Coastal Sea Ecosystems and Statistical Parameters of the Morbidity

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					66              Anthropogeneous Loads and Ecological Conditions of Sea Coast of the Crimea
                                                                               (Black Sea)


Anthropogeneous Loads and Ecological Conditions of Sea Coast of the
Crimea (Black Sea)
                                                                                 N.N. Shalovenkov
 Department of Shelf ecosystems, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine

Abstract
      Level and kind of anthropogeneous loads depend on local economic activity of people on sea
coast of the Crimea Peninsula. Wastewater discharges (industrial, domestic, agricultural) exercise the
greatest influence on biodiversily and landscapes of coastal ecosystems. Coastal hydroconstruction,
development of recreation, ports also influence condition of sea coast's environment. Input pollulion
to coastal waters by rain flows are taken into account insufficiently today. Though this way of receipt
of pollution to coastal ecosystems can be significant and strongly to influence quality of an
environment.
       Coastal sea ecosystems have high variability of biological structures that is reflected 'in
a variety and peculiarities of their functioning and biodiversity. The development of benthos species
and communities was used as the bioindicator of environment coastal ecosyslems. The contents
pollution in water is the characteristic of environment in any certain temporary period. The spatial
distribution pollution in bottom sediments is a convenient parameter of the anthropogeneous load on
coastal ecosystems for a long time. The pollution are usual absorbed on suspended particles and down
on the bottom where there are final transformed.
       Depending on speeds of receipt and transformation there is the accumulation pollution in
bottom sediments or biological utilization. Therefore a convenient parameter anthropogenical load on
coastal ecosystems is spatial distribution pollution in bottom sediments. For an estimation
anthropogenical load on coastal ecosystems have carried out measurements of the contents in bottom
sediments following pollution: oil, heavy metals, pesticides, polychlorbifenils, organic substance.
The development of benthic communities was used as the bioindicalor of environment coastal
ecosystems as the bottom animals are a convenient integrated parameter in a consequence of relative
their constant life only in determined biotops and in determined conditions of an environment.
      These phenomena were registered at study in different parts of coastal ecosystems of the
Crimean Peninsula: Sevasiopol Bay, Donuzlv Lagoon, Alupca Reservation, Jalta Cargo Port and
others.
67                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress




Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress




     Wildlife, Land, and People: Priorities for the 21st Century
     28 June - 2 July 1999
     Gödöllö, Hungary
68                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress




2nd International Wildlife Management Congress




Hosts
     Gödöllö University of Agricultural Sciences - Hungary
     The Wildlife Society - U.S.A.

Main Patron
     Árpád Göncz, President, Republic of Hungary

Patrons
     Ferenc Kovács, Chairman, Agricultural Sciences Section, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
     Csaba Székely, Rector, Gödöllö Agricultural University, Hungary
     József Torgyán, Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hungary

Sponsors
     Boone and Crockett Club, U.S.A.
     Diante Nova Ltd., Hungary
     Északerdö State Forestry, Inc., Hungary
     Hubertusz Ltd., Hungary
     Hungarian Academy of Sciences
     Hungarian Hunters’ National Chamber
     Lajta-Hanság Agricultural Joint-Stock Co., Hungary
     Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hungary
     National Game Management Database, Hungary
     National Technological Development Committee, Hungary
     Safari Club International
     Texas Utilities, U.S.A.
     U.S. Bureau of Land Management
     U.S.D.A. Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
     U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service
     U.S.D.A. Forest Service
     U.S.D.A. Natural Resources Conservation Service
     U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services
69                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
       U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division
       Zalaerdö State Forestry, Inc., Hungary.

Abstracts of the 2 nd International Wildlife Management Congress – Gödöllö,
Hungary
      AALANGDONG, OSCAR I., and AUGUSTINE S. LANGYINTUO. Crop damage by wildlife
in northern Ghana. Department of Renewable Natural Resources, University for Development
Studies, P.O. Box 1350, Tamale, Northern Region, GHANA (OIA); Savanna Agricultural Research Institute,
Nyankpala, GHANA.
       Crop damage by wildlife is a problem to farmers in Ghana. However, no standard methods in
assessing and controlling wildlife crop damage in the country have been developed. We conducted
a study in an attempt to assess the damage caused by wildlife to 3 major staple crops, groundnut,
maize, and sorghum in Northern Ghana. The study was conducted in the West Gonja and Bole
districts, in Northern Region of Ghana. We selected 2 farms each of the 3 crops in 4 villages and
monitored the incidence and damage of the crops by wildlife from planting through the matured
stages of the crops. We also interviewed farmers in a number of villages in the study area as to the
type of wildlife that damage crops during the different growth stages of the various crops in the
region. All crops in the region suffer wildlife damage in one way or the other and this occurred
throughout the various stages of crop growth. Most notorious wildlife species that cause crop damage
were francolin (Francolinus spp.), ground squirrel (Epixerus spp.), parrots (Psittacus erithacus),
monkeys (Cercopithecus spp.), weaver birds (Ploceus spp.), nd warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).
Elephant (Loxodonta africana) damage of crops was infrequent but when it occurred, the damage was
intensive. More than 1 species was involved in damage of a particular crop and a species can damage
more than 1 type of crop. Damage ranged from total destruction of crop (100%) to negligible amount
of damage (<10%) depending on type of crop, distance of farm to village, proximity of farm to
wildlife park, and the control effort of the farmer. The time of planting also influenced level and
degree of damage. Farmers used various methods and techniques to control crop damage by wildlife.
The importance of crop damage by wildlife in the economy and food security of the people of
Northern Ghana is discussed.
      ADAMIC, MIHA. Large predators in Slovenia—on the way from near extermination to
overprotection and back: is conservation management of large predators in cultural landscapes
possible at all? University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Chair of Wildlife Ecology, Vecna pot
83, 1000 Ljubljana, SLOVENIA.
       Due to the persecution and near extermination of large predators in the 19th and first half of the
  th
20 centuries, the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) were put on
the Red List of threatened animals in Slovenia and have been protected since October 1993. Despite
legal protection they face new threats, provoked by the impacts of human economies. Following the
practice of the European Union, livestock support is given to people interested in sheep-breeding.
Projected numbers of sheep in Slovenia will increase from the current 60, 00 to 92, 00 in the year
2003. New pastures will be created in yet unaffected areas, and new conflicts will arise in areas to be
established for conservation management of large predators. Accelerated spatial expansion of the wolf
since 1993 was unexpected by hunters, as well as by sheep-farmers. The share of wolf-caused
damages in yearly amounts of compensation is rapidly growing. The use of predator-safe fences and
other protective tools is not an obligatory part of state-supported livestock projects; therefore state
agencies are in fact co-responsible for increased predation upon poorly protected flocks. About US$
20, 00 were paid to the farmers in 1993 to compensate the predation on livestock, but in 1998 the
amount exceeded US$ 160, 00. Wildlife conservation, based on population- habitat relationships,
were mostly unsuccessful in the case of large predators. Successful conservation of large predators
and other problem species depend to a great extent on positive public attitudes. State agencies will
70                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



therefore have to pay more attention to natural processes, but also must take into account that human
attitudes depend on the costs of cohabitation with large predators. The use of protective tools as
obligatory part of any supported project on livestock breeding will therefore have to be accepted as an
integral part of conservation management of large predators.
      ALKON, PHILIP U., and WALTER G. WHITFORD. Habitat conservation priorities for
wintering birds in an engineered landscape: the Middle Rio GrandeValley, USA. Department of
Fishery and Wildlife Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA (PUA);
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department 3JER, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
NM 88003 USA (WGW).
        During 3 consecutive winters (1994–95 to 1996–97), we systematically monitored the habitat
affinities of terrestrial birds along a 200-km reach of the Rio Grande Valley floodplain in southern
New Mexico and western Texas. The area is an important wintering site for North American
migratory birds, and has a landscape dominated by irrigation-based agriculture and expanding
residential areas. We conducted roadside point counts on 135 km of fixed routes in agricultural
habitats, and walking surveys on 33 km of transects in residential areas, irrigation drain returns, and
remnant riparian woodland. In the first 2 years of study we evaluated the frequency of occurrence and
numbers of birds among 15 habitat classes and 4 geographical sections of the study area. In 1996–97
we focused on the influence of habitat interspersion by examining bird use of irrigation drain returns
according to adjacent land use practice. Although the wintering avifauna differed somewhat among
years, statistical analyses revealed significant and characteristic differences in bird distribution by
habitat type and by geographic section. Highest species richness was in riparian woodland, vegetated
irrigation drain returns, and residential areas, while cultivated cropland supported the fewest bird
species. Bird species diversity and numbers were greater in pecan orchards than in other agricultural
habitats. Differences among study area sectors suggest that size of agricultural fields may have
influenced bird usage. We also found that adjacent habitat more strongly shaped bird use of irrigation
drain returns than vegetation structure within the drains themselves. From our findings, we (1) rank
the value of existing habitat types for wintering birds, and (2) estimate potential impacts of future
development scenarios on the avifauna of this highly engineered but valuable segment of the Rio
Grande floodplain.
       ANDERSONE, ZANETE, LINAS BALCIAUSKAS, and HARRI VALDMANN. Human-wolf
conflicts in the East Baltic: past, present, and future. Kemeri National Park, “Meza maja”, Kemeri -
Jurmala, LV-2012, LATVIA (ZA); Institute of Ecology, Akademijos 2, Vilnius 2600, LITHUANIA
(LB); Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, EE 2400, ESTONIA
(HV).
       This study is a review of human-wolf (Canis lupus) interactions in the Baltic countries during
more than 100 years. The wolf is the most common large carnivore in the Baltic that still has viable
populations in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It is regarded as a pest whose presence is incompatible
with human interests. In mid-19 th Century a maximum population size was reported to be
1, 00 individuals/country. In this century, there were 2 major peaks: after the World War II and in the
1990s. In 1947–50, the total wolf population of the Baltic countries exceeded 3, 00 individuals. In
1997, each country’s population was close to 1, 00 animals. High predator numbers escalate the
conflict between humans and wolves. Three main causes of contradiction can be outlined: attacks on
humans, livestock depredation, and competition for the game animals. The last wolf-caused human
death was documented in eastern Estonia in 1873. Damage to livestock was extremely high in the 19th
Century and also after the WWII. Nowadays we lack precise information on the damage because no
compensation is paid for the livestock losses. The lack of preventive measures from the livestock
owners contributes to the damage. Mostly sheep and cattle suffer from depredation. Results of wolf-
wild ungulate interactions show that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) endure
the strongest hunting pressure by the predator. Possible solutions for diminishing the conflicts include
use of preventive measures by livestock breeders, compensation system for losses, and control of wolf
populations.
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      ANGELSTAM, PER. Large mammals, man and the landscape—can trophic interactions be
managed? Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Faculty, Department of Conservation
Biology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, SE-730 91 Riddarhyttan, SWEDEN.
       Over the past 200 years the abundance of large carnivores and herbivores have shown strong
changes in northern Europe. While the former have generally declined both in range and numbers,
domestic grazing herbivores have been replaced by wild browsing herbivores. However, during the
past 20 years these trends have been reversed. Altogether this dynamic has created an increased
number of negative interactions between large mammals, man, and the landscape. At present,
2 important management problems are in focus in Sweden. The first is the issue of grazing and
biodiversity in the cultural landscape, including the impact of increased browsing and forest damage
on commercially harvested trees, as well as on tree species biodiversity. The second problem is
related to both negative and positive responses of people to the return of large predators (lynx [Lynx
lynx], wolf [Canis lupus], and brown bear [Ursus arctos]) to landscapes where these species became
extinct more than 100 years ago. In my presentation I will review the central problem of
communication among different stake-holders when complicated socio-economic-ecological problems
are involved, and present an example of participatory planning and management to find alternative
solutions based on a holistic view and objective inventory of perceived problems.
      ANNENKOVA, SVETLANA. The Problem of Game Conservation in Kasakhstan. Almaty,
Micro Region 10, KAZAKSTAN.
       Game resources in Kazakhstan are actively used by professional and sport hunters. Hunting in
our republic is regulated by laws and rules, but often these laws are not honored to the full extent. As
a result some species of game animals are harvested over norms set by experts. Some species taken by
poachers or illegal hunting are often the species from the Red Book of our republic. Annually
government inspection reveals many cases of illegal hunting on ibex (Capra ibex), argali (Ovis
ammon), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), saiga (Saiga tatarica), boar (Sus scrofa), maral stag (Cervus
elaphus maral), and Persian gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa). Research done in Kazakhstan has shown
that only 1–3 % of illegal hunting activities are brought to light. Following these facts, we can
speculate that all mentioned species are harvested in quantities highly exceeding numbers those
proposed by our control departments. There are 3 groups of people involved in illegal hunting
activities. The first are the people living in poverty, as a result of social and economical changes in
our states, accruing in last few years. Hunting for those people is a way to support life. The second
group are rich people for whom hunting is a form of entertainment. They do not obey the laws having
power in their hands. And the third group, new to our country, are illegal “hunting guides, who are
involved in foreign hunting tourism. This activity has been growing in popularity for the last few
years. It is known that part of such hunting is being conducted illegally. All above unauthorized
hunting activities are a result of economical and social destabilization. This presents a real threat to
populations of game species in Kazakhstan.
      ANTHONY, ROBERT G., A. KEITH MILES, JAMES A. ESTES, and FRANK B. ISAACS.
Productivity, diets, and environmental contaminants in nesting bald eagles from the Aleutian
Archipelago. Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Cooperative Wildlife
Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-
3803 USA (RGA); Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological
Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 USA (AKM); Biological Resources
Division, U.S. Geological Survey, A-316 Earth and Marine Sciences Building, University of
California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA (JAE); Oregon Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit,
Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331- 3803 USA (FBI).
       We studied productivity, diets, and environmental contaminants in nesting bald eagles from the
western Aleutian Islands during summers of 1993 and 1994. Productivity on Adak, Tanaga, and
Amchitka Islands ranged from 0.88 to 1.24 young produced per occupied site and was comparable to
that of healthy populations in the lower 48 United States. However, productivity on Kiska Island was
72                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



depressed, averaging 0.50 young per occupied site. The lower reproductive success on Kiska was
associated with elevated levels of DDE and other organochlorine pesticides. Many of the
organochlorine pesticides were elevated in bald eagle eggs from the 4 islands, but concentrations of
these contaminants were significantly higher in eggs from Kiska Island than the other islands.
Concentrations of mercury in eggs also were significantly higher in eggs from Kiska than the other
islands. In contrast, PCB concentrations were higher in eggs from Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska (where
military installations have occurred) than in those from Tanaga (which has had little military activity).
The most likely source of these contaminants in bald eagles was from their diets, which were spatially
and temporally variable. Fish comprised most (56%) of the eagles’ diet on Adak and Tanaga Islands,
followed by birds (25%) and mammals (19%). In contrast, birds comprised the majority (60%) of bald
eagle diets on Amchitka and Kiska Islands, followed by mammals (30%) and fish (10%). The high
proportion of sea birds in the diet of eagles from Kiska Island could be the major source of
organochlorine and mercury contamination in that population. The elevated concentrations of
organochlorines in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian Archipelago was surprising, because of the
distance to agricultural areas. The results indicate that these contaminants can be transported long
distances and affect wildlife populations in remote and pristine areas.
      AVERBECK, CHRISTIANE. Integrating rural communities and wildlife conservation in
Nyabushozi, Uganda: is sustainable use a viable solution? GTZ Impala Study, Lake Mburo National
Park, P.O. Box 3017, Kampala, Uganda and Institute of Wildlife Biology and Wildlife Management,
University of Munich, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising, GERMANY.
       The aim of this study is to get information on whether sustainable use of wildlife is a viable
solution for integrating rural communities and wildlife conservation in Nyabushozi, Uganda. It is
assumed that if the indigenous Ugandan landowners living around Lake Mburo National Park
(LMNP), Nyabushozi, Uganda, were able to derive tangible and legitimate benefits from the wildlife
on their land, they would have an incentive to protect it from illegal hunters and may be more efficient
than government in protecting the wildlife populations. Legitimizing hunting, which is currently
banned in Uganda, and developing a mechanism to control it is believed the only viable option to
stabilizing the wildlife population in the Lake Mburo area. The Uganda Wildlife Authority is
proposing a pilot cropping scheme involving land owners, hunters, and local authorities in
Nyabushozi. It will be the first of its kind for Uganda. To obtain information on population dynamics,
density, distribution, and movements of the large mammal populations required to develop
recommendations for an utilization scheme, I conducted aerial surveys and ground counts in the area.
In total, 234 impalas, the most common species, were marked with eartags and 10 with radio collars
to obtain information on their habitat use and movements. In order to collect ideas from the
communities around LMNP on how to organize consumptive use, interviews with focus groups were
carried out. The data presented allow the conclusion that sport hunting followed by tourism and
cropping seem to be the most viable options for utilization. In order to use wildlife they have to
organize themselves in the form of group ranches.
     BAERSELMAN, FRED. A Large Herbivore Initiative for Pan-Europe. P.O. Box 7, NL-3700
AA Zeist, THE NETHERLANDS.
       The Large Herbivore Initiative for Europe (LHI) is a new initiative by World Wildlife Fund
(WWF) International. The important role of large herbivores in ecosystems has been increasingly
recognized within WWF. The Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE), started in 1995, has
contributed to the revaluation of large carnivores in Europe, and because of its success as
a cooperative effort of interested parties, a similar initiative for large herbivores was developed. Initial
funding was provided by WWF-Netherlands and in February 1998 the initiative was founded during
a Program Planning Workshop in Bialowieza, Poland, where people from more than 15 countries
participated. The geographical scope of the LHI was enlarged to include Central Asia, Siberia, and
Mongolia because of the importance of these regions in terms of numbers of large herbivores living in
relatively undisturbed ecosystems. The following mission statement/target was developed: “A Europe
and Central Asia, where people enjoy the benefits from ecosystems and landscapes, inhabited by
73                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



viable populations of all large herbivores of the region, living in the wild.” The most important
objectives of LHI are to prevent the disappearance and decline of large herbivore species, not just for
the species themselves, but for the crucial role they play in ecosystems; and where possible, to restore
the role of herbivores as one of the means to make ecological restoration possible. This means priority
for protection of threatened species and their habitats, especially in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Priority has already been given to species like the wild camel, saiga, Mongolian antelope, musk deer,
and several species of wild sheep and goats. In Europe, species and habitat protection remains an
important issue but ecological restoration will be the challenge. This will involve (re) introduction of
wild living herbivores, carnivores, and nature-development in general. The objectives will not be met
just by pursuing exciting ecological ideas, but must include areas such as social economy and land-
use, legislation, public awareness, and support, to name a few.
      BALDASSARRE, GUY A., JACK M. PAYNE, and DOUGLAS RYAN. Infrastructure and
science needs for wetlands conservation in Latin America. State University of New York, Syracuse,
NY 13210 USA (GAB); Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Memphis, TN 38120 USA (JMP); U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 22203 USA (DR).
       Latin America is rich in wetland resources, particularly coastal wetlands. Although agricultural
development has destroyed extensive wetland areas throughout Latin America, many systems are
largely intact. However, agricultural runoff, petrochemical pollution, aquaculture, and tourism
development continue to threaten these systems. Although some wetland inventory information exists,
especially for Mexico, much can be done using Landsat imagery and associated Geographical
Informational System databases to provide accurate estimates of wetland abundance and distribution.
Hence, the first information need for wetland conservation in much of Latin America must be
a comprehensive, standardized wetland inventory. Second, via rapid remote and on-site inspection,
functional and threat analyses need to be conducted at all sites and a prioritized action plan developed.
The functional analysis should determine basic aspects of hydrology, fish, wildlife, and biodiversity
values, and human uses and benefits. The threat analysis should determine immediate-, short-, and
long-term threats and whether those threats are minor or potentially fatal to wetland function. We then
propose a prioritized scheme of action that categorizes wetlands in need of protection into
3 categories: (1) intact wetlands not under threat in the near term; (2) wetlands under threat, but which
can be protected if action is immediate and decisive; and (3) heavily degraded wetlands that would
require extensive management efforts and money. We propose that the best payoff in long-term
protection of wetlands would be to focus on those in category 2. Finally, research should be directed
toward issues with the most promise of influencing policy decisions that prioritize protection of
wetland systems. Overall, such efforts of wetland protection in Latin America will require infusion of
international funds, but in-country commitment and partnership are essential.
     BÁLDI, ANDRÁS. Maintaining bird diversity in a reed archipelago: area and edge effects.
Animal Ecology Research Group, HAS-HNHM, Baross u. 13. Budapest, H-1088, HUNGARY.
       Bird diversity is seriously threatened by fragmentation, the process by which an area of original
habitat declines and remnant reed patches are created. The maintenance of bird communities requires
the understanding of patterns of diversity within patches. I studied the occurrence and abundance of
breeding birds on 109 reed islands (area range: 25–257, 00 m 2 ) at Lake Velence, Hungary in 1993–
94. The difference between the observed species-area curve and that expected from random placement
showed that species richness was higher on several small than on 1 or 2 large islands of similar area.
Total density of the most abundant passerine species (bearded tit [Panurus biarmicus], Savi's warbler
[Locustella luscinioides], reed warbler [Acrocephalus scirpaceus], great reed warbler
[A. arundinaceus], sedge warbler [A. schoenobaenus]) was greatest on the smallest reed islands.
Patterns of diversity and density were attributed to edge effect, since a companion study showed that
the common species prefer edges (0–5 m from the water). However, logistic regression models on the
occurrence of a key (top predator) species, the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), and on the
nationally protected great white egret (Egretta alba), incorporated area into the models, indicating the
significance of size of reed islands for the presence of these species. In addition, some of the rarer
74                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



