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VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 40

									The Baby Boom and Baby Bust:

    O.E.C.D. Fertility Data




      Jeremy Greenwood
             and
   Guillaume Vandenbroucke

            2004
                                                    Content

International Birth Rates -- Diagrams
4 - Australia, 1850 - 1993                                    12 - Italy, 1900 -1993
5 - Belgium, 1830 -1993                                       13 - New Zealand, 1855 - 1993
6 - Canada, 1900 - 1993                                       14 - Netherlands, 1900 - 19993
7 - Denmark, 1800 -1993                                       15 - Norway, 1800 - 1993
8 - Finland, 1850 - 1993                                      16 - Portugal, 1900 - 1993
9 - France, 1801 - 1993                                       17 - Spain, 1880 - 1993
10 - Greece, 1920 - 1993                                      18 - Sweden, 1850 - 1993
11 - Ireland, 1865 - 1993                                     19 - Switzerland, 1870 - 1993
                                                              20 - United Kingdom, 1840 - 1993
                                                              21 - United States, 1900 - 1993


U.S. Fertility Rates -- Diagrams                              Mitchell’s (1998) Fertility Data
22 - Total Fertility Rate, 1800 - 1998                        24:40 - Data
23 - Fertility Rates, Annual and Lifetime, 1800 - 1990.




                                                                                                 2
                                                          Sources




International Birth Rates
• Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: The Americas , 1750-1993. New York, N.Y.: Stockton Press, 1998.
• Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750-1993. New York, N.Y.: Stockton Press, 1998.
• Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania, 1750-1993. New York, N.Y.: Stockton Press, 1998.


U.S. Fertility Rates
• Hernandez, Donald J. Trends in the Well-Being of America ’s Children and Youth: 1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
Health and Humand Services, 1996.




                                                                                                                            3
                             40
Birth per 1,000 population




                             30




                             20




                             10
                                  1845   1870     1895         1920             1945   1970   1995
                                                                Year
                                            Birth Rate, Australia, 1850 - 1993.                      4
                                                     Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10


                              1800   1825   1850   1875     1900    1925        1950   1975   2000
                                                               Year
                                             Birth Rate, Belgium, 1830 - 1993.                       5
                                                     Source: Mitchell (1998).
                              30
Births per 1,000 population




                              25




                              20




                              15




                                   1900    1920          1940                1960   1980   2000
                                                                Year
                                          Birth Rate, Canada, 1900 - 1993.                        6
                                                  Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10


                                  1800      1850               1900           1950   2000
                                                              Year
                                         Birth Rate, Denmark, 1800 - 1993.                  7
                                                   Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             40


                             35
Birth per 1,000 population




                             30


                             25


                             20


                             15


                             10


                                  1845   1870        1895         1920             1945   1970   1995
                                                                   Year
                                                Birth Rate, Finland, 1850 - 1993.                       8
                                                        Source: Mitchell (1998).
                              35



                              30
Births per 1,000 population




                              25



                              20



                              15



                              10



                                   1800    1850              1900            1950   2000
                                                             Year
                                          Birth Rate, France, 1801 - 1993.                 9
                                                  Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25




                             20




                             15




                             10


                                  1920       1940                  1960     1980   2000
                                                            Year
                                         Birth Rate, Greece, 1920 - 1993.            10
                                                 Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             25
Birth per 1,000 population




                             20




                             15




                                  1860   1880       1900         1920     1940        1960   1980   2000
                                                                     Year
                                                Birth Rate, Ireland, 1865 - 1993.                          11
                                                           Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10



                                  1900   1920         1940              1960   1980   2000
                                                             Year
                                          Birth Rate, Italy, 1900 - 1993.                    12
                                                 Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             41
Birth per 1,000 population




                             31




                             21




                             11
                                  1860    1880   1900       1920        1940   1960   1980   2000
                                                              Year
                                         Birth Rate, New Zealand, 1855 - 1993.                      13
                                                   Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25




                             20




                             15




                             10


                                  1900     1920         1940              1960   1980   2000
                                                               Year
                                         Birth Rate, Netherlands, 1900 - 1993.                 14
                                                   Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10


                                  1800     1850               1900           1950   2000
                                                             Year
                                         Birth Rate, Norway, 1800 - 1993.                  15
                                                  Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             40


                             35
Birth per 1,000 population




                             30


                             25


                             20


                             15


                             10


                                  1900   1920         1940              1960   1980   2000
                                                             Year
                                         Birth Rate, Portugal, 1900 - 1993.                  16
                                                 Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25




                             15




                             5
                                  1870   1890      1910          1930          1950   1970   1990
                                                                  Year


                                                Birth Rate, Spain, 1880 - 1993.                     17
                                                          Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10


                                  1845   1870       1895            1920          1945   1970   1995
                                                                     Year
                                                Birth Rate, Sweden, 1850 - 1993.                       18
                                                           Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25




                             20




                             15




                             10


                                  1860   1880    1900         1920         1940    1960   1980   2000
                                                                  Year
                                           Birth Rate, Switzerland, 1870 - 1993.                        19
                                                        Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             35



