Vol. XLVII No. 1 January 2003 SAFETY CANADA The member newsletter of the Canada Safety Council How the Canada Safety Council Fulfils its Mandate Public Policy I n 2003, the Canada Safety Council enters its 35th year. Those years have seen impressive progress in safety. As new issues emerge, CSC’s leadership role is as vital as ever. Although many CSC has always stayed abreast of developments in the safety field to provide information and resources based on the most reliable research and statistics. To address specific issues, Advocacy is a small part of CSC’s overall activity, with the purpose to promote a full and reasoned consider- ation of an issue. The Council is not a things have changed, the original knowledgeable staff members draw lobby group, and does not put pressure mandate set 35 years ago continues to upon a network of experts and on individual politicians or other drive its work. practitioners — researchers, public organizations. Its policy positions are sector agencies, and other not-for- based on consultation with stake- Dedicated to Safety profit groups. holders such as police, insurers, industry, In 1968, the Canadian Highway Public awareness campaigns, and health professionals, and reflect Safety Council, the National Safety publications and Web sites combine their combined expertise or expressed League of Canada and the Canadian with extensive behind-the-scenes work endorsement. Its role in representing Industrial Safety Association merged to to enable CSC to achieve its objectives. safety interests is to help formulate form the Canada Safety Council. The The media are important allies, with laws that address clearly identified purpose was to establish one national, well over 100 million exposures during problems, are based on well-researched not-for-profit organization solely 2002 in print alone. Newspapers, evidence and can be enforced. dedicated to the safety of Canadians. television and radio receive safety CSC often adds to the public The number one Object in CSC’s information on an ongoing basis, and debate of a safety issue by providing Constitution was: “to minimize interviewers contact CSC for a safety reliable information and raising avoidable death, injury and damage to perspective on current issues. The concerns that may not have otherwise property by devising, recognizing, Council’s public awareness and been considered — offering a voice encouraging and promoting methods education mandate complements the of reason on emotionally-driven issues. and procedures leading to improved work of many other safety-related By articulating an objective, well- safety, protection and health among all organizations. informed perspective, CSC engages the persons in public and private places public, legislators and the media in throughout Canada.” discussion. Directors and members are The second Object was “to focus kept advised of these activities, and attention on the vital importance of relevant communications are accessible safety.” Further Objects included to the public on the Internet. assisting in the drafting and enactment CSC, with its broad mandate, is of safety legislation, dissemination of not a single-issue organization. It does safety information, maintaining close not represent victims or commercial liaison with organizations concerned interests, but takes into account with safety, and related objectives such information from a wide spectrum of as encouraging research and uniform stakeholders in the overall context of systems of reporting statistics. As an independent, non-government organization, the public good. CSC works with government to form and implement public policies related to safety. To page 2... INSIDE Speed Limits ........................... 2 Intersection Drivers At Work Red Light Cameras .............. 3 Seat-belts in Alberta ............ 3 Child Seats .......................... 3 riving is an Dcompanies. occupationalservice and utilityand not only forheavyworkers, police Emergency safety issue — vehicles, taxis, transportation company cars are driven on the job. Maintenance workers, postal machinery and Public Platform and sales representatives are exposed to risks from traffic. Poisoning ............................ 5 Traffic crashes are the leading cause of work-related fatalities in the United Straw Mazes ........................ 5 States. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 2,000 deaths a year Tap Water Scalds ................. 6 result from occupational motor vehicle crashes in that country. This represents Online Dangers ................... 6 over 30 percent of the total annual fatalities from occupational injuries, but does Helmet Legislation ............... 6 not include employees killed or injured when travelling to and from work. On the Job Stairs and Fitness ................. 7 Australian research suggests that half of all work-related fatalities occur on E-Waste .............................. 7 roads, including travel to and from work. Work-related travel in that country is Did you know? ....................... 