ELIZABETH BURGESS HARVEY MENDENHALL September 22nd, 1801~May 1st, 1888 and her husband DR. JESSE HARVEY November 26th, 1801 ~ May 12th, 1848 This Friend, wife of the late Dr. Harvey and daughter of Bettie Hendricks and Thomas Burgess, is now living in this city (Indianapolis), in the 85th year of her age. The years of her early married life were devoted to teaching the neglected races, Indians as well as Negroes. She, with other Friends, did much to modify the felling of prejudice against the colored people in the village of i Harveysburg. ~~ Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson Dr. Jesse Harvey commenced the practice in Harveysburg in 1830. He was a native of North Carolina, but received his education in Ohio. He was distinguished for his knowledge of the natural sciences, zeal in the cause of education and his philanthropic efforts to elevate the Negro and Indian races. In 1847, he went as a missionary of the Society of Friends to the Shawnee Indians of Kansas Territory, where he died the next year, in the forty-seventh year of his age. ~~ Beer‟s 1882 History of Warren County, Ohio Elizabeth Burgess and Dr. Jesse Harvey lived in interesting and challenging times. They came to Ohio with their parents who migrated from Virginia and North Carolina to make a new life away from of institution of slavery. Elizabeth and Jesse were also pioneer builders, living in the newly founded village of Harveysburg (1828) surrounded by rich farmland, a village that became in its early history a thriving center of pork packing and of the wool and grain trades. The Burgesses, the Harvey’s and the Hams were the early settlers of Harveysburg and they were all inter-married. Elizabeth and Jesse helped to establish schools and promoted education. They were faithful members of the Society of Friends. They had weathered the devastation of the Hicksite Separation among Friends in 1828 and were fervent Orthodox Quakers. Their faith and the witness and commitment of their parents lead them into difficult and dangerous ministries: the Underground Railroad, the education of freed African-Americans and the education of Native- Americans. They treated the freed African-Americans living in and around Harveysburg as equals and embraced and safeguarded the children placed in their charge. They lived lives of service to others and worked for justice and peace on the edge of the American frontier as it moved ever west. During the process of research for this study, the author has begun to unearth some interesting but previously unknown facts about Harveysburg‟s history. The author believes that many untold stories of struggle and heroism lie beneath the surface of what is now known. The politically radical villages of Harveysburg, Oakland and Selma, Ohio cut a swath deeply through an area strongly anti-slavery as well as Quaker. The stories are only beginning to be told. Harveysburg‟s connection with the Shawnee Native Americans also needs more study since the “Black School” was, according to legend, open for the education of Indians, too. Elizabeth Burgess was the oldest child of Thomas and Elizabeth, also known as Bettie, (Hendricks) Burgess of Virginia.ii Thomas was from Campbell Co., Virginia. He married Elizabeth (Bettie) Hendricks of Halifax Co., Virginia at the Banister Meetinghouse (a preparative meeting of South River Monthly Meeting that was located at Lynchburg, Va.iii) on 10th mo. 16th 1799. Their eight children were: o ELIZABETH BURGESS, b. September 22, 1801 m. Dr. Jesse Harvey, son of Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey of Clinton Co., Ohio iv (The subjects of this chapter.) o JOSEPH H. BURGESS, b. October 9, 1803 (Joseph was married to Ruth Wales who died 5 months after the birth of their only child, Isaac W. Burgess who was born on September 1, 1831. On September 24, 1832, Joseph H. Burgess and Simon D. Harvey take out a Guardian Bond for Isaac W. Burgess, the child of said Joseph W. Burgess.v Joseph H. Burgess started a tannery in Harveysburg and made boots and shoes.vi However, he moved to Highland County and married Juliet Johnson Burgess at Fairfield Meeting in 1843. He did not take his son with him. It is possible that his child, Isaac W. Burgess, stayed with his grandmother Ruth Wales, or perhaps more likely in light of the guardianship document, with his aunt and uncle, Simon D. Harvey and Mary H. Burgess in Harveysburg. In 1848 Joseph H. Burgess and his second wife, Juliet Johnson Burgess, and three children, which included Isaac W. Burgess, moved to Pleasant Plain Meeting in Iowa.vii o JESSE W. BURGESS, b. November 11, 1805 (Became a physician and was a farmer ~ studied with Dr. Jesse Harvey, his sister Elizabeth‟s husband, graduated from medical school in Cincinnati and practiced in Highland Co. and eventually moved to Harveysburg. He married Elizabeth Harvey.)viii Jesse Burgess is buried in the Harveysburg Quaker Orthodox Cemetery. His daughter Mary Emily Burgess is buried next to him. o MOSES BURGESS, b. April 28, 1807 (Moved to Kansas).ix o MARY H. BURGESS, b. February 1, 1809 ~ d. August 9, 1862. (Married Simon D. Harvey, the son of Isaac and Lydia Dicks Harvey. They were married on October 1, 1827 in Fairfield Twp, Highland Co. Simon D. and Mary H. Harvey also served at the Quaker Shawnee Mission and School in Kansas, 1858-1860.x Simon D. was a brother of William Harvey who founded Harveysburg in 1828.) Mary and Simon had four children of their own and possibly helped to raise or did raise Isaac W. Burgess, the son of Joseph H. Burgess by his first wife. o TACY BURGESS, b. September 5, 1811(Married Job Hadley, the son of Joshua and Rebecca Hinshaw Hadley. They married in Harveysburg February 19, 1846. They lived in Hendricks Co., Indiana).xi Tacy‟s twin sister is: o MARTHA BURGESS, b. September 5, 1811xii (Married William Hamxiii, the son of Rhoden and Abigail McKinsey Ham. Rhoden Ham in 1815 was the second owner of the land upon which Harveysburg would be built.xiv) o JOHN TOMPKINS BURGESS, b. October 13, 1813 (Married Elizabeth Harvey, daughter of Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey of Clinton Co., Ohio. She is Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s sister). John Tompkins and Elizabeth Harvey Burgess lived in Hendricks County, Indiana. South River Monthly Meeting in Virginia was named South River since it was located south of the James River. Lynchburg, Virginia was a city initially settled by Quakers. The third and last South River meeting house was built in 1798, and served the Quakers until 1839 when it was abandoned (most Quakers had left the area in the 1820's due to their opposition to slavery). The building soon fell into ruins (pictured to the left), but was restored in the early 1900's after the land was purchased by area Presbyterians (across from the intersection of Fort Avenue and Sandusky Drive).See, http://www.lynchburgonline.com/history.html Elizabeth‟s mother, Betty, was the overseer of Banister Meeting and had kept this Preparative Meeting going even when the population of members had declined severely. In 1801 she was released from her position of overseer. Betty was also an advocate of freeing the slaves.xv Jane F. Wales Nicholson in her memoir tells how her family traveled to Ohio from Virginia to southwest Ohio and she remembers Bettie Hendrick Burgess: We stopped first in Highland County, where we had many relatives in and around Hillsboro. They emigrated there from Virginia in 1790. These relatives were sisters of my grandmother (Chloe Hendrick who married Samuel Welch, whose daughter Ruth Welch married Isaac Wales, the father of Jane F. Wales Nicholson), and when she arrived there were seven in all; they were the daughters of Ruth Eckels and Moses Hendricks of Halifax County, Virginia. So many of their descendants are still living in southern Ohio that I will mention their married names: Mary Slaughter, Anna Milner, Chloe Welch, Judith Borum, Sallie Terrell, Bettie Burgess, Ruth Kirby. Just before the Civil War, relatives who were Hendricks came from Tennessee to visit Harveysburg, and in that vicinity alone, eighty of the third and fourth generations from Moses Hendricks, of Virginia assembled at a picnic. Bettie Hendricks was a zealous Friend and opposed the “laying down” of Banister meeting near Halifax Court House, because there was no other Friends meeting nearer than South River, near Lynchburg, fifty miles away. She went regularly to meeting and stayed alone a silent hour for several weeks. It was wintertime, some woodchoppers working in sight of the road, wondered to see a young woman walk by at regular hours on certain days of the week. Their curiosity led them to follow, and they were interested to see a young woman sitting alone in silent worship. They went again and again and were instrumental in inducing others to come, thus the meeting grew and continues. Thomas Scatterwood, an acceptable minister of the Society, sent her a letter of encouragement, but her good work did not stop here; slaves belonged to her mother by will of her deceased husband. Bettie induced her to free them. She afterwards went to live with her daughter in Highland County, Ohio. The Negroes were so loathe to part with “old mistress” that she told them she would pay toll and fare-age (and item then) for as many as would want to go along. Twenty-five came, and their descendants live among those of their former mistress to this day.”xvi Three times before moving to Ohio Elizabeth‟s father, Thomas Burgess, refusing to pay muster fines, had personal property seized by the local sheriff in 1808, 1809 and 1810.xvii In 1813, Thomas, Betty and their children moved from Banister Preparative Meeting (part of South River MM) to Fairfield Monthly Meeting in Highland County, Ohio near Leesburg where many of their relatives had settled. Many of their freed slaves came with them when they migrated. In 1835, Thomas and Betty Hendricks Burgess moved to Harveysburg, Ohio.xviii Elizabeth Burgess was a well-educated woman for her times. On September 15th, 1824, Elizabeth Burgess married Jesse Harvey, the son of Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey of Clinton Co., Ohio at the Fairfield Monthly Meeting Meetinghouse near Leesburg.xix Caleb was one of the Harvey brothers, sons of William and Elizabeth Carter Harvey of North Carolina, who settled in Adams Township of Clinton Co, in an area known as the “Harvey Settlement” part of which is the site of Springfield Monthly Meeting along Todd‟s Fork. Dr. Jesse‟s siblings were: JOSHUA HARVEY b: November 24, 1803 in Guilford Co., N.C., d. in Clinton County, Ohio, January 15, 1831. HANNAH HARVEY b. June 26, 1806 in Guilford Co., N.C. ~ d. January 16,1851, married Jesse Lewis on June 24, 1828 at Springfield Monthly Meeting, Clinton Co., Ohio. ELI HARVEY b: December 12, 1808, d. January 7,1809 in Clinton County, Ohio. REBECCA HARVEY b: September 15, 1813, m. William Pool of Wayne Co., Indiana on February 20,1834 at Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville, Ohio. ELIZABETH HARVEY b: November 9, 1816, d. June 29,1894 in Hendrick Co., Indiana, married John Tompkins Burgess, the brother of Elizabeth Burgess Harvey Mendenhall (see above) on June 13, 1837 in Springfield Monthly Meeting, Clinton Co., Ohio. ISAAC H. HARVEY b: in Clinton County, Ohio, married Sarah Edwards (See below for details about their journey to visit Abraham Lincoln.) Jesse‟s father, Caleb (1776-1830), was an advocate for Native Americans. He had been appointed a member of the Committee on Indian Civilization by Ohio Valley Yearly Meeting and after 1821 was on the same committee of the Indiana Yearly Meeting.xx He often visited the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians at Wapakoneta, Ohio. He always said that he wanted to leave his concern about Indian welfare as an inheritance to his children. Jesse, his wife and their children, would accept that inheritance.xxi Consequently, it is easy to see, considering their families‟ concerns about justice and education as strong Quakers, why Elizabeth Burgess Harvey felt morally compelled to educate ex-slaves and why Dr. Jesse Harvey, her husband, felt a moral imperative to minister to Native Americans and conduct slaves on the Underground Railroad. Elizabeth would establish the first black school in Ohio at Harveysburg in 1831. Dr. Jesse Harvey would establish the Harveysburg Academy in 1837 and become the superintendent of the Quaker Shawnee School and Farm in Kansas taking his family with him in 1847. Elizabeth Burgess Harvey founded what is thought to be the first black school in Ohio around 1831 according to Beer‟s 1882 History of Warren County, p. 653. She is also mentioned in the book Ohio Builds A Nation by Samuel Hardin Stille: The first free Negro school in Ohio devoted to the education of the unfortunate people was opened in Harveysburg, over thirty years before the Civil War. The school was opened and conducted by Elizabeth Harvey. She was the first woman to devote her life to the advancement and education of the Negro race. Her name should be entered on the roll of honor of those noble people who gave their lives to a great cause.xxii Although its title as “first” may be in question by some, it is certainly one of the earliest black schools in Ohio. In 1829 Ohio School law refused to allow freed African-Americans into the newly developing public school system. Because of this unjust law, various people and organizations began to open segregated schools for blacks. Another potent catalyst for the establishment of black schools in the early to mid 1830s was the benchmark abolitionist event of the emancipation of all the slaves in the British Empire on August 23, 1833. Internal affairs within the United States also affected the black population of Ohio. For example, from 1826 on the state of North Carolina passed severe laws against freed slaves, which encouraged their leaving the state altogether, many of which came to Ohio in spite of the severity of the Ohio Black Laws. It is not inconceivable that the Harvey’s and other Friends who had migrated to Ohio from North Carolina were in contact with Friends who remained in North Carolina and the Yearly Meeting, which helped, freed slaves to migrate north. The Ohio Laws in the late 1840s finally allowed public monies for education of Blacks but only when segregated. According to the 1850 Federal Census many of the black/mulatto families living in Harveysburg had at least one older member who had been born in North Carolina: The patriarch of the Brantley family The Wall children (children of Stephen Wall, master) The patriarch of the Winslow family The matriarch of the Wallace family The Bennett family The matriarch of the Dudley family The patriarch of the Hill family Donations from the Harvey’s, from other Friends in Harveysburg, and the tuition paid by the families of the students funded the Black School initially in 1831. Sadly, the names of the first students of the Black School are not known. Perhaps the black families listed above constitute some of the earliest patrons of the Black School? Jane F. Wales Nicholson‟s following statement indicates that Colonel Stephen Wall, a wealthy North Carolina plantation owner and, most likely, a slave dealer, contacted Dr. Harvey to provide a home and school for his mulatto children. Perhaps Wall‟s agents had heard about Elizabeth Harvey‟s school through the Quaker network. Indeed, the author has been unable to find advertisements in the local papers for the Black School and Harvey‟s Academy in their earliest days. This may indicate that the schools were advertised through word of mouth and in Quaker circles only to protect the ministry. Stephen Wall brought some of his children to the Harvey’s just before the Harveysburg Academy opened in 1837; six years after Elizabeth‟s Black School had opened its door. The arrival of the Wall children may be the stimulus for Dr. Harvey‟s attempt to have a “separate department for blacks” in the Academy. However, Jane Nicholson continues speaking about the Black School without further reference to the Harveysburg Academy: A planter of North Carolina (Stephen Wallxxiii), who also had a fishery on Poedee River, wishing to liberate some of his slaves, sent agents North to find a location, if possible, where they could be educated.xxiv He was recommended to Dr. Harvey who promised to open a colored school if they were sent to him. In the fall just before the opening of the high school, he came again and brought a number of bright young mulattoes, the children of three mothers and one father, their master. When they arrived Dr. Harvey and wife were in Richmond Yearly Meeting. The agent, anxious