                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25



                             20



                             15



                             10


                              1825   1850       1875    1900          1925         1950   1975   2000
                                                                   Year
                                            Birth Rate, United Kingdom, 1840 - 1993.                    20
                                                        Source: Mitchell (1998).
                             30
Birth per 1,000 population




                             25




                             20




                             15




                              1900   1920         1940               1960   1980   2000
                                                            Year
                                      Birth Rate, United States, 1900 - 1993.         21
                                                 Source: Mitchell (1998).
                                    7000
Total fertility rate, white women




                                    5000



                                                                                             1957


                                    3000




                                                                                      1936

                                    1000
                                           1800         1850             1900            1950       2000
                                                                            Year

                                             Total Fertility Rate, United States, 1800 - 1998.             22
                                                               Source: M. R. Haines
                                              270                        Lifetime
                                                                                                                             5000
Annual Births per 1,000 Fecund Women, 15-44




                                                                                                                                    Expected Lifetime Fertility Rate
                                              220


                                                                                                                             4000

                                              170
                                                                                                          27 years



                                                                                                                             3000
                                              120




                                               70
                                                                                                                             2000


                                                        1800         1850              1900                  1950    2000
                                                                                         Year
                                                    Fertility Rate: Annual and Lifetime, United States, 1800 - 1990.        23
                                                                         Source: D. J. Hernandez (1996)
              Mitchell ’s (1998) International Birth Rates -- Data
                                 (you should be able to cut and paste into Excel)




                   Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark     Italy, New-Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
                   Finland, France, Greece, Ireland        Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA.
1800 : 1825                     p. 25                                                p. 26
1826 : 1850                     p. 27                                                p. 28
1851 : 1875                     p. 29                                                p. 30
1876 : 1900                     p. 31                                                p. 32
1901 : 1925                     p. 33                                                p. 34
1926 : 1949                     p. 35                                                p. 36
1950 : 1975                     p. 37                                                p. 38
1976 : 1993                     p. 39                                                p. 40




                                                                                                                24
  -    Australia   Belgium   Canada Denmark Finland France Greece   Ireland
1800   -           -         -          29.9    37.6 -      -        -
1801   -           -         -          31.1    39.6   32.9 -        -
1802   -           -         -          32.2    39.2    33 -         -
1803   -           -         -          33.1    35.6   32.5 -        -
1804   -           -         -          32.3    39.1   31.3 -        -
1805   -           -         -          32.8    38.4   31.6 -        -
1806   -           -         -          30.2    35.7   31.4 -        -
1807   -           -         -           31     36.2   31.8 -        -
1808   -           -         -          30.6    30.4   31.3 -        -
1809   -           -         -          29.3    28.6    32 -         -
1810   -           -         -          30.3    40.5   31.8 -        -
1811   -           -         -          30.5    36.4   31.6 -        -
1812   -           -         -          29.8    38.9   30.1 -        -
1813   -           -         -          29.1    35.6   30.5 -        -
1814   -           -         -          30.4    36.7   33.9 -        -
1815   -           -         -          34.1    37.5   32.5 -        -
1816   -           -         -          32.9    38.8   32.9 -        -
1817   -           -         -          32.8     39    31.8 -        -
1818   -           -         -          32.1    38.4   30.6 -        -
1819   -           -         -          32.5    36.1   32.9 -        -
1820   -           -         -          31.5    36.6   31.7 -        -
1821   -           -         -          32.1    41.4   31.7 -        -
1822   -           -         -          33.7    35.6   31.7 -        -
1823   -           -         -          32.6    40.3   31.2 -        -
1824   -           -         -          31.3    37.8   31.6 -        -
1825   -           -         -          31.3    38.5    31 -         -

                                                                              25
 -     Italy   New Zealand   Netherlands Norway Portugal   Spain Sweden Switzerland       UK   USA
1800   -       -             -              27.6 -         -        28.7 -            -        -
1801   -       -             -              22.7 -         -         30 -             -        -
1802   -       -             -              27.6 -         -        31.7 -            -        -
1803   -       -             -              28.9 -         -        31.4 -            -        -
1804   -       -             -              27.7 -         -        31.9 -            -        -
1805   -       -             -              29.2 -         -        31.7 -            -        -
1806   -       -             -              29.6 -         -        30.8 -            -        -
1807   -       -             -                29 -         -        31.2 -            -        -
1808   -       -             -              26.9 -         -        30.4 -            -        -
1809   -       -             -              22.2 -         -        26.7 -            -        -
1810   -       -             -              26.3 -         -         33 -             -        -
1811   -       -             -              26.7 -         -        35.3 -            -        -
1812   -       -             -              29.1 -         -        33.6 -            -        -
1813   -       -             -              25.6 -         -        29.7 -            -        -
1814   -       -             -              24.2 -         -        31.2 -            -        -
1815   -       -             -              29.9 -         -        34.8 -            -        -
1816   -       -             -              35.1 -         -        35.3 -            -        -
1817   -       -             -              32.5 -         -        33.4 -            -        -
1818   -       -             -              30.8 -         -        33.8 -            -        -
1819   -       -             -              31.9 -         -         33 -             -        -
1820   -       -             -              33.3 -         -         33 -             -        -
1821   -       -             -              34.7 -         -        35.4 -            -        -
1822   -       -             -              32.9 -         -        35.9 -            -        -
1823   -       -             -              33.9 -         -        36.8 -            -        -
1824   -       -             -              32.5 -         -        34.6 -            -        -
1825   -       -             -              34.3 -         -        36.5 -            -        -