8 estimated to make up from one-third to two-thirds of all driving. To page 4... SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 2 Canada Safety Council Mandate, from page 1. President’s Perspective New Issues and programs. Occasionally, CSC CSC addresses longstanding safety provides expert input to standing A suggestion that Ontario might committees reviewing legislation and raise the speed limits on its 400 issues on an ongoing basis, working in expert witness to coroner’s inquests. series highways to 120 km/h has collaboration with public sector CSC uses government sources for apparently been shelved. agencies, including federal government statistics when available. While some departments, police, schools and health government agencies are members, Ontario’s road safety record professionals. for 2000 was the best in Canada. operations are not funded by The Canada Safety Council warned A new issue may come to light government grants. the government that raising speed from news reports, journals, research, CSC’s motorcycle training limits would put this impressive statistics, communication from program is a good example of its safety record at risk. concerned individuals or organizations, partnership with government. In 1974, or a combination of these. Following responding to the high number of Fatal crashes rise with speed are some recent examples: limits. As speed increases over 100 deaths and injuries involving - A number of serious dog bite motorcycles, Transport Canada gave km/h, the survival rate for vehicle incidents came to CSC’s attention the Canada Safety Council seed occupants drops dramatically. The during 2000. Further investigation funding for a national program to train chances of being killed in a vehicle revealed that dog attacks are not beginning motorcyclists, the first of its travelling at 120 km/h are four times uncommon, and injuries can be kind in the world. Today, over 70 per higher than at 100 km/h. severe. When CSC made its cent of new riders in Canada take Proponents of higher speed concerns public, it heard from Gearing Up—Canada’s Motorcycle Skills limits ignore several critical factors: victims, breeders and organizations Course. Training has contributed to the dealing with pets. CSC’s position long-term drop in motorcycle fatalities, • The impact on safety and from a high of 903 in 1973, to 179 in insurance rates due to well- was developed in collaboration with these groups. A partnered Web site 2000 despite a significant increase in documented higher risks. the number of riders. The program has • Enforcement capabilities: Will on dog bite prevention was launched been self- funding since the late 1970s “Zero Tolerance” apply? Will the in summer 2002. from student fees and contributions new speed limit be equally - In 2000, seven people were killed in from the motorcycle industry. enforced in both rural and urban several incidents related to school Council staff participate on a sections of the highway? trips. These reports raised CSC’s volunteer basis in government • The needs of older drivers: concerns about safety precautions committees. For example: Transport Drivers over 80 are the fastest on such trips. Further investigation Canada (Dangerous Goods and growing segment of Ontario’s and inquiries through a school Railway Safety); Canadian Council of driving population. insurer revealed a high number of Motor Vehicle Administrators (various injuries and led to a call for traffic safety committees); • The increase in older vehicles on educators to apply risk management the road. Environment Canada (Working Group to all school trips. on Road Salts); and Health Canada • The risk involved in catching - Demands to ban cell phones in cars (Canadian Health Network). high-speed offenders — arose from public concern about unacceptable to both the police Recent projects include: Truck drivers using cell phones. Advocates Driver Incentives (Transport Canada); and the public. cited a report by a Toronto Falls Prevention (Health Canada/ An overwhelming body of physician, which CSC found flawed Veterans Affairs Canada); School evidence shows speed increases the and out of date. CSC drew attention Bullying (Justice Canada, in partnership likelihood and severity of a crash. to recently released studies by with National Film Board of Canada). The bottom line is that raising credible traffic safety researchers at highway speed limits is a bad idea. well-respected institutions Independence (University of Montreal and Like most not-for-profit organizations, University of North Carolina). It CSC regularly approaches the private pointed to laws already in place to sector for funding. Industry groups address irresponsible cell phone use often sponsor initiatives related to their and launched a public education interests. However, by maintaining a campaign about the underlying SAFETY CANADA safety issue of driver distractions. diversified revenue base, CSC avoids conflicts of interest that might Safety Canada is the member newsletter of the Relations with Government compromise its independence. Canada Safety Council. It is also published on CSC’s Web site. Articles may be reprinted Working with government to form and Margins from training programs, with credit, except those copyrighted to other implement public policy is integral to magazine subscriptions, and organizations. Please send a copy to the the Canada Safety Council’s mandate. sponsorships contribute to overhead. editor. ISSN: 0048-8968 As a non-government organization, Corporations and individuals fund the Canada Safety Council CSC suggests, supports and educates Council’s work through membership President: Emile-J. Therien the public about safety legislation, with donations. With this support, plus a Editor: Ethel Archard (ext. 228) a strong emphasis on gaining public dedicated, knowledgeable staff and 1020 Thomas Spratt Place, understanding and acceptance of laws cost-effective operations, CSC fulfils its Ottawa, ON K1G 5L5 and regulations. safety mandate. Telephone: (613) 739-1535 Fax: (613) 739-1566 CSC maintains relationships with Impaired Driving: an Example of Web site: www.safety-council.org government agencies through committee Input to Federal Policy, see page 4. olicy, Federal Policy Charitable BN: 11882 8565 RR 0001 work, direct correspondence, projects SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 3 Canada Safety Council Intersection Red Light Cameras R unning red lights is one of the most dangerous aggressive driving behaviours. A