to see them and to attend the meeting also, went immediately to Richmond. He afterwards said that the meeting was the most impressive sight he ever beheld. He sat upstairs where he could see the entire congregation, and was charmed with the uniform dress of the large assembly. He admitted that the prettiest sight he ever beheld was the white silk and satin bonnets around the calm faces of the women. These young colored people sent north for the purpose of being educated were the first to form the colored school. It was taught two years by Elizabeth Harvey. She had twenty-five pupils. Afterwards, Isaac Woodward took the school and after his death the first teacher had it again. The father and former master came north to see how the children were doing. Their teacher told me, she had many long and full talks with him, about their condition and his own. He saw that these bright yellow young people would be outlawed by both black and white, that their social condition would be truly sad. “And whom do I have to blame for all this?” he said, “whom, but myself?” Seeing him thus moved, she ventured to ask him if he would not, someday, liberate all his slaves and provide for them. This, he promise to do. He was past the prime of life ~ had never been married, and had no near legal heirs. He went home and made the full promise, but he came north once too often, for the good of his laborers at the plantation. He had been the guest of Friends of moderate views. This time he saw hot abolitionists. They were holding a convention at Oakland, in the large anti-slavery shed, built on the farm of Dr. Brook. The speakers were employed by the New England Anti-Slavery Society, to come west and hold one hundred conventions, as near the border as possible. Many of the speakers as, Septimus S. Foster, Theodore Wald and others, had studied for the Congregational ministry and had left the pulpit for the platform; where their puritan training knew no mercy on what they thought to be wrong. Dr. Harvey, fearing the southerner would be irritated against the north tried to dissuade him from going, but he went and was greatly exasperated. A second time he went around, for he said, “they are so furious, they might stab me in the back, and I will sell my life as dearly as possible.” This time, upon his return home, he destroyed the will he had made.xxv He obviously had second thoughts after he cooled off and did free his children and provided for their futures. The mulatto children of Stephen Wall placed in the care of Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were: Ordindatus S. B. Wall ~ son of Pricilla, b. 1825 Caroline (“Carrie”) ~ daughter of Pricilla, b. 1833 Benjamin Franklin ~ son of Pricilla, 1837 Sarah K. ~ daughter of Jane, b. 1833 (Jane was a sister of Pricilla) Napoleon ~ son of Jane, b. 1822 John ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1829 Albert G. ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1843 Peter ~ son of Rhody (Rhoday), b. 1845, was born just before his father Stephen died. There is no evidence that Peter came to Harveysburg. Orindatus S. B. Wall and four other children (Caroline, Sarah and Benjamin F., and Napoleon) were freed by Stephen Wall when they were first sent to Harveysburg around 1837. Stephen Wall, who died on September 9th, 1845xxvi, would complete the emancipation of all of his eight children and their families through his Last Will and Testament, dated August 28, 1845. He left them $1,000.00 each, all the lands that he had purchased for them in Ohio, and $5,000 to help support their settlement in Harveysburg and the surrounding area. He entrusted Dr. Jesse Harvey with the responsibility to care for, teach and purchase land for his children (see his Last Will and Testament below). The 1856 map of Warren County (below) shows Harvey and Wall property adjoiningxxvii. The J. Harvey on this 1856 map is most likely Joseph D. Harvey (December 11th, 1819 ~ October 5th, 1889), one of the sons of William Harvey, the founder of Harveysburg. The J. Harvey property is part of Outlot #2, the lot upon which the Black School was built. This may indicate that the lot was given over to Elizabeth‟s project by William Harvey himself, founder of the town. In the 1830 Federal Census Jesse Harvey is listed having one freed male colored person (between the age of 24 and 35) living on his premises. xxviii In the 1840 Census Jesse Harvey (spelled as Hervey) has listed two freed male colored persons (between the age of 24 and 35) living on his premises.xxix The circumstances surrounding these nameless freed slaves is unknown although they could have a connection with Stephen Wall. It is not known if Stephen Wall placed any of his other slaves in the Harvey‟s care. Perhaps these early freed blacks were Betty Burgess‟ former slaves? Further research needs to be done. There are many stories here just under the surface relating to the freed black community of Harveysburg that deserve further research and need to be told. The Quaker custom concerning their boarding schools was to provide homes for the outlying students (their room and board) in the homes of the Friends living near the school. Twenty-eight year old Napoleon Wall, one of Stephen Wall‟s children, is listed as a mulatto and a farmer in the 1850 Federal Census and is living just east of Harveysburg on a farm in Clinton County, Chester Township. He was married to Tura (?) Wall and they had six children: William (3), E. A. (1), S. J. (8), J. (9), Albert (7), and Ed (4) (1850 Federal Census, Chester Twp., Clinton Co., Ohio; Roll: M432_668; Page: 291). Napoleon, unlike his siblings, never moved away from the Harveysburg area to Oberlin, Ohio or attended the college. In the 1850 Census of Harveysburg, Datis Wall (Orindatus), age 26, a shoemaker, is listed as a mulatto. Caroline (“Carrie”) Wall (b. 1833 - d. 1915), age 17, is listed as a mulatto. We also know that “Carrie” was enrolled in the “Ladies Preparative School” of Oberlin College that same year.xxx Sarah Wall, age 16, is listed as a mulatto in the census. Sarah Kelly Wall (who became Mrs. Abram Fidler of Chillicothe) also was enrolled as a student at Oberlin College in 1850.xxxi All the Walls are listed in the 1850 Census as being born in North Carolina. Orindatis and Caroline are living with the Caucasian Jacob Randall family. Sarah is living with the Caucasian Dr. John W. Scroggs and family. As the oldest sibling, Orindatus took the responsibility of making sure his sibling attained a high education. He did not attend classes at Oberlin although he moved to the town. A number of other mulattos are recorded living in Harveysburg in the 1850 Census with different surnames as well as black families (Winslow, Wallace and Hill). May Wall is four years old and living with the Winslow family. She was also born in North Carolina.xxxii According to Dallas Bogan, the following was found in Stephen Wall‟s will: “Mr. Wall, in his last will and testament, filed in 1846, set free the following slaves; "Little John and Albert, children of Rody, also $1000 from my estate. Also to John and Albert all the land I now own in the State, $5000 to Dr. Harvey to be laid out in land, $200 to Moses Burgers."xxxiii (This is most likely “Moses Burgess”, one of Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s brothers-in-law). Black School. The old Harveysburg Academy was located across (directly south of the Black School). Note the land owned by J. Harvey and directly north is land owned by S. Wall. There is some evidence that the Burgess family was also involved with Stephen Wall and his children. There is the hint above in Wall‟s will. Another piece of evidence that points to Burgess participation is found in the 1840 Tax Duplicate of Warren County, Ohio. Dr. Jesse Burgess, another one of Elizabeth Burgess Harvey‟s brothers, deeded the east half of Lot # 13 in Harveysburg to Stephen Wall. The most distinguished of the children of Stephen Wall was Orindatus Simon Bolivar Wall who was born August 12, 1825 in Rockingham, Richmond Co., North Carolina and died in Washington, D. C. on April 26, 1891. His first name was incorrectly written as “Oliver” during his indictment for his participation in the John Price Rescue at Oberlin, Ohio, also known as the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue of 1858. He would have been in his pre-teens when Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s Academy, with the “separate department for blacks” opened. His mother‟s name was Priscilla or Prissy Ely, a sister of Jane, one of Stephen Wall‟s two other slave wives. Nothing else is known about Priscilla except that she also, at some point, lived in Harveysburg. It was reported that she said that her “old master” should have been “burned at the stake a long time ago.”xxxiv The following short biography is found in The Town That Started the Civil War by Nat Brandt. Stephen Wall provided for his children‟s higher education beyond what could be offered at Harveysburg. All the children, except Napoleon and Orindatus, pursued a collegiate education at Oberlin College. Between 1850 and 1853, when Orindatus arrived in Oberlin and began establishing his business, Caroline, Sarah, and Benjamin were enrolled in the college. John and Albert would enroll in 1860. Sarah was the only one of the siblings to complete the requisite courses and graduated from Oberlin College. All but one child came to Oberlin (Napoleon), and all his daughters and sons but Orindatus entered the Preparatory Department. In October 1854, sister Caroline, then a senior in the Literary Department, married John Mercer Lansgton. He and John Mercer swapped properties in 1856, Wall giving John Mercer a new two-story frame house on East College Street in return for a farm in Brownhelm Township. In the same month that Caroline married Langston, Orindatus married Amanda A. Thomas, a mulatto born in Virginia who was then living in town . . . He first opened a boot and shoemaking business on East College Street in partnership with Rescuer David Watson. Current store is down from the Palmer House on the north side of East College between Main and Pleasant streets. Resides two blocks away on East College between the homes of Rescuers Henry Peck and Ralph Plumb. A heavyset, robust-looking man, well established in the community, having served at one time temporarily as a village marshal.xxxv Print from Black Phalanx: A History of the United states in the Wars of 1775- 1812, 1861-1965 by Joseph T. Wilson. Arlington Cemetery ~ Site 124B Captain O. S. B. Wall was one of the one hundred African-American officers during the Civil War. He was the first regularly commissioned African-American Captain in the U. S. Army. He was a recipient of the Medal of Honor. O. S. B. Wall and his wife, Amanda Ann Thomas Wall (1837-1902), are buried in Arlington Cemetery, Virginia. When living in Oberlin, Ohio, O. S. B. Wall is known to have assisted in the Underground Railroad. On September 13, 1858, the United States Marshall of Oberlin had arrested the fugitive slave, John Price. He was obliged under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 to return John Price to his master. Knowing the anti- slavery sentiments of the citizens of Oberlin, he transferred Price to the nearby town of Wellington. This became common knowledge in Oberlin and a group of whites and blacks, thirty-seven persons in all, rushed to Wellington to stop the removal of John Price and his return south. They took Price forcibly, after negotiations failed, and returned him to Oberlin. They hid him in the home of the president of Oberlin College. They then secreted him off to Canada and freedom. Only two of the thirty-seven Rescuers went to trail. The other thirty-five indicted were released, one of whom was Orindatus S. B. Wall. In the picture above of the Oberlin Rescuers of John Price, Orindatus S. B. Wall is the second from the left wearing the top hat. At some point Ordinatus became a lawyer (perhaps he studied with his brother-in- law) and became a partner with his brother-in-law, John Mercer Langston, who was the first practicing African-American lawyer in Ohio (passed the Bar in 1854). John M. Langston also founded the Law School at Howard University in 1869 located in Washington, D.C. John M. Langston was also the founder of the Ohio State Anti-Slavery Society, an African-American organization and he organized many anti-slavery societies on the local level and state level in Ohio. Like his friend and partner, John M. Langston (1829-1897), was a son of a wealthy plantation owner in Louisa county, Virginia, John Quarles, and his mother Lucy Jane Langston was a freed slave with Indian and Black ancestry. When his parents died he and his brothers were left independently wealthy. Due to the increasing pressure on freed blacks to move out of the south and due to education and employment opportunities in Ohio, they moved to Ohio and lived with a friend of their fathers in Chillicothe until moving to Oberlin in 1838. John M. Langston had an illustrious career. He was a: He was the first African-American to be elected to a public office. He was a city councilman in Oberlin and on the Board of Education. He conspired with John Brown to raid Harpers Ferry but declined to participate. He led the National Equal Rights League in 1864. He was Educational Inspector for the Freedman's Bureau. He organized the Law Department of Howard University in 1869 and served as Acting President for a while. He served as consul-general in Haiti. He was the president of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate School He was the first African-American elected to a seat in the U. S. Congress in 1888.xxxvi O. S. B. Wall and John M. Langston were successful recruiters of African- American troops during the Civil War. They recruited for the famous African- American regiment, the Massachusetts 54th. Two of those recruits from Ohio were Orindatus‟ two younger brothers, John and Albert Wall. Both brothers survived their service in the Massachusetts 54th. John became a sergeant serving until the end of the war. Albert was disabled and did not serve his entire enlistment. O. S. B. Wall and John M. Langston also organized the 127th O.V.I which became the 5th, U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment. In 1865 after receiving his commission as Captain, Orindatis became a Quartermaster in the Bureau for Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands at Charleston, South Carolina. He was recognized and honored for his service at Oberlin in 1865. The following quote is taken from They Stopped In Oberlin by William E. Bigglestone: Oberlin honored his efforts in March 1865, when at a public meeting held in the college chapel; Professor Henry Peck presented him an eighty dollar sword with the scabbard inscribed, “God Speed the Right”.xxxvii By 1870 O. S. B. Wall was living in Washington D. C. with his wife Amanda and four of their children: Edward C. (13), Stephen R. (12), Sallie (8), and Isabella (5). He was listed as a police magistrate in the 1870 Census. In the 1890 Washington, D. C. Directory, O. S. B. Wall was listed as a “Lawyer” located at 5th and Pomeroy Northwest, east of 7th Street. He also worked for the Federal Government. His youngest daughter, Laura Gertrude, attended Oberlin College in 1889. The descendants of O. S. B. Wall changed their name twice in the 20th century and that has caused some difficulty in tracing the family. The names chosen were Gates and Murphy. Seven of the eight children of Orindatus S. B. and Amanda Thomas Wall are: EDWARD C. WALL ~ Lived and died in Canada STEPHEN ROSCOE WALL ~ b. October 10, 1857 ~ d. May 22, 1934, m. Lillie Ada Slee around 1900 in Washington, D. C. Stephen R. Wall changed his name to Russell S. Gates. He changed the family name after a nasty controversy over admitting his daughter into a white school in Washington, D. C. SALLIE WALL ~ b. 1861, M. Bell LILLIAN WALL ~ b. 1862 ISABELLA WALL ~ m. German O. Elterich, d. 1907 in London, England LAURA GERTRUDE WALL ~ b. September 1878 HELEN WALL ~ m. Edmonston Easton. The newspaper quotations below shed more light on the prominent life of Orindatus S. B. Wall: “A NEW AID SOCIETY: At a meeting at Capt. O. S. B. Wall‟s office last night, an association was formed for the purpose of assisting the destitute in the vicinity of Howard University. The association was named the Howard Hill Aid Society. Capt. O. S. B. Wall was elected president, Chas. N. Otey, vice-president; W. J. Simmons, secretary, and Prof Jas. M. Gregory, treasurer” (The Washington Post, March 1, 1879). “STRICKEN WITH PARALYSIS: O. S. B. Wall, one of the best known colored lawyers in the city, was