                                                                                                 26
  -    Australia   Belgium    Canada Denmark Finland France Greece   Ireland
1826   -           -          -          31.4    37.6   31.4 -        -
1827   -           -          -          29.2    36.7   30.8 -        -
1828   -           -          -          30.3    39.3   30.5 -        -
1829   -           -          -          29.6    38.7    30 -         -
1830   -               32.3   -          28.9    36.6   29.9 -        -
1831   -                 33   -          29.7    35.2   30.3 -        -
1832   -               34.5   -           27     34.5   28.6 -        -
1833   -               33.2   -          32.2    30.2   29.5 -        -
1834   -               33.3   -           33     36.6   29.8 -        -
1835   -                 34   -          31.7    34.3   29.9 -        -
1836   -                 34   -          30.5    31.1   29.2 -        -
1837   -               33.4   -           30     31.6    28 -         -
1838   -               35.2   -          29.8    31.8   28.5 -        -
1839   -               33.7   -           29     33.7   28.2 -        -
1840   -               34.2   -          30.4    34.7   27.9 -        -
1841   -                 34   -          29.7     34    28.5 -        -
1842   -               32.6   -          30.1    37.2   28.5 -        -
1843   -               31.9   -          29.8    35.8   28.2 -        -
1844   -               31.8   -          30.3     35    27.5 -        -
1845   -               32.2   -          30.6    35.7   27.9 -        -
1846   -               27.8   -          30.1    33.2   27.3 -        -
1847   -               27.2   -          30.6    33.9   25.4 -        -
1848   -               27.7   -          30.6    36.5   26.5 -        -
1849   -                 31   -           31     37.5   27.7 -        -
1850       36.9          30   -          31.4    35.7   26.8 -        -


                                                                               27
 -     Italy   New Zealand   Netherlands Norway Portugal   Spain Sweden Switzerland       UK     USA
1826   -       -             -              34.8 -         -        34.8 -            -          -
1827   -       -             -                32 -         -        31.3 -            -          -
1828   -       -             -              31.8 -         -        33.6 -            -          -
1829   -       -             -              33.6 -         -        34.9 -            -          -
1830   -       -             -              32.3 -         -        32.9 -            -          -
1831   -       -             -                31 -         -        30.5 -            -          -
1832   -       -             -              29.9 -         -        30.9 -            -          -
1833   -       -             -              30.7 -         -        34.1 -            -          -
1834   -       -             -              31.7 -         -        33.7 -            -          -
1835   -       -             -              32.6 -         -        32.7 -            -          -
1836   -       -             -              29.4 -         -        31.8 -            -          -
1837   -       -             -              28.7 -         -        30.8 -            -          -
1838   -       -             -              27.7 -         -        29.4 -                30.3   -
1839   -       -             -              26.7 -         -        29.5 -                31.8   -
1840   -       -             -              27.8 -         -        31.4 -                 32    -
1841   -       -             -              29.8 -         -        30.3 -                32.2   -
1842   -       -             -              30.7 -         -        31.7 -                32.1   -
1843   -       -             -              30.2 -         -        30.8 -                32.3   -
1844   -       -             -              29.9 -         -        32.2 -                32.7   -
1845   -       -             -              31.2 -         -        31.5 -                32.5   -
1846   -       -             -              31.1 -         -        29.9 -                33.8   -
1847   -       -             -              30.8 -         -        29.6 -                31.5   -
1848   -       -             -              29.8 -         -        30.3 -                32.5   -
1849   -       -             -                32 -         -        32.8 -                32.9   -
1850   -       -             -                31 -         -        31.9 -                33.4   -