passerines, such as the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), require large reed patches ($10, 00 m 2 ).
Therefore, the management of patchy reedbeds should include 2 strategies: (1) the creation or
maintenance of edges, as a key part of heterogeneity, and (2) the creation or maintenance of large,
undisturbed reedbeds. The first strategy supports diversity, but mainly of the common species, the
second strategy supports rare species.
      BANGS, EDWARD, E., JOSEPH A. FONTAINE, DOUGLAS W. SMITH, CURT MACK,
and CARTER C. NIEMEYER. Gray wolf restoration in the northwestern United States. U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, 100 N. Park, No. 320, Helena, MT 59601 USA (EEB, JAF); National Park Service,
Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190 USA (DWS); Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID 83540 USA (CM);
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, East Helena, MT 59635 USA (CCN).
       Sixty years after being exterminated, the gray wolf (Canis lupus) was restored to3 vast tracts of
public land in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, USA. Recovery efforts in northwestern Montana began
in the late 1970s and encouraged natural dispersal from nearby Canadian wolf populations and control
of any wolves that attacked livestock. About 80 wolves now live in the area and livestock losses have
been rare, annually averaging 5 cattle and 4 sheep. After years of planning and exhaustive public
involvement, 61 wolves were reintroduced to wilderness areas in central Idaho (via hard release) and
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (via soft release) in 1995 and 1996. Wolves adapted better than
predicted and by late 1998 there were 120–130 wolves in each area. Wolves settled primarily on
remote public lands where biologists hoped they would live. The wolf restoration program caused no
disruption of traditional human activities such as logging, mining, livestock grazing, hunting, or
wildland recreation. More than 30, 00 visitors to Yellowstone National Park have seen wolves and
public interest in wolves is extremely high. Livestock losses have been lower than predicated,
annually averaging 2 cattle, 20 sheep, and 1 dog in the Yellowstone area, and 4 cattle, 13 sheep, and
1 dog in central Idaho. Livestock producers who experienced wolf-caused losses were compensated
by a private fund and about $60, 00 has been paid to date. The federal, tribal, and state wolf recovery
program concentrates its efforts on interacting with people who live near wolves and removing the
few wolves that do cause conflicts. Wolf populations should be fully recovered (30 packs for
3 successive years) and will no longer need protection under the federal Endangered Species Act in
2002.
    BARKER, RICHARD J. Jointly analyzing live and dead encounters of animals using program
MARK. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, P. O. Box 56, Dunedin,
NEW ZEALAND.
       In studies involving releases of marked animals, re-encounters of marked animals can be
obtained in 1 of 3 ways: (1) live recaptures of animals during trapping and banding operations,
(2) recoveries of bands from dead animals between trapping occasions, and (3) reported sightings of
banded animals between trapping occasions. Traditionally, these 3 types of data have been analyzed
using distinct modeling procedures and different computer packages. Recent developments of new
models that allow simultaneous analysis of data obtained in all 3 ways have been included in program
MARK. This allows biologists to take advantage of analysis procedures that extract full information
on population parameters from the data. In particular, estimates of key parameters such as survival
rates are more precise, and information of movement of animals in and out of the study area can be
obtained. We discuss the sampling situations for which joint analyses are appropriate and illustrate the
methods and benefits of joint analyses in program MARK using data from goldeneye ducks
(Bucephala clangula) banded between 1971 and 1996 in northern Germany.
     BATH, ALISTAIR. What is the human dimension in wildlife management? Department of
Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 CANADA.
      Wildlife managers are increasingly becoming aware that to successfully implement wildlife
management plans and policies, they must have the acceptance of the various publics. Such public
acceptance is extremely important for certain species, like large carnivores that are returning
throughout Europe. With species like wolves (Canis lupus), bears (Ursus spp.), lynx (Lynxspp.), and
75                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



wolverine (Gulogulo), wildlife management is more a socio-political issue than a biological one,
requiring an understanding of the people component of the resource management equation. While
from many managers there is agreement that there is a need for the human dimension and human
dimensions research, often managers do not realize the nature of human dimensions research or the
types of research questions that can be answered by such research. Integrating human dimensions
results into decision-making remains a challenge. Having wildlife managers inform social scientists
that there is a need for human dimensions research is like saying to a biologist there is a need to do
some biology. The expression human dimensions in wildlife management (HDWR) is broad and can
mean a variety of things. In this paper, I will discuss the nature of human dimensions in wildlife
resource management (HDWR), setting the context of human dimensions within the traditional field
of wildlife biology and within public involvement in natural resource management. The many aspects
of HDWR are illustrated through various examples and applications of HDWR research, particularly
focussing on research results concerning wolves, and results from a national survey on the importance
of wildlife to Canadians. Upon clearly illustrating the aspects of human dimensions research, HDWR
is then placed within the broader context of public involvement in resource management decision-
making. I discuss public involvement mechanisms as they pertain to involving and gaining public
acceptance of natural resource management issues, particularly large carnivore issues. Preliminary
results from human dimensions research currently being conducted in various parts of Europe under
the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE) will be presented to illustrate mechanisms of data
collections and public involvement.
       BERWICK, NORA L. Essential fish habitat: a proactive approach to conservation of salmonid
habitat in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. Habitat and Conservation Division, National Marine
Fisheries Service, 525 N.E. Oregon Street, Suite 500, Portland, OR 97232-2737 USA.
       Over recent years, Pacific Northwest salmon populations continue a precipitous decline because
of large scale development associated with, for example, hydropower, agriculture, forestry activities,
grazing, industrial and domestic pollution, etc. Attempts to recover salmon stocks throughout their
range have been largely unsuccessful because restoration efforts have begun after the major causes of
decline are in place. In response to a perceived need for substantive habitat protection to sustain
commercial salmon fisheries in the Pacific Rim, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act (MSFCMA) was amended in 1996 to include provisions for delineation of Essential
Fish Habitat (EFH)—“those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or
growth to maturity.” The MSFCMA is the 1996 reauthorization of the National Marine Fisheries
Service’s (NMFS) marine fisheries management authority and is implemented through Fishery
Management Plans (FMPs) developed by Fishery Management Councils. The EFH provisions are
added to the FMPs via the amendment process and include: (1) identification of EFH for the stocks
managed under the FMP; (2) identification of potential adverse impacts to that EFH; and,
(3) proactive conservation recommendations to address the identified threats before new
development-related impacts occur to the EFH. The MSFCMA also requires all federal agencies to
consult with NMFS for actions that may adversely affect EFH. This paper describes how the EFH
provisions of the 1996 MSFCMA are being implemented applying a matrix of pathways and
indicators for evaluating the effects of human activities on anadromous salmonid habitat.
The approach uses the range of patterns and processes that define the properly functioning habitat
conditions within which salmon can exist and evolve as a mechanism to determine appropriate
conservation recommendations for the identified development activity during the consultation
process. The approach addresses (1) habitat elements (stream water quality, habitat access, stream
habitat elements, channel conditions and dynamics, flow/hydrology, watershed conditions, estuarine
conditions, and estuarine water quality); in conjunction with (2) indicators associated with habitat
function; and (3) general objectives for the proper functioning of each habitat indicator.
      BISSONETTE, JOHN A. The mismatch between pattern and process: lessons from ignoring
theory. Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (U.S. Geological Survey-Biological
76                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Resources Division,, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5290
USA.
        Much has been written over the past 3 decades about so-called “emergent properties.” Recent
literature in large-scale ecology suggests that few have made a clear distinction between patterns,
properties, and measurements, and as a result, a blurring of the distinction appears to have lead to
a developing “common wisdom” or assumption that all patterns have biological meaning. It is clear
that a landscape can be measured at any scale or resolution and a pattern will result. Coupled with an
increasing tendency to recognize pattern at multiple scales, we need to ask whether the pattern can be
related to process or mechanism, i.e., does it have biological reality and what is the relationship
between the pattern and the processes that created it. Less apparent and often ignored is the question
of the “downward” effect or constraint of the landscape pattern on the ecological and evolutionary
processes and the organisms inhabiting the landscape, i.e., when does the pattern emerge as
a “property.” Kawata in 1995 referred to properties that effect and cause change in ecological and
evolutionary processes as “effective properties.” From a landscape ecologist’s perspective, whether
landscape patterns have interesting ecological meaning would seem to be related to whether or not
they are associated with and characterized by processes that affect and cause change in ecological and
evolutionary processes. I explore the nature of scale-sensitive properties in this talk.
    BLASCO, DELMAR. People and wetlands: the vital link. Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland,
SWITZERLAND.
       This is the general theme of the 7 th Meeting of the Conference of the parties to the Convention
on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) to be held in San Jose, Costa Rica, in May 1999. And it is not
surprising that this 113- member-country treaty has chosen to highlight the inextricable relations that
exist between wetlands and people. In many parts of the world, wetlands constitute the source of
livelihood of large communities. Also in many places, wetlands play a significant, sometimes vital,
role in regulating the water cycle, alleviating floods in the rainy season, and realizing water in times
of scarcity, including the all-important role of helping to replenish the aquifers that provide water for
people and their activities. In other places, wetlands comprise the habitat that provides the basis for
hunting, an activity of great social, cultural, and economic significance. Thus, in addition to being
important for the conservation of biodiversity, wetlands are increasingly being recognized as
important assets in the natural capital of societies all over the world. Yet, for centuries, humans have
looked upon wetlands with disdain, neglecting, transforming, and polluting them. Only in recent
decades has the perception about wetlands value changed, and it is still changing. The central and
most significant challenge for those working on wetland issues is to mainstream wetland concerns in
the societies all over the world. To do so, we need to get people and governments to understand and
accept that wetlands are an important component of each society’s natural endowment, of the natural
infrastructure on which the development and well-being of the society is built. People everywhere are
practical, seeking first of all their security (in the broad sense of the word), and their survival, in the
best possible conditions, for them and their children. Thus, we have to make an effort to present
wetlands to them in that light, so that these precious ecosystems can be valued and recognized for the
services that they provide to our planet and to the people on this planet. If that is the challenge, all our
tools and our strategies have to be shaped accordingly, so that we can effectively respond to it.
      BOEGEL, RALF, and ANNETTE LOTZ. Analyzing habitat selection of chamois: a question of
defining habitat availability. Nationalparkverwaltung, Doktorberg 6, 83471 Berchtesgaden,
GERMANY.
       The analysis of habitat selection is of utmost importance in determining the essential needs of
species and thus for developing adequate management strategies. It is widely accepted that habitat
selection is defined by the ratio of habitat availability and its actual use. While the methodology for
determining space and habitat use has been intensively discussed (study and sampling design, radio
tracking, home range analysis, etc.), little attention has been focused on the simple question of how to
define habitat availability. However, results on habitat selection are severely influenced by this
77                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



definition: data on habitat selection of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the Berchtesgaden National
Park show that the results on habitat selection may change from preference to avoidance if habitat
availability is related to what is available to the population as compared to what is available for the
individual animal. As this may result in different management needs, we suggest that standards are
needed for defining habitat availability.
       BOITANI, LUIGI, P. CIUCCI, F. CORSI, and I. SINIBALDI. Broad scale analysis of habitat
suitability, potential distribution areas, and linkages among fragments of large carnivore populations
in the Alps. Department Animal and Human Biology, Viale Universit 32, 00185-Roma ITALY
(LB, PC); Istituto Ecologia Applicata, Via Spallanzani 32, 00161-Roma, ITALY (FC, IS).
       Management and conservation of large carnivores can be highly improved by reliable insights
regarding potential distribution ranges, linkages between various isolated subpopulations, and
analyses of habitat suitability. When dealing with highly fragmented populations, e.g., large
carnivores in Europe, problems must be analyzed at least at the regional scale. The design and
management of an adequate number of corridors that connect the landscape can only be achieved
within the context of a broader scale. A few techniques have been applied to explore these spatial
features, although quality and quantity of available data often have constrained the usefulness of the
results. We applied a modeling technique to the large carnivores in the Alps with the aim of
identifying potential distribution areas, corridors, areas of potential conflict with human activities
(livestock), and gaps in the existing network of protected areas. We discuss the role of these models in
conservation and management, we underline their usefulness in providing context, and we discuss
their limitation in fine scale analyses. We argue that these models represent a cost effective way of
maximizing the information on which to base conservation strategies and actions, because they
require small quantities of biological data but give a broad-scale picture that otherwise would be
impossible to achieve with direct field investigation. We describe a 3-part integrated landscape
management system, in which parts of the landscape are identified as potential “high human conflict”
areas and are set aside, segments of the landscape are identified as a core areas for the population, and
other segments are managed as connecting corridors. The models presented here are tools for
integrated landscape management. Our results point out “macro zones” where further insight should
be sought, either because the zones represent expected refuges for 1 of the 3 species of large
carnivores or because their loss would represent a serious threat to the continuity of species
occupancy. At the same time, the models address the problem of evaluating conservation strategies,
by analyzing the current distribution of protected areas and by showing the areas where potential
conflicts with human activities might arise.
      BONACIC, CRISTIAN. Sustainable use of the vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) in Chile and Bolivia.
Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, OX1 3PS, Oxford,
UNITED KINGDOM.
      The sustainable use of the vicu a (Vicugna vicugna) is a reality today in South America.
We explain the development of a protocol for capture that improved welfare standards. We monitored
Chilean government captures during 1997 and 1998 at 2 capture sites (method 1: motorbikes; and
method 2: motorbikes and people) and quantified the main parameters of capture and their
physiological consequences. In total, 222 animals were captured (28 captures in 13 days). Groups
were chased an average of 11 minutes and a mean distance of 4.3 k and mean speed of chase was
23 km/h. Method 2 reduced the speed of the chase from 26.1 ± 0.6 23 km/h to 18.8 ± 0.9 km/h
(P < 0.001). Body temperature increased in animals that ran longer distances. A mild degree of
dehydration was also observed as evidenced by an increase in packed cell volume (PCV).
Comparisons by age and sex showed that calves and adult females could be most affected by capture.
In Bolivia, 90 vicu as were captured during 3 days of fieldwork in1998 in the Ulla-Ulla Natural
Reserve. Forty-two animals were shorn mechanically and 24 manually with hand shears.
No mortalities or major injuries were recorded of any animal that was captured and shorn, even
following 3 days observation after release in the field. A total of 7.5 kg of fibre was collected, with a
raw fibre mean weight/animal of 113–117 g. The vicu a were only shorn in the middle and rear-
78                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



ventral region to avoid causing them excessive thermal stress. Time of shearing and any behavioral
reaction during sampling and handling were also recorded. In this paper, white blood cell count
changes, cortisol patterns, and other main blood and clinical parameters that describe the health status
and response of vicu a to management are discussed. We also explain the future consequences of a
welfare protocol in vicu a sustainable use programs.
       BORZILLO, GUIDO. Study of distribution of red deer reintroduction population via radio-
tracking in Valle Sesia. Dipartimento di Fisiologia Veterinaria, Via Campana, 12-10126 Torino,
ITALY.
       The red deer (Cervus elaphus) reintroduction project in Valle Sesia, in northeastern Piedmont,
was promoted and carried out by the provincial administration of Vercelli, with the collaboration of
Alpine District “Valle Sesia.” The project objective was to restore a species that was historically
present in this valley but was extirpated more than100 years ago. The reintroduction that was
accomplished was based on a feasibility study that identified the suitable release point of the animals
to be in the Valle Sesia territory. The red deer were reintroduced over a period of 4 years, with
5 subsequent releases. The released animals came from “Domine National de Chambord, France, and
totaled 90 individuals, 55 females and 35 males, of various ages. Twenty-four red deer (8 males and
16 females) were equipped with radio-collars, to facilitate monitoring through time from the moment
of release. We were able to locate 12 animals by triangulation. Based on our radio-tracking data to
date, the animals have covered, from the point of release, a distance of 3–10 km.
      BOUDRY, OLIVIER, and CORNELIS R. NEET. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa)
populations from Switzerland and France. Institut d’Ecologie, Université de Lausanne, CH -1015
Lausanne, SWITZERLAND (OB); Centre de Conservation de la faune et de la Nature (Etat de vaud),
CH - 1025 Saint-Sulpice, SWITZERLAND (CRN).
       Weanalyzed the genetic structure of 16 wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations (240 individuals)
sampled from various regions of Switzerland and France, using 7 microsatellite loci developed for the
Pig Genome Mapping Project. Fair levels of gene flow were found between all populations and the
spatial structure was limited to 3 slightly differentiated geographical groups: (1) Southern France,
(2) Northern France and Switzerland, and (3) Ticino (Southern Switzerland). These groups can be
explained by natural geographical barriers and lower population densities that occurred in the past.
However, a correlation analysis between geographic and genetic distance data, although significant
(r = 0.365, P < 0.001), only explained 13 % of the total variance. Factors that are likely to influence
the genetic structure of wild boar populations are discussed.
      BROWN, ROBERT D. Spreading the word—a natural resources course for county extension
agents. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 210 Nagle Hall, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-2258 USA.
       Natural resources are becoming increasingly important, both as threats and as opportunities, to
landowners throughout the U.S. County Extension Agents (CEA) and Family and Consumer Science
Agents (FCS), with college degrees in traditional agricultural fields, are ill-equipped to help their
clientele deal with regulatory issues, or to help them diversify their income through use of natural
resources. These needs became apparent in Texas in 1994, when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
(USFWS) announced possible listing of 33 Texas counties as critical habitat for the golden cheeked
warbler, and agents were not prepared to deal with the resource management and political
implications of that event. Other landowners were faced with declining income from traditional
sources, and agents requested help from natural resource Extension Specialists. In 1997 we developed
a 1-year course to train CEAs and FCS agents in natural resources management, regulations, conflict
resolution, and resource decision-making through a series of 3 2-day workshops held in different
ecological regions of Texas. Twenty agents enrolled in the course. Nearly 30 instructors for the course
were drawn from a pool of county, state, and federal personnel. At each workshop, agents heard of the
structure and function of state and federal agencies and nongovernmental organizations; they toured
various field sites. Topics included management of wildlife, rangeland, and timber resources, as well
79                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



as youth programs, interactive techniques, conflict resolution, and land-use decision making. Each
participant developed a County Action Plan to incorporate natural resources extension programming
in his/her county. The $12, 00 cost of the course was provided by grants. Sixteen agents graduated
from the course; all evaluations were positive. Based on input from the 1997 students, the course has
been expanded into a 2-year program for 1998–99, with 4 workshops over the 2 years. The 1998–99
course has 17 participants, and plans are to continue adding new students to this course annually.
      BROWN, ROBERT D. The impact of changing U.S. demographics on the future of deer
hunting. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 210 Nagle Hall, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-2258 USA.
       The population of the United States is changing, and that change will have a significant impact
on the future of deer hunting. Currently, only 8% of the U.S. population hunts, and participation by
age group has been declining since 1955. The population of the U.S. is growing, but the rate of
population growth is slowing, except in California, Florida, and Texas. Unfortunately, even where
numbers of Americans are increasing, hunting is not. Between 1980 and 1990, 66% of the U.S.
population growth was due to minorities, and Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians have
historically low rates of participation in hunting. Likewise, our population is aging; the average age of
a hunter is 38. Within the next 30 years 20% of the U.S. population will be over 65. That trend will
continue as “baby boomers” mature. Women will numerically dominate the elderly population.
Participation in nearly every outdoor activity except bird watching declines with age, and only about
0.5% of women in the U.S. hunt. Another trend impacting hunting is urbanization; over 75% of the
U.S. population lives in urban areas. Participation is low in urban areas, and those urban dwellers who
do hunt tend to come from rural backgrounds. Family size is decreasing, from 3.67 in 1940 to 2.63 in
1990, and the percentage of non-family households, and those headed by women, is increasing.
Nationally, 61% of children spend some time in a single parent household, and the person least likely
to hunt or fish is a single female parent. As our population becomes older, more ethnically diverse,
more urban, and less affluent, attitudes towards hunting as an acceptable sport may become less
tolerant. Despite such efforts as 4-H shooting sports programs, youth hunting associations, and
Women in the Outdoors, this declining trend in hunting continues. If hunting is to continue as
a wildlife management tool, if license sales and excise taxes are expected to continue to fund wildlife
management programs, and if hunting is to continue to be a source of recreation, even for the few,
then agencies must analyze their demographics and develop means of reversing the trend.
       BUGALHO, JOAO, ANA DAHLIN, CARLOS R. CARVAHLOS, and RUI BORRALHO.
Sustainable use of wildlife with particular reference to farmland ecosystems and small game shooting
in Europe. ERENA (Ordenamento e Gestao de Recursos Naturales), Lisbon University, Av. Visconde
Valmor 11-3, P-1000 Lisbon, PORTUGAL (JB); Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Prof. Baeta Neves,
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, P-1399 Lisbon, PORTUGAL (AD, CRC, RB).
       Wildlife management, particularly of game species, will tend increasingly to be sustainable,
which will respect the principles of conservation of these species and their habitats, as well as other
species associated with them. The management of many European habitats is deeply related with
farming, and it is highly dependent on the adopted agricultural policies. Sustainable use of small game
species in Europe will be highly influenced by those policies that are tending to be considered more
and more in an agro-environmental perspective, and as it contributes to rural development.
The economics of small game sustainable use, particularly in the poorer European areas, will make
some farms more viable and will contribute significantly to development of the regions where they are
inserted. Since Agenda 2000 points towards a coordination between agricultural and environmental
policies, both integrated in a wider concept of adaptation, modernization, and development of the
rural zones, a greater attention has to be paid to the value of small game species and the management
of their populations and habitats. These points will be illustrated with some case studies.
      BYERS, BRUCE, and JANET ADY. The multi-faceted approaches to public outreach within
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Consultant in Conservation and Natural Resources Management,
80                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