recently released survey found 70 percent of drivers under 40 years of age and 80 percent of those 60 and over view running red lights as a serious or extremely serious problem. The survey suggests that in rating For example, a study of red light the seriousness of the problem, drivers cameras in Oxnard, California found assess the risk of a crash. They do not seven percent fewer crashes overall and see drivers running red lights as often 29 percent fewer injury crashes at as they observe other aggressive intersections after the cameras were Lower Universal Anchorages behaviours such as speeding or unsafe introduced. However, not all collisions passing. However, they feel the at intersections involve red light running. for Infant and Child Seats potential consequences are more When the data were re- serious. Over 60 percent of survey respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the use of red light cameras to catch drivers who run red lights. analyzed to take into account only those crashes related to red light running, the N ew regulations will make it easier to install infant and child seats in the rear seat of a vehicle. Effective September 1, 2002, all findings showed much new Canadian vehicles must be equipped Proven to Reduce Crashes greater benefits — 20 with lower universal anchorage bars. In Studies show red light camera percent fewer crashes recent years, some vehicles sold in Standard sign for Canada were already fitted with this programs reduce crashes at photo enforcement and 46 percent fewer intersections. However, estimates of injury crashes. innovative anchorage system. their impact vary widely, from seven After examining the methodology Also, all new Canadian infant and percent to 46 percent. The Insurance of previous studies, the Institute child seats must have two connectors, Institute for Highway Safety in the US determined that red light cameras reduce that can be attached to a vehicle’s lower attributes the variation to injury crashes by about 25 to 30 percent. methodological problems. universal anchorage bars. These new To page 4... infant and child seats also work with the seat belts in older vehicles, which may not have lower universal Alberta Gets Serious About Seat-Belts anchorage bars. If you have an infant or child seat designed to work with a ccording to a ASeptember 25,report releasedAlberta 2002, by the on Occupant Restraint Program, only 76 these areas. He discovered that in rural areas, Alberta’s seat-belt wearing rate was only 69 percent. seat belt, you will still be able to use your car seat in a newer vehicle percent of Albertans buckle up. Rural In Spring 2002, MacDonald equipped with lower anchorage bars. Albertans and truck drivers are least introduced a new tactic to reduce the A top tether strap must be used likely to fasten their seat-belts. number of people killed because they on all forward-facing child seats, This may explain in part why the were not wearing a seat-belt. He whether the child seat is secured by a vast majority of motor vehicle fatalities spearheaded a campaign to give morgue seat belt or by the new lower universal in Alberta occur in the rural areas. In toe-tag tickets to motorists not wearing anchorages. about 60 percent of fatal crashes in a seat-belt. Offending drivers had to fill Alberta, the victims are not wearing in their own names as “deceased” and For further information, contact seat-belts. Edmonton RCMP Staff Sgt. give next of kin. “Reasons” for not the vehicle manufacturer, the Steve MacDonald won the 2000 wearing seat-belts appeared on the manufacturer of the infant or child National Police Award reverse of each tag; seat, or Road Safety, Transport Canada for Traffic Safety. After Morgue toe-tag tickets for example, “Feel you toe-tag at 1-800-333-0371. finding that half of the haven’t lived until Transport Canada, October 2002 vehicle occupants killed for unbelted motorists you’ve experienced in collisions on RCMP compound fractures?” patrolled highways were unbelted, he The approach was intended to initiated a crusade to increase seat-belt jolt unbelted Albertans into realizing use in rural Alberta, with the ambitious they could be killed, disfigured and goal of 95 percent usage by 2010. maimed if they don’t buckle up. Major urban-based seat-belt Dr. Lou Francescutti, head of the surveys showed that 90 percent of Alberta Centre for Injury Control and Albertans were buckling up. Research, suggested making people pay Look for this symbol on infant MacDonald recognized, however, that some of their medical costs if hurt in a and child seats as well as on 80 percent of Alberta’s fatal crashes vehicle seats. Consult the collision when not wearing a seat-belt. vehicle’s owner’s manual. were on the province’s rural highways Alberta’s health minister was and saw a need for a survey specific to To page 4... SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 4 Canada Safety Council Driving At Work, from page 1. Red Light Cameras, from page 3. In the United Kingdom, evidence Psychology the Key to Success Impaired Driving: an Example presented to a Work-related Road Safety of CSC Input to Federal Policy Task Group in 2001 found that between To stop motorists from running red lights, signs must be posted at all Since its inception the Canada Safety 25 and 33 percent of all serious and fatal Council has participated actively in collisions involved someone who was at intersections where cameras may be operating. Without signs, accusations initiatives and meetings related to work at the time. This suggests that job- legislation, countermeasures and related deaths and injuries are more likely that red light cameras are simply cash to occur on the road than in a fixed machines are arguably justified. education to reduce impaired