                                                                                                   28
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece   Ireland
1851    37.4      30.3 -         30.1    38.2   27.1 -        -
1852    35.1        30 -         33.2     35    26.8 -        -
1853    37.5      28.3 -         31.6    35.1    26 -         -
1854    36.3      28.8 -         32.7    37.5   25.5 -        -
1855    39.7      27.7 -         31.9    35.8    25 -         -
1856    38.7      29.1 -         32.4    36.3   26.3 -        -
1857      42      31.6 -         32.9    32.8   25.9 -        -
1858    42.6      31.7 -         33.2    36.5   26.7 -        -
1859    42.9      32.4 -         33.6    35.8   27.9 -        -
1860    42.6        31 -         32.6    36.4   26.2 -        -
1861    42.3      31.1 -         31.6    37.8   26.9 -        -
1862    43.3      30.4 -         30.8    37.3   26.5 -        -
1863    41.7      32.2 -         30.9    36.2   26.9 -        -
1864    42.9      32.1 -         30.1    39.3   26.6 -           24.2
1865    42.1      31.6 -         31.1    34.2   26.5 -           25.9
1866    39.8      31.7 -          32      32    26.4 -           26.5
1867    40.4      32.6 -         30.3    32.3   26.2 -           26.3
1868    40.5      31.9 -          31     24.6   25.7 -           26.7
1869    38.6        32 -         29.3    33.7    26 -            26.7
1870    38.7      32.7 -         30.3    36.3   25.9 -           27.7
1871      38      31.2 -         30.1    37.3   22.9 -           28.1
1872    37.1      32.7 -         30.3    36.4   26.7 -           27.8
1873    37.4        33 -         30.8     37     26 -            27.1
1874    36.8      33.1 -         30.9    37.9   26.2 -           26.6
1875    35.9      32.9 -         31.9    36.6   25.9 -           26.1


                                                                        29
 -     Italy   New Zealand    Netherlands Norway Portugal   Spain Sweden Switzerland UK USA
1851   -       -              -           -       -         -        31.7 -            34.3 -
1852   -       -              -                31 -         -        30.7 -            34.3 -
1853   -       -              -                32 -         -        31.4 -            33.3 -
1854   -       -              -              34.3 -         -        33.5 -            34.1 -
1855   -               39.2   -              33.4 -         -        31.8 -            33.8 -
1856   -               37.8   -              32.3 -         -        31.5 -           34.58 -
1857   -               39.5   -                33 -         -        32.4 -            34.4 -
1858   -               38.2   -              33.5 -           35.2   34.8 -            33.7 -
1859   -                37    -              34.8 -           38.4    35 -               35 -
1860   -               41.2   -              33.3 -           36.7   34.8 -            34.3 -
1861   -               38.5   -              30.7 -            39    32.6 -            34.6 -
1862   -               36.1   -              32.1 -           38.5   33.4 -              35 -
1863   -               35.3   -              32.7 -           37.8   33.6 -            35.3 -
1864   -               38.5   -              31.9 -           39.2   33.6 -            35.4 -
1865   -               41.1   -              31.9 -           38.6   32.8 -            35.4 -
1866   -               42.9   -              31.7 -           38.3   33.1 -            35.2 -
1867   -               42.2   -              30.1 -           38.5   30.8 -            35.4 -
1868   -               42.1   -              29.5 -           35.7   27.5 -            35.8 -
1869   -               41.9   -              28.9 -            37    28.3 -            34.8 -
1870   -               42.3   -              29.2 -           36.6   28.8        29.8 35.2 -
1871   -               40.6   -              29.3 -         -        30.4         29     35 -
1872   -               35.9   -                30 -         -         30         29.8 35.6 -
1873   -                39    -              29.9 -         -        30.8        29.7 35.4 -
1874   -               40.3   -                31 -         -        30.9        30.4    36 -
1875   -               40.2   -              31.5 -         -        31.2        31.8 35.4 -


                                                                                            30
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece Ireland
1876    35.9      32.7 -         32.6    36.7   26.2 -         26.4
1877      35      32.8 -         32.3    38.2   25.5 -         26.2
1878    35.4      31.9 -         31.6    35.4   25.2 -         25.1
1879    35.8      31.9 -         31.9    37.8   25.1 -         25.2
1880    35.2        31 -         31.7    36.5   24.6 -         24.7
1881    35.3      31.8 -         32.3     35    24.9 -         24.5
1882    34.5      31.6 -         32.3    36.3   24.8 -          24
1883    34.8      30.9 -         31.8    35.9   24.8 -         23.5
1884    35.6      30.9 -         33.3    36.1   24.7 -         23.9
1885    35.7      30.3 -         32.5    34.2   24.3 -         23.5
1886    35.4      29.9 -         32.4    35.3   23.9 -         23.2
1887    35.6      29.7 -         31.7    36.2   23.5 -         23.1
1888    35.5      29.4 -         31.5    34.9   23.1 -         22.8
1889    34.7      29.4 -         31.2    33.4    23 -          22.7
1890      35        29 -         30.5    32.9   21.8 -         22.3
1891    34.5        30 -          31     34.3   22.6 -         23.1
1892    33.7      28.9 -         29.6    31.6   22.3 -         22.5
1893    32.8      29.5 -         30.8    30.1   22.8 -          23
1894    30.8        29 -         30.4    31.1   22.3 -         22.9
1895    30.4      28.5 -         30.3    32.9   21.7 -         23.3
1896    28.4        29 -         30.5    32.5   22.5 -         23.7
1897    28.2        29 -         29.8    32.3   22.2 -         23.5
1898    27.1      28.6 -         30.2    34.4   21.7 -         23.3
1899    27.3      28.8 -         29.7    33.7   21.8 -         23.1
1900    26.7      28.9   27.2    29.7    32.6   21.3 -         22.7