attacked in the police court yesterday morning with paralysis and fell to the floor. He was removed to his home, corner of Linden Avenue and Pomeroy Street, in a carriage, accompanied by Messrs. Hewlett and Ricks . . . Squire Wall, as he is know to all citizens of this city, is a native of North Carolina. He was brought up and education at Oberlin, Ohio, and has resided in Washington for about twenty-five years. He served in the Army during the war, and since then has held several offices under the District government, and when not in public life he has practiced his profession before the local courts. Mr. Wall is a large man, of a very light complexion, and, to judge from his face, is always in a good humor. He has many friends in this city among all classes of men . . . (The Washington Post, April 13, 1890). “DEATH OF A LEADING COLORED CITIZEN, WHO WAS A DISTINGUISHED SOLDIER: Capt. O. S. B. Wall, a well-known citizen of the District, died at his residence Sunday evening at 7:45 o‟clock. On the 12th of April, 1890 he had a stroke of paralysis in the courtroom, and from that time his health has been feeble. The end was peaceful and without a struggle. Capt. Wall was born of a white father, Col. Stephen Wall, in Richmond County, N. C. in 1823. When he was twelve years old his father removed to Harveysburg, a Quaker settlement in Ohio, near Columbus. When he was twenty-six he went to Oberlin to educate his sisters, having previously learned the trade of a shoemaker and kept the only boot and shoe store in that town. During the Civil War he raised in Ohio, under the encouragement of Gen. Andrew of Massachusetts, soldiers for the first colored regiment of volunteers. He was the first and only colored man ever commissioned as captain. This was on March 3, 1865, in the Regular Army. It was done under the eye and by the direct orders of Secretary Stanton, a subordinate in the War Department at first declining to examine him. He was detailed to Charleston, S. C., as provost marshal in the spring of that year and he served till the war closed, receiving his honorable discharge February 5, 1865. During that year he settled in Washington and began the practice of law. He has held the following offices: magistrate of police precinct, representative in District legislature, notary public and justice of the peace. He was president of the organization, which assisted in the exodus of hundreds of colored people from North Carolina to Indiana. He was one of the colored men who insisted on membership in the First Congregational Church, just before the secession under Dr. Boynton, and the first man ever baptized in Dr. Rankin‟s pastorate. In`1854 he married Miss Amanda Thomas of Cincinnati, who was studying at Oberlin. They have had eight children, five of whom are still living. Three brothers and two sisters survive him. One of the sisters is the wife of Hon. John M. Langston, member of Congress from Virginia. At a large meeting of colored citizens last night at Carson Hotel, Col. P. H. Carson presided with Charles S. Morris secretary, and resolutions on the death of Captain Wall, presented by a committee, Alexander G. Davis, Charles S. Morris, Walter Y. Class, R. Wormly, and John D. Powell, Jr. were adopted. The resolutions expressed profound sorrow at the death of Captain Wall, and pay a tribute to his service to the colored race in the public offices he held in the District” (The Washington Post, April 28, 1891). The funeral service was held in his home on April 29, 1891. He was first buried in Graceland Cemeteryxxxviii in Washington, D.C. but his remains were later removed to Arlington Cemetery in 1895. Sarah Kelly Wall graduated from Oberlin College, the Literary Course, in 1856 and married Abram Fidler, a mulatto, in 1863 in Chillicothe, Ohio. In 1870 he owned a livery stable there. They had two children: Mary Cruett (12) and Wade Barnett (15). After her husband‟s death, she remained in Chillicothe and became a prominent teacher in the Black Department of the public school system. Eventually she moved to Washington, D. C. and lived with Caroline and John Mercer Langston until her death in 1886. Benjamin F. Wall left Oberlin in 1858 and died on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia on May 22, 1869. After the Civil War Albert G. Wall returned to Oberlin College. There he married Ella P. Fidler, Abram Fidler‟s sister, in 1866 or 1867. By 1880 they are living on a farm in the District of Columbia. They have four daughters: Catherine (12), Albertie (8), Gina (5), and Etta (2) (1880 Census, Washington, District of Columbia, District of Columbia; Roll: T9_121; Page: 165.4000; Enumeration District: 8). Albert died May 31, 1897 at the Freedman‟s Hospital in the District of Columbia. After the Civil War John Wall also returned to Oberlin, Ohio where he was a plasterer, wallpaper hanger, house painter, and mason. He was the constable of Oberlin for fourteen years. In 1879 he married Fannie Mary Shanks and they had seven children. The members of the John Wall family were practicing Quakers. John Wall died in Oberlin on March 23, 1912.xxxix It is interesting to note that O. S. B. Wall and his law partner, John Mercer Langston, owned property in Harveysburg from 1852 to 1860. The lots in question were lots 53, 54, 64 and 63. Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s Academy sat on the north end of lot 54. This may indicate that four years after the Doctor‟s death in Kansas in 1848 and shortly after the controversy that closed the first Academy, O. S. B. Wall and his law partner John M. Langston, took over stewardship of the school, or perhaps bought these properties with the intended purpose to use the fabric of the old Academy to build Zion Baptist Church (Warren County Deed Books: 32, page 79; 36, page 368; 36, page 603; and 38, page 495). Orindatus also owned outlots #4 and #5 on the northeast edge of town for a short time in the early 1850s (Warren County Deed Books: 32, page 79; 32, page 491; 31, page 197; and 32, page 491). In 1847 Orindatus also bought Lot 13 (east half) at a Sheriff‟s Sale, which his father, Stephen had originally bought from Dr. Jesse Burgess. He sold it within a year to George B. Scroggy (Deed Book 29, page 71). The Wall children and the Harveys moved on to Indian Territory in Kansas and Oberlin, Ohio around the same time. The African-American Zion Baptist Church in Harveysburg is probably named after “Big Zion”, the Zion Baptist Church in Cincinnati, which was founded in 1842 and was a vital station on the Underground Railroad. Zion Baptist Church in Harveysburg ~ The old Harveysburg Academy No longer extant. Orindatus S. B. Wall stayed in contact with family and friends in Harveysburg. It was reported in the “Harveysburg Column” in the Miami-Gazette newspaper of Waynesville on June 21, 1876: ~~The Republicans here are joyful over the nomination of Governor Hayes for President, and there was a large and enthusiastic meeting held here last Saturday night, addressed by Captain O. S. B. Wall of Washington, D. C., and some of our home talent. The preliminary steps were taken for organizing a Hayes and Wheeler Club. Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Burgess Harvey can be very proud of all the African- American children placed in their charge back in the 1830s. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were Orthodox Friends and members of Springfield Monthly Meeting at Todd‟s Fork, which had been founded at the “Harvey Settlement” in Clinton County and not members of the Hicksite Grove Preparative and Meeting for Worship in Harveysburgxl. Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth were more moderate in their views on how to deal with the incredibly thorny political issues revolving around slavery and abolition. They were not as radical as the Garrisonian abolitionists and tried to work against slavery through persuasion and not outright condemnation of southern slave owners. The Garrisonians thought of them as compromisers, since the followers of William Lloyd Garrison advocated “immediate abolition” and felt that slave owners were in grave moral danger. The Harveys were also bound by Ohio Law, which did not permit integrated, or “mixed” schools. That Dr. Harvey even tried to integrate the Harveysburg Academy displays a great deal of courage during a particularly violent time in southwest Ohio over abolition issues. Perhaps Jesse and Elizabeth were more moderate in their views because Elizabeth‟s grandmother had been a slave owner (although she had freed them) and because both their families had been raised in the south. Since many freed slaves had come with her grandmother, Ruth Eckels, when she moved to Highland County, Ohio, the family had learned the importance of helping freed African-American parents to educate their children. They made black education their priority in a very disapproving world. The relationship between freed slaves and their former Quaker owners would, in itself, make a fascinating study. The open-minded presence of Quakers in the area doubtless encouraged the establishment of black/mulatto communities. Harveysburg had a large and strong black/mulatto community located in the northern section of the village and just outside of it: The Black School itself was built just outside the original boundary of the village on the north side (Out Lot #2) during the early 1830s. On Lot 66 in the village, the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in 1846.xli Antioch Chapel of the Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church of Harveysburg was founded on January 13, 1862. The trustees of this organization were: Henry Wiggins, Charlott Dudley, Sarah Brantley, Nancy A. Dawson, and Mahala Brantly were elected trustees and John Dodson was elected clerk. The exact location is not clear although it is most likely that this Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church developed into the Zion Baptist Church (see below).xlii One of the concerns of Anti- Slavery societies was to promote Anti-Slavery churches to provide moral suasion for the movement. Many mainline churches had been severely divided on the slavery and war issues. On Lot 64 was located Zion Baptist Church, an African American Church. It was built using the old materials from the Harveysburg Academy founded by Dr. Jesse Harvey in 1861. Zion Baptist Church was rebuilt on the same site of the old academy. The cemetery of the Zion Baptist Church is located outside of the village across Rte. 73 in Fifty Springs Picnic Area of Caesar‟s Creek State Park. The Black School was located behind (north of) the Academy/Zion Baptist Church building outside of the village limit. In 1872 the Corner Stone Lodge #7 Masonic Lodge (Prince Hall) was established and built on Lot 68.xliii Another African American community north of Harveysburg developed in a valley named Brim Stone along Caesar‟s Creek, which became known as Canbytown where mills were located. This area is now all underwater since the creation of Caesar‟s Creek Lake. Just a mile north of Waynesville was a small hamlet named Crosswick, which also was the home of a black/mulatto community, on the property of John Moss, with members involved in the anti-slavery movement (see Miami-Visitor, August 22 1855). Black School in Harveysburg. Back of school and outhouse. Harveysburg tradition states that Elizabeth with the help of Jesse had earlier established what was in effect a segregated elementary school for African- Americans in 1831 when the newly platted village of Harveysburg (1828) established its first elementary common school. Tradition also claims that Native American children were taught in the “Black School”. This is highly possible since the Harveys were very much involved in the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians in Ohio and also Kansas. Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey were early settlers of Harveysburg, a small village perched 100 feet above Caesar‟s Creek on its high east bank. Dr. Jesse was a cousin of William Harvey, the founder of the village, and besides being a physician and concerning himself with educational matters; he also started a carding mill on the bank of Caesar‟s Creek at the foot of the town. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey owned a great deal of land within the village of Harveysburg and also immediately outside of the village boundary on the south and northeast: They owned all of Lot 2 on Main Street in Harveysburg and then sold off the two halves of the lot individually (Deed Book, 16, page 60, September 5, 1829, Deed Book 16, page 494, July 8, 1831, and Deed Book 24, page 143, March 12, 1839). They owned Lot 11 (Deed Book, 25, page 114, August 12, 1841). They owned Lot 12, the entire lot (Deed Book, 24, page 202, Sept. 27, 1834, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6, 1854, sold by his heirs). The house on this lot is possibly their family home. They owned the west half of Lot 13 (Deed Book 24, page 515, Feb. 22, 1841, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6. 1854, sold by his heirs). The east half of Lot 13 was owned by Stephen Wall, which he had bought from Dr. Jesse Burgess. This may indicate that Stephen Wall provided a home for his children once they were older, next to the home of their guardians and teachers, Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey. They owned the very large Lot 14 and sold sections of it over the years (Deed Book 16, page 63, April 8, 1831, and Deed Book 30, page 449, March 29, 1850, sold by his heirs). They owned Lot 15 and sold off parts of it over the years (Deed Book 24, page 395, March 11, 1840, and Deed Book 30, page 449, March 29, 1850, sold by his heirs). They owned Lot 16 the entire lot (Deed Book 24, page 395, March 11, 1840, and Deed Book 35, page 287, Oct. 6, 1854, sold by his heirs.) They owned Lot 17 and divided and sold three parts of it (Deed Book 25, page 67, August 26, 1841, Deed Book 25, page 114, December 13, 1841, and Deed Book, 30, page 516, Dec. 25, 1843.) They owned a large lot adjoining Lots 27, 38, 29, and the west half of lot 30 on the south side of Harveysburg (Deed Book 24, page 209, February 27, 1839). 24 acres. They owned a large Out Lot adjoining the northeast side of Harveysburg (Deed Book 27, page 461, June 27, 1842). 