driving. workplace. A special police study National Safe Driving Week (December Perception of apprehension is 1 to 7) has been used to enhance public undertaken for the task group found known to be a very effective deterrent. that 30 percent of all serious and fatal awareness of this issue and related If people believe they will be caught, legislation. collisions investigated involved at least they are far less likely to offend. The one person “at work.” objective is to prevent violations — Regular media releases and articles While Canada has little data on ideally, to give no tickets. If the number address impaired driving and respond work-related driving, there is every of violations is high, the program is to news coverage. CSC has also reason to believe the situation in this not working properly. commissioned studies to add to informed country is similar in scale to the US, consideration of possible counter- Australia and the UK. measures. These documents are available Red light cameras reduce injury to the public on its Web site Workplace Driver Improvement Employers should approach work-related crashes by 25 to 30 percent. (www.safety-council.org). driving as they do other occupational 1997 Commissioned research on health and safety risks. Driver preventive programs for the hard improvement programs for all employees Australia has been using red light core drinking driver, as the basis who drive on or off the job need to be cameras for over 20 years. In Melbourne, for policy and awareness work. part of the plan. Providing the Canada for example, 35 red light cameras are 1998 Co-sponsored a meeting of Safety Council’s Defensive Driving rotated among 132 sites, all of which stakeholders to establish Course is a good way to start. have warning signs. Motorists won’t want common priorities and The six hour classroom program is to risk a ticket at any of those 132 sites. recommendations for changes to designed to help employees avoid the Criminal Code to make the Six Ontario municipalities have law more effective. collisions both on and off the job. The been piloting the cameras since 2000, defensive driver takes every reasonable 1999 Presented recommendations to precaution to prevent traffic mishaps, and the pilot projects are being extended to 2004. The Canada Safety the House of Commons over and above what is required by law. Standing Committee on Justice Participants learn what is involved in Council continues to express concerns and Human Rights (March 1999). driving defensively, why and how various that the success of these red light types of motor vehicle collisions occur, camera projects is compromised 2000 Commissioned a poll to assess because the cameras are not public knowledge and and what it takes to prevent them. perceptions of Canada’s accompanied by warning signs. A completely revised DDC will be impaired driving laws, including released in the first quarter of 2003. It The Road Safety Monitor 2002: Risky Driving. Traffic 1999-2000 changes. Injury Research Foundation. (www.trafficinjuryresearch.com) has been nicknamed the Green DDC Co-sponsored a national because of its new fuel efficiency com- Status Report, Vol. 37, No. 5, May, 2002. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (www.highwaysafety.org) workshop to establish directions ponent. The state-of-the-art course of- for countermeasures over the fers eight one-hour modules, with five coming nine years. core topics and a choice of one out of Alberta Gets Serious, from page 3. 2001 Convened a meeting of national three optional ones. Topics include pre- “intrigued” by the idea that individuals stakeholder organizations to ventable collisions, driving conditions, who make the personal decision not to discuss priorities in the light of driver attitude, impairment, intersections wear a seat-belt should be made to bear the 1999-2000 amendments to and passing, winter driving, fuel efficiency the consequences of that choice. the Criminal Code. driver distractions and more. There are also brand new materials, visual aids and Transport Canada’s July 2001 2002 Commissioned a comprehensive films (now in VHS and DVD format). survey of seat-belt use in Canada found study by a legal expert to that 90 percent of us buckle up.* Ontario determine the validity of claims If your workplace does not already that Canada’s blood alcohol laws include driver improvement in its safety boasts the highest seat-belt wearing rate, at over 92 percent. Alberta and were weaker than those in other program, make 2003 the year you start comparable countries. *Questions DDC. For more information please send Manitoba are the lowest provinces, at 85 and 82 percent respectively. about impaired driving statistics an e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org). You were discussed at a meeting of will be notified when the new DDC is Alberta has a history of resistance government and safety officials. available. to seat-belts. In 1988, seat-belt NIOSH Alert: Preventing Worker Injuries and legislation was challenged and initially * Canada’s Road Safety Vision 2010 (in which Deaths from Traffic-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes, overturned in that province, leading to CSC is a participant) aims for a 40% reduction in DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-142 road users fatally or seriously injured in crashes a drop in usage from 83 percent to 45 involving a drinking driver by 2010. CSC recently Roadkill, Paul Somerville. National safety, The percent, and a corresponding increase Journal of the National Safety Council of pointed out that respected Canadian sources cite widely Australia, March 2002 in deaths and injuries. varying statistics. Consistent reporting of the number of fatalities is necessary to determine whether the