                                                                      31
 -     Italy New Zealand    Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland    UK     USA
1876   -             41.7   -              31.6 -       -        30.8        32.8   36.3   -
1877   -             41.3   -              31.7 -       -        31.1         32     36    -
1878   -              42    -              31.5 -         36.1   29.8        31.3   35.6   -
1879   -             40.3   -              32.1 -         35.8   30.5        30.5   34.7   -
1880   -             40.8   -              30.9 -         35.5   29.4        29.6   34.2   -
1881   -              38    -                30 -         37.1   29.1        29.8   33.9   -
1882   -             37.3   -              30.6 -         36.2   29.4        28.9   33.8   -
1883   -             36.3   -                31 -         35.6   28.9        28.5   33.5   -
1884   -             35.9   -              31.6 -         36.7    30         28.3   33.6   -
1885   -             34.4   -              31.5 -         36.3   29.4        27.7   32.9   -
1886   -             33.2   -              30.9    31.9 36.7     29.8        27.8   32.8   -
1887   -             32.1   -              31.4    33.7 36.1     29.7        27.9   31.9   -
1888   -             31.2   -              30.4    33.1 36.4     28.8        27.7   31.2   -
1889   -             30.2   -              29.6    33.7 36.4     27.7        27.7   31.1   -
1890   -             29.4   -              30.4    32.6 34.4      28         26.6   30.2   -
1891   -              29    -              30.8      32 35.3     28.3        28.2   31.4   -
1892   -             27.8   -              29.6    31.2 35.8      27         27.7   30.4   -
1893   -             27.5   -              30.3    31.9 35.6     27.4        27.9   30.7   -
1894   -             27.3   -              29.6    29.7 34.8     27.1        27.3   29.6   -
1895   -             26.8   -              30.4      30    35    27.5        27.3   30.3   -
1896   -             26.3   -                30      30 35.9     27.2        28.1   29.6   -
1897   -              26    -                30    30.4 34.1     26.7        28.3   29.6   -
1898   -             25.7   -              30.3    30.2 33.3     27.1        28.5   29.3   -
1899   -             25.1   -              29.9    29.9 34.2     26.4         29    29.1   -
1900      33         25.6           31.6   29.7    30.5 33.9      27         28.6   28.7   -


                                                                                             32
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece Ireland
1901    27.2      29.4   31.2    29.7    33.2    22 -          22.7
1902    26.7      28.4   31.3    29.2    32.4   21.6 -          23
1903    25.3      27.5   31.3    28.7    31.5   21.1 -         23.1
1904    26.4      27.1   31.4    28.9     33    20.9 -         23.6
1905    26.2      26.2    31     28.4    31.8   20.6 -         23.4
1906    26.6      25.6   29.9    28.5    32.8   20.5 -         23.5
1907    26.8      25.2   29.5    28.2    32.8   19.7 -         23.2
1908    26.6      24.8   30.3    28.6    32.2   20.1 -         23.3
1909    26.7      23.8   30.2    28.2    32.8   19.5 -         23.4
1910    26.7      23.7   30.4    27.5    31.7   19.6 -         23.3
1911    27.2      22.8   30.1    26.7    30.8   18.7 -         23.2
1912    28.7      22.5   31.3    26.6    30.8   18.9 -          23
1913    28.3      22.3   31.7    25.6    28.8   18.8 -         22.8
1914    28.1      20.4   31.9    25.6    28.7   18.1 -         22.6
1915    27.1      16.1   31.9    24.2     27    11.8 -          22
1916    26.6      12.9   30.7    24.4    25.7    9.5 -         20.3
1917    26.3      11.3   29.1    23.7    25.9   10.4 -         19.7
1918      25      11.3   28.8    24.1    25.4   12.1 -         19.8
1919    23.5      16.9   27.7    22.6    20.5    13 -           20
1920    25.5      22.2   29.2    25.4     27    21.4 -         22.8
1921      25      21.7   29.3     24     25.9   20.7   21.2 21.15
1922    24.7      20.4   28.3    22.2     25    19.3   21.5    19.5
1923    23.8      20.3   26.7    22.3    25.3   19.1    19     20.5
1924    23.2      19.8   26.7    21.8    23.8   18.7   19.5    21.1
1925    22.9      19.6   26.1     21     23.7    19    26.3    20.8


