An interesting article
about the rivalry between church missions to the Shawnee Native Americans.
       John Harvey, poet: John was one of the sons of William and Mary Vestal Harvey. His father William was a
brother of Isaac, Eli, Joshua and Caleb Harvey who founded the Harvey Settlement in Clinton Co., Ohio. William
moved his family to Ohio from North Carolina, a little later than his brothers. He was married to Lydia Ballard.
They had eleven children together. His second marriage was to Mahala Plummer. John Harvey taught school at
Springfield Monthly Meeting for two years. Eventually John and his family moved closer to Harveysburg. A book
of his poetry was published in 1848: Miscellaneous Poems; Moral, Religious, and Sentimental by John Harvey
(Cincinnati: Published by James Harvey, 1848). It is a very rare book.
       A book “Poems by John Harvey 1848” was published by James Harvey near Harveysburg, Ohio 8 th mo. 1848.
        Crown Hill Cemetery Burial Locator: http://www.crownhill.org/genealogy/index.html
          History of the State of Kansas by William G. Cutler, Douglas County (Chicago, IL.: A. T. Andreas, 1883)
        Marriages 1851-1860, Parke County, Indiana Rookville, Indiana, Compiled by (Mrs. R. E.) Bess Ott Swope
Chairman Genealogical Records Committee Estabrook Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution 1949-1950
1950-1951 D. A. R. Indexed by Genealogical Records Committee Estabrook Chapter Daughters of the American
Revolution Mrs. Reuben Dooley, Mrs. Edgar G. Henderson and Mrs Maxwell Chapman 2-16-1955 Mrs. W. F.
Schmidt -- Corydon, Indiana State Chairman Genealogical Records Committee, p 102.
         Ancestry.com: Year: 1870, Census Place: Plainfield, Hendricks, Indiana, Roll: M593_322, Page: 399, Image:
          Ancestry.com: Year: 1880; Census Place: Union, Hardin, Iowa; Roll: T9_343; Family History Film:
1254343; Page: 510D; Enumeration District: 127; Image: 0316.

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