Work-related Road Safety Task Group * Estimate of seat-belt use by all occupants in light-duty national goal is met. Discussion Document, Health & Safety vehicles (passenger cars, passenger vans and light trucks). Commission (2001). The Transport Canada survey tends to focus on urban areas. SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 5 Canada Safety Council Public Platform Kwiz Korner Do you know the facts about Poisoning Data Reveal Overdose Problem poisonings? oisoning ranks motor vehicle collisions as Pfrequent type ofnext to falls andto hospitalization in Canada.the third most injury leading 1. What age group has the highest rate of unintentional poisoning? According to the Canadian child or the product with you when you A. 1 to 4 B. 5 to 9 Institute for Health Information answer. When you have visitors, keep C. 10 to 14 D. 65 + (CIHI), there were 28,581 poisoning purses and other personal belongings cases admitted to Canadian hospitals in out of reach; they may contain 2. Which statement is false? 1999-2000, out of a total 197,002 medicines or other items that could be A. Iron supplements are a common admissions for all injuries. Medications harmful to a curious toddler. Similar cause of poisonings in young are the most common substances in all precautions apply to visits to homes children. poisonings. that have not been child-proofed. B. Infant medication is more potent Most poisonings in Canada are Deliberate Self-harm than children’s medication. intentionally self-inflicted. The C. Philodendron is a safe house CIHI statistics show the average Except for children under 10 and adults 65 and over, most plant for homes with young age of hospital cases rose from children. 33.6 years in 1995-1996, to 36.3 poisonings are deliberate self- years in 1999-2000, and 60 harm. Tragically, poisonous D. All of the above. percent of the patients were substances are often used to commit suicide. Among 3. What is the most common cause female. About 68 percent of of all poisoning hospitalizations? all poisoning admissions women, drug overdoses are the most common method of A. Medicine/vitamins. were classified as suicide and self-inflicted. An suicide; men are most likely to B. Household cleaning products. additional 10 percent choose firearms. Firearms are C. Carbon monoxide. (primarily in the age instantly lethal, whereas drug D. Alcohol. groups with high rates of overdose casualties often end up in intentional injury) are of hospital. 4. What age group accounted for undetermined intent. The highest incidence of self- over 40 percent of all poisoning inflicted poisoning is among women in admissions to Canadian hospitals Child Safety Precautions their 20s to 40s who use tranquillizers, in 1999-2000? Parents with small children must take analgesics, anti-depressants and other A. Under 15 B. 15 to 24 safety precautions to eliminate the risk psychotropic medications. The C. 25 to 44 D. 45 and older of a child coming in to contact with statistics point to an urgent need to poisons. Many common products are focus on mental health and suicide 5. Poisoning represents what potentially life threatening if ingested, prevention issues in this group. percentage of all self-inflicted including medications, some house injuries? plants, cleaning products, alcohol and Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) National A. 8% B. 24% C. 57% D. 83% other substances in the home Trauma Registry Bulletin: Poisoning Injury Hospitalizations in Canada, 1999/2000. Toronto (ON): 2002. Answers on page 6. workshop or garage. First and foremost, keep those products out of sight and out of reach, preferably locked up. Buy products in child-resistant containers with safety caps Mazes Pose Fire Risk and keep them in their original containers so they will be easily identified. made of straw, hay or Mazes regulations,summer andcorn seasons. These structuresofare exemptintegrity. during the late fire safety fall stalks attract thousands visitors especially and also from any regulations affecting their structural from In early October 2002, a terrifying fire engulfed a straw maze on a farm Many common products can north of Toronto. The fire was deliberately set. be life threatening if ingested. The incident raised concerns among fire officials and others, including the Canada Safety Council, about how well the public is protected. Immediately following the fire the Ontario fire marshal issued an October 23 communiqué, Always administer medicine Fire Safety for Amusement Activities on Farms and Other Sites, to provide direction to according to the directions. Adults the fire service. should take their medications out of Without formal safety regulations, these popular attractions pose a threat to the sight of children, and should never public safety. refer to medicine as “candy.” At CSC’s request, the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes has Supervision is critical. When referred this safety concern to its Standing Committees on Fire Safety and using cleaning products never let young Occupancy, as well as Hazardous Materials and Operations. Safety requirements children out of your sight. If the for straw bale mazes may involve expanding the scope of current codes and will phone or doorbell rings, take either the require consultation with provincial and territorial jurisdictions. SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 6 Canada Safety Council Tap Water Scalds Bike Helmet Legislation Reduces Head Injuries water in the Hot tap are treated inhomeOverannually incauseseniors and people with among young children. disabilities is the leading hospital 300 children, of scalding injuries Canada for scald injuries caused by hot tap water. Serious burns and scalds require long and painful treatment. They can states