14 acres. The Harveys also owned Lot 46 on the north side of Main Street in Harveysburg, which they bought in its entirety, in 1831 (Deed Book 16, page 324). They sold the west part of this Lot in 1842 to Azel Waters (Deed Book 25, page 281). Shortly before they left for Indian Territory in Kansas, they sold their Lot 46 property (the east part upon which stood a house) to John T. Burgess on July 17, 1847(Deed Book 38, page 492). This is John Tompkins Burgess, Elizabeth Burgess Harvey‟s brother and a brother-in- law to Dr. Jesse Harvey. John T. Burgess was married to a sister of Dr. Jesse Harvey. Their house on Lot 12, which was located directly across the street from Lot 46, was not sold until after Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s death by his heirs to William Ham (Deed Book, 35, page 287). It is possible that they retained this house, their home, on Lot 12 so they could return to it after their two-year stint as superintendents at the Quaker Shawnee Mission. Sadly, Dr. Jesse Harvey would not be returning. Both houses were probably used in the Underground Railroad. Further research needs to be done. Both houses are still standing. We know that Dr. Jesse was one of the earliest teachers in the first school in Harveysburg.xliv Consequently, it is quite likely that Dr. Jesse Harvey was involved in the establishment of the first Harveysburg common school and then he and Elizabeth established the parallel Black School in 1831 because Ohio Law would not allow an integrated or “mixed” school system.xlv Since many Quakers who had migrated from the south brought their freed ex-slaves with them to Ohio, the need for African-American education was most likely an issue for Harveysburg from the time of its establishment.xlvi Due to the intense racial dispute of the times, the little Black School could have included high school age black students from 1837 on when vacillating popular opinion and state law would not allow an integrated Harveysburg Academy (high school level and beyond). Did the original Black School become the “separate department for blacks” for the Harveysburg Academy when teaching blacks and whites in the same building became untenable and even dangerous? The location of the Harveysburg Academy was “in front of the” little one-room Black School, which was originally located just outside the boundary of the village. Location in this situation may unfortunately illustrate the racial attitudes of the day. Dr. Thomas Hamm of Earlham College has this to say about the situation: At least some Friends, when establishing schools that were not under the auspices of monthly or quarterly meetings, either refused to admit black students or provided for their separate education. Dr. Jesse Harvey of Harveysburg, Ohio, was an outspoken abolitionist whose family had been involved in helping local African Americans establish a school in the community as early as 1830. In 1837, when Harvey founded an academy not limited to Quaker students he admitted black students, but educated them in a separate department; unfortunately, he left no record of his motive. Within a few years, however, he faced such intense criticism from local abolitionists that he changed policy and integrated his classrooms. After Harvey went west to teach the Shawnee Indians, Wilson Hobbsxlvii, a member of a prominent Indiana Quaker family, took over. He created a new controversy by wavering on the admission of African-American students. At first he accepted, then rejected, a student of mixed European and African ancestry, Margaret Campbellxlviii. Local abolitionists, particularly Congregational Friend Valentine Nicholson, scored Hobbs for the decision. Significantly, Hobbs's response was not a straight-out defense of white supremacy. Instead, he insisted that he was bound by the wishes of a majority of the stockholders in the school, who were not Friends. Privately, he confided to Nicholson that he would gladly have admitted Campbell had the decision been left to him, and that he was sure that the other students would have accepted her. If the Harveysburg case is typical, Friends were embarrassed to be accused of ties to racial segregation.xlix The storm over admitting African-Americans into Dr. Harvey‟s Academy was strident enough and long enough to be mention in one of John Harvey‟s poems, “To E. & D. Hobbs of Indiana”l, published in 1848. The poem mentions that part of the controversy was over utilizing the school building for lectures promoting abolition. John Harvey also emphasizes the moderate Quaker‟s belief in upholding the law of the yearly meeting, a compromise that radicals like Valentine Nicholson could not accept. He is tweaking the nose of the Progressive Friends who separated from Indiana Yearly Meeting (Hicksite). John Harvey also seems to suggest that the radical meetings held in Dr. Harvey‟s Academy that caused the fervor, when they were transferred to a “meetinghouse” caused the conflict to decline. This could refer to one of the Friends Meetinghouses in the village, but most likely to Valentine Nicholson‟s “free town hall”. The School at Harveysburg has been sustain‟d, And through the country has some credit gain‟d‟ „Tis an advantage to our little town, Though some are wishing that it might go down. I feel a secret joy to hear the bell, Which long I hope may of its being tell, And still continue there to hang and ring, When my poor feeble muse shall cease to sing; „Tis not because I love the bell to hear, But that the subject to my heart is dear. The opposition which it long withstood Has mostly terminated for its good, Yet some their children to it will not send, Because its founder is the negro‟s friend; A color‟d school exists so near the white; They have a notion all cannot be right: “Some abolition bears a little sway, And that won‟t do in this enlighten‟d day, For this to an equality would tend, Which in disgrace to all the whites would end; Black men, of course, would white companions choose, And our fair daughters could not well refuse. While thus they try our object to defeat, They think the triumph of their wit complete, But still I think some of their arguments Have no foundation in good sober sense. Some of our friends their patronage refused, Because the house by lecturers was used, For liberty which Dr. Harvey gave, To plead the cause of the afflicted slave; But now a meeting house is occupied, And in this case we are no longer tried. Most Friends just here are friendly to the cause, But will not break the yearly meeting‟s laws, This brings me to a thing which I proposed To write some thoughts upon before I closed; Some think that we cannot befriend the slave, Unless we spurn advice the meeting gave; But such a thing, according to my mind, Was never on the part of friends design‟d, That we should cease to act in every way, The meeting‟s rules in order to obey, But that we only cease to act with those Who do not with our other doctrines close, ~ That we may stand on our own Christina ground, Against the sins which in the world abound: Intemp‟rance, slavery, dueling, and war, And all these things that anti-christian are, To move with firm and cautious steps along, Clear of excitement and the bustling throng; While ev‟ry proper measure we embrace, To aid the cause of Afric‟s injured race, A compromise for abolition‟s sake.li After the Jesse Harvey and family left for the Shawnee Indian Mission in Kansas and after the Margaret Campbell controversy in the old Harveysburg Academy, Valentine Nicholson, a local farmer who lived in Caesar‟s Creek valley below Harveysburg, and Isaiah Fallis, owner of the Harveysburg Mill on Caesar‟s Creek, took up the torch promoting integrated education in Harveysburg. They both were disowned from their Quaker meetings due to their radical opinions.lii Their solution would free them from any complaints against integration generated by the stockholders of the old Harveysburg Academy. In Nicholson‟s obituary it states: The need of a free town hall was at one time apparent to a few philanthropic people at Harveysburg, Ohio. The chief contributors to this movement were Isaiah Fallis and Valentine Nicholson. They built an academy, with a hall above, which they dedicated to free speech. In school and recitation rooms below there was to be no distinction of color. The tuition was to be the compensation for the teacher. Members of the Society of Friends were instructors. The late Dr. Wilson Hobbs was the first, then Dr. O. W. Nixon and his brother William Penn Nixonliii, also the late Israel Taylor of Indianapolis (These are the same teachers associated with the old Harveysburg Academy.). The school was a success; the few colored pupils who availed themselves of its privileges became leading citizens in Oberlin and Washington.liv In effect, another Harveysburg Academy, this one integrated, was founded in a different location on the edge of Harveysburg. The site included the west part of Lot 39 in the village on west Main Street. On October 22, 1849, Isaiah Fallis sold part of the west part of this lot to A. L. Autram et al., school trustees (Deed Book 29, page 583). Actually, the building‟s location was directly north of adjoining Lots 38 and 39 and the school property ran in the shape of a sharp wedge from Main Street back to the school building site, see map below. Minutes of the founding of the “Harveysburg School Company” are in the Archive of the Probate Court in the Courthouse in Lebanon, Ohio. The company was a stock company, which had collected $1,400.00 in subscriptions to fund the new academy: MINUTES OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE HARVEYSBURG SCHOOL COMPANY: Pursuant to previous notice, the stockholders of the Harveysburg Seminary met at said building on the 14th day of April 1849 at 2 P.M. for the purpose of organizing and availing themselves to the advantages of a law passed by the Legislature of the State of Ohio, March 10, 1845, authorizing Literary and other Societies to acquire corporate powers without applying to and obtaining letters of incorporation from the Legislature of the State. On motion Wm. Crow (a teacher from Illinois who was living directly east of Harveysburglv) was called to the chair and John W. Scroggs (a physician in Harveysburg) appointed Clerk. The meeting then proceeded to and adopted a constitution and bylaws for the government of the company. On motion it was unanimously resolved that this society shall be called the Harveysburg School Company. The meeting then proceeded in conformity to the requisitions of the constitution to elect the permanent officers of the company which resulted in the election of R. B. Edwards for President (a judge), J. G. Stevenson (a coachmaker)lvi, Clerk, A. L. Antram (a merchant in Harveysburg), Hiram Yeo (a merchant in Harveysburg), and J. W. Scroggs, Trustees. On motion adjourned. J. W. Scroggs, Clerk. This integrated academy seems to have survived in Harveysburg up until 1852. The last advertisement for the Harveysburg Academy was printed in the Miami- Visitor newspaper of Waynesville on October 17, 1851, with N. Doan as the principal and teacher. The Academy building was also used for radical meetings, i.e. for the founding of The Anti-Slavery Society of Clinton & Warren County. On April 17, 1854, the property was sold by Nicholson, V., et. al. (school trustees) to the Township Board of Education (Deed Book 34, page 94).lvii Like most private academies of this time, it was rolled over into the public school system. This site, just behind Lot 39, is the location of the old Harveysburg High School building, which was built in 1891 and is still standing. As the second Harveysburg Academy was phasing out of existence, it participated in the establishment of the Clinton & Warren County Anti-Slavery Society, which also was an integrated organization with Caucasian and African-American members. There was no segregation of blacks or of women. African-American members included: O. D. Wall (Orindatus), Caroline Wall, Sarah Wall, Asa Pratt, and A. Winslow. Article 6 of the bylaws stated, “Any person who desired to labor for the abolition of slavery may become a member by subscribing to this constitution” (Miami-Visitor, December 19, 1851). White members included: Valentine and Jane Nicholson, A. Brooke, Aaron Harvey, and J. G. Stevenson. The liberal attitude towards this subject continued in Harveysburg. On May 7 th, 1852 it was reported in the Miami-Visitor of Waynesville, “The celebrate Frederick Douglas lectured in Harveysburg, Ohio, on last Sunday afternoon, we have been informed.” He had been attending an Anti-Slavery Convention in Cincinnati and he was invited by a church in Harveysburg to come and speak. A copy of his speech can be found on the Ohio Historical Society website: http://publications.ohiohistory.org/ohstemplate.cfm?action=detail&Page=00753.ht ml&StartPage=3&EndPage=9&volume=75¬es=notes%2067&newtitle=Volum e%2075%20Page%203. Brilliant Thoughts and Important Truths: A Speech of Frederick Douglass edited by Larry Gara, Ohio History (Vol. 75, pp. 3-9). Second Academy ~ Old Harveysburg Academy and Corner Stone Lodge Black School Fallis & Nicholson later Zion Baptist Church #37 (Prince Hall) Colored Methodist Episcopal Church Hicksite Friends and Cemetery Dr. Jesse Harvey properties Stephen Wall ~ O. S. B. Wall (Lot 13, east side). Directly east of what is U. B. probably the Dr. Methodist Church Church Jesse Harvey home for whites on Lot 12. Orthodox Friends Orthodox Cemetery 1875 Map of Harveysburg, Ohio Years later, a Harveysburg columnist spoke of the illustrious educational tradition in Harveysburg thusly (in the Harveysburg Column in the Miami-Gazette): Many of your readers some of whom are on the shady side of life, remember with pleasure the prosperous old days of Harvey‟s Academy; and many of our old men now, in their social chats, refer with pleasure to those bright days of their past lives, while the younger ones keep fresh the memory of the second academic epoch, during the days of Nixons, Doanes, and Nickersons (this probably refers to “Nickolsons”); so you see we have had our bright periods of educational history (Miami-Gazette, June 21, 1876). Legend also states that the Harvey homes in Harveysburg were stations on The Underground Railroad. According to Valentine Nicholson in his memories, Dr. Jesse Harvey introduced him to John O. Wattleslviii, the Agent of the Ohio Antislavery Society, in his home in Harveysburg: It was along the lines of these exciting times when I first met with John O. Wattles. He was at Dr. Jesse Harvey‟s in Harveysburg. Had come up from the vicinity of Cincinnati on business connected with “The Underground Railroad.” Thomas Wales and myself called there and Dr. Harvey introduced him to us and told us that he was the Agent of the Ohio Antislavery Society.lix The controversy over the racial integration of the old Harveysburg Academy illustrates the differing opinions concerning slavery and emancipation among Quakers themselves, which is also reflected in the location of the two Quaker meetinghouses in the village at opposite ends of the town. Valentine Nicholson, the husband of Jane F. Wales Nicholson, was a radical, who left the Hicksite Friends over abolition issues and joined the Progressive Friends who were Garrisonian in their opinions. Like Dr. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey, Valentine and Jane were conductors on The Underground Railroad, too. The integration controversy over the admittance of Margaret Campbell, after Dr. Jesse Harvey and his family left for Kansas, eventually closed the old Harveysburg Academy. From our perspective, Jesse and Elizabeth may perhaps appear paternalistic, since they practiced segregation in their education efforts for African-Americans, and also later in their ministry to the Shawnee in Kansas. Friends, as enlightened as they were about treating these minorities justly, embraced the common belief of the day that both African-Americans and Native Americans needed to be assimilated into the larger white culture to survive by letting go of most of their heritage. They were dealing with the harsh realities of the horrible racial situation forced upon them, trying to keep education open to blacks in a village within a state that was severely dichotomized in its racial opinions. The Ohio Black Laws and entrenched prejudice against freed African-American migrating to southern Ohio made these issues vitriolic. Irate whites that wanted to deny freed Blacks all civil rights and education would destroy many black schools in Ohio. Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey had shown great courage in championing the education of freed slaves and they hoped that persuasion and a little compromise would also educate the larger and skeptical white population. In the 19 th century, segregation did not have the negative connotation that it has today. Often segregation was seen as a positive way to protect African-Americans or Native-Americans from the prejudice, violence, vices, and evil influences of the surrounding white culture. Another educational endeavor that Elizabeth Harvey was engaged in was the development of the first library at Springfield Monthly Meeting. She was on the first library committee of six women balanced by another library committee made up of men.lx Springfield Monthly Meeting of Friends established its own school in 1835 for Quaker children. It eventually became a district school. Dr. Jesse Harvey was born November 26th, 1801 in Orange County, North Carolina. He was six when his parents, Caleb and Sarah Towel Harvey settled near Todd‟s Fork in Clinton County, Ohio. Being naturally inquisitive and intelligent he decided to learn medicine but encountered some resistance since it was commonly believed at the time that higher education would lead one to be irreligious. However, at the age of 22 he became a student of Dr. Uriah Farquer of Wilmington, Ohio. He entered the Medical College of Ohio, 1826-7, attained his license to practice and settled in Harveysburg in 1830. He also erected a carding mill at Harveysburglxi. He was one of the founding members of the Lebanon Medical Society in 1837lxii. He was an extremely well read man and was knowledgeable about the Law and many scientific subjects. His interest in education leads him to establish the Harveysburg High School (Academy), a boarding school, in 1837-8. As with other Quaker boarding schools, the students most likely would have roomed in nearby Quaker homes when school was in session. He erected the frame building and went to considerable expense to furnish it with competent teachers and equipment from the east. He initially paid for the school, which lasted through harsh economic times for eight or nine years. He taught twice a week classes on history, languages and the natural sciences. Other teachers associated with the first Harveysburg Academy were Dr. David Burson, a graduate of Haverford College, Wilson Hobbslxiii, Israel Taylor, Oliver Nixon and William P. Nixon. His efforts put him into considerable debt and so after a couple of years he established a company of 16 members, which included himself and was incorporated. The school had an excellent reputation drawing students from all over southwest Ohio, but financial difficulties and political strife over abolition, as we have seen, would eventually close the Harveysburg Academy and Boarding School after the Harveys had moved to the Kansas Territory. The incorporation, which probably saved the school financially for a while, also unfortunately opened up a hornet‟s nest of conflicting feeling over the integration of the Academy. A cadre of Harveysburgers criticized him for even allowing African-Americans to participate in his school but then a few years later, radical abolitionists criticized him for segregating the black pupils from the white. When he united the blacks and the whites, many white folk took their children out of the school. Eventually, the building was used by the African American community for Zion Baptist Church. The later Nicholson-Fallis integrated academy was purchased by the Board of Education and became a district school.lxiv Because of his great interest in the natural sciences, Dr. Jesse also had a botanical garden, a good museum and specimens of wild animals.lxv Following in his father‟s footsteps, Dr. Jesse was also interested in educating Native Americans and often visited the Quaker Mission in Wapakoneta, Ohio.lxvi Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey had four children: o WILLIAM FOSTER HARVEY, b. September 20th, 1825 ~ d. January 27, 1901 in Indianapolis.lxvii Married Esther Jane Coffin. He was a Quaker minister. o SARAH T. HARVEY, b. September 22nd, 1826. Married Solomon Blair Jr. in Indiana. Solomon Blair was a Judge. o THOMAS B. HARVEY, b. November 29th, 1827 ~ d. December 5th, 1889. Married Delitha Butler. o ELISHA B. HARVEY, b. September 10th, 1830 ~ April 8th, 1836 (Buried in Harveysburg, probably the Orthodox Friends Cemetery. He is not in the Hicksite Friends Cemetery)lxviii In 1847, Elizabeth, Jesse and their children moved to Kansas to superintend the Shawnee Indians Mission Boarding School and Farmlxix, the successor of the Quaker Mission Boarding School and Farm at Wapakoneta, Ohio.lxx It had been established after the last Shawnee removal from Ohio in 1834. The mission was built on section seven, township twelve, range twenty-four, one-half mile east and one-fourth mile south of the present town of Merriam in Johnson County, Kansas. In 1845, shortly before the Harveys arrived in Kansas Territory, the Stanleyslxxi had erected a new central building. It was 24 by 70 feet and had three stories. There was an orchard on the property.lxxii The following description of the new edifice is taken from the memoirs of Dr. Wilson Hobbs, M.D.: The year 1844 was a very wet one, causing a general failure of crops; consequently great destitution among the Indians. Thomas H. Stanley informed eastern Friends, and almost all the yearly meetings, through their meeting for sufferings, contributed to their relief. Thomas Wells, who was several times connected with the work, came west and received and distributed the donations. In 1845 finding there had been more funds sent than was really necessary for the relief of the Indians, permission was obtained of the donors to use the surplus in building a good house, which was greatly needed. The plan proposed by Thomas H. Stanley, and adopted, was to construct a house 24‟ X 70‟, three stories high ~ the basement of stone, for kitchen, dining room and cellar; the upper stories of frame, school rooms in each end, dormitories above, with four rooms in the middle of the building for the family. Thomas and James Stanley went into the forest chopped and hauled the logs to the mill for the lumber, hewed the framing timber, and did most of the work in erecting the building, which still stands (1903), within a few miles of Kansas City (then an insignificant place, known as Westport Landing), a monument to their integrity, energy, and faithfulness.lxxiii They, just like the superintendents and matrons before them, supervised the teaching of husbandry, domestic skills, and other topics to Native American families and children hoping to help them adapt to white culture.lxxiv In comparison to their anti-slavery and abolition activities in Ohio, the situation in Kansas would not prove any easier. If anything, the issues were even more complicated and difficult. In Pre-Territorial Kansas, slavery was a huge issue due to the political opinions of the missionaries who were trying to “civilize” the Native Americans that had been removed from Ohio and elsewhere. The situation was complicated because of the presence of the Methodists, the Baptists and the Quakers who had all previously worked with the Shawnee in Ohio and moved their ministry out west with the Indians. The Methodist church was severely divided concerning slavery and would eventually divide into northern and southern branches. Anti-slavery issues created rather unsavory denomination rivalry among the northern and southern Methodists and their relationships with the missions of other denominations in Indian Territory. The Baptists would also experience a sectional split over slavery.lxxv Dissension over slavery and abolition and competition among the missionaries helped to lay the foundation of the future violence of “Bleeding Kansas”. The southern Methodists advocated slave ownership and were criticized by both Baptists and Quakers. The Ohio and Missouri bands of Shawnee also often quarreled over money and land. There were more mixed-blood leaders than full-blood Shawnee. The mixed-blood leaders were more open to assimilation via the southern Methodists. They had founded the Shawnee Manual Labor School, which overshadowed the Baptist and Quaker missions. Some mixed-bloods owned slaves. The full-blood Shawnee were anti- slavery in opinion. The Shawnee were as divided among themselves as were the Christian missionaries. There were Shawnees espousing their traditional Native American faith and Christian Shawnees (southern and northern Methodist, Baptist, Quaker), It was into this difficult situation that Jesse and Elizabeth Harvey moved.lxxvi The Quaker Mission in Kansas was run by Orthodox Quakers and so their agenda was more evangelical in tone compared to the previous efforts in Ohio at Wapakoneta, where conversion to Christian conversion was not the top priority. According to Baltimore Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) minutes (Indian Concerns Report) and the Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes of the same committee: o 1847~ Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey with their three living children moved to Kansas to superintend the Shawnee Mission Boarding School and Farm. Eight Quakers were employed to carry on the work of the mission and the school: Elizabeth and Jesse Harvey (superintendents), William F. Harvey and Sarah Harvey (teachers in the school), Thomas B. Harvey (assistant farmer), Richard Mendenhall (principal farmer), Rachel P. Hall (sewing and oversight over girls when out of school) and Sarah Nixon (cook). The School has been kept up with about 39 Girls and 28 Boys during the past Year. Thomas and Hannah Wells left the establishment in the 6th month last, and the School and Farm have been under the care of the Young Friends who were there and who were assisted by two of the Indian Girls, in the School at 50¢ per week. The committee have contracted with Jesse Harvey and his wife as Superintendents, and their two sons and one daughter, two of whom are to teach the School, and one of the sons to work on the Farm, for the term of two years, at $800.00 per year for the five persons. They arrived at the establishment the 29th of 7th month last (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1847, p. 4) The following is a full description of the farm and the daily routine at the mission and school made by the previous superintendent, Thomas Wells to Baltimore Yearly Meeting (Orthodox) in 1847: The school has been kept up without vacation the past year, and about 64 children of both sexes, belonging to four tribes, viz.: Shawnees, Delawares, Stockbridges and Ottawa, have received instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic and geography, and the pupils have made satisfactory progress. The hours set apart for school are 7 in each day, except 7th day afternoon, part of which is given them for their own recreation. The time not occupied in the schoolrooms, is devoted to manual labor; the boys are employed in all the branches of husbandry, and the girls at housewifery, and their services rendered to the institution in this way are considerable. During the winter evenings the larger children are exercised in declaiming and composition, and such evenings which are not set apart for this purpose are devoted to the recitation of geography, in both of which they take a deep interest, and this has been of use to them in removing that natural shyness which is characteristic of the Indian. All unnecessary labor on the First Day of the week is avoided, that day being set apart for the improvement of the mind; about 2 hours in the morning before meeting is devoted to committing Scripture passages to memory, and many recite from 15 to 30 verses, and are expert in answering Scripture questions. In the afternoon they have access to a Library provided for their use, to encourage them in private reading. After supper all the family collect in the meeting room to spend the evening in reading the dying sayings of pious person, and other religious exercises which seem to present at that hour as a duty to be performed, and to unfrequently such season have been owned by the good presence of the great Shepherd, even to the constricting of the spirits of both children and teachers, and the good effects of resolutions formed in those opportunities have been seen in their general deportment for many days after. The daily family reading of a portion of Scripture accompanied with a suitable pause before and after reading has been observed, and sometimes a few remarks are made on the leading features of the chapter read, which are listened to with apparent attention; not unfrequently a few Indians are present with us on occasions of this kind, whose decent and orderly deportment does them much credit. A meeting for worship has been regularly kept up twice in each week, and some few Indians continue their attendance the sole manner in which the Indians, both children and adults sit, is satisfactory to the family and a source of admiration to casual visitors from the States. The Queries recommended by Indian Yearly Meeting to be answered Quarterly, and forwarded in the reports of the Superintendents, have been attended to, and afford encouragement to believe that these regulations will have their use both on the minds of the Indian children and the young Friends engaged by the Committee to carry on the concern; such of our Indian neighbors who are present with us during time of worship, also keep their seats, and on being informed of the object of this discipline, seem both pleased and interested. We have a farm of about 200 acres of land under fence, 132 of which are under cultivation, from which have been raised the past year about 1530 dozens of wheat and 900 dozens of oats, both of which are very good; there are also 60 acres planted in corn, and 3 acres in garden vegetables, both are said to be good crops. The farm is well stocked with horses, cows, sheep and hogs, and from the proceeds of the farm the family is supplied with provisions, and considerable remains for sale, say about $400.00, which is appropriated to the wants of the household and farm. The new building 70 feet by 24, three stories high, the basement stone, the rest frame, is finished and adds greatly to the comfort and convenience of the family. This building seems to have given new impulse to the Indians to support our school, so that last fall and through the winter we had more applications for admittance than we could accommodate, and when they were encouraged to wait for the return of spring, as some of the larger ones were likely to leave, they seemed satisfied, and accordingly several new scholars were admitted this spring, so that the school continues full… Their farms vary from small lots to 200 acres, and their buildings are of hewed logs, though there has been one brick house two stories high, with two rooms on a floor, built within the last two years, and is finished in a workmanlike manner, the bricks were made on the spot, and Indian mechanics assisted in the building. During the last winter they cut and hauled 1000 cords of wood, and sold the same at $1.50 per cord. They are enlarging the size of their farms every year, and take an increasing interest in the improvement of their stock, and may with propriety be said to be improving in their habits of industry and economy. The women are more neat and clean in their persons and in their houses, and manifest more interest that their daughters should be taught the art of housekeeping as well as the use of books, this is seen in the increase of girls at their institution, they having exceeded the number of boys, a very odd occurrence in an Indian school.lxxvii The Quaker Shawnee Mission and School also had a policy of sending some of their students (between the ages of 15 and 20) to Ohio to live with Quaker families and learn trades, which they would then bring back to Kansas territory. We know that one Indian girl from the mission was brought by Thomas Wells to Waynesville according to the Miami-Visitor newspaper, October 3rd, 1851. o 1848~ On May 12th, 1848, Dr. Jesse Harvey died but Elizabeth and her children stayed on at the Mission to superintend with the assistance of Richard Mendenhall. There is a small graveyard on the site and there is a marker that says, “Jesse Harvey of Harveysburg." It is the Indian Cemetery at Nieman Road & 59th Terrace in Shawnee, Johnson County, Kansas. lxxviii At a called meeting at Miami 10th of 6th month 1848 by a communication from Richard Mendenhall, this meeting is informed that Jesse Harvey, our Superintendent at Friend‟s establishment amongst the Shawnee Indians, has deceased, and that Elizabeth his widow and her children are willing to remain at the establishment, if it meets the approbation of the committee, which claiming consideration was united with and thought best that they continue in the service, and that Richard Mendenhall be requested to render her such assistance as may be necessary in Superintending the concern, and the right ordering of things amongst them. This meeting being brought into deep feeling and tender sympathy with our dear friend Elizabeth Harvey, and the young friends engaged with her at our establishment, in consequence of the trial brought on them, by the death of her husband, unite in appointing a committee to write to her on the occasion and send them the result of our deliberations (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1848, pp. 13-14). o 1849~ The Harvey family is still superintending at the Mission. They stayed for the full term of two years. It appears from a communication received from the committee of Indian Concerns of Indiana Yearly Meeting, that our establishment among the Shawnee Indians has been under the superintendence of Elizabeth Harvey and family, since last year, with the assistance, during the Winter and Spring, of James Stanton and his niece Ann Stanton. This young woman had been engaged at the establishment some years before, and in consequence of Sarah Ann Nixon having left, and the family in great need of assistance, she, under a sense of duty, offered her services for six months, without any compensation only her expense in traveling, which we thought right to accept (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1849, p 18). o 1850~ The Harvey family moves back to Ohiolxxix Our former Superintendent Elizabeth Harvey having resigned, we have engaged with our Friends Thomas and Hannah Wells, who feel themselves bound to the cause to take charge of the Institute, who with four assistants are now satisfactorily engaged therein (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1850, p. 15). The death of Dr. Jesse Harvey inspired John Harveylxxx to write a poem in his honor:lxxxi DR. JESSE HARVEY‟S DEATH AMONG THE SHAWNEE INDIANS IN KANSAS But when to Eaton we had come, At such a place how souls unite, The news no pleasure gave. Though under different names; That Dr. Harvey, far from home, And all, when they are aiming right, Was in the silent grave; The good have equal claims. My cousin, and my constant