511 S. Spring Street, Falls Church, VA 22046 USA (BB); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National
Conservation Training Center, Rt. 1, Box 166, Sheperdstown, WV 25443 USA (JA).
        The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is developing a new National Outreach Strategy to provide
focus and guidance for its communication, education, and public relations efforts. In the process of
implementing the new strategy, questions arise regarding what outreach is and what it can do for the
service. Is outreach a public relations tool, a means of informing our publics about what we do and
generating public support for our wildlife conservation programs? Is it a management tool for
addressing the human dimensions of wildlife management and people and wildlife conflicts? Is it
strictly an educational process, designed to increase knowledge and skills about wildlife, its needs,
and the threats it faces? We think outreach includes all of these things! This paper will present
specific case studies from within the agency that illustrate how these different approaches can help the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service accomplish its mission. The authors will discuss the effectiveness of
public relations, management, and educational approaches in solving different kinds of problems, and
provide suggestions about which situations lend themselves most readily to which outreach approach.
The question of how a natural resource agency can most effectively use training and employee
development opportunities to implement outreach programs will also be explored.
     BYUN, WOO-HYUK, and SEONG-IL YOON. Survival rates of captive-reared Korean ring-
necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus karpowi) released with radiocollars in South Korea. Wildlife
Resources Laboratory, Department of Forest Resources, Korea University, 1 Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-
Gu 136-701 Seoul, KOREA.
        Survival rates of captive-reared Korean ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus karpowi)
released in Chun-Cheun and Yang-Pyung province, South Korea, have been examined since 1996.
Experiments were planned and conducted with release site, sex of the birds, and season as variables.
We attached transmitters with neck-wires that weighed less than 24g on adult (n = 86) and juvenile
(5 months old, n = 30) birds 1–3 weeks before releasing them. On average, 1.7 times/day data
collections were achieved depending on time and weather. Most birds were killed (>89.5%) within the
first 2 weeks and 93.8% of all males (n = 17, 1 missing) and 70% of females (n = 11, 1 missing) were
killed after 6 weeks in Chun-Cheun. Females may survive longer than males in experiments; 20% for
male (n = 15) and 33.3% for female (n = 15) were still alive at 31days after release in Yang-Pyung in
autumn. Released birds in spring were relatively successful (>31.6% birds had survived the first 12
days; n = 28, 9 missing) in Yang-Pyung Province where <37% is crop field. Lowest survival rates
(0% at 15 days after release) occurred in winter at the site. However, many pheasant carcasses were
found with predator sign (>63.6% of carcasses; faces, footprints, feather, etc.); feral cat (Felis catus),
raccoon (Procyon lotor), weasel (Mustela erminea) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis); whether the
predators killed the pheasants or not was unknown. When pheasants are released to supplement wild
stock, predator control should be conducted before introducing ring-necked pheasants in Korea.
      CACCAMISE, DONALD F., LISA M. REED, and PAUL M. CASTELLI. Distinguishing
migratory and nonmigratory populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) using stable isotope
analysis. Department of Fishery and Wildlife Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
NM, 88003 USA (DFC); Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901
USA (LMR); New Jersey Department of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Nacote Creek Research Station,
P.O. Box 418, Port Republic, NJ 08241 USA (PMC).
       Effective management of resident populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires
a reliable method to determine the migratory history of individuals during the nonbreeding season.
We undertook this study to determine if stable isotope analysis of feather tissue could distinguish
between migratory and nonmigratory populations. We obtained feather samples from northern
Quebec Province near Ungava Bay, Canada (30 July–4 August 1997) and from several inland and
coastal sites in northeastern United States (16 June–3 July 1997). We analyzed for carbon, nitrogen,
and sulfur isotopes using a Europa mass spectrometer. We entered stable isotope concentrations
(delta form) into a discriminant analysis using collection site as the grouping variable (Canada, inland
81                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



New Jersey, and coastal New Jersey). We formed 2 significant functions that successfully
discriminated among the 3 groups of geese. The first function accounted for most of the variance
explained by the discriminant analysis, and was highly influenced by the delta-carbon values.
A scatterplot of delta values revealed that coastal birds showed a higher influence of a marine diet,
and birds from highly managed areas (inland New Jersey) showed the effects of a diet from a low
delta-nitrogen environment (e.g., food plants grown with artificial fertilizer). The marine pattern was
similar in the Canadian samples. Our results indicate that feathers are a useful tissue source for stable
isotope analysis, and that this analysis, along with further refinements, may provide a reliable method
for differentiating between migratory and nonmigratory populations of Canada geese.
       CALMÉ, SOPHIE, and MAURO SANVICENTE LÓPEZ. Present status and distribution of the
ocellated turkey (Agriocharis ocellata) in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. El Colegio de la Frontera
Sur, A.P. 424, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, C.P. 77000, MEXICO.
       The ocellated turkey (Agriocharis ocellata) is an endemic species of the Peninsula of Yucatán,
which includes the Mexican states of the peninsula, as well as Belize and northern Guatemala.
The species has been traditionally hunted since the ancient Maya civilization. Deforestation and
fragmentation of the original forest is still ongoing in the Mexican part of the peninsula. In this study,
we aimed at determining the present distribution and population status of the species in the states of
Yucatan, Quintana Roo, and Campeche. We divided the peninsula by a 10- x 10-km grid, and
conducted a survey of turkey occurrence with local hunters for all squares. People were asked for the
presence of the species in the last 2, 5, 10, 20, and >20 years. The results were mapped to obtain the
distribution of ocellated turkeys through space and time. During the dry season, we searched for
turkey groups with the help of hunters, in localities where turkeys had been seen recently.
This allowed us to estimate population variables. Results indicated that the turkeys have already
disappeared from regions where human settlements, intensive agriculture, or cattle ranches dominate
the landscape. The species is still found close to small isolated settlements, which are recent, i.e., less
than 30 years old. However, the practice of traditional milpa within continuous forest leads to
increasing fragmentation and probability of opportunistic hunting. Both breeding and natal dispersal
of turkeys might therefore be affected by present landscape use. Moreover, since recruitment is low in
ocellated turkey populations, we expect the distribution of the species to shrink further in a near
future.
       CANAC-MARQUIS, PIERRE. Canadian trapping perspective and trap testing and standard
development. Trap Research and Development Committee, Fur Institute of Canada, 130 Slater Street,
Suite 605, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 6E2 CANADA.
       Efforts to improve animal welfare in trapping were initiated by Canadian trappers and wildlife
regulators at the turn of the century and Canadian wildlife authorities have fully supported the Fur
Institute of Canada’s scientific trap research and development program over the past 15 years.
Scientific findings from this program have influenced wildlife furbearer management strategies,
regulatory decisions and trapper education programs. Research data has been used to establish the
scientific foundation of the International Trap Standard on Humane Trapping and the Canadian
National Trapping Standards (Canadian General Standard Board). Ongoing research and development
contribute to the evolution of trapping technologies, ensuring continued improvements in animal
welfare and enhanced understanding of the sustainable use of plentiful Canadian wild furbearer
resources.
     CARBONELL, MONTSERRAT. Sustainable use of natural resources in wetlands of Latin
America and the Caribbean. Ducks Unlimited, Inc., 1 Waterfowl Way, Memphis, TN 38120-2351
USA.
      A summary is given of issues related to sustainable use of natural resources in wetlands in Latin
America and the Caribbean to provide a broad perspective on the topic. Specific examples are
introduced to illustrate the successes and failures achieved when aiming to conserve and/or manage
wetlands. In order to make sustainable use of wetland resources, we need to learn from traditional
82                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



practices, but we also need more research to make wise decisions on how wetlands should be used. In
particular, we need more training and capacity building so those who are making decisions understand
and incorporate in their daily work the need to work with local communities and to use and believe in
research and its results.
      CHAUDHRY, INAYAT U. Capture of bear cubs and their subsequent treatment in Pakistan.
Habitat Integrated Pakistan, 60 Fruit Market, Kotlakhpat, Lahore, 54760, PAKISTAN.
       Pakistan is located between India, China, Iran, and the Arabian Sea. Two bear species (Asiatic
black bear [Ursus thibetanus] and Himalayan brown bear [U. arctos]) are found in this country.
A study was conducted to ascertain details of cub capture and their subsequent treatment in captivity.
It indicates that cubs are captured in April every year when they are a few days old. Generally the
mother bear is killed first for safe capture. Subsequently, the cubs undergo great agony at the hands of
transporters, traders, trainers, and nomads who use them for dancing and fighting with bullterrier
dogs. The study concludes that cub capture can be eradicated by education, awareness, effective
wildlife laws and their enforcement, and alternate sustenance for cub-poachers, traders, trainers, and
bear-owning nomads.
      CHEN, HUAPENG, JIANZHANG MA, FENG LI, ZHONGWU SUN, HUAI WANG,
LIYANG LUO, and FEI LI. Red deer and roe deer diets in forests of northeastern China. College of
Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forest University, Harbin, P. R. CHINA.
       We investigated the diets and dietary overlap of sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus
xanthopygus Milne-Edwards) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus bedfordi Thomas) in coniferous and
broad-leaf mixed forests of northeastern China. Seasonal pattern of diet selection differed between red
deer and roe deer. Dietary overlap was largest during winter when forage availability dropped to the
lowest point. In contrast, the lowest dietary overlap was observed during summer when forage
resources were most abundant. Dietary quality (crude protein [CP], neutral detergent fiber [NDF],
acid detergent fiber [ADF], in vitro dry matter digestibility [IVDMD], Ca, P, Na, K) varied seasonally
for both cervids. No significant differences were demonstrated in dietary quality between red deer and
roe deer. Dietary CP, Ca, P, K seemed to be adequate, but forage Na concentrations were near
minimal levels throughout the year. Low IVDMD in both cervid diets during winter indicated that
energy was a key limiting factor.
      CHILD, GRAHAM. Towards managing wildlife sustainably in Africa. WISDOM Institute,
Harare, ZIMBABWE.
       The land allocated to wildlife management and wildlife (game) numbers have increased in most
countries in Southern Africa during the past 4 or 5 decades. This does not necessarily equate to sound
conservation or the ongoing use of the resource in sustainable development, because many examples
are unstable as animals have become too numerous for the available habitats and this is leading to
environmental degradation. There are, however, sufficient examples of management that is
sustainable, although even this is not safe from the vicissitudes of politics, or droughts that may affect
whole regions. Experience in Southern Africa suggests that the sustainable conservation of the
macrofauna depends on a strategy that is flexible, applies to whole regions and is both ecologically
and economically sound. It must ensure that animal numbers and the habitats available to them are
kept in harmony, and that the effectiveness of ecological reserves is extended through institutions that
encourage the use of wildlife outside these areas. This is a severe challenge to centralized
management and protectionist philosophies. It means that conservation of wildlife can succeed only if
use of the resource is integrated into a paradigm of sustainable development.
      CLARK, WILLIAM R., BARRY L. FALK, RICHARD A. SCHMITZ, and
BRUCE A. BABCOCK. Projecting the wildlife and economic impacts of U.S. agricultural policy
using a landscape-level model. Department of Animal Ecology, Iowa State University, 124 Science II,
Ames, IA 50011 USA (WRC, RAS); Department of Economics, and Center for Agriculture and
Rural Development, Iowa State University, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 USA (BLF, BAB).
83                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Resource conservationists need approaches to assess the potential environmental consequences
of alternative agricultural and resource policies in the midwestern United States. We used a spatially
explicit, individually based simulation model of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) to produce
population production relationships for varying composition and configuration of perennial grassland
habitat in the landscape. We calculated the marginal benefits for scenarios of (1) retaining
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands in blocks, (2) removing CRP grasslands completely,
and (3) reconfiguring CRP grasslands into riparian buffers. Production of pheasants under scenario
1 peaks at 20% grassland in the landscape resulting in a marginal benefit curve that is decreasing over
the range of reasonable policy options. Scenario 2 reduces pheasant production so that land use
decisions only depend on the marginal costs associated with commodity production. Production of
pheasants under scenario 3 requires a much greater proportion of the landscape in grassland before
production is equivalent to scenario 1 because of the detrimental influences of edge on reproduction
and survival. The idea that configuration of landscape patches and corridors can neutralize effects of
reduced habitat composition in landscapes <10–15% grassland is not supported by our data and
modeling. Beyond the ecological importance of this conclusion, it suggests that changes in
agricultural policy such as substituting riparian buffers for equal amounts of CRP grasslands in blocks
will result in reduced pheasant populations.
      COULSON, GRAEME. Management of overabundant macropods in nature reserves: 6 case
studies from south-eastern Australia. Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Parkville,
Victoria 3052, AUSTRALIA.
       Kangaroos and wallabies (macropods) have become overabundant in many parts of
southeastern Australia. Rapid rates of population increase and high population densities are attained in
conservation reserves that provide suitable habitat, plentiful food and water, and security from
predators. The negative effects of macropod overabundance include decline in body condition and
reproduction, overgrazing impacts on other components of the biota, and threats to human life and
property. I review macropod control programs conducted in 6 conservation reserves over the last
decade in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania, and Victoria. These programs involve 6 species:
the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), western grey kangaroo (M. fuliginosus), and red
kangaroo (M. rufus), and Bennett’s wallaby (M. rufogriseus), black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), and
Tasmanian pademelon (Thylogale billardierii). Each control program aims to arrest and reverse the
impacts of overabundance by reducing population density, using culling or fertility control separately
or in combination. However, few of the programs have specified goals, and fewer have measured their
success. The results of most of the programs are confounded by other management actions and by the
presence of other grazing species. Further, macropod control has generated unintended outcomes that
have delayed or even negated progress in some reserves. There has been a negative impact on
1 species caused by prey switching, and increases in the populations of nontarget macropods in
2 reserves resulting from competitive release after culling. Although the control of overabundant
macropods has intuitive merit in each of these case studies, such programs have high political and
financial costs, and their management benefits have yet to be convincingly demonstrated.
       CRUZ, JOANA, PEDRO SARMENTO, JOSÉ V. VINGADA, CATARINA EIRA, CARLOS
FONSECA, MIGUEL SOARES, and AMADEU SOARES. The European genet: is it a species
indicator? Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata, Rua dos Bombeiros S/N, 6090 Penamacor,
PORTUGAL (JC, PS); Dep. de Biologia da Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 Braga,
PORTUGAL (JVV); Instituto do Ambiente e Vida da Universidade de Coimbra. 3000 Coimbra,
PORTUGAL (CE, CF, MS, AS).
       Spatio-temporal ecology of 6 European genets (Genetta genetta) was studied over 2 years by
radiotracking in Serra da Malcata Nature Reserve, Portugal. Six individuals were sampled (2 females
and 4 males). The genets showed a nocturnal activity pattern, but with significant diurnal activity.
There was a high intrasexual tolerance among males and this species had a preference for close
habitats. We studied the diet of the European genet in Serra da Malcata and in a sand dune coastal
habitat, located in Quiaios-Mira. This area suffered a severe forest fire in 1993, which destroyed
84                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



almost 50% of the pine wood forest. The genet used the same trophic strategy, having the diet divided
in 2 parts. A stable part formed by rodents, especially wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and
a variable part determined by the seasonal availability of certain prey items, such as arthropods and
fruits, in Mira-Quiaios, or birds and reptiles, in Serra da Malcata. Even with different wood mouse
densities in both study areas, this rodent is the keystone of the genet diet. This may be sufficient to
designate this carnivore a local specialist predator and an indicator species of well-preserved habitats.
      CSÁNYI, SÁNDOR, and ATTILA PALLER. Condition changes of red deer stags during the
rut in a Hungarian population. Department of Wildlife Biology and Management, University of
Agricultural Sciences, H-2103 Gödöllö, HUNGARY.
        In spite of its economic importance, relatively little is known about the ecology of red deer
(Cervus elaphus) in Hungary. To provide a sound basis for the management and conservation of free-
living red deer populations, information on the population status is essential for game managers.
We studied the condition changes of red deer stags during the rut in Lábod, southwestern Hungary.
Body weight and kidney fat data were collected in 1996, 1997, and 1998 from animals shot by hunters
in September. Kidney fat index (KFI) was calculated according the method of Riney and the patterns
of condition changes were compared between 5 age groups of stags. The parameters showed
statistically significant decline in the 30-day period investigated, and both body weight and KFI were
good indicators of the short-term condition changes. The speed of decline differed among the age
groups, and on the basis of their condition loss, 11- to 12-year-old males could be the most important
group in the rut. As this kind of data can easily be collected in the field, use of KFI as an information
basis for monitoring and management decisions is proposed.
       CSÁNYI, SÁNDOR, ISTVÁN PINTÉR, YVES LECOCQ, and KARIN MEINE. Land
privatization, free market economy, and the sustainable use of game species in Central and Eastern
Europe; cases of conflicting interests in Hungary. Department of Wildlife Biology and Management,
University of Agricultural Sciences, H-2103 Gödöllö, HUNGARY (SC); Department of Game
Management and Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, H-1860 Budapest,
Kossuth sq. 11, HUNGARY (IP); Federation of Field Sports Associations of the EU, Rue F. Pelletier
82, B-1030 Brussels, BELGIUM (YL, KM).
       Before the political changes of the 1990s, the game management and hunting system of Central
and Eastern European countries were very similar. The game and the hunting rights belonged to the
state and the game management was conducted by the hunting clubs or state companies. This resulted
in large management units and the incomes of game management were accumulated on larger areas.
The states had a monopoly over the game hunting business and the systems were strictly regulated.
Some of the governments considered commercial game hunting as an important source of hard
currencies paid by western hunters. During the communist era, Hungary was a leading player of the
game market in Europe, which was based on the abundance and quality of game species, and also by
the well-developed services established at all levels of marketing. After the political and economic
changes, most of these countries changed the hunting legislation and the systems become more
diversified. Some countries kept the main elements of the former system and typically hunting rights
now belong to the land property. Political and economic factors motivated these changes, but one of
the important elements was the commercial use of game and the sale of hunting to foreign hunters. As
a consequence of the strong competition and the difficulties in controlling the systems,
commercialization may jeopardize the sustainable use of game resources, especially when the free
market economy and chaos of market is mixed. In this paper we present data on the former and recent
systems of game management and hunting of Central and European countries. Parallel, based on the
data available for Hungary, we also show the causes and effects of the most important conflicts
occurring between the will for commercialization and the interest of sustainability.
     CSÁNYI, SÁNDOR and DÁVID RITTER. GIS applications in the National Game
Management Database of Hungary. Department of Wildlife Biology and Management,
Gödöllö University of Agricultural Science, H-2103 Gödöllö, Pater K. u.1, HUNGARY.
85                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Game management is based on a system of management units, districts, and regions in
Hungary. Proper 3-level planning and administration require a unified data and information
management, therefore the new “Act on game conservation, management and hunting” has ordered
the application of the National Game Management Database. As it known, the wildlife-related objects
(distribution of different game populations, location of the wildlife management units, etc.), have
many spatial properties. To establish the spatial relationship between these different objects,
a geographical information system (GIS) was developed. For this purpose Arc/Info 7.1, PC Arc/Info
3.5 and ArcView 3.0 were used. The system acts as a main part of the National Game Management
Database. The database contains the digitized borders of the management units, districts, regions, and
many related geographical information features (forests, hydrography, settlements, administrative
borders, etc.). The descriptive game management data (e.g., spring population estimates, annual game
management reports, trophy scoring) can be joined using georelational links. The National Game
Management Database provides annual thematic maps, and spatial and temporal analyses of the game
management data to the governmental agencies. The database and different analysis tools were used
to establish the new wildlife management districts and the sustainable big game population sizes
according to the “Act on game conservation, management and hunting.” Moreover, the National
Game Management Database offers topographic maps, administrative spatial information, and
thematic maps to the wildlife managers. Furthermore, it constitutes the basis of the research and
education of the GIS in the Department of Wildlife Biology and Management.
       CSÖRGÖ, TIBOR, and GYÖRGY MIKLAY. Site fidelity and migration strategies of
passerines—a long-term study. Department of General Zoology, Eötvös Lóránd University, Puskin
u.3., Budapest, H-1088, HUNGARY.
       Some birds return year after year to the same territory both within the breeding range and
within the wintering range, and sometimes to the same stopover site along the migration route as well.
The degree of site fidelity differs appreciably from species to species, and can differ with age and sex.
In this study we investigated the connection between site fidelity and migratory strategy. Since 1983
we have caught and ringed more than 150, 00 of nearly 90 species of passerines at Ócsa, Hungary. In
this study only the juvenile birds of the most common species were used in 3 categories: (1) long-
distance migratory birds (great reed warbler [Acrocephalus arundinaceus], reed warbler
[A. scirpaceus], marsh warbler [A. palustris], sedge warbler [A. schoenobaenus], river warbler
[Locustella fluviatilis], Savi's warbler [L. luscinoides], garden warbler [Sylvia borin], red-backed
shrike [Lanius collurio], and nightingale [Luscinia megarhynchos]); (2) short-distance migratory
birds (SDM) (moustached warbler [A. melanopogon], chiffchaff [Phylloscopus collybita], blackcap
[S. atricapilla], blackbird [Turdus merula], reed bunting [Emberiza schoeniclus], penduline tit [Remiz
pendulinus]); and (3) residents (great tit [Parus major], blue tit [P. caeruleus], longtail tit [Aegithalos
caudatus], house sparrow [Passer domesticus], tree sparrow [P. montanus]). The longevity of small
passerines is usually no more than 4 years; because of this the data collected in the last 4 years were
excluded from this study. Percentages of recoveries were calculated in the first, second and third years
after the ringing years. Three data pools were built according to the time of ringing and recovering:
(1) birds ringed and recovered within the breeding season; (2) birds ringed in the breeding season, and
recovered without this period, in other part of the next years; and (3) birds ringed and recovered all
year. Recapture averages differ significantly according to migratory strategies. The long-distance
migratory birds have usually the smallest averages and the residents have the greatest ones.
The differences inside the categories are smaller than between the categories. The averages of
category 3 were usually greater than other ones except residents. A high level of site fidelity was
found rarely in small bodied passerines. We believe that it is caused by lack of data, rather than lack
of site fidelity of these species.
      CSÖRGÖ, TIBOR, ZSOLT KARCZA, and SÁNDOR PALKÓ. Usage of long-term birdringing
database for monitoring. Eötvös Lóránd University, Department of General Zoology, 1088 Puskin u.
3., Budapest, HUNGARY.
86                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Passerine population sizes have decreased strikingly in Western Europe during the last decades.
The majority of breeding populations in the Carpathian Basin are not connected with Western
European ones, and even transitory birds come from elsewhere. Therefore, the above tendencies may
not necessarily apply to this area. The present study aimed to investigate changes of passerine
populations at 2 different sites in Hungary. The database of Ócsa goes back 14 years, and contains
data from 56, 01 individual birds belonging to 65 passerine species. The database of Fenékpuszta was
gathered during 12 years and contains data from 71, 51 individual birds of 56 passerine species. Both
data sets were derived from ringing activities during same time period each year (between 15 July and
15 September), with identical netting sites and net surfaces. Tendencies of relative abundance of
species, as well as diversity, evenness, and overlap values of species composition were examined.
During the study period, relative abundance of warbler species in the reedbed of Ócsa was decreasing,
while forest species’ abundance was increasing. No tendencies could be shown in abundance of
several species. There was no significant tendency in the change of diversity and evenness over the
years. Overlap indexes that calculate abundance (Renkonen, Sokal-Michener) indicated a decrease
until 1991, and an increase since then. This change in proportion of population of bird communities
shows the degradation of reedbeds at Ócsa, climate changes, and the influence of nature conservation
activities. Data of Fenékpuszta show no tendencies in any of our analyses. Values of diversity and
evenness are similar over the years, and lower compared to those of Ócsa. The diversity indexes
themselves have little information. Among the overlap indexes, those that calculate only with
absence-presence data are hardly able to show the fine changes. Changes can be shown first by
changes in the relative proportion of species within the overall population. These changes can only be
shown by calculating overlap indexes that use abundance as a measure.
       CZECH, ANDRZEJ. History and present status of the European beaver (Castor fiber L.) in
Poland, with implications for beaver management programs. Institute of Environmental Biology,
Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow, POLAND.
       Habitat change and over-trapping resulted in the near extirpation of the beaver (Castor fiber L.)
in Poland. Restoration efforts began in 1949, when 26 beaver from Voronezh (Russia) were released
in northeastern Poland. Nowfully protected and augmented by natural in-migration along the
Lithuanian-Polish border, their numbers grew slowly, reaching some 1, 00 by 1974. In that year,
a comprehensive program of beaver reintroduction was developed at the Research Station of the
Polish Academy of Sciences, under the direction of Professor Zurowski. In cooperation with the
Polish Hunters’ Association, beaver from the densely populated northeastern region and 2 captive
breeding centers were released in several areas throughout Poland. This program continues; the Polish
beaver population is now between 13, 00 and 15, 00. With the growth in beaver numbers, their
activities exert a growing influence on ecosystems in Poland, as manifest in higher ground-water
levels, increasing sedimentation in beaver impoundments, and growing biodiversity of lentic aquatic
communities, along with diminished stream-bank erosion. However, increased beaver numbers have
also intensified conflicts between beaver and human populations. Management strategies have
evolved in order to retain the ecosystem benefits of beaver restoration while minimizing economic
losses. The principles of successful management are as follows: (1) continuous monitoring of active
beaver sites by trained individuals, (2) characterization of the ecosystem values of each beaver site,
and (3) classification of each site according to conflict potential. Where beaver-human conflict is
possible or already occurring, the following mitigation actions are indicated: (1) public education,
(2) site modification to minimize damage and increase benefits, (3) exclusion, (4) live trapping and
relocation, and (5) lethal trapping.
     DARRACQ, ERIC G. and DELWIN E. BENSON. Common historical trends of
recommendations to improve environmental education in curriculums at the secondary school level.
Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523 USA.
(EGD); Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523
USA. (DEB)
87                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Many societies have assumed that environmental education is important because of its potential
to inspire people to consider both short-term and long-term effects of using natural resources.
Environmental educators have used a myriad of formal and informal didactic programs hoping to
influence people to behave as responsible citizens and natural resource stewards. Environmental
education however is often in the form of information, which could lead to knowledge, but if taken
alone, is not sufficient to effect change of behaviors. For behaviors to change, participants must have
attitudes that are in tune with desired situations, knowledge about the situation in relation to their
context of land, animal and human interactions, and the necessary skills to carry out the behavior.
The context of change includes: 1) earth’s physical and biological systems; 2) money and trade;
3) personal psychology and “investment” in the issue; 4) norms of the group; 5) power structures
through laws and political systems; and 6) implementation opportunities through empowerment,
appropriate technologies and skills to perform desired tasks. Recurring historical themes and
recommendations for educational reform include approaches that are 1) interdisciplinary,
2) experiential, and 3) holistic rather than relying solely on reductionism. Furthermore, education
should emphasize long-term problem-solving approaches and foster a sense of ecological place. We
hope to stimulate environmental professionals at the international level to apply these principles with
their local educators.
      DELEHAN, I. V. Ukraine needs highly qualified specialists for hunting business. Ukrainian
State University of Forestry and Wood Technology, Lviv, UKRAINE.
       The hunting business in the Ukraine is carried out on an area of about 52 million ha. Near
100 state hunting farms are functioning on this territory. Registered farms of hunting and fishing
societies cover up to 4 million ha. Only 5% of working places are employed by specialists with a
higher education in this sphere. In addition, hunting specialists were never trained in the Ukraine.
Professional education, received in Russia, oriented those specialists towards production activities,
that don’t suit the natural and farming features of the territory, national experience, and hunting
traditions. Studies and scientific literature specific to hunting in the Ukraine aren’t available. Russian
texts overwhelmingly give information about fauna and hunting objects of the taiga, quite different
from the Ukrainian forests. The problems of hunting farm management, because of absence of
scientific institutions, were studied by enthusiasts. The actuality of this problem in contemporary
ecology-economical conditions gets especially acute. In the Ukrainian State University of Forestry
and Wood Technology, a special educational plan is being worked out to begin the training of
Bachelors of Hunting Business.
       DELEHAN, IVAN, and MYKOLA SHADURA. Hunting resources in the Ukraine. Sirco
str. 16/18, 290052 Lviv, UKRAINE (IV); 252601 Chreschatyk 5, Kiev, UKRAINE (MS).
       The overall area of hunting lands of Ukraine is more than 52 million. ha. The main territories
are forest, field, and meadow (correspondingly 16, 57, 12%). There are up to 40 animal species and
70 species of birds. But most of them are in small quantities, rare, and some are already in the Red
Book (Lutra lutra, Meles meles, Lynx lynx). The main hunting species are elk (Alces alces), deer, roe-
deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), hare, and goose species. The number of hoofed
animals is about 200, 00–250, 00; hares, 1, 00, 00–2, 00, 00, goose species 4, 00, 00–4, 00, 00.
The inhabitance density of almost all species in all regions is lower than optimum. The formation and
stabilization of hunting farm activity (state hunting farms and others), intensive biotechnical
measures, regulative measures, and management based on European and world experience are the
main measures that can sustain effective reproduction of state hunting resources.
       DEVERS, PATRICK K., PAUL R. KRAUSMAN, and WILLIAM W. SHAW. Assessing the
role of human attitudes in wildlife conservation: the Pusch Ridge Wilderness model. 325 Biosciences
East Building, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.
      Increasingly, wildlife management is occurring in public arenas, by policy-makers influenced
by politically adept user-groups. If wildlife professionals are to maintain the lead in wildlife
conservation, they must understand and incorporate public attitudes with ecological information to
88                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