a performance expectation limiting the temperature of hot water R esearch at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto has shown that mandatory bicycle helmet result in permanent scarring, physical at plumbing fixtures to a maximum of legislation reduces the number of and emotional disability, and years of 49 C. The designer, supplier or installer bicycle-related head injuries in skin grafting operations. The very would have flexibility in how to meet children. In Canada, five provinces young and the elderly are most at risk the requirement. The Canadian (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, because they tend to have a slower Commission on Building and Fire New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) reaction time and/or thinner skin. Codes will post the proposed have adopted bicycle helmet amendment for public review from legislation. In Canada, most home hot water January 2 to March 31, 2003 heaters are set at 60 C. At this tempera- (www.nationalcodes.ca). If adopted, it The study looked at data on the ture, water burns human skin in one to will become part of the code in the 9,650 Canadian children (five to 19 five seconds. A child’s skin will burn in spring of 2004. years of age) hospitalized for bicycle- less than one second. A slight reduction related injuries from 1994 to 1998. would have a significant impact on The CSA/ANSI standard for gas The results indicate that the bicycle- reducing the number and severity of water heaters specifies a preferred related head injury rate declined injuries. It would take 10 minutes for a factory pre-set temperature setting of significantly (45 percent reduction) in child to suffer a third degree burn in 49 49 C. The next edition of the CSA provinces where legislation had been C water, which some have proposed as standard for oil water heaters, expected adopted compared to provinces and the maximum temperature for domestic to be published in early 2003, will also water heaters. However, there is concern specify a factory pre-set temperature territories that did not adopt about possible technical problems. setting of 49 C. The forthcoming oil legislation (27 percent reduction). The National Building Code water heater standard also requires a Bicycle helmet legislation had currently allows a maximum tank special anti-scalding water warning been shown to increase helmet use, temperature of 60 C. Safe Kids Canada label and recommends the use of a but the effect on the rates of head has worked with the Canadian Advisory water tempering or mixing valve to injuries was unknown. This research Committee on Plumbing to develop a limit hot water temperature at point of shows that helmet legislation is an proposed amendment to the National use to 49 C. effective tool to prevent childhood Building Code and the National The CSA Standard for electric bicycle-related head injuries. Plumbing Code. The proposal simply water heaters specifies a 60 C The Hospital for Sick Children and Safe Kids Canada To page 8... Answers to Kwiz Korner Online Dangers 1. A. Young children are naive and curious, so special precautions are ccording Canada, children are AtelevisiontoasStatisticstime atwouldcomputer. spendinghealththan sitting inother of and more activities such outdoor play the From a less time watching be far more beneficial standpoint, front needed. 2. C. Many plants in and around the home can be toxic to children or a screen for long periods. From a personal safety standpoint, the unregulated pets, including philodendron. It’s environment of cyberspace is virtually impossible to police. best to keep all plants out of the The Internet has been called an electronic Trojan horse. It offers education, reach of young children. For young entertainment, and communication with people around the world — all potentially children, vitamins with iron good experiences. Unfortunately, it also attracts con artists, pedophiles, ideologies supplements are very dangerous. and other material to which parents might not want their children exposed. Infant medication may be more potent so it can be administered in The Canada Safety Council and Media Awareness Network smaller doses. Web sites provide Internet safety tips to help parents protect their 3. A. Poisonings by drugs, medicinal children from the Dark Side of the World Wide Web. and biological substances represented 90 percent of Name Exposure hospitalizations. The most common Exchanging e-mail with friends seems like an medications include tranquillizers, innocent activity. However, after children exchange antidepressants and e-mail addresses they may start to receive acetaminophen. forwarded messages, some re-forwarded by several 4. C. Out of 28,581 hospital senders. Everyone uses the CC field, exposing the admissions for poisoning, the 25 to e-mail addresses to more and more strangers, 44 age group accounted for 42.8 sometimes into the hundreds. percent. Of these, 78 percent were classified as suicide or self-inflicted. Spammers pick up names from these chain e- 5. D. Most serious self-inflicted mails, enabling them to clog Inboxes with injuries are suicide attempts. To page 8... Parents must monitor their children’s Internet use. SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 7 Canada Safety Council On the Job E-Waste Solutions isposal computers, Dscannersofand — called printers, other telecommuni- Stairway to Health cations equipment “e- waste” — has emerged as a major environmental issue. (See Safety Canada, October 2001, T he Canada Safety Council works with Health Canada through the Canadian Council for Health and Active Living at Work (CCHALW) to bring active living programs into workplaces. Stairway to Health is a new CCHALW initiative to encourage office workers to use stairways instead