friend, A solemn meeting first was held, Through many trials past, Where all could take a part, Whose funeral I could not attend, And sympathetic drops distill‟d, Nor see of him the last. From every feeling heart. For those who had been thus bereaved, An Indian spoke in soothing strains, Of one to them so dear, Then silence fill‟d the room, My sympathizing bosom heaved And they conveyed their friend‟s remains A sigh they could not hear. To the cold, silent tomb. Their loss, in solitude, they mourn, A corner of the orchard ground, Upon the Kansas shore, Is now his resting place; And if they to this land return, Who felt himself in duty bound They see his grave no more. To aid the Indian race. One consolation, still, we have: And thus, far in the west, is made He died in that true faith, A consecrated spot, Which points to bliss beyond the grave, Where other friends may yet be laid And triumphs over death. Who find an equal lot. The neighb‟ring missionaries came Fraternal tears to shed, And the poor Indians did the same In sorrow for the dead. The following is his obituary taken from the Western Star (June 2, 1848): DEATH OF A GOOD MAN. Friend‟s Mission among the Shawnee Indians, 5th mo. 14th, 1848. Friend W. H. P. Denny: ~ I write to thee at this time to inform thee that mourning on account of death has entered our dwelling here in this Territory, surrounded by savages and half-civilized Indians. My dear father, Dr. Jesse Harvey, departed this life the day before yesterday at a quarter before 2 o‟clock of dropsy. He had been sick for the last three months; most in fact nearly all of that time, confined to his bed. At first he was attacked with Bilious Pneumonia, which after pretty severe medical treatment, yielded, but it left him in a very prostrate condition. His constitution was broken down, and all efforts to rebuild it were in vain. About four weeks from the time he was first taken sick, his feet and hands began to swell; but it was thought that nothing serious or alarming would attend the swelling. It was thought by his physician in attendance at the time that he would soon gain strength, and that as he gained strength the swelling would recede. He, however, kept getting gradually worse, and the swelling increasing, but it was not till within three weeks of his death that the physicians (five in number, who came to see him occasionally, but not regularly) decided that dropsy was working its way in his system to a final dissolution. From that time on the (illness?) increased very rapidly, in the abdomen, feet and hands, at first, and then became general throughout his whole system. His breathing began to be heavier, and more labored about 4 o‟clock P.M., of the day previous to his decease. He was also somewhat delirious at times, at his decease, when he sank into a deep and very oppressive sleep, from which he never awoke. After a hard struggle of some three hours or more he quietly breathed out his spirit. He seemed resigned to the will of his good Master; he said that if he required him to sacrifice his life here in a foreign land, he was willing. His remains were quietly interred yesterday, about 4 o‟clock in the evening, after a solemn meeting had been held on the occasion. The spot of ground where he was buried is a part of the farm not far from the house, which he selected for a burying place soon after he moved here. I will, in addition of a few stanzas conclude: Another loved one‟s lost to Earth Another gain‟d in Heaven. ~ His light was more like morning‟s star, Than . . . (There are five more stanzas to this poem, but they are unreadable). Respectfully thy friend, Wm. F. Harvey (William Foster Harvey) Elizabeth Burgess Harvey eventually remarried. She married Elijah th th Mendenhall (b. February 6 , 1797 in N.C, ~ d. July 20 , 1875) in Plainfield, Indiana) on April 13th, 1854 in Parke Co., Indiana. It was a second marriage for both of them. She moved to Plainfield, Indiana with her second husband. The 1880 Federal Census lists her as living with one of her sons, Thomas B. Harvey, a physician, and his family in Indianapolis. According to her obituary and death notices, she remained an active Quaker involved in Quakerly issues up to the end, i.e. Temperance. She died May 1, 1888 in Indianapolis, Indiana in her 87th year. She is buried in Crown Hill Cemetery. She was buried on May 5th, 1888, Section 3, Marker N, Lot 49.lxxxii The following are death notices and obituaries for Elizabeth Burgess Harvey Mendenhall: Elizabeth Mendenhall, the aged mother of Dr. T. B. Harvey (Thomas B. Harvey), is lying dangerously ill at his residence, No. 302 North Delaware Street. Mrs. Mendenhall is eighty-six years of age and is one of the best-known women in this section of the state. She formerly lived near Plainfield, and is a member of the Society of Friends (Indianapolis Journal, May 1st, 1888, P-5, C-5). Mrs. Elizabeth Mendenhall is dangerously ill at the residence of her son, Dr. T. B. Harvey. Her recovery is doubtful, as she is eighty years old. Mrs. Mendenhall is well known in the city and state (Indianapolis Sentinel, May 1st, 1888, P-2, C-3). MENDENHALL ~ May 1, 1888, 7:30 A. M. Elizabeth Harvey Mendenhall, mother of Dr. T. B. Harvey, at his residence. Funeral Thursday 2 p.m., at the residence, 302 N. Delaware. Friends invited. No flowers (Indianapolis News, May 2nd, 1888, P-3, C-3). W. C. T. U. ~ The regular meeting of the Central will be postponed till Friday afternoon. With sympathetic respect, the Union will attend the funeral of Mrs. Elizabeth Mendenhall, the venerable mother of Dr. Harvey, President of the Union. Mrs. K Loftin, Vice Pres., Mrs. M.M. Finch, Secretary (Indianapolis News, May 2nd, 1888, P-3, C-3). The regular meeting of the Central W. C. T. U. has been postponed until Friday afternoon. The Union will attend with sympathetic effect the funeral of Mrs. Elizabeth Mendenhall, president of the Union (Indianapolis Sentinel, May 3rd, 1888, P-1, C-4). SKETCH OF MRS. MENDENHALL. An Active Christian Life, Complete in Good Works, Closes in Peaceful Death. ~~ Yesterday morning, at the residence of her son, Dr. T. B. Harvey, Elizabeth Harvey Mendenhall died in the eighty-seventh year of her age. She was born near Lynchburg, Virginia and in 1812 her parents removed to Ohio. They were members of the Society of Friends, and she was always a faithful and active member of the society, and held in it various positions of trust and confidence. Her faith was manifested by her works, and her whole life was characterized by words and acts said and done for the benefit of others. While this was prompted by her kind and gentle nature, it was also the reflex of the experience and teachings of her parents. Her father, Thomas Burgess, endured the hardships incident to standing for principle in the early days of the Friends in the Penn colonies, and her mother, Elizabeth Burgess, nee Hendricks, was among the first to maintain that the colored man was entitled to freedom, and her inheritance was much lessened by the liberation of slaves she otherwise would have owned. When her parents moved from Virginia to Ohio they were followed by many of their colored people who had been freed. Mrs. Mendenhall was at this time twelve years of age, and her education was superior for those days. She and her first husband, Dr. Jesse Harvey, were instrumental in forwarding education in and about Harveysburg, Ohio. About 1840 they invested a large portion of their means in establishing an academy and erecting a building therefore, and devoted much time therein as teachers. At a time when it was very unpopular, even among those who afterwards became warm Abolitionists, Mrs. Harvey in one room of the academy, taught a class of colored children and continued so to do, although the patronage of whites was largely withdrawn from this school on this account. This was the first school for colored children in Ohio. In 1847 she removed with her husband and family to the Friends‟ mission among the Shawnee Indians in Kansas, and there conducted a school of Indian children and aided the Indians in acquiring the advantages of civilization. After the death, in Kansas, of her husband, she returned with her children to Ohio, and afterwards removed to Plainfield, Ind., since which time her life has been largely spent in quiet Christian work. Since the death of her second husband she has made her home with Dr. Harvey, of this city. She leaves another son, Dr. Wm. F. Harvey, of Kansas City. Her only daughter was the first wife of the late Judge Solomon Blair. Her last illness was brief and her death almost painless. She retained her mental faculties to the last. Last evening the members of the Marion County Medical Society passed resolutions of condolence with their associate, Dr. Harvey. Both of her sons became physicians. THOMAS B. HARVEY married Delitha Butler at White Lick Meetinghouse, Morgan County, Indiana on March 5th, 1853. Their children were: o EMMA B. HARVEY b: 1854 - d. 1855 o LAWSON M. HARVEY b: 1856 - d. 1920 o FRANK H. HARVEY b: 1859 - d. 1880 o MARY ELIZABETH HARVEY b: 1863 o JESSE B. HARVEY b: 1865lxxxiii WILLIAM FOSTER HARVEY was educated in his father‟s Harveysburg Academy and began his study of medicine with his father, Jesse. In 1847 he moved with his parents and siblings to Kansas to work on the Shawnee Mission Farm and School. He and his brother taught classes to the boys and his sister to the girls. In 1849 he returned to Ohio and entered the Ohio Medical College in Cincinnati. In 1851 he opened his practice in Hendricks Co., Indiana. In 1853 he moved near Lawrence, Kansas but in 1855 moved back to Indiana and resumed his practice there till 1876. On February 28th, 1873 he graduated from Indiana Medical College. In 1876 he moved out west again to Iowa and practiced medicine in Union, Hardin County. In 1881 he went to the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency in Indian Territory assigned as the government physician. In 1882 he moved to Lawrence, Kansas and opened his practice there.lxxxiv William F. Harvey and Esther Jane Coffin of Wayne Co., Ind. were married on February 13th, 1853 in Parke Co., Indiana.lxxxv The 1870 Federal Census recordslxxxvi show that William Foster Harvey and his wife Esther are living in Plainfield, Indiana with their children: o DELLA (DELPHINA M.) HARVEY, age 16 o HORACE G(reely). HARVEY, age 12 o SUSAN E. HARVEY, age 9 (married an Albertson) The 1880 Federal Census records show that William F. Harvey (54), his wife Esther J. (49) and their daughter, Delphina M. (25) were living in Union, Hardin Co., Iowa. William is listed as a physician. Delphina is listed as a milliner.lxxxvii i “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 20. ii . . .Thomas and Betty Burgess, he a native of Pennsylvania and she of Virginia. Thomas was a son of Joseph Burgess, and he a son of Samuel Burgess, who emigrated from England to America and settled in a very early day, and is said to have lived for a time in a cave. Thomas Burgess, while a young man, emigrated with his parents from Pennsylvania to Virginia, where he married and resided till about 1813; emigrated with his family to Ohio, and located in Highland Co, and resided till in the fall of 1835, he removed to Harveysburg and resided till his death in the summer of 1836, aged 73 years; his wife died at the home of one of her children in Indiana (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 995. iii South River Monthly Meeting was also known as Bedford MM. It was founded in 1757 and was laid down in 1847. It was a meeting for worship before 1670. It had three Preparative Meetings: Lower Goose Creek until 1785, Halifax and Banister. The original minutes of South River MM are located at Haverford College (Monthly Meetings in North America: An Index, 1992 Formal Edition by Thomas C. Hill [Published by Author], p. 316.) iv They were married SEPT 15th, 1824 in Fairfield Twp, Highland Co., Ohio at Fairfield MM (Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 244). v Old C. P. Box 55, #7 Docket 0, Page 479, Isaac W. Burgess, Minor. The document is signed by Joseph H. Burgess and Simon D. Harvey on September 24, 1832 (Warren County Probate Court Archive, Warren County Courthouse, Lebanon, Ohio). In the packet is found a receipt signed by Isaac W. Burgess on December 14, 1852, “Rec‟d of Joseph H. Burgess my guardian as appointed by the Court of Common Pleas from Warren Co., Ohio the sum of $312.00 full of what came into his hands of my estate and Simon D. Harvey his security it being a part of my mother‟s interest in her father‟s estate.” Also see, Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, pp. 30. vi The 1832 Tax Duplicate of Warren County, Ohio lists Joseph Burgess as the owner of Lots # 37, 38, Tannery (39) and the west half of 40. vii A Joseph W. Burgess, a farmer, is listed in the Federal Census, Iowa, as being born in Virginia in 1803. He is married and has two children. They are living near Pleasant Plains, Penn Township, Jefferson County, Iowa. Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census [database online]. Provo, Utah: M653_328, page 71. A Joseph H. Burgess is mentioned starting a tannery in Harveysburg in The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653. viii Jesse W. (Burgess) was about 8 years of age when brought to Ohio by his parents; was raised to farm labor, and grew to manhood, receiving a good common school education, and entered upon the study of medicine, with Dr. Jesse Harvey, in Clinton, Oh.; in 1831, 1832 and 1833 attended medical lectures at Cincinnati, and graduated in the later year; he entered upon the practice of his profession in Highland Co., thence located at Harveysburg. But Mr. Burgess had more pleasure and relish in farming than for his profession, and he soon gave his leading attention to the occupation of farming. In 1835, the farm where Clarkson and his mother now live was purchased, and in 1838, he and his family moved on to the farm; here he spent the balance of his life, engaged mainly in the management of the farm, but was forced to continue his practice more or less, as many of his friends placed such confidence in his skill and knowledge that in severe and critical cases of sickness he was sure to be called upon to treat these patients. But the brightest and most shining trait in the Doctor‟s character was the great interest he took in the subject of education. He was the active man ~ the motive power ~ in every step of progress in his neighborhood and community, in elevating the standard of schools and teachers; was School Director for many years; he also filled most of the offices of his township during his life. He gave all his children a thorough education, and most of them became graduates of college. In his death the community lost a most worthy citizen, and the family a kind father and a devoted husband. He died Dec. 19, 1868 . . . (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), pp. 995-996). Dr. Jesse Burgess and his family‟s movements can be traced in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy: In Springfield Monthly Meeting minutes it is reported that he and his wife Elizabeth and family moved their membership to Cincinnati Monthly Meeting on 1831.11.15. They returned to Springfield Monthly Meeting from Cincinnati on 1832.7.17. They moved their membership to Fairfield Monthly Meeting in Highland Co., Ohio, 1834.12.16. They moved their membership again 1836.1.27 to Miami Monthly Meeting (attending the preparative meeting in Harveysburg), (Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, pp. 30 and 552. ix Moses Burgess, a farmer, is listed with his family in the 1880 Federal Census, with his wife and four children. His youngest daughter is named Tacy Emily. Tacy was the name of his sister. Year: 1880; Census Place: Garden, Cherokee, Kansas; Roll: T9_376; Family History Film: 1254376; Page: 461A; Enumeration District: 41; Image: 0003. Ii is reported in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy that Moses Burgess was reinstated as a member of the Society of Friends in Kansas Monthly Meeting on 1866.6.20 ((Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 30). x They were married OCT 1st, 1827 in Fairfield twp, Highland Co., Ohio at Fairfield MM (Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Volume V, OHIO, p. 244). They are mentioned as superintendent and matron at the Shawnee Mission in a report about the Delaware and Shawnee Indians in Friends‟ Review, Vol. 13 (1860), pp. 613- 615. xi Descendants of Joshua Hadley and Ruth Lindley, p. V2 52. xii The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Virginia, Vol. VI by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 300-301. xiii William Ham was married three times. Martha Burgess was his second wife. They married in December of 1837. Martha Burgess Hamm died in the fall of 1852. “Mr. Ham, when a young man, learned the blacksmith trade, located in Harveysburg and carried on his trade very successfully for twenty-five years; thence he entered upon the mercantile business, which he followed twelve years; four of which were in the dry goods and grocery trade, in which he was not so successful, meeting with heavy losses; the last eight years he was engaged in the drug trade, in which he was very successful. In January 1881 he sold out to his grandson Arthur L. Ham, and returned from all active business to pass the balance of his days in quiet and rest . . .” (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 1008. xiv Rhoden Ham sold his land in 1828 to William Harvey and the Ham family moved to Montgomery Co., Indiana . Rhoden Ham died on October 25th, 1859 in Fountain County, Cain Twp, Indiana (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 650 1008 and The McKinsey‟s: McKensey, McKensie, McKinsey Family: Descendants of George W. McKinsey and his wife Sarah (Thomas) McKinsey of Newberry County, South Carolina and Warren County, Ohio, etc., compiled and published by Ruby Mundell Barry, pp. 56-73. xv Dictionary of Quaker Biography (Haverford College, Quaker Collection), Elizabeth Harvey Mendenhall xvi “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson, originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), pp. 12-13. xvii The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Virginia, Vol. VI by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), p. xviii Their movements can be traced in Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy: On 1813. 