                                                                      33
 -     Italy New Zealand Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland    UK     USA
1901    32.5         26.3        32.2   29.9    31.3    35     27          29    28.5   -
1902    33.4         25.9        31.8   29.2      32 35.6     26.5        28.5   28.5   -
1903    31.7         26.6        31.4   28.6      33 36.4     25.7        27.4   28.5   -
1904    32.9         26.9        31.4   27.9    31.6 34.2     25.8        27.3    28    -
1905    32.7         27.2        30.8   27.1    31.8 35.1     25.7        26.9   27.3   -
1906    32.1         27.1        30.4   26.8    32.1 33.8     25.7        26.9   27.2   -
1907    31.7         27.3          30   26.3    30.7 33.3     25.5        26.2   26.5   -
1908    33.7         27.5        29.7   26.3    30.3 33.7     25.7        26.4   26.7   -
1909    32.8         27.3        29.2   26.8    29.9 33.1     25.6        25.5   25.8    29.2
1910    33.3         26.2        28.6   25.8    31.7 32.7     24.7         25    25.1    29.2
1911    31.5          26         27.8   25.7    38.6 31.5      24         24.2   24.3    29.1
1912    32.4         26.5        28.1   25.4    34.9 31.8     23.8        24.2   23.9     29
1913    31.7         26.1        28.2   25.1    32.5 30.6     23.2        23.2   24.1    28.8
1914      31          26         28.2   25.1    31.5 29.9     22.9        22.4   23.8    29.3
1915    30.5         25.3        26.2   23.6    32.6 30.9     21.6        19.5   21.9    28.9
1916    24.1         25.9        26.5   24.2    32.1 29.1     21.2        18.9   20.9    28.5
1917    19.5         25.7          26   25.1    31.4    29    20.9        18.5   17.8    27.9
1918    18.2         23.4        25.1   24.6    29.7 29.3     20.3        18.7   17.7    27.6
1919    21.5         21.4        24.4   22.7    27.6 27.9     19.8        18.6   18.5    25.3
1920    32.2         25.1        28.6   26.1    33.6 29.5     23.6        20.9   25.5    26.9
1921    31.5         23.2       27.35   24.2    32.4 30.5     21.5        20.8   22.4    27.3
1922    30.8         23.3        26.1   23.3    33.1 30.5     19.6        19.7   20.4    25.4
1923      30         21.9        26.2   22.8    33.2 30.5     18.9        19.4   19.7    25.2
1924      29         21.6        25.1   21.3    32.8 29.7     18.1        18.9   18.8    25.1
1925    28.4         21.6        24.2   19.7    32.6 29.1     17.6        18.5   18.3    24.1


                                                                                           34
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece Ireland
1926      22      18.9   24.7    20.5     23    18.8    30     20.6
1927    21.7      18.2   24.3    19.6    22.5   18.2   28.8    20.3
1928    21.3      18.2   24.1    19.6    22.8   18.3   30.5    20.1
1929    20.3      18.1   23.5    18.6    22.2   17.7   28.9    19.8
1930    19.9      18.6   23.9    18.7    21.8    18    31.3    19.9
1931    18.2      18.1   23.2     18     20.7   17.5   30.8    19.5
1932    16.9      17.5   22.5     18     19.8   17.3   28.5    19.1
1933    16.8      16.3    21     17.3    18.4   16.2   28.6    19.4
1934    16.4      15.9   20.7    17.8    19.1   16.2   31.1    19.5
1935    16.6      15.2   20.5    17.7    19.6   15.3   28.2    19.6
1936    17.1      15.1   20.3    17.8    19.1    15    27.9    19.6
1937    17.4        15   20.1     18     19.9   14.7   26.2    19.2
1938    17.5      15.5   20.7    18.1     21    14.6   25.9    19.4
1939    17.6        15   20.6    17.8    21.2   14.6   24.8    19.1
1940    17.9      13.3   21.6    18.3    17.8   13.6   24.5    19.1
1941    18.9      11.9   22.4    18.5    24.2   13.1   18.3     19
1942      19      12.8   23.5    20.4    16.6   14.5   18.1    22.3
1943    20.6      14.6   24.2    21.4    20.4   15.7   16.7    21.9
1944      21        15    24     22.7    21.3   16.1    20     22.2
1945    21.7      15.3   24.3    23.5    25.5   16.2   25.1    22.7
1946    23.6      17.5   27.2    23.4    27.9   20.9   28.2    22.9
1947    24.1        17   28.9    22.1     28    21.3   27.4    23.2
1948    23.1      17.2   27.3    20.3    27.6   21.1    27      22
1949    22.9      16.8   27.3    18.9    26.1   20.9   18.6    21.5