of riding elevators. It was ment was recycled or refurbished for launched in Lake Louise at the October 2002 Health, Work and Wellness Conference. Trashed Computers.) During the 1990s only about 10 percent of this equip- reuse in Canada. The simple choice to take the stairs E-waste contains toxic materials instead of the elevator can make a big that can be hazardous if not managed difference to employee health and fitness. properly. In particular, the lead oxide • Daily living activities like climbing used in the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) Tools to develop and manage a of computer monitors is a concern the stairs significantly contribute to Stairway to Health program will be because it is in a soluble form. the 30 minutes of daily exercise launched online in 2003; watch Safety everyone needs. Proper recycling of the Canada for the URL. The Web site will hazardous materials from computers is • Using the stairs burns twice as many give practical advice on how to an important health and safety calories as walking, and requires no introduce and maintain the program. It concern. However, computer waste special skill, equipment or clothing. will also provide management tools, also contains valuable parts and • Regular stair users have greater leg downloadable posters and other precious metals, such as gold and strength and aerobic capacity than promotional resources. copper, which offer potential business non climbers. The program is meant to be opportunities. • Taking the stairs is often faster than customized. Strategies will depend on The Information Technology waiting for the elevator, especially the unique nature of each workplace. Association of Canada represents the during peak usage times. For example, some workplaces may opt computing and telecommunications for an ongoing program, others for a industry. It has proposed a national The Stairway to Health program is special event or events. designed to help incorporate active action plan that gives municipalities and living into the workplace. For Encouraging the use of stairs is consumers the responsibility to collect organizations that already have an easy and inexpensive way to enhance the equipment. Industry would cover employee fitness programs, it can be a employee fitness — especially with the transportation costs and processing. A simple add-on. For those who still need resources from Stairway to Health. The proposed front-end fee on IT to be convinced, a Web based resource, benefits can be significant, including equipment would finance the program. The Business Case for Active Living at lower turnover rates, reduced In February 2001, Alberta Work (Safety Canada, July 2001) absenteeism, fewer medical claims, launched the first provincial initiative demonstrates the value of fostering higher productivity and improved to recycle obsolete computers, and a employee fitness. The Stairway to Health employee morale. commercial e-waste recycling facility program offers a good starting point! opened in Rimbey, Alberta in may start to require take-back of used September 2002. When fully operational, equipment and fees to recycle CRTs. the facility will process over two million kilograms of e-waste annually. Manufacturers are trying to remove hazardous substances such as Manitoba prefers a return-to- lead and mercury from computers. For retailer model for electronics waste, example, the lead in sol- and in British der will likely be phased Computer waste contains Columbia there have out over the next five been requests that the valuable parts and precious provincial government years. However, there metals which offer potential are major challenges. develop an e-waste Lead-free solders tend to business opportunities. program that is be more brittle than the financed and managed current lead-based solders used to glue by industry. Ontario components to motherboards. In established a new waste diversion addition, changing the solder requires organization in June 2002. Waste the cooperation of all component Diversion Ontario is based on the manufacturers. Everything works premise that industries will pay half of together. If even one of the hundreds the cost of handling their materials in of components on a motherboard is municipal recycling programs. dislodged, functioning of the computer The European Union is taking is compromised. strict measures requiring the industry Point-of-choice posters are the most effective way Solid Waste & Recycling, October/November 2002. to collect and recycle obsolete to persuade employees to take the stairs. ZDNet News, September 12, 2002. computers. In the U.S., individual states have recognized the problem. Some SAFETY CANADA, No. 1, 2003 8 Canada Safety Council Online Dangers, from page 6. Did you know? unwanted e-mails, from sales pitches to pornographic and A recent survey of Canadian drivers found that 16 percent hate spam. They may also be able to obtain personal reported driving a vehicle within two hours of consuming information if the e-mail address is attached to traceable alcohol in the past 30 days. In the past year, about 1.7 million identifying information through an ISP. Canadians (8 percent of drivers) drove when they thought they were impaired, for an estimated 8 million impaired When you give a friend your phone number or address, driving trips. Fewer than three percent of drivers accounted you don’t expect that he or she will pass it along to everyone for more than 80 percent of all impaired driving trips. they phone or send mail to, and that the next person will The Road Safety Monitor 2002: Drinking and Driving. Traffic Injury then do the same. Most parents and children do not realize Research Foundation, December 2002 the risks and consequences of this common practice. Customs officers