enhance and maintain wildlife populations. The first step in this process is to identify and collect input
from the most influential user-groups. We present a management scenario involving desert bighorn
sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in the Pusch Ridge Wilderness, Tucson, Arizona as a model for
incorporating public attitudes in wildlife management. Desert bighorn sheep in Pusch Ridge
Wilderness represent the latest indigenous wildlife population in the southwestern United States that
has decreased to unacceptable levels. The population, currently estimated at less than 10 animals but
historically numbered greater than 150 animals, has declined due to human influences including
urbanization, fire suppression, and increased recreation. If future transplants are to be initiated to re-
establish sheep in Pusch Ridge Wilderness there must be public support. We identified 5 influential
user-groups that are active in Pusch Ridge Wilderness, and are currently conducting a mail survey to
evaluate their support for re-establishing desert bighorn sheep. The goals of this study are to assess
public attitudes concerning desert bighorn conservation understanding public attitudes and behaviors.
We will present the results of this survey and its implications for desert bighorn sheep conservation in
Pusch Ridge Wilderness. We will also discuss how this model applies to wildlife conservation in all
areas faced with increasing human pressures.
      DIDONE, FRIGERIO, and KURT KOTRSCHAL. Responsiveness to different stressors in
greylag geese (Anser anser): a noninvasive approach. Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle fuer Ethologie,
Auingerhof 11, A-4645 Gruenau im Almtal, AUSTRIA.
       The studied flock of greylag geese (Anser anser) consisted of 130 free-living, semi-tame,
marked individuals whose life histories and social relationships were monitored for 25 years. Recent
studies have been dealing with behavioral endocrinology in these geese (Kotrschal et al., Anim.
Behav:55, 1998). Steroid hormones are involved in ontogenetic development as well as in the
regulation of biological cycles and social behavior. It was the aim of this project to investigate in
a causal way how different stressors may affect corticosterone levels and behavior in greylag geese.
Predator, social, and handling stress are qualitatively different since they affect survival and social
relationships. Whereas the general physiology of the stress response probably remains the same in all
3 situations, we expect quantitative differences in the individual magnitude and duration of the
responses. Social stress is expected to be rank-related; handling stress is supposed to affect goose-
raised geese more than hand-raised ones; predator stress should affect all members of the flock.
Experimental stress situations were elicited by feeding (social), catching and holding (handling), and
by exposure to a leashed dog (predator). Individual behavioral data were collected as continuous
sampling. Corticosterone equivalents have been obtained noninvasively by EIA from feces as
equivalents of plasma levels. Results show significant differences in excreted corticosterone and
behavior between different stressors, as well as huge individual variation.
      DÖRGELOH, WERNER G., WOUTER VAN HOVEN, and NORMAN F. G. RETHMAN.
Faecal analysis as an indicator of the nutritional status of the diet of roan antelope. Applied Natural
Sciences, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 SOUTH AFRICA (WGD); Department of
Plant Production and Soil Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 SOUTH AFRICA (NFGR);
Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 SOUTH AFRICA (WVH).
       The management of roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is complicated by a decrease in
forage quality in winter. The objective was to evaluate faecal analysis as an indirect measure of the
nutritional status of the diet of roan antelope across seasons and between different roan antelope
populations. Faecal analyses were conducted on 5 roan antelope populations in the Southern African
savanna biome. Faecal samples were collected each month over a 2-year period in the Nylsvley
Nature Reserve and in winter 1995 from 4 other roan antelope populations. Samples were analyzed
with the Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy procedure for nitrogen, neutral detergent fibres, and
acid detergent fibres. The macro-minerals calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were analyzed
with wet chemical analysis. The seasonal variation in faecal nitrogen and fibre, with a higher quality
in summer (high protein and low fibre) reflects the changing forage quality (r = 0.98). Seasonal
changes in macro-minerals were not significant (P > 0.05). A generally higher faecal quality was
found in the artificially fed populations in winter. Faecal analysis can be applied as a management
89                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



tool to measure indirectly the forage quality of the diet of roan antelope. Monitoring the seasonal
changes in faecal quality required only the measurement of faecal nitrogen and faecal fibres. When
measuring the effectiveness of a winter-feeding program for roan antelope, the measurement of
macro-minerals should be included in the analysis.
    DULFER, ROBERT, MICHAELA BODNER, JERZY ROMANOWSKI, REINHARD
KLENKE, and MARCELA KUCEROVA. Otter conservation and fish production in Central Europe.
Rozmberk Society, Dukelska 135, CZ-37901 Trebon, CZECH REPUBLIC.
        The otter (Lutra lutra) is endangered in most European countries. However, viable populations
still exist around the fish farming regions in Central Europe. These populations are expanding and are
considered essential for the natural recolonization of otter ranges throughout Central Europe.
However, fish farming is an important regional economic activity and the otter is causing economic
damage. The conflict is increasing and local authorities have few possibilities to address the problem.
Otter conservationists from the countries involved have joined to develop a proposal for a Pan-
European strategy concerning this. One objective of the strategy is to ensure that the expanding
character of local populations remains intact and outward migration and recolonization continues.
This can only be achieved with the support of local people. Recognition of the legitimacy of damage
claims, and practical and financial support for the fisheries concerned is needed to obtain this support.
A common strategy could help getting recognition of this as a Pan-European problem, which should
be solved on an international level. A report to this effect should be completed in May 1999. It will
include chapters on the legal status, distribution, and threats to otters, and on the economic aspects of
fish production. Other chapters compare the situation in each country and analyze the possible effect
of the enlargement of the European Union. The report concludes with practical management
recommendations, and suggestions for priorities concerning conservation and research actions needed
in the countries involved. Summaries in local languages will be distributed to all stakeholders at local
meetings. The English version will be used for funding applications and further development of the
strategy.
        DUTT, SUGATO, and DIGVIJAY SINGH KHATI. A critical analysis of the ecodevelopment
initiatives in India: a case study of Rajaji National Park and Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve.
Wildlife Institute of India, P.B.18, Chandrabani, Dehra Dun, 248 001, INDIA.
       International donor agencies are expanding their agenda of winning local support for wildlife
conservation in developing nations through large-scale monetary investments in programs integrating
rural development with park management. In India, these investments, called “Ecodevelopment
Programs, aim at reducing anthropogenic pressures in parks with the premise that this will ultimately
result in the restoration of degraded ecosystems and by implication, serve the habitat requirements of
wildlife present. A critical evaluation of the ecodevelopment process and its implications for
ecosystem management is presented in this paper. Two case studies of Indian parks representative of
disparate Biogeographical zones of the subcontinent are discussed. These have initiated
ecodevelopment measures recently and may form possible models for replication in developing
economies. They include the Rajaji National Park and the Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. Both
sites exhibit widely prevalent biomass-based resource use, which form typical foundations for
subsistence level economies of the adjoining rural populations. In analyzing the ecodevelopment
approaches in the study sites, a lack of consideration for landscape-level ecological realities for large
mammal conservation is found evident. Further, these approaches do not obviate the need for specific
management interventions that cater to habitat requirements of specialist fauna. Thus, the approach is
found to inadvertently divert park policymakers from habitat management considerations and park
infrastructural requirements, which remain neglected. Ironically, an incomplete understanding of the
complex social structures that determine rural society in India also promotes only partial
implementation of the ecodevelopment process, which further frustrates the ultimate goal of wildlife
conservation. Suggestions are made to refine the ecodevelopment project design by considering
principles of landscape ecology, thereby fulfilling the original objectives for which the parks were
established in the first place.
90                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      DYKYJ, I. V., and I. V. DELEHAN. The results of the anthropogenic influence on the badger
(Meles meles L.) in Ukraine. Lviv State University, Ukrainian State University of Forestry and Wood
Technology, Lviv, UKRAINE.
       The badgers’ (Meles meles L.) situation in Ukraine is entirely different from that in West
European countries. Populations numbered around 11, 00 animals in the 1960s. The number of
badgers has decreased 6 fold since then and the species is disappearing in the southern part of
Ukraine. As a consequence, the badger is included in the Red Book Species in this country. Human
influence is the main factor that led to this species’ decline; environmental pollution from pesticides
and fertilizers and wide-spread poaching are the primary causes. Poachers destroy more than 75% of
the badgers’ holes. For preserving badgers in Ukraine, it is necessary to study the real status of the
population and make all due measures for the protection and reproduction of the species.
      DZIEDZIC, ROMAN, MARIAN FLIS, SLAWOMIR BEEGER, and MARIUSZ WÓJCIK.
Individual quality of wolves in chosen Baltic countries. Department of Ecology and Wildlife
Management, University of Agriculture in Lublin, POLAND.
       The individual quality of wolves was presented as length and width of skulls, skins, density,
and uniformity of hair cover as well as skin “collar” size. All the above features serve for skulls and
skins estimation of wolves according to the formula of the International Hunting Board and thus the
final score as CIC points were given. Analysis was done on a base of data collected in 12 hunting
trophy catalogues. The total number of estimated skulls was 521, and for skins, 132. However, all
estimation elements could be applied for only 387 skulls and 72 skins, the rest obtained CIC scores.
Collected material was analyzed depending on its origin: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, or Estonia.
In Poland, 3 regions were distinguished due to the wolves’ distribution and population size in the
whole country. Value of skulls and skins according to CIC scores was the second category of data
analysis: golden, silver, and bronze medals. We found that differences among mean values between
origin places in medal groups amounted to <5% for estimated measured traits: length, width, and CIC
scores, and they were not statistically significant (P # 0.05). It could be summarized that differences
regarding individual quality of wolves do not occur between the 4 countries and Polish regions having
been estimated. However, maximum values of particular individuals point that the highest value is in
the southeastern region of Poland. The best skull from that area is in second place in a world ranking,
and the best skin is the fifth.
       EDGE, . DANIEL, JOHN P. HAYES, DAVID HIBBS, JOHN TAPPEINER, ROBERT
GRESWELL, and EDWARD STARKEY. The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program:
testing assumptions of a large-scale management plan. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon
State University, 104 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA (WDE); Department of Forest Science,
Oregon State University, 140 Peavy, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA (JPH, DH); USDI Forest and
Rangeland Ecosystem Research Center, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331 USA (JT, RG, ES).
       The Northwest Forest Plan (NFP) is a comprehensive ecosystem management plan for federal
lands in the western third of Oregon and Washington. The goals of the plan are to (1) restore and
maintain ecosystem structure and function, (2) recover endangered species, and (3) maintain
a sustainable flow of commodity forest products. Because of its scope, the NFP contains numerous
untested assumptions regarding the structure and function of forest ecosystems at multiple scales.
The Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research Program (CFER) is a long-term (>10 years)
interdisciplinary research program designed to test assumptions in the NFP. We conducted a problem
analysis that identified key research needs of forest managers and wrote a long-term strategic plan for
addressing these research needs. Our strategic plan and on-going research concentrate on 3 major
areas of research: (1) riparian management areas, (2) biodiversity in young (<75 years) forest stands,
and (3) landscape ecology. CFER contains an information exchange component designed to
disseminate current research findings and to provide feedback from managers to the science team.
91                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



We present an overview of the CFER project as a model for conducting interdisciplinary research at
multiple scales.
       EIRA, CATARINA, CARLOS FONSECA, JOANA CRUZ, PEDRO SARMENTO, MIGUEL
SOARES, FERNANDO L. CORREIA, MAFALDA FARIA, AMADEU SOARES, and JOSÉ V.
VINGADA. Impact of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on small game species in the center of Portugal.
Instituto do Ambiente e Vida da Universidade de Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra, PORTUGAL (CE, CF,
MS, FLC, MF, AS); Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata, Rua dos Bombeiros S/N, 6090 Penamacor,
PORTUGAL (JC, PS); Dep. de Biologia da Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 Braga,
PORTUGAL (JVV).
       Their adaptable behavior allows foxes to colonize a great variety of habitats and to exploit
a wide range of food resources (rodents, rabbits, hares, birds, carrion, and during certain seasons
invertebrates and fruits). In Portugal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is probably the most common
carnivore, but few investigations have evaluated its predation impact. It has been generalized that fox
predation significantly impacts game species such as rabbits, partridge and waterfowl. However, some
studies have proved the contrary. The ability for this kind of predation raises the need to evaluate its
economic impact on the resources also exploited by humans, and if the control of this carnivore, based
on hunting activities, produces significant results. To answer these questions, 24 study areas were
analyzed in terms of fox diet and its impact on game species. The results emphasize a relatively high
impact on game species only in areas that present significant populations of such preys. In
Mediterranean areas, a great diversity of resources is exploited; the wood mouse (Apodemus spp. ) is
a very important prey item and a smaller impact on the game animals was detected. Integrating this
data with hunting bag data (fox, rabbits, hare, and partridge) in the center of Portugal, we conclude
that the theoretical assumptions that support fox hunting are inaccurate: foxes are not important small-
game predators and fox removal does not improve the small-game species populations. Furthermore,
intensive fox hunting affects the fox population structure, where old individuals (lower reproductive
rates) are scarce and young individuals dominate.
       ELS, HERMAN, and J. du P. BOTHMA. Sustainable resource utilization and development:
paradigm shift and conservation reality in South Africa. Centre for Wildlife Management, University
of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, SOUTH AFRICA.
       Since 1980 the philosophy arguing for the dependence of wildlife conservation on direct
interaction with local communities by linking sustainable utilization to sustainable development has
become an important part of wildlife management policy all over the world. In Eastern and Southern
Africa the practical implementation of the “new paradigm” in “community-based” programs in
wildlife management has as a result blossomed over the past 10 years, albeit with mixed results.
The real meaning and content of the “new paradigm, however, seems not to be well understood by
Africans, in general, who have been trained within the Western concept of and value judgements on
wildlife management, and who are involved in managing such programs. In particular, however, it
seems as if Europeans, who have been trained within their own cultural value systems regarding
wildlife and human interaction, have, in general, a very poor understanding of the real meaning and
content of the “new paradigm” and its implications in the management of such programs in Africa.
Due to the cultural “contradiction” in the reality driven nature of the “new paradigm, the emphasis in
the majority of such programs in Africa is, therefore, unfortunately exclusively on wildlife.
As a result, sustainable development is being talked about at endless meetings held between wildlife
managers and local communities with very little real resulting benefits accruing to such communities.
With very few exceptions, this scenario has unfortunately become the “action” of “involving rural
communal communities in nature conservation” in South Africa. This paper, therefore, argues for
a reality based adaptation of the “new paradigm” to really emphasize rural development as a main
policy focus in South Africa in order for wildlife and humans both to be the benefactors, rather than
maintaining development as just another “part” of wildlife management benefitting mainly wildlife.
92                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      ESIKURI, ENOS E., and D. F. STAUFFER. Assessment of elephant damage and mitigation
options in Amboseli Basin, Kenya. Environment Department, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20433 USA (EEE); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA (DFS).
       The objective of this study was to assess the effects of elephant (Loxodonta africana) foraging
in nonpark areas of Kenya’s premier tourism site, Amboseli Basin. Between June 1996 and July 1997,
we used qualitative interviews, Amboseli National Park (Kenya Wildlife Service [KWS]) Occurrence
Book (OB) records, area-based sampling, and direct monetary evaluation to assess elephant damage to
farmers and livestock herders in the basin. Damage categories considered were crop damage,
livestock deaths or injuries, and human deaths or injuries. During the 14- month study period, 457
crop damage incidents, 12 human deaths and injuries, and 20 livestock deaths by elephants were
recorded and verified. We estimated rates of elephant damage to be 1.1 crop raids per day, 1 human
death per 4.7 months, 1 human injury per 1.6 months, and 1 livestock casualty every 21 days. Higher
crop raiding frequencies coincided with periods of low (i.e., #10 mm) monthly rainfall, while
livestock and human casualties did not show any specific temporal patterns. The total uncompensated
financial cost of elephant damage to the locals was assessed at US$191, 64 for the 14-month time
period. The official KWS OB records significantly under-reported the monthly damage incidents
compared to our study (n = 14; mean of difference = 24.7 incidents/month; t = 5.8; P < 0.0001).
Inadequacy of official damage information and current mitigation options lead us to conclude that
elephant damage presents a significant cost to local subsistence in nonpark areas of Amboseli.
      FÄLT, PEDER, and TOMAS HERTZMAN. Restoration of Lake Hornborga in Sweden—an
asset for biodiversity and local community. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Lake
Hornborga Office, S 51298 Broddetorp, SWEDEN.
       The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has restored the Lake Hornborga, once
destroyed by extensive drainage to favor agriculture. The physical part of the restoration was executed
over the last 2 decades, becoming the biggest conservation project ever in Sweden. Some 1, 00 ha of
reed were destroyed and turned into shallow open water dominated by Chara, and 800 ha of forest
and bush were cut clear to be replaced by shallow water and grasslands. Water level was raised by 85
cm to maintain open water and to create 800 ha of semi-natural flooded grasslands skirting the lake.
Some 150 landowners eventually agreed on this project, and were financially compensated for the loss
of agricultural land. The primary goal of this project was to create a long-lasting habitat favoring
waders and waterfowl. Ducks and waders have shown a steady increase in their abundance since the
restoration took place. The black tern (Chlidonias nigra) and ruff (Philomachus pugnax) have started
to nest again. The black-necked grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) have increased from a few pairs to over
100 in 1997. The bittern (Botaurus stellaris) has also increased its numbers, in spite of a 1, 00-ha
decrease in reed area. Initially, the local community reacted negatively to the lake restoration project.
Today the lake is visited by 250, 00 visitors annually and several small enterprises have established
themselves. The lake plays an important role in the local economy and has become the “soul of the
landscape.”
     FARAGÓ, SÁNDOR. Hungarian waterfowl monitoring. Hungarian Waterfowl Research
Group, Institute of Wildlife Management, University of Sopron, H-9400 Sopron, Ady E.u.5.
HUNGARY.
       The author presents the Hungarian Waterfowl Monitoring (HWM) and the Hungarian
Waterfowl Information System providing professional and scientific bases for decisions needed to
execute the Hungarian Waterfowl Management Plan elaborated according to the AEWA (Agreement
on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds). Sources of the Hungarian Waterfowl
Database are the following: observations performed by the HWM covering 48 species and being
carried on at 52 sites; Coordinator, Hungarian Waterfowl Research Group, Institute of Wildlife
Management, University of Sopron; data processing executed by Hungarian Game Management
Database, referring to waterfowl bags; Coordinator, Department of Game Biology and Management,
93                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