10. 30 Thomas and wife Elizabeth and their children were received at Fairfield Monthly Meeting from South River Monthly Meeting in Virginia. On 1835.7.23 Thomas and Betty and Tacy and Martha moved their membership to Miami Monthly Meeting, Harveysburg Preparative Meeting (The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Ohio, Vol. V by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 30 and 226. xix The Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Ohio, Vol. V by William Wade Hinshaw (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1994), pp. 67 and 225. xx Indiana Yearly Meeting was organized in 1821, set off by Ohio Yearly Meeting and was composed of Western Ohio, Illinois and Indiana. It at once entered into active co-operation with Ohio and Baltimore Yearly Meetings. Members of the first „Active Committee‟ on Indian concerns of Indiana Y.M. were: Isaac Harvey, Aaron Brown, Jonathan Wright, Caleb Harvey, Robert Furnas, William Stanton, Caleb Wickersham, Thomas Frazier, Henry Pickeral, William Hadley, Patience Whitacre, Jane Smith, Agatha Harvey (Quaker Historical Collections: Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille Hadley, p. 49). xxi The obituary of Caleb Harvey, “The Friend” (Philadelphia: 4 , p. 160, and, Memorials of Deceased Friends Who were Members of Indiana Yearly Meeting, Published by Direction of the Yearly Meeting (Cincinnati: E. Morgan & Sons, No. 111 Main Street, 1857), pp. 32-35), “Testimony of Springfield Monthly Meeting, Ohio, concerning Caleb Harvey, deceased.” xxii Ohio Builds A Nation by Samuel Harden Stille (Chicago, Lower Salem, Ohio and New York City: The Arlendale Book House, 1939), p. 118. xxiii Col. Stephen Wall was born March 26, 1791 in Virginia and died September 19, 1845 in Rockingham, Richmond Co., North Carolina. He was the second son of Col. John Wall and his wife Martha Cole Wall. His siblings were James Wall (b. 1782) and Mia Wall (b. 1801). He never married. Stephen Wall is buried in the Mia Wall Family Cemetery in Rockingham, Richmond Co., North Carolina. xxiv Stephen Wall owned 61 slaves in 1830 (1830 Census, Rockingham, Richmond, North Carolina; Roll: 124; Page: 206). In 1840 he had 104 slaves (1840 Census, Black Jack District, Richmond, North Carolina; Roll: 370; Page: 235). xxv “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 19-20. xxvi "Stephen Wall never married." (MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS OF ANSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA compiled by the Craighead-Dunlap Chapter DAR, Wadesboro, North Carolina, 1972, "Histories of the Webb, Wall and Cole Families" by Capt. W. I. Everett, deceased, 1927, page 138; located in the Rockingham - Richmond County Library, Rockingham, North Carolina.), http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-in/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=capenoch&id =I21756&printer_friendly. xxvii Map of Warren County, Ohio from actual survey by P. O‟Beirne, C.E., 1856. xxviii 1830 Census, Harveysburg, Warren, Ohio; Roll: 142; Page: 263. xxix 1840 Census, Wayne, Warren, Ohio; Roll: 431; Page: 159. xxx Oberlin College. Oberlin. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio: James M. Fitch., MDCCCL. ) Page 24. xxxi Oberlin College. Oberlin. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Oberlin College (Oberlin, Ohio: James M. Fitch., MDCCCL. ) Page 24. xxxii 1850 Federal Census, M432_737, pp. 358-365. See, http://search.ancestry.com/cgi- bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&gsfn=&gsln=Wall&sx=&f23=OH&f3=Warren&f4=&rg_81004011__date=&rs_81004011__da te=0&f13=&f11=&f12=&f6=&f2=&prox=1&db=1850usfedcenancestry&ti=0&ti.si=0&gss=angs&submit.x=0&sub mit.y=0&fh=2. xxxiii Dallas Bogan, Warren County, Ohio and Beyond (Bowie Maryland: Heritage Press, 1979) page 54. xxxiv History of Harveysburg & Massie Township (The Harveysburg Community Committee), p. 9. xxxv The Town That Started the Civil War by Nat Brandt (Syracuse University Press, 1990), pp. 122-123. xxxvi Information taken from Electronic Oberlin Group: John Mercer Langston (1829-1897), http://www.oberlin.edu/external/EOG/OYTT-images/JMLangston.html. xxxvii They Stopped in Oberlin: Black Residents and Visitors of The Nineteenth Century, by William E. Bigglestone (Oberlin, Ohio: Gertrude F. Jacobs Publications Fund, Oberlin College, 2002), p. 208. xxxviii Certificate of Death for Orindatus S. B. Wall, No. 77381, District of Columbia, Permit No. 77452, date of death, April 26, 1891 xxxix Ibid., pp. 207-211. xl Grove Meeting was established as an indulged meeting of Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville, Ohio on 1.29.1817. In 1823 it became a “meeting for worship” and a “Preparative Meeting” of Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville. The original Grove Meetinghouse was located on an eight-acre lot about one and one-half miles south of Harveysburg (Survey 1045). It was the first church in the area to be built. Richard Moon originally owned the land. The first house was built of logs and was used as both a meeting and schoolhouse. It had a thriving school. The Hicksite Separation wrecked its havoc on Grove Meeting in 1828. The meeting divided into Hicksite and Orthodox groups and both groups moved into the new village of Harveysburg. The Hicksite Meetinghouse, continuing on as an indulged, preparative and meeting for worship under the jurisdiction of Miami Monthly Meeting (Hicksite) in Waynesville, survived until was laid down in 1907. The Hicksite meetinghouse still stands as a private residence at the end East Main Street. There is a small cemetery next to the building. The Orthodox group became known as Harveysburg Preparative Meeting. It became known as Miami Monthly Meeting (Orthodox) in 1942. It was laid down in 1960. The Orthodox Meetinghouse still stands as a private residence at the fork of the road created by Maple and Clark Streets in Harveysburg. Its cemetery is located across the street behind a white house. Also see, The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 651. xli The deed for this land is in the name of Napoleon B. Wall, et al. (Trustees), Book 28, page 10, the north 2/3 of lot (found in “Harveyburg Corp, Lots, Plats & Conveyances Index”, Deed Room, Warren County Courthouse, Lebanon, Ohio). xlii The following is recorded in a Institutions Book found in the Probate Court Archive of the Warren County, Ohio Courthouse in Lebanon, Ohio: “Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Ohio. At a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church of Harveysburg, Warren County, Ohio, called for the purpose of organizing in conformity with the Statute of Ohio passed March 13, 1844, there being a majority of the members of Said Society present, they proceeded to elect five Trustees with a Clerk. Thereupon Henry Wiggins, Charlott Dudley, Sarah Brantley, Nancy A. Dawson, and Mahala Branntley were elected Trustees and John Dodson, Clerk. It was Resolved that the Church should be known as Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Warren Co., Ohio. I hereby certify that the above is a true copy of the proceedings of the members of Antioch Chapel at Harveysburg, Ohio, held January 13, 1862, John Dodson, Clerk. Rec‟d. and Recorded Feb. 10, 1862.” xliii The History of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio, 1849-1960 by Charles H. Wesley (Wilberforce, Ohio: Central State Press, 1961), p. 85. xliv The first schools of the town were taught by Richard Clegg, George Baily, Dr. Jesse Harvey, Simon D. Harvey, Charles Mills, and others (The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653. xlv According to the chronology of Springfield Monthly Meeting in Clinton County, Ohio, “At an extra session of the trustees in June, 1829, the schools were redistricted „agreeably to the provisions of a law passed Feb. 10, 1829.‟ This was but four years after “a general law establishing a school system and levying a tax for its‟ support.” was passed. A list of householders by districts follows for it shows the heads of families in the township that time: District No. 8, householders: John Newlin, Eli Newlin, Ezekiel Hornada, Eli Harvey, William Harvey, Jesse Burgess, William Harvey, Mary Harvey, John Pyle, Elias Fisher, David Nickerson, John C. Harlan, Elizabeth Harlan, Wm. Harlan, Sr., Nathan Harlan, Jonathan Harlan, Enoch Harlan, Jr., Martin Ryan, Hannah Hornada, Elias Fisher, William Sabin, John Hadley, Caleb Harvey, Jesse Harvey, Eli Hadley, Jerre Kimbrough, Hiram Crew, David K. Harlan, Jesse Lewis (Quaker Historical Collections: Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille Hadley, p 52) . xlvi Dr. Jesse Harvey was a cousin of William Harvey who founded Harveysburg in 1828 (Combination Atlas Map of Warren County, Ohio by L. H. Everts, 1875), p. l7½. The village was named after William Harvey, xlvii Wilson Hobbs was a teacher in Harveysburg at the Harveysburg Academy who was also reading and studying to be a physician. The salary of a teacher was not sufficient, however, to allow him to continue his medial studies by attending medical lectures at a college and so he decided, when asked to be the superintendent at the Quaker Shawnee Mission in Kansas, to accept that appointment hoping he could gain a great deal of good experience as the superintendent. He did eventually become a physician (“The Friends Establishment in Kansas Territory”, Transactions of the Kansas Historical Society, 1903-1904, Vol. 8, [Topeka, Geo. A. Clark, State Printer, 1904), pp. 250-251). xlviii A Margaret Campbell, mulatto, is listed in the 1850 Federal Census of Highland Co., Ohio, Liberty Township. She would have been 17 at the time of this controversy, high school age. Roll: M432_694, page 68. xlix “A Great and Good People: Midwestern Quakers and the Struggle Against Slavery” by Thomas D. Hamm, April Beckman, Marissa Florio, Kirsti Giles, and Marie Hopper (Indiana Magazine of History, March 2004 (Vol. 100, #1), http://historycooperative.press.uiuc.edu/journals/imh/100.1/hamm.html. l E. & D. Hobbs are Elisha and Deborah Harvey Hobbs of Indiana. Deborah Harvey was one of the children of Isaac and Lydia Dicks Harvey. li Miscellaneous Poems; Moral, Religious, and Sentimental by John Harvey (Cincinnati: Published by James Harvey, 1848), pp. 236-238. lii Valentine Nicholson was disowned from Miami Monthly Meeting in Waynesville on June 26, 1844 and Isaiah Fallis was disowned from Center Meeting (Clinton County) on December 19, 1850 (see Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Vol. V., pp. 105 and 489. liii Oliver Woodson Nixon and William Penn Nixon were the sons of Samuel Nixon and Rhoda Hubbard Nixon. Oliver Woodson Nixon would later write Whitman's Ride Through Savage Lands with Sketches of Indian Life in 1905, How Marcus Whitman Saved Oregon: A True Romance Of Patriotic Heroism, Christian Devotion And Final Martyrdom, With Sketches of Life on The Plains And Mountains in Pioneer Days by Oliver W. Nixon; introduction by Frank W. Gunsaulus in 1895, and Reminiscences of the First Year of the War in Missouri in 1888. liv Valentine Nicholson obituary, Miami-Gazette newspaper of Waynesville, March 30th, 1904). lv William Crow is listed in the 1850 Census, Wayne Township, Warren, Ohio; Roll: M432_737; Page: 356. He was 28 years old in 1850, married with a baby. lvi J. G. Stevenson also became the first president of the Anti-Slavery Society for Clinton and Warren Counties. On December 19, 1851 it was reported in the Miami-Visitor newspaper of Waynesville, that on November 30th a meeting was convened in the (second) Academy in Harveysburg. The object was to organize an Anti-Slavery Society for Clinton and Warren Counties. J. G. Stevenson was the Chairman of this meeting and Valentine Nicholson was chosen secretary. They advocate the immediate and unconditional emancipation of slaves. The preamble of constitution signed by: Dr. A. Brooke, Aaron Harvey, V. Nicholson, F. G. Birdsell, Abram Allen, Wm. F. Hilles, J. G. Stevenson, Asa Pratt, O. D. Wall, Wm. McCune, J. W. Scroggs, Sarah Allen, J. F. Crew, Lydia W. Vandeburg, Hannah Birdsell, Jane F. Nicholson, Deborah Lafettra, E. F. Varner, Mary B. Birdsell, Caroline Wall, Martha M. Dakin, Elijah Howe, W. H. Birdsell, A. Winslow, Sarah Wall, Jona. A. Ballard, T. D. Ryse, N. Doan, Jesse A. Ballard. The full constitution was printed in the paper: “Clinton and Warren Anti-Slavery Society”. Officers elected were: J. G. Stevenson, President, Deborah Lafetta, Vice President, Mary B. Birdsell, Secretary and Valentine Nicholson, Treasurer. In the 1850 Federal Census of Harveysburg, J. G. Stevenson is listed as Joseph G. Stephenson, a coach maker. He is married with five children, see 1850 Census, Harveysburg, Warren, Ohio; Roll: M432_737; Page: 362. lvii By the time they sold the second Harveysburg Academy to the Massie Township Board of Education, Valentine Nicholson, John W. Scroggs, and William Wilson were the elected Trustees (elected on April 3, 1852). In the deed itself is written, “And whereas, as a special meeting of the stockholders in said School Company held in the school house on said premises on or about the 11 th day of June in the year 1853, in pursuance of written notice fifteen days previously given for that purpose, said stockholders adopted a resolution which is in the following words and figures, to wit: „Resolve that we hereby authorize the Trustees of the Harveysburg School Company to sell the entire premises known as the Harveysburg Academy to the Board of Education for Massie Township, or any other board for the use of schools provided the sale can be effected for any sum not less that 50 percent of the original stock subscribed to said premises‟ ~ . . .” The property was sold to the Board of Education for $700.00 which was half of the original subscription from stockholders (Deed Book 34, pages 94-95). lviii John Otis Wattles (1809-1859) was an ardent abolitionist, spiritualist, advocate of women‟s rights, and experimenter in communal utopias. The Wattles participated in Valentine Nicholson‟s ill fated Utopian experiment, “Prairie Home," a farm near Urbana, Ohio. He and his family moved from Oakland, Ohio in Clinton County to Utopia, Ohio along the Ohio River (an Owenite experiment which also failed), and then finally moved to Moneka, Linn County, Kansas in 1854. His brother Augustus also moved out to Kansas. John O. Wattles wrote two books: A Few Thoughts on Marriage (1844) and Annual Report of the Educational Condition of the Colored People of Cincinnati: Including the Sentiment in Mercer County, Ohio, presented at the Exhibition of the Cincinnati High School, April, 1847. lix Memories of Long Ago written by Valentine Nicholson, Stone Bluff, Fountain City, Indiana, July 1881 for his daughter Libbie (Copy sent by Willard Heiss, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1984 to the Ohioana Room, Mary L. Cook