seize about one gun a day from U.S. motorists Bullies entering Canada at southern Ontario border crossings. In 2001, officers seized 364 firearms at crossings in Niagara A survey released in April 2002 by the UK children’s charity Falls, Fort Erie, Windsor and Sarnia. Most of the individuals NCH found more than one in four teenagers had been bullied say they are carrying a gun for personal protection. However, either by e-mail or mobile phone. The 856 respondents were police believe many of the guns are being smuggled to between 11 and 19 years of age. Sixteen percent had received Toronto for sale to criminals and street gang members. bullying or threatening text messages, seven percent had Toronto Sun, October 30, 2002 been harassed in Internet chat rooms and four percent by e- Of all Quebec drivers convicted of criminal offenses (such mail. One in three of the victims had told no one. as those related to impaired driving), only two percent earn more than $50,000 a year. Forty-one percent earn less than The Internet takes bullying beyond the school yard — $30,000 a year, and a full 43 percent have no income. there is no safe haven, even at home. Bullies can create hate Editorial, The Gazette, Montreal, November 7, 2002 Web sites about other children and distribute the URLs through According to the Insurance Bureau of Canada, the average Internet chat rooms. A bully can harass by persistent e-mails. cost per claim for private passenger automobiles went from The Internet provides an anonymity that creates the $4,258 in 1997 to $5,970 in 2001 - an increase of 40% over confidence to make threats a child would not make in person. five years. These figures do not take into account Quebec, Victims should change their mobile number or e-mail Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, which have address if they receive threats. If the messages continue, government auto insurance. they should not be afraid to go to the police. Insurance Bureau of Canada, November, 2002 There were 3,145 injury deaths in Ontario in 1999/2000 — Cyber Stalking down 14 percent from 1995/1996. Falls were the leading A cyber stalker is someone who contacts or seeks to cause of fatal injuries and 85 percent of fall casualties were gain intimate personal knowledge of another person through aged 65 over. Motor vehicle collisions came second. Of these, half were drivers and one-quarter were passengers. online communication without their consent or after being The remainder included motorcyclists, pedestrians and told to cease. Stalkers lurk in chat rooms, news groups, snowmobilers. Drugs and/or alcohol were involved in nearly bulletin boards and e-mail. Their objective is to create fear one-quarter of all motor vehicle fatalities. and get a reaction. They may also send viruses or masses of Canadian Institute for Health Information, December 4, 2002 spam, or hack into a computer. According to a 1999 report of the US Department of Hot Water, from page 6. Justice, one out of every 10 Internet users had been stalked maximum thermostat pre-set temperature setting. The online. Most victims are adults, and 80 percent are women. technical sub-committee for electric water heaters is Alarmingly, one out of every five cyber stalking cases considering the feasibility of harmonizing temperature becomes an offline, real-world stalking case. requirements with the other two CSA water heater standards. If you feel you are being stalked, respond to absolutely CSA is also participating in a task force spearheaded by the nothing sent by the stalker. Use a filter or blocking software to Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating to address the prevent the e-mails from reaching your Inbox. If the issue of water temperatures for the retrofit market. problem only exists on ICQ or IRC, completely change your In the standards development process, CSA functions online identity. as a neutral third party, providing a structure and a forum for The offender will eventually give up when you won’t committees of volunteers which develop CSA standards. play the game. If harassment continues you can report the Committees are structured as a ‘balanced matrix’, meaning stalker to both their ISP and your own. With sufficient the interests of all participants are grounds, most ISPs will terminate offenders’ accounts, but At 60 C, a child’s considered. Standards are beware that doing this could aggravate the situation. You developed using a consensus may have to change your e-mail account or even your ISP. skin will burn in less process, which includes the Cybertip.ca than one second. principles of inclusive participation, and respect for In 2002, a new Web site was launched at www.cybertip.ca. diverse interest and transparency. The site is operated by Child Find Manitoba in partnership with the federal government and private sector partners. It Over 20 years ago, several American states (Washington, handles tips from individuals reporting the online sexual Wisconsin, Florida and others) mandated that hot water exploitation of children. There is also a toll-free phone line tanks be installed and pre-set at 49 C. In the State of (1-866-658-9022). Washington, hospital admissions for tap water injuries were Incidents of child pornography, luring, child sex reduced by half within the first five years. In 1988, the tourism, or child prostitution can be reported. Cybertip.ca industry voluntarily agreed to pre-set hot water tanks across receives and analyses the tips, then refers leads to the the U.S. to 49 C. However, American products shipped into appropriate law enforcement agencies. Canada are still set at 60 C. In other countries, such as New Zealand and Australia, building codes mandate the installation of temperature control devices to limit temperatures.