University of Agricultural Sciences, Gödöllö. The presentations are followed by statements
concerning each of the species regarding stock size (Hungary total); stock dynamics (Hungary total);
territorial dispersion of each species; dynamics characteristic of the individual sites of observations;
and on the basis of maximum numbers of various species at the respective sites, designation of areas
bearing international importance according to Ramsar 3C Criteria. The poster deals with the role of
various species and guilds played in the waterfowl communities of the selected sites. The order of
rank of observed waterfowl species as well as the dynamics of the order shows clearly whether
species declared huntable are really those with highest numbers. In the report, international
significance of each site is defined according to Ramsar 3C Criteria. Climatic conditions of the
observed period are assessed, and based on them, conclusions are drawn for the dynamics of species
as well as for the development of the ratios of various groups of waterfowl. The latter ratios have been
defined by making a comparison between the respective groups. According to the information drawn
from the Waterfowl Database, the Hungarian Waterfowl Research Group (Institute of Wildlife
Management, University of Sopron) submits professional proposals to the competent authorities
(Department of Game Management and Fishery of Ministry of Agriculture and Country Development,
Hungarian Nature Conservation Bureau).
      FARIA, ANA M., SÓNIA M. FERREIRA, JOSÉ V. VINGADA, ALBERTO J. FERREIRA,
and AMADEU M. V. M. SOARES. Comparison of roe deer and red deer diets in Portugal. Instituto
do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3049 Coimbra
PORTUGAL (AMF, SMF, AJF, AVMS); Departamento de Zoologia Universidade do Minho, 3049
Braga PORTUGAL (JVV).
       The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has high nutritional needs due to the high ratio between its
metabolism and small size. This fact is responsible for its high food selectivity. In contrast, the red
deer (Cervus elaphus) is a generalist, since it has a lower metabolism rate and can feed on lower
quality plants. Our study has been conducted on 2 populations of roe deer and red deer in Portugal:
natural populations in Lombada-Montesinho Natural Park (40 10` N, 8 10` W; 300-1204 m altitude)
and introduced populations in Lous Mountain (41 50’N, 6 30’W; 500-1073 m altitude). Both areas
are mixed oak-pine forest with an important cover of shrubs. The aim of this work was to determine
differences between the diet of these 2 cervids. Data were obtained using fecal analysis and samples
were collected during 1996–97 in both areas. Red deer diet was based on shrubs throughout the year,
grasses in all seasons except in summer, and dicotyledon trees in summer and autumn. Roe deer fed
mostly on shrubs and dicotyledon trees during all seasons. Although grasses were important in red
deer diets, grass consumption by roe deer was very low in most of the seasons.
       FIELD, REBECCA, and SÁNDOR CSÁNYI. Wildlife and people in suburbs: a comparison of
history, ecology, and management on 2 continents. Massachusetts Cooperative Fish and Wildlife
Research Unit, U.S. Geological Survey, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003-4220 USA (RF);
Department of Wildlife Biology and Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gödöllö,
HUNGARY (SC).
       Increasing conflicts between wildlife and people are becoming an internationally shared
management problem. In this paper we compare Hungary and 5 states in New England, U.S.,
(Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) for problems, resolutions,
and management strategies of suburban wildlife. Both areas are similar in size (about 90, 00 sq km
each) and population (about 11 million). They share increasing conflicts between people and wildlife
as suburban development moves further into wildlife habitat and wild animals adapt to human
habitations. Yet the 2 areas differ significantly in management policies, strategies, and history. In
New England, wildlife-human interactions have been part of the public experience and management
programs for decades, whereas in Hungary the general public became interested in these issues only
a few years ago. The objectives of this paper are to (1) compare the types of wildlife conflicts that are
encountered in the 2 areas, and their historical patterns; (2) describe the methods used to resolve these
conflicts; and (3) outline a conceptual model for suburban wildlife management that includes wildlife
ecology, management strategies, as well as social and public concerns. Application of the model will
94                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



be demonstrated with examples of management for 2 suburban carnivores: raccoons (Procyon lotor)
in New England and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. The conceptual model and comparative
information from this paper will be useful for managers in many countries in designing management
of wildlife conflicts in suburban environments.
     FILLI, FLURIN, ASTRID SCHUSTER, and K. ROBIN. A GIS-based method for assessment
of songbird distribution in the Swiss National Park. Swiss National Park, CH-7530 Zernez,
SWITZERLAND (FF); Berchtesgaden National Park, Doktorberg 6, D-83471 Berchtesgaden,
GERMANY (AS); habitat, Im Freudmoos, CH-8730 Uznach (KR) SWITZERLAND.
       Between 1992 and 1994, songbirds in the Swiss National Park were registered along a transect
following marked footpaths. In strictly protected zones such as the Swiss National Park, where access
is restricted to designated paths and many areas are only accessible with difficulty, it is barely
possible to draw up an overall map of animal distribution. Forty-nine species of songbirds were
registered. Registrations were checked against counts made within selected grids. The same spectrum
of species was recorded. The estimation of potential habitat based on a landscape model with
vegetation units using a Geographical Information System produced good results. This method proved
efficient in the case of most species, such as the coal tit (Parus ater) whose habitat can be described
using vegetation units. In very few cases, such as the grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), whose habitat
depends not only on the type of vegetation but also the combination of water and rocks, results
differed from the potential habitat forecast. Based on the potential habitats, long-term observation
areas were established. The predicted numbers of species were confirmed within these areas.
      FINCH, DEBORAH M. Tracking ecosystem health by monitoring stopover habitat use, rate of
fat deposition, and insect foods of migratory landbirds. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
Research Station, 2205 Columbia SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 USA.
       Migrant use of stopover sites, migrant fat condition, and rate of fat deposition were evaluated
along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, from 1994 to 1998 using constant effort mist-netting at
2 banding stations. Comparisons of habitat use in riparian ecosystems revealed that the quality of
stopover habitats, as indexed by rate of fat deposition, length of stopover, and abundance of insect
supplies, varied by vegetation type, time of year, and by bird species, sex, and age. Some habitats
such as edges and agricultural fields may serve as “sinks” for immature migrants based on low rates
of fat deposition and longer periods of stopover. Channel habitats having a delayed mowing schedule
were more frequently used as stopover habitats by the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher
(Empidonax traillii extimus) than many other habitat types. Habitats invaded by exotic plant species
were used by some bird species and avoided by others. In conclusion, changes in habitat and
ecosystem health over time can be monitored by measuring health indicators of migrating birds using
constant effort mist-netting.
      FIN- -O, SLAVOMÍR, PAUL PAQUET, GÜNTHER BLOCH, BARBARA CHOVANCOVÁ,
and PETER KRIð AN. Wolf movements and home ranges in the Slovak Carpathians. Forest
Research Institute, T.G. Masaryka 22, 960 92 Zvolen, SLOVAKIA (FS); John/Paul & Associates,
Box 128, Meachem SK, S0K 2V0 CANADA (PP); Society for the Protection of Wolves, Von-
Golstein-Strasse 1, 53902 Bad Münstereifel, GERMANY (GB); Tatry National Park, 05960
Tatranská Lomn ca, SLOVAKIA (BC); P.P. Box 1977, Marathon, ON, P0T 2E0 CANADA (PK).
       We describe the movements, home range size and activity patterns of the European wolf (Canis
lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Slovak Carpathians. Data were obtained from 2 protected regions in
central Slovakia, Nízke Tatry National Park (2, 50 km 2 ) and Tatry National Park (1, 87 km 2 ), which
were recolonized by wolves at the end of the 1970s after previous eradication. In each study area we
monitored 1 pack with 1 radio-collared individual. The home range sizes during the time of greatest
wolf mobility (September to April) were 84 km 2 and 85 km 2 (95 % of fixes) in the Low Tatras and
High Tatras respectively. During the denning and pup-raising season (mid-April to September), the
Low Tatras pack inhabited an area of 48 km 2 . The territories of wolves living in the high mountains
of the Tatras with high forest cover are amongst the smallest described in the literature. Movements
95                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



within the home range were especially influenced by the distribution of red deer, which is the main
prey species with a population density reaching 30–40 per 1, 00 ha. In addition to this source of food,
wolves also searched for entrails left by human hunters, baits left for bears in winter, and occasionally
sheep on summer pastures.
     FISCHER, FRAUKE, and K. EDUARD LINSENMAIR. Overhunting and the territorial system
of kob antelope. Theodor Boveri Institut für Biowissenschaften, Zoologie III, Biozentrum, Am
Hubland 97074 Würzburg, GERMANY.
       The territorial system of kob antelopes (Kobus kob kob) in the Comoé National Park, Côte
d´Ivoire, was studied from March 1993 until April 1997. Since poaching was tremendous, ever
increasing and ubiquitous, leading to a dramatic decline in the population density of kobs, we
hypothesized that this in turn influenced the territorial system of the studied population. We
investigated type of territorial system, size and spatial stability of territories, duration of territory
tenure, frequency of fights, and percentage of adult males holding a territory. Whereas size and shape
of territories remained constant between 1993 and 1994, the number of territories decreased from
1994 onwards as well as the spatial stability of the remaining territories. Whereas a lekking system
was present in the study area prior to 1975, when the population density was approximately 14.4
kobs/km 2, males switched to the resource-defense territorial system present today after the population
density decreased to 12.5/km 2 in 1993 and finally to 2.3/km 2 in 1997. Compared to other research
areas with higher population densities, territories in the Comoé National Park are larger, almost all
adult males are capable to defend a territory, fights over territories are rare, and loss of territory tenure
is almost exclusively due to the death of the territorial male. We suggest that those differences can all
be related to the low population density in the study area. The decline of kob numbers is the result of
heavy poaching in the study area.
      FISCHER, IRENE G., and ILSE STORCH. Capercaillie and woodpeckers as indicators in
alpine forests: applications and limitations as conservation tools. Munich Wildlife Society, Linderhof
2, D-82488 Ettal, GERMANY.
       The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is widely regarded as an indicator species of an intact old
forest community in central Europe. The objective of this paper is to show that conservation efforts
aimed at improving capercaillie habitat may also benefit woodpeckers, especially the black
woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) and three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus). We compared
capercaillie and woodpecker habitat requirements in the Bavarian Alps at both larger and smaller
spatial scales. All 3 species used late successional forest stages, but required different requisites
within this habitat; e.g., capercaillie prefer feeding on bilberry, whereas woodpeckers require insect-
infested dead timber and large trees for building their nest cavities. Our results suggest that
management for capercaillie habitat requirements at multiple scales also will provide for the habitat
needs of woodpeckers. We maintain that the use of capercaillie as an indicator species is justifiable, as
long as management measures provide for species-specific requirements of all target species, e.g.,
standing dead wood for woodpeckers.
      FITZHUGH, . LEE, REBECCA L. LEWISON, and STEVE P. GALENTINE. Identifying
individual pumas (Puma concolor) from tracks. Cooperative Extension, Department of Wildlife, Fish,
and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8751 USA (ELF, RLL, ;
USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, Sebastopol, CA 95472 USA (SPG).
      In a previous study using discriminant analysis, it seemed possible to distinguish among
individual pumas (Puma concolor) by using several measurements taken from their tracks. However,
the analysis was done using a small data set, not standardized except that there was only 1 observer,
and the tracks were known to be from different pumas. We have now enlarged the sample, identified
sources of variation inherent in the procedure, and identified the strongest, most independent
variables. Our procedures, done in the laboratory using simulated tracks, used measurements (1) taken
by hand from acetate tracings and (2) obtained from computerized image processing. The study
continues, but we are confident now that we can distinguish 80–90% of individuals based on track
96                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



tracings. This technique can be used in radio-tracking studies to determine whether tracks found are
from 1 of the collared pumas, and may be used in track surveys to help identify which tracks are from
different animals. It also may have utility in identifying the offending animal in depredation or human
attack situations where the trail cannot be followed by dogs from the site of the offense.
      FORD, PAULETTE L. Fire and ecosystem dynamics in shortgrass steppe. Rocky Mountain
Research Station, 2205 Columbia SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 USA; University of Arizona, School
of Renewable Natural Resources, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.
       Fire alters ecological factors at several scales, from physiological, nutrient, and population
dynamics, to species diversity. My objective was to determine short-term effects of fire season on
herbaceous cover and community structure of small mammals in shortgrass steppe. I randomly
assigned treatments (dormant-season fire = April, growing-season fire = July, and no fire) to 12 2-ha
plots (n = 4). Two months after the initial fire, herbaceous cover did not differ (P = 0.177) between
dormant-season fires and unburned plots. Five months after dormant-season fire, and 2 months after
growing-season fire, grass cover did not differ between treatments (P = 0.217). The following month,
grass cover associated with growing-season fires was lower than cover in the other 2 treatments
(P = 0.008). Mammal species richness was inversely related to cover, such that richness associated
with growing-season fires exceeded (P = 0.0028) that of other treatments in October. Reduced grass
cover resulting from growing-season fires may have contributed to increased habitat heterogeneity,
and concomitant higher species richness of mammals. Management implications are discussed.
     FORSYTH, DAVID M. Measuring the abundance of Himalayan tahr in the Southern Alps,
New Zealand: density or group size? Centre for Biodiversity Research, Department of Zoology,
University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, CANADA.
       Introduced Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) are a serious conservation pest in the
Southern Alps of New Zealand, and management centers on mitigating their impacts on indigenous
flora. A management plan prescribes threshold densities (termed “intervention densities”) of tahr
(number of tahr/km 2 ) at which official control will be initiated. Tahr populations are monitored by
annual counts at sites spread throughout the breeding range, and the density of tahr is calculated for
each site by dividing the number of tahr observed by the area searched. However, since the
calculation of density is a function of the area searched, there has frequently been confusion as to
whether some populations really have exceeded the intervention density, and hence whether control
was required. Because tahr are group living and patchily distributed, the use of density as a measure
of abundance is likely to underestimate their impact on indigenous flora. It is shown that group size is
a less ambiguous and thus more defensible method of measuring the abundance of tahr in New
Zealand. Furthermore, group size is likely to be a more accurate indicator of actual vegetation
modification, the minimization of which is the ultimate goal of management. The need for
unambiguous indicators of abundance for the mitigation of wildlife damage is highlighted.
      FRANKLIN, ALAN B. Exploring ecological relationships in survival and estimating rates of
population change using program MARK. Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,
Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
USA.
       Some recent advances in the theory and application of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture
models include (1) incorporation of individual covariates into the capture-recapture modeling process
to estimate survival, and (2) estimating the finite rate of population change (8) from a single capture-
history matrix. The first advance allows for the exploration of ecological relationships between
individual characteristics and survival that have a direct bearing on estimating individual fitness. For
example, morphological characteristics of individuals can be explicitly modeled in the capture-
recapture framework. In addition, the use of individual covariates can be extended to habitat
relationships, at least for territorial species, where individual covariates are habitat variables
associated with territories where individuals reside. The second advance allows for estimation of
population rates of change directly from a single capture-history matrix. In program MARK,
97                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



population rates of change based on capture-recapture data can be modeled with time-dependency or
as a function of external covariates, such as weather. These concepts will be exemplified with a case
study on the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) in the USA.
     FUISZ, TIBOR I., and ANDRÁS BÁLDI. Comparison of predation of red-backed shrike nests
and artificial nests. Animal Ecology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Hungarian Natural History Museum, H-1088 Budapest, Baross u. 13., HUNGARY.
       Breeding success parameters of a population of red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) was
monitored for 5 years in the Buda Hills in northern Hungary. Several parameters of the bushes used
for nesting (height, width, and distance from nearest neighbor nest, distance from nearest bush) were
compared with randomly chosen bushes. Light intensity metering was carried out both at the location
of nests and at random points within the nest bush and in the random bushes to test the importance of
nest concealment. These comparisons revealed that shrikes selected larger bushes, and darker sites of
the nesting bushes were chosen for nesting. Based on these results, 3 sets of artificial nests with
a quail egg and a plasticine egg were placed on bushes in the same study area. First, 60 artificial nests
were placed inside the bushes at concealed places in the bushes, then the nests were placed in a more
open, exposed location in the same bush. In the final trial, we placed eggs painted orange into these
open nests, and half of the nests were treated with egg yolk to increase their olfactory consciousness.
These comparisons showed that a greater number of open nests were predated than concealed ones,
and the highest rate of predation was detected in the case of open nests with painted eggs (G-test,
Gadj = 23.43, P < 0.01). We conclude that high predation rates of natural nests forced shrikes to select
large, dark nest bushes, where they can effectively hide their nests, and hence might reduce the chance
of being predated.
       GALHANO ALVES, JOAO P. Of large carnivores and men—two different realities: rural
societies and tigers in the Sariska Tiger Reserve (Rajasthan, India); rural societies and wolves in the
Montesinho Natural Park (north-east of Portugal). Laboratoire d'Ecologie Humaine et
d'Anthropologie, Faculté de Droit et de Science Politique, Université de Droit, d'Economie et des
Sciences d'Aix-Marseille, Pavillon de Lanfant, 346 Route des Alpes, 13100 Aix-en-Provence,
FRANCE.
       Humanattitudes towards wildlife are diverse and change from civilization to civilization. One
of the best indicators of the relationship of a culture with its environment is the attitude it has towards
large carnivores. Legal protection of large carnivores may be useless if the human population has
a destructive relationship with them. The relationships of European and Indian rural people with
wolves (Canis lupus) and tigers (Panthera tigris) give a good picture of these concepts. Portuguese
Montesinho’s people used to see wolves as a pest, having persecuted the species for centuries. Wolves
survived thanks to the region’s natural features, which made their extermination difficult. Presently
the species has a good chance of survival as the human population is decreasing and forest and wild
herbivores are occupying former agricultural areas. Sariska’s Indian villagers have a completely
different attitude towards large carnivores. By a complex of empirical ecological knowledge and
cultural attitudes, villagers respect wildlife and never kill tigers. Their production systems are well
integrated with the environment. However, such a humanized ecosystem and its tigers are endangered
by external factors, because the Reserve’s area is relatively small. The long-term solution could be the
restoration of the surrounding habitats. But some entities propose the relocation of some of the
Reserve’s villages. Paradoxical things are happening: in Montesinho, where people used to have
a destructive relationship with wildlife, wolves may survive; in Sariska, where people used to respect
wildlife, both tigers and traditional societies are endangered. Things could happen differently.
      GENGHINI, MARCO, and GUIDO MARIA BAZZANI. How to evaluate economic measures
to improve wildlife habitats in agricultural land. A model applied to the Italian situation. Istituto
Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica (National Wildlife Institute), via Ca’ Fornacetta, 9, Ozzano Emilia,
Bologna, ITALY (MG); Centro di Studio sulla Gestione dei Sistemi Agricoli e Territoriali CNR Via
Filippo Re, 10 40126 Bologna, ITALY (GMB).
98                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       This paper presents results of a survey on wildlife habitat improvement measures applied in
4 Italian regions (Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna in the north, Toscana in the center and Puglia in
the south) by the national (L. 157/92) and regional wildlife and hunting laws during 1995–98.
Questionnaires were sent to public administrations, parks, natural reserves, hunting territories, and
private operators. Interviews were also conducted with public administrators and private operators.
Interesting and important differences were found within regions and provinces in the administrative,
financial, and technical procedures followed to involve farmers in the implementation of habitat
improvement measures. To evaluate the different incentive schemes, we compare the performances of
the surveyed provinces applying a multi-criteria approach. Different fuzzy and no fuzzy multi-
attribute techniques are used. The efficiency of different policies were evaluated using quantitative
parameters such as hectares and farmers involved, money spent, implementation time, percentage of
funds used, etc., and qualitative parameters that take into account environmental and wildlife
purposes, such as number, heterogeneity, complexity, fragmentation of different measures applied,
number of qualified technicians per areas, administrative level of incentive schemes, etc. Parameters
are used to construct the valuation function that is tested by the final comparison of partial and
complete ranking. Results show a good fitness of the methodology to the case study. Provinces are
ranked consistently to other empiric evaluations. A discussion on parameter choice to the valuation
function and on the assessment method applied is finally developed.
      GIACOMETTI, MARCO, and MARTIN JANOVSKY. Diseases shared by domestic and wild
Caprinae-species in the European Alps: importance and conflict management. Centre for Fish and
Wildlife Health, University of Berne, Länggassstrasse 122, CH-3012 Berne, SWITZERLAND.
       Many infectious agents can infect more than 1 host, and their numbers exceed those of 1-host
agents. Extension of host range is facilitated by the presence of various closely related hosts in the
same area such as domestic sheep (Ovis ammon f. dom.), domestic goat (Capra aegagrus f. dom.),
chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra), and ibex (Capra ibex ibex). In the European Alps, transfer
of various infectious agents occurs between domestic and wild Caprinae-species. In this context,
diseases of actual importance are contagious ecthyma, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, brucellosis,
pasteurellosis, foot rot, caseous lymphadenitis, paratuberculosis, sarcoptic mange, and several
nematodes found in the gastrointestinal tract and in the respiratory system. In other cases, such as
maedi-visna, caprine arthritis-encephalitis, and contagious agalactiae, presence of disease in wild
Caprinae has not been reported yet, suggesting transmission barriers and/or differences in
susceptibility. Epidemiological information is often weak, and it is not clear if more than 1 host
species maintains the infection. In some cases (e.g., a sporadic occurring epidemic of
meningoencephalitis diagnosed recently in chamois and ibex in the Swiss Alps), not even the
etiological agent is identified. This deficit of knowledge may lead to conflicts between different
groups of interest (e.g., between shepherds and hunters), and disease control is therefore unrealizable
because of a lack of collaboration. Under certain circumstances, intervention may be necessary to
improve health status of domestic and wild populations. However, research in eco-pathology should
be intensified. Interdisciplinary cooperation is the most efficient means of studying such phenomena,
but communication between groups of interest is important for disease control.
       GLITZNER, IRENE, and FRIEDRICH HEINZ VOELK. Freeway passageways and big game
mobility. Institute for Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien,
Peter Jordanstrasse 76, A-1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA.
       In Austria there is a lack of knowledge about the suitability of passageways for big game
species to cross the fenced 1, 00-km freeway network. To evaluate the ability for big animals to cross
these almost entirely fenced freeway barriers we selected existing “human passageways” and recorded
their location and construction and systematically analyzed the close surroundings (e.g., cover, next
settlements, roads, other barriers). In addition we recorded data about migratory activity of selected
target species (ungulates, especially red deer [Cervus elaphus]). Preliminary results indicate that
fenced freeways, mainly in eastern Austria, impose dispersal barriers for big game animals. Many of
the existing passageways perhaps were constructed inappropriately or located inconveniently for use
99                     Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