                                                                      35
 -     Italy New Zealand Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland    UK     USA
1926    27.7         21.2        23.8   19.6    33.5 29.6     16.8        18.3   17.8   23.1
1927    27.5         20.4        23.1   18.1      31 28.1     16.1        17.5   16.6   22.7
1928    26.7         19.9        23.3   17.9    31.9 29.1     16.1        17.4   16.7   21.5
1929    25.6         19.7        22.8   17.3    29.9 28.3     15.2        17.1   16.3   20.5
1930    26.7         19.4        23.1     17    29.7 28.3     15.4        17.2   16.3   20.6
1931    24.9         19.1        22.2   16.3    29.7 27.6     14.8        16.7   15.8   19.5
1932    23.8         18.1         22      16    29.9 28.2     14.5        16.7   15.3   18.7
1933    23.8         17.7        20.8   14.7    28.9 27.7     13.7        16.4   14.4   17.6
1934    23.5         17.6        20.6   14.6    28.4 26.2     13.7        16.3   14.8   18.1
1935    23.4         17.4        20.2   14.3    28.2 25.7     13.8         16    14.7   17.9
1936    22.4         18.1        20.2   14.6    28.1 24.7     14.2        15.6   14.8   17.6
1937    22.9         18.9        19.8     15    26.7 22.6     14.4        14.9   14.9   17.9
1938    23.8         19.3        20.5   15.4    26.6    20    14.9        15.2   15.1   18.4
1939    23.6         20.2        20.6   15.8    26.2 16.5     15.4        15.2   14.8     18
1940    23.5         22.6        20.8   16.1    24.3 24.4     15.1        15.2   14.1   18.6
1941    20.9         24.1        20.3   15.3    23.8 19.6     15.6        16.9   13.9   19.5
1942    20.5         23.1         21    17.7      24 20.2     17.7        18.4   15.6   21.5
1943    19.9         21.2         23    18.9    25.1 22.9     19.3        19.2   16.2   22.1
1944    18.3          23          24    20.3    25.3 22.5     20.6        19.6   17.7   20.5
1945    18.3         24.6        22.6     20      26 23.1     20.4        20.1   15.9   19.7
1946      23         27.1        30.2   22.6    25.4 21.4     19.7         20    19.2   23.6
1947    22.3         27.7        27.8   21.4    24.5 21.4     18.9        19.4   20.5   26.1
1948      22         26.8        25.3   20.5    26.8 23.1     18.4        19.2   17.8     24
1949    20.4         26.1        23.7   19.5    25.5 21.5     17.4        18.4   16.7   23.6


                                                                                           36
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece Ireland
1950    23.3      16.5   27.1    18.7    24.5   20.5    20     21.4
1951      23      16.4   27.2    17.8     23    19.5   20.3    21.2
1952    23.3      16.7   27.9    17.8    23.1   19.3   19.3    21.9
1953    22.9      16.7   28.1    17.9     22    18.7   18.4    21.2
1954    22.5      16.8   28.5    17.3    21.5   18.7   19.2    21.3
1955    22.6      16.7   28.2    17.3    21.2   18.5   19.4     21
1956    22.5      16.8    28     17.2    20.8   18.4   19.7     21
1957    22.9        17   28.2    16.8    20.1   18.4   19.3    21.2
1958    22.6      17.1   27.5    16.5    18.6   18.1    19     20.9
1959    22.6      17.4   27.4    16.3    18.9   18.3   19.4    21.1
1960    22.4      16.9   26.7    16.6    18.5   17.9   18.9    21.5
1961    22.8      17.2    26     16.6    18.4   18.2   17.9    21.2
1962    22.2      16.8   25.2    16.7    18.1   17.7    18     21.8
1963    21.6      17.1   24.6    17.6    18.2   18.2   17.5    22.2
1964    20.6      17.1   23.4    17.7    17.7   18.2    18     22.4
1965    19.6      16.4   21.3     18     17.1   17.8   17.7    22.1
1966    19.2      15.9   19.3    18.4     17    17.6   17.9    21.6
1967    19.4      14.7   18.2    16.8    16.8    17    18.7    21.1
1968    20.1      14.7   17.6    15.3    15.9   16.7   18.3    20.9
1969    20.4      14.6   17.6    14.6    14.6   16.7   17.6    21.5
1970    20.6      14.6   17.5    14.4     14    16.7   16.5    21.9
1971    21.1      14.4   16.8    15.2    13.2   17.1    16     22.7
1972    19.9      13.8   15.9    15.1    12.7   16.9   15.9    22.7
1973    18.3      13.3   15.6    14.3    12.2   16.4   15.4    22.4
1974    17.9      12.6   15.5    14.1    13.3   15.3   16.1    22.1
1975    16.8      12.2   15.8    14.2    13.9   14.1   15.7    21.2