Public Library, Waynesville), Ohio, p. 9. lx Quaker Historical Collections: Springfield Friends Meeting compiled by Lucille Hadley, p. 52. lxi History of Harveysburg and Massie Township by Lucy McCarren (Published by the Harveysburg Historical Society),p. 3. lxii The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 307. lxiii Wilson Hobbs moved to the Quaker Shawnee Mission and School in Kansas as a missionary in 1850. According to the minutes of Ohio Yearly Meeting, 1852, Wilson Hobbs was a teacher in the school and had the care of the smaller boys when out of school. Wilson Hobbs also surveyed and plotted the farm. There were 228 acres under fence 190 of which had been ploughed (Ohio Yearly Meeting Minutes, 1852, pp. 9-10). lxiv The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 653. lxv “Memories of Long Ago” by Jane F. (Wales) Nicholson (Originally published in the Western Star, Lebanon, Ohio in the December issues of 1885 and published again in the Miami-Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio ca. 1905), p. 19. lxvi The History of Warren County, Ohio (Chicago: W. H. Beers & Co., 1882), pp. 654-660. lxvii County Board of Health, Indianapolis. The source of this record is the book H-9 on page 13 within the series produced by the Indiana Works Progress Administration. lxviii Rootsweb.com: Quaker Roots L Archives: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/QUAKER-ROOTS/2000- 01/0948549610 lxix THE SHAWNEE QUAKER MISSION: The friends, or Quakers, were the friends of the Indians. When the Ohio branch of Shawnees came to Kansas in 1832 the Quakers obtained permission from the government and sent a deputation to visit them at their new homes. By the report of that deputation it appears the Shawnoes were located in a rich and healthy country, and well pleased with their change. The Indians received the deputation with gladness, manifesting gratitude for former labors to ameliorate their condition. In 1834 a donation of three hundred pounds was received from Friends of London yearly meeting, for the Christian instruction and civilization of the Shawnee Indians. The donation was accompanied by a communication expressing much sympathy with Friends in their good work, and a desire that a "meeting for worship might be established." In 1835 the committees of the Maryland, Ohio and Indiana yearly meetings, met at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, and revised the "plan of operations for the Christian institution and civilization of the Shawnee Indians," which, being submitted to the secretary of war, was approved. A deputation was then sent to visit the Indians, to submit the plan to them, for approval. During the year 1836 the committees were engaged in erecting the necessary buildings and opening a farm. In 1837 superintendents were employed, a school was opened and a meeting for worship was established. The superintendents were directed to have portions of the Holy Scripture read daily in the school and in the family, and to take particular care to instruct the Indian children in the doctrines and precepts of the Gospel. A report of the work of the mission says: "From this time the committee continued to labor among them with pretty good success for several years, the school numbering from fifteen to forty scholars, who were boarded, lodged and clothed at the expense of Friends. During this period many of the Indians built comfortable houses, opened farms and prepared to enjoy the comforts of civilized life. A considerable number of the Indians were brought under conviction, and embraced the doctrines of the Gospel, but no provision having been made by our yearly meeting for their reception into membership with Friends they united themselves with the Baptist and Methodist churches. Some of the Shawnees, however, continued to attend Friend's meeting, and in 1852 an Indian by the name of Kako ("a" as in "far"), not feeling at liberty to join either of these societies, made application to the committee and was finally received into membership by Friends of Miami monthly meeting (Ohio), and during the remainder of his life his conduct and conversation were circumspect and exemplary. The closing scene of his life was rather remarkable. He had a large number of Indians collected, and was enabled to address them in a very feeling and impressive manner. His death was triumphant, exhibiting in a striking manner the power of faith." SOCIAL LIFE ABOUT THE MISSIONS. Eli Thayer was superintendent of the Quaker Mission in the early fifties. He had come out from Miami county, Ohio, bringing his wife and two children, a son and a daughter. Eli was an invalid and was seldom out of the house. Mrs. Thayer was an excellent Quaker woman and she was a mother to the Indian children. Elizabeth, the daughter, a handsome young woman, reflected much sunshine about the Mission and the Indian girls all loved her for her kindness and goodness of heart. The boy, James, twelve years old, was a favorite with the Indians. The teacher was Richard Mendenhall, who had come from Plainfield, Indiana, with his wife, Sarah Ann, a plain, motherly Quaker woman, and their son Charles, who was ten years old and said "thee" and "thou." Cyrus Rogers, also from Plainfield, was the Mission farmer. One fine Sunday afternoon while James Little of Indiana was visiting at the mission after his trip across the plains, a party was made up for a visit to the Chouteaus. The party included Rogers, Little, Elizabeth Thayer and four of the Indian girls. This story of the trip is told by Little: "The Chouteaus lived about two miles to the west. There were three brothers, all married to squaws. They were intelligent Frenchmen and owned slaves when Kansas was a territory. The girls were walking in a group a little ahead of us. Cyrus said: 'Jim, I will walk with Elizabeth and you walk with one of the Indian girls.' "So I sprang forward and overtook them and offered my services to Mahala, as she was the most civilized one of them. It was a great surprise to her. She suddenly bucked, then I halted; then she pitched forward, and I ran and caught up; then she would dodge back and forth, and finally retreated back to the mission. I discovered I was not popular with the Indian girls. They never seemed to like me. The meanest thing they could say was to call me a white man. They thought the Quakers were a different tribe. I did not use the plain language. I told Cyrus that I would walk with Elizabeth and for him to walk with one of the girls. So he said he would make the attempt, but he did not have any better success than I. He had a terrible chase after one, and she got away and went back to the mission. So that only left us two. Matters were not right. We did not know how to proceed but we held a council and it was decided that I should make another advance. It was a forlorn hope, but I had orders and must not show cowardice; so I made another effort and completely failed. She would pitch out ahead of me and then jump back behind me, and I would charge up to her side. She called me all sorts of names, some in Indian and some in English. One I remember was 'Skunk.' She went back to the mission, so that only left us one and we did not want to lose her, so concluded not to try to go with her until we returned. We thought that certainly by the time we got back we would have her civilized so we could go with her. "We finally arrived at the Chouteau house and entered. We found two old squaws sitting in the room and neither could speak a word of English, but they soon brought the two daughters in and they invited us into the Indian parlor. The house was a large, double-room log house with a kitchen shedded to one side. The parlor was neatly furnished. The young ladies were educated at the Methodist Episcopal Mission, South. They were rather good looking and reasonably intelligent, but adopted the custom of white people and made themselves agreeable. We had a pleasant evening and remained quite a while. "When we started to return the Chouteau girls went a short distance with us. They then bade us good-bye and started to return to the house. By that time we reached the timber which extended to the Quaker Mission. So the time had now fully arrived to make an effort to break in on our only remaining wild Indian girl. We felt sure we had the cinch on her; she was a long distance from the mission. it was dark and the road was quite lonely and certainly she would accept an escort and be delighted with the opportunity. Taking all into consideration it gave me great confidence; so I approached her in as gentle a manner as possible and she started to run as fast as she could go, so I could not do anything but run after her. When I would overtake her she would dodge to one side and run back. I gave her several chances and she took to the brush, so she escaped from me and the last I heard of her she was making the brush crack so I gave up the chase. We never saw her any more and were afraid she would not be able to make her way back to the mission. We approached, with fear and trembling. But when we got to the house Richard Mendenhall came out meeting us and said with great earnestness: 'Cyrus, what have you and James been doing to the Indian girls?' "We answered by saying that the object at the mission was to civilize them and teach them the customs of white people and we had only been giving them a lesson. He said they had been coming in one at a time ever since we started, and every one had told a bad story about how they had been treated. The one that got away and made her escape, had got in a long time before our arrival. "I found out later where we had made a mistake. We trespassed on Indian customs. The saying is, 'when you are in Rome do as Rome does.' When a young buck Indian goes with a young squaw he either goes in front of her or behind her. It is bad manners to walk at her side. Indians while traveling on ponies always go single. It shows a lack of sociability, which Indians are much noted for,” History of Wyandotte County Kansas and its people ed. and comp. by Perl W. Morgan (Chicago, The Lewis publishing company, 1911). 2 vols., http://skyways.lib.ks.us/kansas/kansas/genweb/archives/wyandott/history/1911/volume1/47.html#005201. lxx The Kansas historical marker at the site states: In 1825 the Federal government began moving Eastern Indians to new lands west of the Mississippi. This sign is on a 2,500 acre tract assigned to the Shawnees. With this tribe came Methodist, Baptist and Quaker missionaries. One mile east and a little north the Quakers erected buildings in 1836 and opened a school the following year. Indian students, who lived at the mission, received elementary schooling, religious instruction and training in agriculture and domestic arts. Highest recorded enrollment was 76. In later years the school was attended mainly by Indian orphans. The mission operated almost continuously until 1869. A marker designates the site of the main building, which was torn down in 1917 (The marker is located along Carter Drive, southwest of I-35 and Shawnee Mission Parkway Johnson County, Kansas. lxxi Thomas H. Stanley (b. November 20,1818 ~ d. May 19, 1902) and Mary Wilson Stanley (d. January 9, 1909) were married October 30, 1840 at Concord Meeting. They were members of Short Creek Monthly Meeting near Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. They moved their membership from Short Creek to Salem Monthly Meeting, Iowa on November 23, 1847 (Short Creek Monthly Meeting Minutes, Hinshaw‟s Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Vol. IV, Ohio, p. 279). The story of the Stanley ministry among the Native Americans can be found in Sixty Years Among the Indians: A Short Life Sketch of Thomas H. and Mary W. Stanley, Quaker Missionaries to the Indians by H. Pearl Dixon (Published by Author, a copy can be found at the Lyon County Historical Society, Emporia, Kansas). After their experience at the Quaker Mission to the Shawnee they moved to Iowa in 1848. Thomas H. Stanley would make many trips during his life east to solicit for funds among Friends to aid Native Americans and also to visit Presidents: Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and President Grant. The Stanleys were involved in the founding of the White‟s Manual Labor School in Iowa in 1854. In 1857 the family moved to Americus, Kansas nine miles north of Emporia since Thomas felt called to work with the Kaw Indians. Like Henry Harvey, Thomas Stanley traveled east to gather funds in the face of the horrible 1860 drought. He traveled through New England. In 1865, Thomas and Mary became the superintendents of the governments mission to the Kaw Indians, which was located a few miles from their home. In 1872, Thomas began a new ministry to the Absentee Shawnee who had settled near Arkansas City. Upon his recommendation a station and a school was built for them. In 1873 he was appointed farmer for the Kaw Indians in Indian Territory. lxxii “The Shawnee~Quaker Missions”, http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kansas/kansaskansans/page20.htm. lxxiii “The Friends‟ Establishment in Kansas Territory” by Wilson Hobbs, M.D., Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society, 1903-1904, Vol. 8 (Topeka, George A. Clark, State Printer, 1904),p. 268. lxxiv Elizabeth Burgess and Dr. Jesse Harvey are mentioned in footnote #19 on page 144 of Friends and the Indians, 1655-1917 by Rayner Wickersham Kelsey (Philadelphia, The Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs, 1917). lxxv The Shawnee Baptist Mission was located in Mission, Kansas. lxxvi “Before Bleeding Kansas: Christian Missionaries, Slavery, and the Shawnee Indians in Pre-Territorial Kansas, 1844-1854” by Kevin Abing (Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains, 24, Spring 2001), pp. 54-71. lxxvii Extracts of Minutes of Baltimore Yearly Meeting, 1847, pp. 6-9. lxxviii Rootsweb.com: Quaker Roots L Archives: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/QUAKER-ROOTS/2000- 01/0948726441 and http://skyways.lib.ks.us/genweb/johnson/library/indiancem.txt . Sadly the cemetery is in very bad shape. Many stones have disappeared or have been damaged. Native Americans and Quaker missionaries are buried together in the cemetery. It is also the resting place of Shawnee chief Captain Joseph Parks, lxxix "A Holy Battleground: Methodist, Baptist and Quaker Missionaries Among the Shawnee Indians, 1830-1844." Kansas History, Summer 1998 http://www.kshs.org/publicat/history/1998summer_abing.pdf. An interesting article about the rivalry between church missions to the Shawnee Native Americans. lxxx John Harvey, poet: John was one of the sons of William and Mary Vestal Harvey. His father William was a brother of Isaac, Eli, Joshua and Caleb Harvey who founded the Harvey Settlement in Clinton Co., Ohio. William moved his family to Ohio from North Carolina, a little later than his brothers. He was married to Lydia Ballard. They had eleven children together. His second marriage was to Mahala Plummer. John Harvey taught school at Springfield Monthly Meeting for two years. Eventually John and his family moved closer to Harveysburg. A book of his poetry was published in 1848: Miscellaneous Poems; Moral, Religious, and Sentimental by John Harvey (Cincinnati: Published by James Harvey, 1848). It is a very rare book. lxxxi A book “Poems by John Harvey 1848” was published by James Harvey near Harveysburg, Ohio 8 th mo. 1848. lxxxii Crown Hill Cemetery Burial Locator: http://www.crownhill.org/genealogy/index.html lxxxiii http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1857699&id=I109296091 lxxxiv History of the State of Kansas by William G. Cutler, Douglas County (Chicago, IL.: A. T. Andreas, 1883) http://www.kancoll.org/books/cutler/douglas/douglas-co-p19.html#BIOGRAPHICAL_SKETCHES_FUEL-HASE lxxxv Marriages 1851-1860, Parke County, Indiana Rookville, Indiana, Compiled by (Mrs. R. E.) Bess Ott Swope Chairman Genealogical Records Committee Estabrook Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution 1949-1950 1950-1951 D. A. R. Indexed by Genealogical Records Committee Estabrook Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution Mrs. Reuben Dooley, Mrs. Edgar G. Henderson and Mrs Maxwell Chapman 2-16-1955 Mrs. W. F. Schmidt -- Corydon, Indiana State Chairman Genealogical Records Committee, p 102. lxxxvi Ancestry.com: Year: 1870, Census Place: Plainfield, Hendricks, Indiana, Roll: M593_322, Page: 399, Image: 273. lxxxvii Ancestry.com: Year: 1880; Census Place: Union, Hardin, Iowa; Roll: T9_343; Family History Film: 1254343; Page: 510D; Enumeration District: 127; Image: 0316.
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