by large animals. The network of freeways creates a strong east-west barrier between the European
mountain ranges of the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. Present investigations show that it is
important to study details about historical migration routes prior to making decisions about
constructing and fencing of motorways or before choosing locations for subsequent game
passageways. The final report from this study will provide recommendations for the most efficient
placement and construction requirements for wildlife passageways.
      GONZALES, MARIA JOSE, and SERGIO MIDENCE. Wildlife use in Central America:
a look at traditional and contemporary approaches. Fideicomiso para la Conservacion en Guatemala,
Ruta 7 6-42, Zona 4, Torre 6-42 Oficina 201, Guatemala City, GUATEMALA (MJG); Avenida Jerez,
Barrio La Ronda, Calle Salvador Corleto No. 1336, Frente a Colegio Minerva, Tegucigalpa,
HONDURAS (SM).
       Although Central America is a small portion of land, it is of enormous ecological importance
due to its geographical position, geological origin, and topography. It has high biological diversity.
Different indigenous groups have lived along the Central American isthmus, and presently 7 countries
are located in this small area; this has given rise to various cultures, traditions, and ways of using
natural living resources. Besides traditional uses, modern commercial utilization of different species
and ecosystems is now in play. It is estimated that most uses, or the largest diversity of uses of natural
living resources, is done by traditional means, at a personal, family, or community level. At first
glance, Central America is but a narrow strip of land, holding together North and South America as
a single continent. While its geographic extension may seem unimpressive when compared to the
gigantic adjacent landmasses, the role it has played in the geological past accounts for its enormous
biological wealth. In roughly 500, 00 km 2, that is, one-fourth of the area of Mexico or a little over 5%
of the area of the United States, it harbors more life-forms than North America and Europe combined.
The area’s cultural diversity rivals the region’s biological richness, and the conservation efforts of the
past 3 decades encountered challenges under these conditions. While it may seem imperative to
support the relatively recent sustainable use initiatives, most plans for the region’s future have to be
built on its past and traditions. A broad range of field work has proven that whereas the term
sustainable use may seem a relatively recent tendency in the conservation community, it already was
a resource management technique in this region over 1, 00 years ago. And while the concept requires
no in-depth explanation in most isolated rural communities in Central America, it is being rapidly
displaced by an alarming growth of population, and the industrialized resource harvest means required
to satisfy their needs. Any attempt to support the survival of this region’s biological wealth will have
to be based on the deep-rooted cultural background.
     GOYAL, S. P., and S. K. MUKHERJEE. Development and strengthening wildlife forensics—a
new facet of wildlife management in Southeast Asia. Wildlife Institute of India, P.O. Box 18,
Chandrabani, Dehra Dun, INDIA.
      Development and strengthening wildlife forensics in Southeast Asia is essential for proper
implementation of the Wildlife Protection Act. This paper describes initiatives undertaken to develop
and strengthen this new facet of wildlife management at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). We
aimed to develop this new field by collecting information on the extent of wildlife trade, establish
a repository of reference samples, standardize techniques to identify species from the biological
products, and prepare a perspective plan. Information published in the newspapers (n = 360) during
1992–95 and wildlife offence cases (n = 121) referred to WII revealed a need for developing forensic
techniques for identifying species based on morphometry and serology. Of the materials received
under wildlife offence cases at WII, 94% of the samples required identifying species based on
morphometry and most of the samples were of hair, skin, claws, antler, musk pod, and bone. Among
the hair samples (n = 239), 40% of the samples were of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). We
discuss hair characteristics and simple field criteria to distinguish wool samples of Tibetan antelope
from other species. Techniques were standardized to identify various tiger parts such as skin, bone,
and claws and how to differentiate from fake products. Radiography and measurements were used to
recognize tiger and leopard claws. We review the work of a study undertaken on musk pods and
100                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



bones of wild animals using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence techniques. A computer-based
consulting system was developed to identify species based on hair structure. Problems faced are
nonavailability and unusual delay in procuring reference samples, lack of proper preservation of
biological samples, and paucity of funds for establishing infrastructure facility.
      GOYAL, S. P., B. SINHA, and N. SHAH. Rann of Kutch—the only protected area for
conservation of the endangered Indian wild ass. Wildlife Institute of India, P.O. Box 18, Chandrabani,
Dehra Dun, INDIA.
       The wild population of the endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus heminous khur) is confined to
the Wild Ass Sanctuary of about 4, 00 km 2 in western India. More than half of the area is flat salt land
devoid of any vegetation. The wild ass population had widely fluctuated from about 4, 00 in 1946 to
a minimum of 360 in 1967. A recent census has reported around 2, 00 individuals. For long-term
conservation of the subspecies, a viable population of 5, 00 individuals has been suggested by the
Equid Action Plan. This would in part depend on how conservation efforts are effective under
changing land use patterns and large developmental projects. The wild Ass Sanctuary has at present
no legal status due to administrative reasons. Major problems identified thus far are grazing by
migrant livestock, collection of fuel wood, consumption of pods of an exotic mesquite (Prosopis
juliflora) by livestock, and increasing salt farming inside the sanctuary. Grazing by thousands of
migrant livestock from arid and semi-arid areas is a major threat and forage biomass has decreased by
2–3 times. Palatable grass species have been replaced by unpalatable species such as Aristida spp.
Among most favored plant species by the wild ass (n = 21), around 60% are also used by cattle and
sheep. This has caused an increase in wild ass-human conflict. Some of these disturbances occur
during late gestation period of the wild ass. A major proposed developmental project, which threatens
the survival of the species, is bringing prime habitat into command for irrigation under the Sardar
Sarovar Project. We discuss reintroduction of the Indian wild ass in the Thar Desert to ensure long-
term survival.
        GRANADOS, J. E., R. C. SORIGUER, M. C. PEREZ-ALVARADO, P. FANDOS,
F. MARQUEZ, J. GARCIA, and J. M. PEREZ. Updating conservation strategies: an example
illustrated by the endemic Spanish ibex and the Sierra Nevada National Game Reserve (southern
Spain). Department of Animal and Plant Biology and Ecology, Jaén University, E-23071, Jaén,
SPAIN (JEG, MCP-A, JG, JMP); Estación Biológica Do ana (CSIC), P.O. Box 1056, E-41013,
Sevilla, SPAIN (RCS, FM); Adecuación Ambiental, Almadén, 15, E-28014, Madrid, SPAIN (PF).
       The Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is an endemic mountain ungulate of the Iberian Peninsula.
Fossil remains demonstrate a wide past distribution. Since the Middle Ages, an intensive harvest of
this species, together with habitat transformation, lead to a reduction of its range and a decline of
many populations, to the point of extinction in the beginning of this century for some populations.
Within this context, a conservationist policy based on the creation of a National Game Reserve system
was initiated in the 1950s. This strategy also involved other wild ungulate species, such as roe
(Capreolus capreolus), fallow (Dama dama), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The main objective was
(and still is) to increase the population numbers and production of trophy males, which have been
systematically harvested. Thirty years after creating the Sierra Nevada National Game Reserve, the
ibex population of the Sierra Nevada mountain range has reached a high density (>11 ibex/km 2 ). In
addition, both sex ratio and age structure are unbalanced, with young males and old females being the
most abundant sectors of the population. When we analyze the different population indexes in detail,
we conclude that a new conservation strategy is needed. Therefore, we suggest some management
actions for this ibex population.
      GRANT, A. JOY. Future of ecotourism—repeating the Tragedy of the Commons? Executive
Director, Programme for Belize, 1 Eyre Street, Belize City, BELIZE.
       Ecotourism has been chosen by thousands of local communities in Latin America as their
preferred development tool. As a result, countries such as Belize, Costa Rica, and Ecuador are
experiencing rapid, and often unplanned growth in ecotourism in remote, rural areas. There is,
101                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



therefore, a high potential for negative impacts resulting from unplanned ecotourism. The question of
whether the future of ecotourism signals a repeat of the Tragedy of the Commons then comes to the
fore. To address this question, a summary will be given of issues related to the growth of ecotourism
in Belize, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. By providing specific examples of different approaches to
ecotourism used throughout Latin America, a response framework will be presented outlining the
emergent issues that need to be addressed in order to counter the negative impacts from unplanned
ecotourism.
     GRAY, ROBERT H. Education, outreach, and public involvement in environmental decision
making. 2867 Troon Ct., Richland, WA 99352 USA.
       The U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site was established in southeastern Washington
during the 1940s to produce plutonium during World War II. The Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle
was originally used by the U.S. Army for loading conventional ammunition shells and bombs, and
was rehabilitated and enhanced in the 1950s to assemble nuclear weapons using the plutonium
produced at Hanford. Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at both locations for several
decades. Monitoring objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of facility operations on air,
surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, wildlife, soils, and vegetation, and to determine population
status of key biological species. Concurrently, efforts to communicate the results of these efforts and
involve the public/stakeholders in environmental decisions have increased, using a broad spectrum of
communications media including technical articles (open literature and symposium publications,
annual, and topical reports); information brochures and fact sheets; video productions; interactive
exhibits; presentations at scientific, technical, civic, and other public meetings; and proactive
interactions with the news media, and with local, state, federal, and other agencies. In addition,
representatives of local communities now operate offsite environmental monitoring stations, Native
Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford, and
a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbors’ properties was implemented at the Pantex
Plant. All major environmental programs, such as the multi-year effort to reconstruct past radiological
doses to offsite human populations at Hanford, are conducted with open public participation, and both
sites have citizen’s advisory boards. This paper describes the Hanford and Pantex environmental
monitoring programs, the ensuing public outreach efforts, our successes and failures, and the lessons
learned.
       GROSSE, CHRISTINE, and PETRA KACZENSKY. The importance of ants as food for brown
bears in Slovenia. Linderhofer Str. 7, D-82488 Ettal, GERMANY.
       We investigated myrmecophagy in brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia and compared the
results with a similar study in Sweden. To calculate the biomass of available ants (Formicinae) we
conducted an ant survey on 52 randomly chosen plots. There we opened all dead wood with an axe
and turned all stones to search for ants on squares 50 x 50 m in size. Food habits of bears were
estimated based on the analyses of 174 scats from 1997 to 1998. All diet items were identified and the
percent volume of each food item was estimated visually. We used correction factors to consider the
differences in digestibility and nutritional value of different food items. In terms of assimilated
energy, meat, corn (from ungulate feeding places), and forbs were most important in spring. During
summer, corn, ants, and meat dominated. In autumn bears received most of their energy from ants,
corn, and fruit. The total estimated biomass of ants was 130 g/ha. The relation of the different species
available was Lasius: Myrmicinae: Serviformica: Formica: Camponotus = 55:34:7:3:1; the ratio found
in scats was 50:0:12:25:13. This shows a high preference for Camponotus and Formica. Even though
the availability of ants is about 75 times higher in Scandinavia than in Slovenia, the estimated dietary
content of ants found in scats is about the same size in Slovenia. Ants seem to be an important food
source for brown bears in Slovenia. This is in spite of a rather low availability and year-round access
to overabundant man- provided food sources.
102                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       GULA, ROMAN. Effect of snow depth on the hunting strategy of wolves (Canis lupus) on red
deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Bieszczady Mountains, Poland. Department of Wildlife Research,
Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, Kraków, POLAND.
       The study assessed the influence of snow depth on wolf killing pattern, over the winters of
1992–95. The sex, age, bone marrow fat content, carcass consumption, and the recovery site terrain
characteristics of 95 red deer (Cervus elaphus) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) were analyzed. Snow
conditions in Bieszczady during this study were milder than the multi-annual averages (total annual
snow depth: 2, 83 cm, average permanent snow cover: 104 days). There was no significant difference
in the age and sex structure of recovered preys in consecutive winters, or between early (November–
December) and late (January–March) winter. The majority of prey (82%) was found in so called
“terrain traps, i.e., creeks and steep ravines. Wolves killed deer in those “traps” with the same
frequency regardless of snow depth. Calves were killed in “traps” less frequently than could be
expected from the general proportion of calves among killed deer (P < 0.001). The average bone
marrow fat content was high in recovered prey (83.4%), and did not differ significantly between stags,
hinds, and calves. The bone marrow fat content of stags killed by wolves decreased with an increment
of snow depth in the period when an individual was killed (P < 0.005). Wolves had usually consumed
more than 60% of recovered prey. During periods of shallow snow cover, deer carcasses were
consumed to a higher degree than in periods of deep snow (P < 0.05). Thus, snow cover alters prey
selection and feeding behavior of wolves, even during winters with shallow snow.
      GUSTIN, MARCO, DARIO CAPIZZI, S. GELLINI, ALFONSO DE BERARDINIS, and
MARCO GENGHINI. Effects of organic agriculture on nesting bird communities in orchards of
northern Italy. Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, via Ca Fornacetta, 9, Ozzano Emilia,
Bologna, ITALY.
      We censused nesting bird communities in 60 different orchards in an intensively cultivated area
of northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna Region). The orchards (peach, apricot, kiwi, apple, and pear) were
characterized by different agricultural practices regarding the use of pesticides, i.e., conventional
(a = 26, total surface 149 ha), integrated (n = 19, total surface 187 ha) and organic (n = 15, total
surface 111 ha). We also collected environmental and structural data about the surveyed orchards. On
the whole, 23 bird species were collected. In both the conventional and integrated orchards, the
commonest birds were the granivorous species (63%; i.e., Carduelis chloris, Serinus serinus, and
Fringilla coelebes), whereas insectivorous ones (37%; i.e., Sylvia atricapilla, Sylvia melanocephala,
and Lanius collurio) were more abundant in the organic orchards. The age of the orchard (>10 years)
was also an important factor, as the oldest ones were more rich in terms of granivorous species. Peach
orchards were the most selected.
      HADIDIAN, JOHN M., MICHELE R. CHILDS, ROBERT H. SCHMIDT, LAURA J. SIMON,
and ANN W. CHURCH. Nuisance wildlife control laws, policies, and practices. The Humane Society
of the United States, 2100 L. St. NW, Washington, DC 20037 USA (JMH, AWC); Vermont
Legislative Council, State House, 115 State St., Montpelier, VT 05633 USA (MRC); Department of
Fisheries and Wildlife, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 USA (RHS); The Fund for Animals,
P.O. Box 5061, Woodbridge, CT 06525 USA (LJS).
       The rapid pace of urbanization in the United States has led to increasing conflicts between
people and wild animals in cities and towns. State and federal wildlife agencies have traditionally left
the resolution of these to individual initiative or for-profit businesses. The private nuisance wildlife
control industry has grown rapidly in the last 2 decades, and national firms with state franchises are
beginning to appear. Very few laws and regulations existed in the past to regulate human-wildlife
conflict resolution in urban areas, although with the privatization of wildlife control businesses and
public concern for the welfare of wild animals, this situation has recently been changing. We surveyed
all 50 states for information on how they regulate the nuisance wildlife control industry, and
conducted legal research to address questions concerning the origin and development of regulatory
controls. We document considerable variation in how different states approach the issue of human-
103                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



wildlife conflict resolution, which ranges from a virtual absence of control to strictly regulated
practices. These differences are discussed in a context that reflects on societal interests and priorities
in the United States. We project a course for the possible evolution of the existing body of law, given
the dynamic tensions that exist between the states, the nuisance wildlife control industry, and animal
protection interests.
      HALMOS, GERGÖ, and TIBOR CSÖRGÖ. Important refuelling site of waders in Tunisia.
Department of General Zoology, Eötvös Lóránd University, Puskin u.3., Budapest, H-1088,
HUNGARY.
        In this study we estimated the theoretical flight ranges of 2 species departing from the northern
part of the Tunisian coast. The study was carried out in 2 consecutive spring seasons (1996–97) on the
northeast cost of Cap Bone peninsula in Tunisia. Seven hundred and ninety-nine little stints (Calidris
minuta) and 516 curlew sandpipers (C. ferruginea) were caught, ringed, aged, measured and weighed.
Three categories were separated according to the wing length of both species. In the calculations we
used the formula of Castro and Myers (1989) which gives an estimate for the maximum flight range.
Departure mass was estimated from the mean body mass of the heaviest 10% of individuals, arrival
mass at the new area was estimated from the mean of the leanest 10% of individual. A flight speed of
60 km/h and 75 km/h was used according to other studies. Arrival mass, departure mass, and flight
ranges were compared between years and size groups. In 1997, the arrival mass of both species in all
size categories was smaller than in 1996. The departure mass of little stints was similar between years
in all size groups, but it was smaller in the first and second size categories of the curlew sandpiper in
1997 than in 1996. The flight range estimations calculated with both flight speeds were long
distances, the shorter ones are enough to reach the Baltic area, the longer ones to reach the north
coastline of Russia. The estimated flight ranges were longer for the curlew sandpiper in both years
and all categories except the smallest size category of 1997. Our flight range estimates show that at
the study site these species accumulate enough fat to cover the distance to their breeding grounds in
North Europe through the Mediterranean Sea and the suboptimal habitats of continental Europe in
a single “jump.” We conclude that the study area is a very important refuelling site for these 2 species
between inhospitable areas.
       HARESTAD, ALTON S., and GLENN D. SUTHERLAND. Dispersal by mammals and habitat
fragmentation. Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive,
Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 CANADA (ASH); Centre for Applied Conservation Biology, University of
British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 CANADA (GDS).
       Our objectives are to examine dispersal by mammals and provide empirical estimates useful for
assessing habitat fragmentation and planning forest landscapes. We collated movement data from
published literature and derive allometric relationships. Distributions of distances that mammals
disperse have similar shapes, when standardized for scale, and fit a negative exponential function. The
median and maximum distances that species disperse depend on body mass and trophic type: large
mammals move farther than small mammals, and carnivores move farther than herbivores. These
allometric relationships provide dispersal parameters for landscape models that assess habitat
fragmentation. We examined species of forest-dwelling mammals that occupy different forest types in
British Columbia and assess their vulnerability to fragmentation based on their dispersal capability.
Theoretical treatments of dispersal in most landscape models do not match scales relevant to many
species. For a landscape to be fragmented, it must diminish the probability of individuals moving
between fragments within a specified period. This probability varies depending on distance, body
mass, and trophic type. Besides fragmentation, managers should consider processes occurring within
the matrix between fragments. The proportion of individuals dispersing a particular distance depends
on the survivorship of dispersing animals as they travel through the matrix between habitat fragments.
In forest landscapes modified by logging, managers could increase cover and maintain structural
resources in cut blocks. By maintaining suitable cover in cut blocks, survivorship of dispersing
individuals could increase and enhance dispersal between fragments. Appropriate silvicultural
104                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