                                                                      37
 -     Italy New Zealand Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland    UK     USA
1950    19.6         25.9        22.7   19.1    24.3 20.1     16.5        18.1   15.8     23
1951    18.4         25.6        22.3   18.4    24.6    20    15.6        17.2   15.5   23.9
1952    17.8          26         22.3   18.8    24.9 20.7     15.5        17.4   15.3   24.1
1953    17.5         25.4        21.7   18.8    23.7 20.4     15.4         17    15.5     24
1954      18         25.9        21.5   18.5    23.1 19.8     14.6         17    15.2   24.2
1955    17.7         26.1        21.3   18.5    24.4 20.4     14.8        17.1    15    23.8
1956    17.7          26         21.3   18.5    23.4 20.5     14.8        17.4   15.7     24
1957    17.7         26.2        21.2   18.1    24.4 21.6     14.6        17.7   16.1     24
1958    17.6         26.6        21.2   17.9    24.4 21.7     14.2        17.6   16.4   23.3
1959    18.1         26.5        21.4   17.7    24.3 21.5     14.1        17.7   16.5   22.9
1960    18.1         26.5        20.8   17.3    24.2 21.6     13.7        17.6   17.1   22.7
1961    18.4         27.1        21.3   17.3    24.5 21.1     13.9        18.3   17.6   22.2
1962    18.4         26.2        20.9   17.1    24.5 21.1     14.2        18.7    18    21.4
1963    18.6         25.5        20.9   17.3    23.5 21.3     14.9        19.3   18.2   20.7
1964    19.5         24.2        20.7   17.8    23.8 21.8      16         19.5   18.5     20
1965    18.8         22.9        19.9   17.8    22.9 20.9     15.9        19.1   18.1   18.3
1966    18.4         22.5        19.2   17.9    22.2 20.5     15.8        18.5   17.8   17.4
1967    17.7         22.5        18.9   17.6    21.5 20.6     15.4        17.9   17.3   16.8
1968    17.3         22.7        18.6   17.6    20.6    20    14.3        17.3   16.9   16.6
1969    17.5         22.6        19.2   17.6    20.9 19.8     13.5        16.7   16.4   16.9
1970    16.8         22.1        18.3   16.6      20 19.5     13.7         16     16    17.4
1971    16.8         22.6        17.2   16.8    20.2 19.5     14.1        15.5   15.9   16.2
1972    16.3         21.8        16.1   16.3    19.5 19.4     13.8        14.3   14.7   14.6
1973    15.9         20.5        14.5   15.5    19.2 19.2     13.5        13.6   13.7   13.9
1974    15.7         19.6        13.7     15    18.9 19.5     13.5        13.1   12.9     14
1975    14.8         18.4         13    14.1    19.1 18.8     12.6        12.2   12.2   13.6

                                                                                           38
  - Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland France Greece Ireland
1976    16.2      12.3   15.7    12.9    14.1   13.6    16      21
1977    15.9      12.4   15.5    12.9    13.9    14    15.5    21.1
1978    15.6      12.4   15.3    12.2    13.5   13.8   15.7    21.2
1979    15.4      12.6   15.4    11.6    13.3   14.1   15.7    21.5
1980    15.3      12.7   15.4    11.2    13.2   14.9   15.4    21.9
1981    15.8      12.7   15.3    10.4    13.2   14.9   14.5     21
1982    15.8      12.2   15.1    10.3    13.7   14.6    14     20.3
1983    15.8      11.9    15      9.9    13.8   13.7   13.5    19.1
1984      15      11.8   15.1    10.1    13.3   13.8   12.7    18.2
1985    15.7      11.6   14.9    10.5    12.8   13.9   11.7    17.6
1986    15.2      11.9   14.7    10.8    12.3   14.1   11.3    17.4
1987      15      11.9   14.4     11      12    13.8   10.6    16.6
1988    14.9      12.1   14.5    11.5    12.8   13.8   10.7    15.3
1989    14.9      12.2   14.9     12     12.8   13.6   10.1    14.8
1990    15.4      12.4   15.2    12.3    13.1   13.4   10.2    15.1
1991    14.9      12.6   14.6    12.5    13.1   13.3    10     14.9
1992    15.1      12.3   14.6    13.1    13.3    13    10.1    14.5
1993    14.7        12   13.4     13     12.8   12.3    9.8    13.9




                                                                      39
 -     Italy New Zealand Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland    UK     USA
1976    13.9         17.7        12.9   13.3    19.3 18.8      12         11.7   11.8   13.8
1977    13.1         17.4        12.5   12.6    18.6 18.1     11.6        11.5   11.5   14.1
1978    12.6         16.3        12.6   12.7    17.1 17.3     11.3        11.3   12.1     14
1979    11.8         16.8        12.5   12.7    16.3 16.2     11.6        11.3   12.9   14.5
1980    11.3         16.2        12.8   12.5    15.8 15.2     11.7        11.7   13.2   14.9
1981      11         16.3        12.5   12.4    15.1 14.1     11.3        11.6   12.8   14.8
1982    10.9         15.7         12    12.5    15.2 13.6     11.1        11.7   12.6   14.9
1983    10.6         15.8        11.9   12.1    14.4 12.7      11         11.5   12.7   14.6
1984    10.3          16         12.1   12.1    14.2 12.3     11.3        11.6   12.8   14.8
1985    10.1          16         12.3   12.3    12.8 11.8     11.8        11.5   13.1     15
1986     9.7         16.3        12.7   12.6    12.4 11.2     12.2        11.7   13.2   14.8
1987     9.6         16.8        12.7   12.9      12 10.8     12.5        11.7   13.6   14.9
1988     9.9         17.5        12.6   13.7    11.9 10.7     13.3        12.2   13.8     15
1989     9.7         17.4        12.7     14      12 10.5     13.7        12.2   13.6   15.4
1990     9.8         17.9        13.2   14.4    11.8 10.3     14.5        12.5   13.9   15.8
1991     9.9         17.6        13.2   14.3    11.8 10.1     14.4        12.7   13.7   15.4
1992     9.9         17.2         13      14    11.7 10.2     14.2        12.6   13.4     15
1993     9.4         17.1        12.8   13.8    11.5   9.9    13.5        12.1   12.1   14.7




                                                                                           40

								
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