practices in the matrix between forest fragments could reduce the vulnerability of species to habitat
fragmentation.
     HARRISON, SCOTT. Using large-scale treatments to examine the effects of landscape
connectivity on wildlife population dynamics. Centre for Applied Conservation Biology, University
of British Columbia, 852 Wellington Drive, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7K 1K7
CANADA.
       It is useful to distinguish between the effects of habitat configuration and the effects of habitat
loss when examining wildlife population dynamics. The level of connectivity in the landscape is an
aspect of habitat configuration that can influence the importance of inter-patch effects (as compared to
intra-patch effects) as animals attempt to disperse among patches. I studied the effects of landscape
connectivity on the demographics of spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis) in the sub-boreal
forests of British Columbia, Canada. These tetronids live year-round in the structurally complex
conifer forests. I examined 2 treatments, low connectivity and medium connectivity, in an extensively
logged, 450, 00-ha study area. I radio-tagged all spruce grouse within 4 100-ha medium connectivity
sites, and 4 100-ha low connectivity sites. Medium connectivity treatments were 100-ha patches of
uncut forest within a matrix of 60- to 300-ha clearcuts. Low connectivity sites were 100-ha patches of
uncut forest within a matrix of 1, 00- to 55, 00-ha clearcuts. For 2 years I monitored reproductive
parameters, survival rates, movement, and juvenile dispersal year-round for 175 individuals in the
4 medium and 4 low connectivity treatments. Annual survival was higher in the medium connectivity
treatments than in the low connectivity treatments for all age classes: adults (57% vs 45%), yearlings
(72% vs 47%), juveniles (65% vs 20%). These data indicate that there are significant biological costs
for animals living in areas of low connectivity. The low survival rate data for juveniles in low
connectivity treatments suggests that inter-patch effects associated with dispersal, rather than intra-
patch effects, may represent the principal cost of living in forest patches with low connectivity.
      HEGLUND, PATRICIA J., WILLIAM A. WALL, and CHRISTOPHER J. WILLIAMS.
Predicting habitat use and developing forest management guidelines for landbirds. Department of
Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 USA (PJH); Safari Club International,
441-E Carlisle Dr., Herndon, VA 20179 USA (WAW); Department of Statistics, University of Idaho,
Moscow, ID 83844 USA (CJW).
       We inventoried breeding songbirds in 5 different structural treatments forming a successional
gradient common to northern Idaho, USA. We observed patterns in the occurrence and abundance of
50 species recorded during 10-minute point-count surveys conducted 3–4 times during 3 breeding
seasons. Principal components analysis revealed a reasonably stable separation of 10 guild blocks that
were distributed across the range of forest conditions available. Predictive models were developed for
each guild block and applied to the entire study area. Point-count data were then collected from an
independent random sample of about 400 stands and the accuracy of model predictions was evaluated.
We examined the influence of environmental gradients on model performance and fine-tuned models
for use in developing forest management guidelines. Using the final models we then summarized
stand characteristics common to each guild block and developed management guidelines for the entire
region based on these groups. The resulting models were then applied to the area using GIS combined
with forest growth models as the region was theoretically managed over time (10, 30, 75 years).
Distributions of different forest structures were calculated and changes in predicted occurrence and
distribution of guild-blocks were tracked for each time period. Finally, we generalized stand-based
models to fit coarse-scale vegetation coverage and applied them to the entire 1-million-ha northern
Idaho region. The value of these predictions is that they now serve as a basis for discussion among
adjacent land managers about land management practices and landuse planning and their subsequent
impacts on forest songbirds.
     HÉNAULT, MICHEL, and JEAN HUOT. From the return of carcasses to ecosystem
management: the role of trappers in sustainable forest management. Faune et Parcs, 435 Panet, Mont-
105                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Laurier, Québec, J9L 2Z9, CANADA(MH); Université Laval, Département de biologie, Sainte-Foy,
Québec, G1K 7P4, CANADA (JH).
       In Quebec, a large proportion of the public lands is divided into territories where trappers lease
exclusive rights for trapping. This system has encouraged trappers to get involved in the management
and conservation of furbearers and their habitat. Since 1987, each trapper fills a logbook and many
have contributed to the collection of carcasses of several species for research and monitoring. This
voluntary participation supplied over 4, 00 specimens of marten (Martes americana) over a 3, 00-km
2 study area. Based on age, productivity, and condition analyses we tested the hypothesis that marten

productivity and fall fat reserves were influenced by hare (Lepus americanus) abundance, as this
species exhibited a complete 10-year cycle of abundance. Productivity and fat reserves were not
related to hare numbers; young-of-the-year (YOY) were consistently fatter than adults. Summer YOY
mortality appeared to be highly variable, ranging from 10% to 50%. Winter mortality for all ages
classes is approximately 40%, and harvest rates varied from 30% for YOY to less than 10% for adult
females. Locations were provided for 2, 00 traps, and these data were used to validate an habitat
suitability index (HSI) for marten. Using this HSI, trappers are now dealing with forest industry to
develop an acceptable scenario for logging while maintaining marten habitat. In this context, trapping
not only provides data and samples for ecological studies and monitoring of wild populations but it
also contributes to the conservation of habitat required for the conservation of a large diversity of
species.
     HERNANDEZPINTO,             LAURA        and     JUAN       CARLOS         FERNANDEZ
ALCANTARA.Sustainable developing projects for rural communities, in the integral reserve of the
“Montes Azules” Bioshpere, at the Lacandona Jungle, Chiapas, MEXICO. Calle 6a. Poniente Norte
NE 722 Centro 29000, Tuxtla Gtz. Chiapas, MEXICO.
       In this southern Mexico state, recent colonization of the high rainforest has the potential of
greatly impacting the biodiversity of the region. To protect the natural resources of the region to the
greatest extent possible, it is essential to understand the indigenous communities that live there. From
this cosmovision, the region and environment are analyzed. We can see 2 populations’ distribution
patterns, 1 along the border’s highway, where the ground is cleared off, for establishing the
agricultural parcels, and the other represented by the public lands and new population centers. This
change in the grounds usage has provoked microclimatic changes, and also has accelerated the erosion
process and pollution in lands, rivers and streams. The use of farming chemicals increases the loss of
local crops and cattle; all these processes lead toward the total forest’s destruction. We are landscape
architects making the development of a regional landscape our planning project, based on sustainable
concepts in time and space management.
       HERZIG, ALOIS. The littoral zone of a shallow lake: management measures and their impact
on fish. Biological Station, A-7142 Illmitz, AUSTRIA.
       In shallow lakes, the littoral zone forms a greater proportion of the total area than in deeper
lakes. In Neusiedler See, a shallow alkaline lake at the Austrian-Hungarian border, more than 50% of
the lake area is covered by reed. This zone is inhabited by most of the fish species present in
Neusiedler See. Stizostedion lucioperca and Gymnocephalus cernuus prevail along the ecotone reed-
open water. Blicca björkna show a clear preference for reed areas near the open-water zone or where
influence of open water is evident (turbidity). Deeper in the reeds, Rutilus rutilus and Scardinius
erythrophthalmus are the dominating species. In central reed zones (brown waters) Anguilla anguilla,
Carassius auratus gibelio, Pseudorasbora parva, and Lepomis gibbosus are common. There is a clear
quantitative difference between fish biomass in ecotone regions (reedfringe, channels, pools in
communication with the lake) and central reed zones. In 1997, fish biomass averaged 405 kg ha -1 at
ecotone plots compared to 67 kg ha -1 in the central reed zones. A. anguilla and C. gibelio contributed
to over 60% of this standing stock, Esox lucius, and Cyprinus carpio to 12%. There is a correlation
between fish abundance/biomass, water level, and oxygen conditions. Fluctuations of up to 50 cm in
water level (high in spring, low in late summer and autumn) may prevent water circulation between
106                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



the reed zone and the lake, resulting in the death of eventually trapped fishes. Oxygen is the next most
important factor influencing fish distribution in reedbeds. Optimum oxygen conditions only occur in
the reed-open water ecotone and where water exchange between open water and reed zone is frequent.
Oxygen is the limiting factor throughout late spring and summer in central reed zones.
       HIRSCHENHAUSER, KATHARINA, ERICH MOESTL, PETER PECZELY, BERNARD
WALLNER, and KURT KOTRSCHAL. Empirical validation of determining testosterone and
corticosterone from feces in domestic geese. Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle fuer Ethologie,
Auingerhof 11, A-4645 Gruenau im Almtal, AUSTRIA.
       We evaluated the non-invasive approach of determining steroid hormones from feces in the
domestic goose, a mainly herbivorous bird with a short gut passage time (2–3 hours). Questions were
whether and to what extent fecal steroid equivalents were correlated with systemic levels, or whether
hormone excretion remained constant over the year. At 3 seasons, spring, during peak reproductive
activity, summer, during molt and peak photorefractoriness, and in late fall, we challenged males
housed in groups, with injections of ACTH or GnRH or by the introduction of 2 unfamiliar males or
females. In all experiments, droppings were sampled over a day and, in case of the GnRH treatment,
blood samples were drawn in addition. Fecal samples were analyzed with EIA for testosterone (T) and
corticosterone (B) equivalents, plasma was analyzed for T with RIA. Variability of T in feces was 2–5
times higher than in plasma and fecal T or B peaks followed the plasma peak with 1–3 hours. Despite
its effect on plasma levels in all 3 seasons, GnRH significantly enhanced fecal T only in spring,
whereas ACTH produced significant increases in excreted B in all 3 seasons. However, significant
T and B excretion followed social stimulation even in fall. A majority of correlations between plasma
samples and feces within seasons and treatments remained insignificant, indicating low short-term
fidelity. We gratefully acknowledge the permanent support by the “Verein der Förderer der KLF.”
       HOHMAN, WILLIAM L., WAYNE NORLING, and CLINTON W. JESKE. Contributions of
private agricultural lands to waterbird conservation on the Gulf Coastal Plain. USDA/NRCS Wildlife
Habitat Management Institute, Iowa State University, 124 Science II, Ames, IA 50011 USA (WLH);
USGS-BRD National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 USA
(WN, CWJ)
        The Gulf Coastal Plain has traditionally provided habitat for millions of resident and migratory
birds. Human activities and natural processes contributing to loss and degradation of coastal marshes
and wet-prairies have substantially altered the landscape of the Gulf Coast and influenced habitat
availability for wetland-dependent species. Rice has been cultivated on the Gulf Coast since the late
19 th Century and is a major component of the contemporary landscape. Similar to other freshwater
habitats that are seasonally flooded, rice fields (also rotation crops) have high potential value for
wetland-dependent wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl (hereafter,
“waterbirds”). In support of agricultural and bird conservation partners in the Gulf Coast region, we
initiated this study to clarify relationships between farming practices and waterbird abundance and
diversity. Fifty survey routes were randomly distributed on Louisiana and Texas coastal plains in
proportion to the amount of rice grown in individual counties or parishes in 1994. More than 600
individual fields were monitored during the study. Biweekly counts of waterbirds observed in fields
(>600) within 200 m of roads were conducted from November through May, 1996–97 and 1997–98.
We recorded a minimum of 89 bird species (72 waterbirds and 17 raptors) during the study. Estimates
of waterbird use of private agricultural lands and management recommendations are presented based
on an analysis of waterbird responses to year, month or season, state, field size, percent field flooding,
crop rotation, duration of flooding, cover type, stature of cover, and disturbance.
      HORVÁTH, GYÔZÔ, VIOLA PINTÉR, and SÁNDOR KALMÁR. Changes in rodent
community structure in abandoned field habitat. Department of Ecology and Zoogreography, Faculty
of Sciences, Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6. H-7601 HUNGARY.
     The spatial and temporal changes in the rodent community of an abandoned field in the Dráva
Lowlands, South-Hungary were studied in 1997–98 on a 1-ha sampling grid of 121 live-traps.
107                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Trapping lasted from March until October in both years with monthly 5-night trapping sessions,
yielding data from 9, 80 trap nights. Five rodent species were recorded in both years, out of which 453
specimens of Microtus arvalis (Pallas), 373 Apodemus agrarius (Pallas), 151 A. flavicollis (Melchior),
130 A. sylvaticus (Linnaeus), 23 Mus spicilegus Petényi, and 6 Micromys minutus (Pallas) were
individually marked. Based on monthly samples, we used Simpson diversity to characterize changes
in the structure of the entire rodent community, the value of which exhibited a negative tendency in
the course of time (r = 0.66; P < 0.01), as a result of changes in relative frequencies. M. spicilegus and
M. minutus, due to their very low numbers, were excluded from further detailed analyses.
The population dynamics of the remaining 4 species was viewed through MNA (minimum number
alive), and trends within years were tested using Spearman rank-correlation. In the interaction matrix
of partial regression coefficient calculations based on 2-year population data, A. agrarius exhibited
negative correlation with M. arvalis and A. sylvaticus (r = -0.766–0.835; P < 0.001), and with
A. flavicollis (r = -0.71; P < 0.01). When M. arvalis was compared with A. flavicollis and A
sylvaticus, negative correlation was also found (r = -0.65 - 0.671; P < 0.01). When densities were low,
monthly IMC (index of main crowding) values were low and patchiness was high, but both indices
signaled the aggregation of individuals even at higher density values. As density grew, in several
cases it became significantly positively correlated with IMC, and significantly negatively correlated
with patchiness. Two indices were used for describing interspecific spatial relations. At low density
values both the index of overlap obtained as the quotient of observed and expected trap use, and
Cole’s measure of association (CMA) yielded mostly neutral or positive interspecific association in
space use. When densities were higher in autumn, negative associations were observed between
A. agrarius and A. flavicollis in 1997, and between M. arvalis and the former 2 species in 1998.
      HORVÁTH, GYÔZÔ, and BALÁZS TRÓCSÁNYI. Data on the autumn demography and
range use of Apodemus agrarius. Department of Ecology and Zoogreography, Faculty of Sciences,
Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6. H-7601 HUNGARY.
       Population monitoring of small mammals has been run in the Dráva Lowlands, South Hungary,
since 1994. Our sampling quadrat is situated in a 1-ha section of a forest reserve with Querco roburi-
Carpinetum plant association. During our 5-year study, striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius
(Pallas) was found to be an expansive species of the area, with autumn abundance peaks building up
rapidly from late summer, and with intensive dispersal. Population dynamics of the species was
characterized, in addition to using “minimum number alive” (MNA), with the help of the indices of
individuals/100 trap nights and captures/100 trap nights. The annual autumn population peaks were
compared in respect of their capture numbers and captured individuals/100 trap nights using the
Tukey-test of ANOVA, and no difference was found between the peaks (F = 1.134–1.619, NS). Two
sides of the quadrate were edge zones, while closed forest continued uninterruptedly through the
2 other sides. Based on this, the grid area was divided into 3 sections that allowed us to analyze the
dispersal of A. agrarius, using the rate of captures/trap within distinguished grid sections.
The temporal change of this index was not significant in 1994, while it showed exponential growth in
1995 and 1996 in the edge and in the grid center, in 1997 in the grid center, and in 1998 in the center
and in the forest-adjoining side, which indicated the rapid spatial expansion of A. agrarius in autumn.
Home range sizes of individuals caught at least 4 times during the autumn were calculated using the
“minimum convex polygon” estimator of the program CALHOME. In 1994, data of only 4 juvenile
individuals were suitable for the estimations. Mean estimated home range size was 245–716 m 2 in
adult females and 210–416 m 2 in adult males. Significant difference in home range size did not occur
between the sexes in either of the years (Mann-Whitney U = 30–97, NS). In the comparison of years
only the males exhibited difference in their home ranges between the years 1995 vs. 1996 (Mann-
Whitney U = 75, P < 0.05 ), and 1995 vs. 1997 (Mann-Whitney U = 87, P < 0.1). Exponential
correlation was found to occur between the mean number of marked individuals in the autumn periods
of the 5 years and estimated home ranges (r = 0.889; P < 0.05), which finding, in accordance with the
analysis of grid sections, demonstrates the considerable autumn dispersal of A. agrarius in the forest
habitat.
108                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      HORVÁTH, GYÔZÔ, ZITA WAGNER, and MAGDOLNA TÖLGYESI. The effect of sex and
age on survival in three rodent populations in a forest reserve habitat. Department of Ecology and
Zoogreography, Faculty of Sciences, Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6. H-7601
HUNGARY.
       The monitoring of small mammal population dynamics was pursued in a forest reserve area of
Querco roburi-Carpinetum plant association on the Dráva Lowlands in South Hungary. The study is
part of the National System of Biodiversity Monitoring proposed in 1997. Live-capturing box traps
were used in a 1-ha sampling grid. The present study is based on CMR data from February to
November 1997 during which period monthly 5-night trapping sessions succeeded. Out of the
3 generalist species in the area, Apodemus flavicollis (Melchior), A. agrarius (Pallas), and
Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber), 306, 269, and 293 specimens, respectively, were captured and
marked during 6, 50 trap nights. Mostly males emigrate, and the emigration of young individuals
plays an important role in regulating populations. In each population, adult and juvenile males, and
adult and juvenile females were differentiated. Using the program SURGE we tested the time
dependence of survival and capture probabilities of each group, i.e., data were fitted, in addition to the
Cormack-Jolly-Seber model, to 3 other models derived from it. In each of the groups in A. flavicollis,
in each of the groups except for juvenile males in C. glareolus, and in juvenile A. agrarius females it
was the most economical model, i.e., the one assuming temporally constant survival and recapture
that fitted the best. Time dependence was revealed in the survival of A. agrarius adult females and
juvenile males, and in the recaptures of A. agrarius adult males and C. glareolus juvenile males. Four
basic models were erected for the comparison of sexes within age groups. Survival did not depend on
sex in either of the populations. When the model series consisting of variations of age and time was
analyzed, age appeared to be a factor with actual influence, in each of the populations. In all
3 populations, survival values obtained for juvenile individuals were much smaller than those for
adults. The results of our analysis of survival rejected the assumption of considerable emigration of
adult males within the studied year. It is the age dependence of survival and the smaller survival rates
of younger individuals that imply the emigration of adult males which is crucial in the regulation of
populations.
      HUNZIKER, MARCEL. Predators in Switzerland: reasons for existence or lack of public
acceptance. Swiss Federal Institute of Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, 8903 Birmensdorf,
SWITZERLAND.
       Rural as well as urban areas of Switzerland are currently experiencing an increase in predator
populations. This development is not well accepted among parts of the public. Government agencies
and non-governmental organizations are therefore conducting campaigns to raise public acceptance of
predators. An important prerequisite for successful campaigns is a thorough understanding of the
underlying reasons for the existence or lack of acceptance. So far, not enough knowledge has been
available regarding the specific situation in Switzerland. To fill this gap was the aim of this project.
Qualitative interviews and standardized questionnaires were used to achieve this. It was found that
people’s general perception of nature represents the basic background of their attitudes towards
predators. If these are really accepted or not, however, is closely related with the degree of their
personal involvement in the predation problem. The chances for successfully improving predator
acceptance depend strongly on the quality of the relationship between those promoting the predators
and those affected by the predator presence. It also became clear that acceptance cannot be improved
infinitely: many people will not accept more than a limited number of predator individuals in their
region. It can be concluded that survey data gained from a majority of people not affected seem to
overestimate the acceptance of predators and are therefore an uncertain basis for predator
management. In order to improve acceptance, establishing an atmosphere of confidence and tolerance
among the relevant actors has the highest priority. To achieve a long-lasting effect, people’s
perception of nature should be influenced by education. And sometimes, the revision of the, perhaps
unrealistic, goals of predator management might be the adequate solution.
109                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



     HUTTON, JONATHAN. Resolving conflicts between Nile crocodiles and humans in Africa.
World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL UNITED
KINGDOM.
       Capable of growing to over 5 m and weighing in at 500 kg, the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus
niloticus) is the largest predator in Africa. Still found in good numbers throughout much of its
historical range in sub-Saharan Africa, this animal frequently comes into conflict with legitimate
human interests. Nile crocodiles eat domestic livestock—and often its owners. Hard data are hard to
come by, but it is likely that Nile crocodiles account for more human lives than any other wild animal
on the continent. On the other hand, human activities also have dramatic impacts on the Nile
crocodile. In the 1940s and 1950s they were hunted for their valuable skins and reduced to very low
levels in many localities. Today, this sort of hunting is a thing of the past, but crocodiles
understandably make unpopular neighbors and are often killed when the opportunity presents itself. In
addition, there is ferocious competition for the sandy riversite sites that crocodiles need for nesting,
and on which people like to moor their boats and build their camps. Crocodiles destroy gill nets and in
turn are persecuted by fishermen. Throughout much of Africa the future must be one in which the
animal slowly gives way in the face of human expansion. However, in several countries there has
been an attempt to raise tolerance towards the crocodile, and even to encourage healthy populations,
by the application of economic incentives. In the 1970s and 1980s, with a lead from Zimbabwe,
crocodile ranching evolved under the umbrella of CITES until it was practiced in over 12 countries,
from Ethiopia to Madagascar, by 1990. In these programs eggs are collected from wild crocodile
nests; after hatching, the young animals are raised until they are large enough to be slaughtered for
their skin. Through systems of concessions, permits, and other regulations, the economic benefits of
this management system provide conspicuous economic incentives for crocodile conservation.
Unfortunately, as might have been predicted, the reliance on markets to support conservation has it
problems. As the world economy slumped in the late 1990s so did prices for crocodile skins. As
a result many national programs have closed and the future of others is in doubt. Does this mean the
end of the accommodation between crocodiles and humans?
     JACKSON, PETER. Can large carnivores survive? IUCN Cat Specialists Group, Route des
Macherettes, 1172 Bougy, SWITZERLAND.
       Conflict between large carnivores and people has existed through the ages. Originating as
competition for prey in prehistoric times, it later became rooted in protection of livestock.
Competition for prey continues today as hunters see large cats and wolves taking a toll on the animals
they are hunting. By the beginning of this century, large carnivores, as well as their natural prey, had
been extirpated in many parts of western Europe, and reduced elsewhere. The destruction of wild
populations accelerated all over the world through the 20 th Century in the wake of the dramatic rise in
the human population and the consequent conversion of wild land for settlement and agriculture.
The Indian sub-continent, now with well over a billion people, provides a tragic example. With the
growing human population, livestock numbers have increased. The tiger (Panthera tigris), and its
large prey species, have been largely confined to 60–70 reserves, which are virtual islands in the sea
of humanity. Although tigers may be largely confined to reserves, and lions (P. leo) increasingly so,
other predators, such as leopard (P. pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), jaguar (P. onca), puma
(Felis concolor), wolf (Canis lupus), and bear (Ursus spp.) still make use of whatever patches of wild
country still exist. When their natural prey is reduced, it is not surprising that they turn to livestock for
food. Overall, losses to predators amount to a small percentage of the livestock, but losses to
individual small holders can be catastrophic. Wolves have survived in Italy and are penetrating France
and Switzerland, and pumas are found in urban areas in California. Wolves have been reintroduced in
parts of the USA. They are not causing serious physical damage, but public reaction is mixed. Old
fears remain, although a substantial number of people, and governments, are prepared to accept their
presence. If human populations continue to rise and there is increasing encroachment on wild habitat,
the long-term survival of large predators is at risk.
110                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      JACKSON, ODNEY M. Managing people-wildlife conflict in Tibet. Conservation Director,
International Snow Leopard Trust, 4649 Sunnyside Ave., North, Suite 325, Seattle, WA 98103 USA.
        Since the Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) National Nature Preserve (QNNP) was established in
1989, wildlife crop and livestock damage has become a major issue. Over 20, 00 people live along
this interface, depending heavily on forests and rangeland resources. One survey indicated sheep-goat
losses of between 0.06 and 7.5% of the herd, with a few “hot-spots” sustaining much greater
depredation from snow leopard (Uncia uncia), lynx (Lynx lynx), and wolf (Canis lupus), among other
carnivores. On average, losses amounted to about $25/household, a significant sum given the low per
capita income of the local residents. This has engendered substantial animosity by many herders
toward these rare species, complicating the ability of preserve managers to meet biodiversity
conservation objectives. Many causative factors are implicated in livestock depredation, including
widespread erosion of traditional guarding practices and knowledge, reduced herder vigilance,
increased livestock numbers and other changes in animal husbandry practices. This paper reports on
new techniques for engaging and involving local residents, by linking biodiversity conservation with
well-defined project initiatives aimed at improving animal husbandry practices while also enhancing
villager livelihoods through ecologically and socially appropriate small-scale income-generation
activities. Replicable “hands-on” training workshops provided a forum for developing remedial
measures for livestock predation that meet important criteria like “low-cost, reciprocal financing and
shared responsibility, based on the “best-practice” guidelines set forth in a recently completed QNNP
“Depredation Management Handbook.” In English, Chinese, and Tibetan, the manual describes how
to undertake baseline surveys, assess and prioritize damage, and then negotiate signed reciprocal
agreements with local communities to beneficially link conservation and income-generation activities
so that local dependance and impact on marginal natural resources can be progressively reduced. By
involving local people in preserve management, QNNP is able to rally new resources to supplement
core government allocations for park operations. Where possible, project activities and outcomes are
tracked using indicators developed by participatory means, thus building consensus and support for
increased community-motivated and directed natural resource management and development
initiatives.
      JHALA, YADVENDRADEV, and BHARAT JETHVA. Human-wolf conflict in India.
Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box 18, Chandrabani, Dehra Dun, 248 001, INDIA.
       The Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) inhabits degraded habitats, arid and semi-arid
landscapes, and is the dominant large carnivore in the agro-pastoral regions of India. Most of the 2,
00–3, 00 strong wolf population of India survives outside of protected areas and in close proximity to
people. These wolves primarily subsist on livestock. Cattle are not consumed by people in most
regions of India; rural India supports a very large cattle population. The tendency of discarding cattle
and buffalo carcasses that die of disease, old age, and starvation around villages sustains high
densities of carnivores like wolves, hyaenas (Hyaena hyaena) and jackals (Canis aurius). Besides
scavenging the wolf is also responsible for depredation on smaller livestock like goats and sheep.
Wolf predation severely affects the economy of the pastoral community (nomadic and resident) that
barely manages to etch out a living from the highly over- grazed and degraded landscape of semi-arid
India. The pastoral community invests significantly in measures to protect sheep and goats from wolf
predation. These measures include night vigils, maintaining guard dogs, building thorn corrals, and
bringing the stock back to the village each night. The attitude of people towards wolves was related to
the food-habits of wolves in that region. In areas where wolves’ major prey were wild ungulates,
people tended to view wolves with less hostility and rarely were wolves directly persecuted. Whereas
in areas where wolves subsist on livestock, people’s attitudes were extremely hostile and most
observed wolf mortality was human related. This analysis suggests that some form of economic
compensation for wolf damage would help improve public attitudes towards the wolf in India. In the
eastern part of the wolf’s range, there have been several reports of non-rabid wolf attacks on children;
this reached a peak in 1996 when a wolf was found to be responsible for attacks on 76 children
(of which over 50 were fatal) in eastern Uttar-Pradesh. Our study suggests that in areas where there is
111                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



high human density (>600 km 2 ) of low economic status, where there is no wild prey and with
livestock populations heavily guarded, wolves could potentially attack children. Such cases were the
exception rather than the rule and should be viewed within their special ecological and socio-
economic context.
      JIA, JINGBO. Wildlife conservation in China: challenges in the 21          st   Century. College of
Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 Harbin, CHINA.
        China is rich in vertebrate species; 10% of the entire world’s species occur there. However,
many of the wildlife species are threatened. On the national protected list, 97 species are classified as
first-class protected, 238 species as second-class protected. The main threats come from commercial
trade, human food habits, medical use, over-hunting, over-fishing, traditional mentality, and bad
management. China has various types of wildlife habitat. However, habitat loss, decline, and
destruction are very serious at present. During recent decades, Chinese government has made great
effort in wildlife and habitat conservation. All wild animals are under legal protection. Several saving
and research centers were established. Wildlife feeding in captivity has been regulated. Programs and
actions to save endangered wildlife and habitats are being carried out. In the coming century, China
will face big challenges in wildlife conservation, which include poorer understanding by local people,
difficulty in catching up international development, further deterioration of environment, difficulty in
realizing efficient management, lower possibility in funding support, and heavy pressure from human
population increase.
      JOHNSINGH, A. J. T. Research and Conservation of large endangered mammals in India.
Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box 18, Chandrabani, Dehra Dun, 248 001, INDIA.
      Located at the junction of Palearctic, Ethiopian, and Indo-Malayan realms and endowed with
diverse biogeographic zones, India has about 350 species of mammals. Of these, 102 can be classified
as large mammals (>1 kg). According to Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, 63 of these are
endangered or Schedule I animals. Research on Indian mammals started with natural history
observations by Mughal kings. This was followed by British and Indian naturalists, and western and
Indian wildlife biologists. Yet, detailed ecological and behavioral studies have been done only on
27 (43%) of endangered large mammals. This includes 6 species of primates: hoolock gibbon
(Hylobates hoolock), lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), capped langur (Presbytis pileatus),
golden langur (Presbytis geei), Phayrei’s leaf monkey (Presbytis phayrei), and Nilgiri langur
(Presbytis johni); 3 species of cats: tiger (Panthera tigris), lion (Panthera leo persica) and snow
leopard (Panthera uncia); hyena (Hyaena hyaena); 2 species of canids: wolf (Canis lupus) and dhole
(Cuon alpinus); 2 species of bear: black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and sloth bear (Melursus
ursinus); 1 species of otter, the common otter (Lutra lutra); Indian elephant (Elephas maximus);
Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur); 5 species of bovids: blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan
ibex (Capra ibex sibirica), Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius), chinkara (Gazella gazella), and black
buck (Antilope cervicapra); 3 species of deer: swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), sambar (C. unicolor),
and chital (Axis axis); musk deer (Moschus moschiferus); pygmy hog (Sus salvanius), and Gangetic
dolphin (Platanista gangetica). This paper briefly reviews the information available on these species
and discusses how this knowledge can be used to strengthen field conservation of these species.
     JOSÉ, PAUL, and KEN SMITH. Urgent action for the bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in the United
Kingdom. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL
UNITED KINGDOM.
      The bittern (Botarus stellaris) is a scarce and dramatically declining bird species through much
of Europe and is recognized as a high priority for conservation action. The scale of problems are so
severe that if Botarus stellaris is to be saved as a breeding bird, in certain parts of its range large-
scale drastic management action is necessary. In the UK, for example, its population has declined
from approximately 80 booming males in 1954 to 11 in 1997. Extensive applied research by the Royal
Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) as well as experimental management have helped
determine the needs of these birds. This work is presented. In the UK, RSPB and government agency
112                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



action plans have identified 3 priority objectives for the recovery of this species: (1) to maintain the
extent and quality of existing well managed reedbeds; (2) to rehabilitate existing former high quality
reedbeds which have deteriorated and; (3) to extend the existing area of reedbed (particularly adjacent
to current sites). This paper describes the work undertaken by 7 organizations at sites in the UK
funded by the EU LIFE program to rehabilitate reedbed habitat in the UK for Botarus stellaris and
other wildlife interests.
      KAISER, WOLFGANG K. Essential habitat requirements of grey partridge in today’s
landscapes. Munich Wildlife Society, Linderhof 2, D-82488 Ettal, GERMANY.
       All over the world the intensification of agricultural practices caused an immense decrease in
both number of individuals and species during the last decades. The grey partridge (Perdix perdix),
a typical and well known bird on farmlands, reflects the problem dramatically. I hypothesized that
today’s extensification programs like set-aside and stubble fields are capable of reducing the negative
effects of general loss of habitat on partridge populations. Using radiotelemetry, I investigated habitat
selection, spatial behavior and survival in respect to availability of suitable structures. Partridges
showed a strong selection for extensificated fields but no effect on survival in respect to availability
was found. Permanent structures like field margins, road sides, and hedges also proved to be highly
preferred habitat. Survival was significantly lower in a control area with less permanent structures.
I conclude that a regular pattern of small, permanent structures in combination with a more extensive
management of cereal crops is likely to improve the population development of grey partridge in
future. It should be possible to introduce permanent structures into modern farming practices without
major problems.
      KALIKAWE, MARY C. Wildlife friendly fencing in Botswana. Department of Wildlife and
National Parks, P.O. Box 368, Maun, BOTSWANA.
        Botswana is a country that is traditionally a culture of free-ranging cattle rearing. So far the
only acceptable solution to control the disease spread among livestock and between livestock and
wildlife are very long fences that cris-cross hundreds of kilometers of the country. Fences have been
erected without due regard to the effect they may have on existing wildlife populations; or awareness
to wildlife in the area was overridden by the urgency to provide a solution to rapidly spreading
livestock disease. Unfortunately where such fences are found to be imperative is in the same areas
where there are large populations of wildlife. The fences have caused deaths and serious depletions of
wildlife populations to the extent that some species have disappeared completely from areas where
they were found in the not too distant past. The concern and recognition of the conflict brought about
by these fences vis a vis survival of wildlife populations has been felt and deeply expressed by
individuals, local tribesmen dependent on wildlife hunting for their livelihood, and governmental and
nongovernmental conservation organizations. Concerted efforts to look for mitigation measures to this
conflict have brought together all these stake holders into forming various committees, engaging
consultancies, and holding national and international conferences. The result has been a resolve to
find wildlife friendly fencing options. These include environmental impact assessment before fences
are erected; where fences are erected as a matter of urgency, removal of the fences once the crisis is
over; a look at geographical location and distribution of cattle and that of wildlife so that unnecessary
sections of fences are removed and gaps are opened up in the fence to allow wildlife to pass; fence
designs are modified to make them penetrable to wildlife while prohibiting cattle movement; and
fence alignments are reviewed to avoid separating settlements engaged in community wildlife
utilization projects from access to the wildlife resource they are dependent upon. These fencing
options are either already being effected or are under consideration. There has also been manipulation
of the environment to provide to wildlife the resources cut off by fences. Much more work and insight
is still needed on this issue such as constant data collection over time, space and socioeconomic
aspects to be able to support rapid EIA on fences expected to come in future.
     KARIM, G. M. M. E. Factors affecting the sustainability of wild lands in Bangladesh. Wildlife
and Nature Society of Bangladesh, 105 Baramagh Bazar, Dhaka, 1217 BANGLADESH.
113                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Wild lands of Bangladesh are rapidly degrading due to unplanned and indiscriminate harvest
and exploitation of resources, e.g., biodiversity, water, and soil by various activities. The important
activities include hunting, urbanization and human settlements, natural calamities, uses of pesticides,
mono-plantation and mono-culture practices. The methods used for resource harvest are not at all
suitable for biodiversity of wild lands. The major degraded ecosystems, caused by resource harvest,
are forests and wild lands. Other areas of resource degradation by means of harvest are soil and water,
which at present have potential in terms of supporting the components of ecosystems. Pesticides have
caused degradation to the resources by way of decreasing the reproductivity and regeneration
potentiality of biodiversity. This is but one among other causes of reduction of organic materials of
soil and pollution of water. Introduction of exotic species and mono-plantation and rice harvesting
have created an unbalanced natural environment in which undesirable animals and plants have
increased and diversity has decreased. Although our government has been trying to arrest the
destruction of wild lands, desirable achievements, even long-term phasing-out implementation efforts,
requiring multi-billion dollars of foreign aid is still a far cry. Regionally, South and South East Asian
countries seem to be in the same doldrums. Recommenda-tions are: (1) formation of a “Union” of all
SAARC and South East Asian Countries like the “European Union” with 1–2 research centers as
a core “Biodiversity Reserve Pool” to find out alternatives from research results for information of the
“South and South East Asian Union” countries, (2) to launch a joint and a common “Crash Program
Action Plan” that could be implemented first from each country’s own pool financing resources; and
(3) create a regional awareness with publication and exchange of failures and/or success among South
and South East Asian Regional Wild land Management Forum.
     KASSILLY, FREDERICK, and HARTMUT GOSSOW. The people-wildlife problems in
Kenya and their solutions: some management considerations. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game
Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 76, A-1190 Vienna,
AUSTRIA.
       Wildlife management in Kenya is currently undergoing major policy reviews. Debate among
ecologists rages over whether to adopt a conservation strategy “with” or “without” the park concept.
Pertinent to both strategies is the partnership approach to conservation that emphasizes local
community participation in wildlife conservation. Thus the attitude and behavior towards wildlife
among communities bordering conservationaries are key factors to a successful conservation program.
This study sought local community input to identify human-wildlife problems and their proposed
solutions among Kenyan residents bordering a conservationary with a wildlife dispersal area
(unfenced) and one without a wildlife dispersal area (fenced). Their problem tolerance was also
evaluated. Fencing influenced wildlife menace perceptibility. Major problems included death and
injury to humans and domestic stock, destruction of crops and private property and general nuisance.
Popular solutions included fencing off wildlife conservationaries and an effective compensation
scheme for injury, loss, or damage caused by wildlife. Translocation or killing of problem animals
and adopting land use practices compatible with wildlife conservation were unpopular solutions.
Intolerance to wildlife problems was markedly high. This article argues that local communities have
a pro-wildlife conservation and protection perspective despite the numerous conflicts. It further argues
that the high problem intolerance, coupled with reluctance to adopt land use practices compatible with
wildlife conservation favors the “park” concept of conservation as opposed to the “conservation
without parks” approach. Opportunity exists for use of educational communication to influence local
opinion.
      KATONA, KRISZTIÁN, and VILMOS ALTBÄCKER. Factors affecting the accuracy of
microhistological diet analysis in hares. Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Ethology, H-2131,
Göd, Jávorka u.14., HUNGARY.
      The microhistological analysis of feces is a wide-spread method for studying the diet
composition of animals. The feces still contain the epidermis fragments of the plants eaten by the
herbivore. Identifying these items, we can determine the relative frequency of the different plant types
in the diet. Although there is a bias caused by the differential digestibility we can still obtain
114                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



a relatively good estimate of diet composition. There are several factors influencing the accuracy of
this estimate used to compare seasonal or species differences in diet composition. In order to optimize
the methodology for a detailed study, we investigated how the sampling process itself influences our
estimation. Spring diet composition of hares (Lepus europaeus) in a juniper forest at Bugacpuszta,
Hungary, was determined. Both inter- and intra-observer reliability were high, permitting us to tease
apart the components of variance due to the different methodological steps in the feces analysis.
Estimates varied depending on the number of independent droppings, pellets/individual,
subsamples/pellet and epidermis/subsample. The variance was much higher among than within the
independent pellet groups. The within-pellet variance was low and the cumulative frequency estimate
stabilized at around 100 epidermis/pellet. This is the minimum sample size of epidermis required to
estimate the relative frequency of plant categories reliably. We conclude that the most critical steps of
the sampling procedure are the collection of independent droppings and the identification of
a sufficient number of epidermis fragments. We have to pay more attention to the high variability in
diet composition among individuals.
      KENDALL, WILLIAM L. The robust design for capture-recapture studies: analysis using
program MARK. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Drive, Laurel,
MD 20708 USA.
       The classical design for long-term capture-recapture studies consists of 1 sample for each time
period of interest. This sample might consist of 1 capture occasion, or multiple occasions where the
data are pooled. Under Pollock’s robust design there are multiple capture occasions within each
primary period, spaced sufficiently close that the population can be considered closed to additions and
deletions between occasions. Analysis of data collected under this design provides the following
advantages over the classical design: (1) survival, abundance, and recruitment are estimable for more
time periods; (2) the probability that a member of the population is absent from the study area can be
estimated; (3) estimators tend to be more precise; and (4) estimators are more robust to unequal
catchability among animals. We will demonstrate how program MARK can be used to analyze
capture-recapture data collected under the robust design.
       KESSLER, WINIFRED B., S. CRAIG DELONG, KEN R. PARKER, and KATHI
L. ZIMMERMAN. Evaluation of biodiversity conservation strategies based on natural disturbance
ecology in sub-boreal spruce forests of central interior British Columbia. University of Northern
British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, CANADA.
       The Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (1995) contains strategic direction and
guidelines for conserving biological diversity in managed forest landscapes. Based on principles of
disturbance ecology, the guidelines contain untested assumptions about the efficacy of habitat
retention (wildlife trees, coarse woody debris, leave patches, riparian protection zones) for emulating
habitat structures and landscape patterns characteristic of naturally disturbed landscapes. Our research
team evaluated these approaches in studies conducted from 1994 to 1998 in sub-boreal spruce (Picea
engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) (SBS) forests of central interior British Columbia. DeLong’s study
examining stand structure and composition, understory, coarse woody debris, and regeneration
characteristics of remnant forest “patches” within burned “matrix” landscapes found unique attributes
that may not be provided by retention habitat strategies in logged landscapes. Parker’s studies of birds
and mammals characterized patch/habitat relationships with respect to their significant effects in
sustaining biodiversity at the landscape scale. The findings of Zimmerman’s study of primary cavity
nesters in undisturbed riparian and upland SBS habitats contra-indicate recent changes in Forest
Practices Code guidelines that relax requirements for upland habitat retention. Together, our studies
provide findings and recommendations to strengthen Forest Practices Code provisions that pertain to
biodiversity conservation in managed landscapes.
      KIRSCHEY, TOM. Amphibian and reptile conservation in the northwestern Caucasus. Umwelt
und Bildung e.V., Geschwister-Scholl-Strasse 19, D-15537 Neu Zittau, FRG.
115                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       The population status and decline factors of the amphibians and reptiles of the Krasnodar
administrative region and Republic of Adygeya is characterized by large differences between lowland
and mountainous regions of the northwestern Caucasus. Thirty-five species live in this area; local and
regional endemism is very characteristic. Unrestricted primary woodland exploitation and
overpasturing subalpine meadows are the main population decline factors at the mountains (900–2, 00
m), agricultural landscape use, field and shrubland conflagration, and tourism are the main factors in
the lowlands. Herpetological species conservation management is not practiced in Russia. At present,
3 species are listed in the Red Data Book of Russia: the banded newt (Triturus vittatus), the Caucasian
parsley frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) and the Caucasian adder (Vipera kaznakowi). The Caucasian State
Biosphere Reserve, Sochi National Park, some nature parks, and protected wildlife areas are the only
institutions of wildlife conservation that are present. During the existence of the Soviet Union, biotope
and wildlife conservation management worked efficiently. Now environmental policy plays
a subaltern role because of social problems.
      KISS, BÉLA, ALBERT TÓTH, GYÖRGY DÉVAI, SÁNDOR NAGY, ZOLTÁN MÜLLER,
ZOLTÁN CSABAI, and ISTVÁN GRIGORSZKY. Quantitative studies on the metaphytic
macrofaunal biomass in an oxbow lake of River Tisza (northeast Hungary). Department of Ecology,
L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, POB. 71, HUNGARY (BK, GD, N, ZM, ZC); Department
of Applied Ecology, L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, POB. 22, HUNGARY (AT);
Department of Botany, L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, POB. 14, HUNGARY (IG).
       Extensive beds of macrophytes are generally present in shallow, stagnant inland waters, where
they mark the magnitude of the littoral zone. To provide a representative evaluation of the biota in
these extremely variable water types, most samples should be taken from vegetated parts of the water
bodies. To improve the study of the metaphytic macrofauna we have developed a methodology that
allows the quantitative survey and monitoring of the entire metaphytic community in very shallow,
densely vegetated water bodies. The sampling procedure was tested in a very shallow, eutrophic
oxbow lake “Nagy-morotva” near Tokaj (northeastern Hungary) in mid-August 1998, during
maximum macrophyte cover and biomass. We developed a stratified random sampling design by
analysis of color aerial photographs. Altogether, 25 samples were taken from 5 different vegetation
types including submerged, floating, and emergent stands. We assessed the following major taxa:
Gastropoda, Hirudinea, Crustacea, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera,
Diptera and Vertebrata. Our results revealed considerable richness, biomass, and specific composition
of the metaphytic macrofauna, and suggest that quantitative survey and monitoring of these
assemblages may be a key approach to conservation issues in shallow, densely vegetated stagnant
water bodies.
       KJOSS, VICTORIA A., and JOHN A. LITVAITIS. Mesopredator release and community
structure of snakes in fragmented landscapes. Department of Natural Resources, University of New
Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA.
       Habitat fragmentation has been implicated in affecting a variety of ecological processes that
alter biological diversity. The issue of “mesopredator release” in particular has been gaining wide
acceptance as a factor affecting biological diversity in contemporary landscapes. Essentially,
a mesopredator release occurs when a top predator is eliminated by human activities and smaller
(meso) predators become abundant in the absence of control by the top predator. Increased
populations of smaller predators then subject prey populations to intense predation rates, ultimately
reducing the abundance and diversity of prey species. Although this scenario has intuitive appeal, it
has not been critically evaluated. We are examining effects of mesopredator release on snakes
associated with early successional habitats in the northeastern United States. Reptiles have long been
overlooked in studies that examine the effects of habitat fragmentation on vertebrate populations;
however, aspects of their life histories may make them very appropriate model organisms for such
investigations. We hypothesized that in isolated patches too small to support predatory milk snakes
(Lampropeltis triangulum), the relative abundance of smaller ophidian species (garter [Thamnophis
sirtalis], northern brown [Storeria dekayi], redbelly [S. occipitomaculata]) would be greater as
116                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



a function of mesopredator release. We further hypothesized that in large patches where L. triangulum
was present, smaller species would be less abundant and occupy a narrower range of microhabitats.
To investigate these relationships, we are inventorying snake abundance in more than 40 patches.
Body mass and snout-to-vent length of all captured snakes are recorded. Also, we are implanting radio
transmitters into large milk snakes to examine their influence on abundance and habitat associations
of smaller snakes.
      KNICK, STEVEN T., TATIANA M. BRAGINA, EVGENY A. BRAGIN, and TODD
E. KATZNER. Classification of a forest and steppe region in northern Kazakstan from Landsat
Thematic Mapper imagery. USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Snake River
Field Station, 970 Lusk Street, Boise, ID 83706 USA (STK); Naurzum Zapovednik, 46 Altinsarina
St.No.1, Dokuchaevka, Naurzumski Raijon, 459730 KAZAKSTAN (TMB, EAB); Department of
Biology, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871501, Tempe, AZ 85287-1501 USA (TEK).
       Habitat maps derived from remotely sensed data are becoming common for much of the world
and provide an important base for ecological research and conservation programs. We classified
a habitat map for a forest and steppe region in the Naurzum Nature Reserve and surrounding region in
northcentral Kazakstan from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery as an initial component in our study
of habitats, prey, and raptors. We used satellite imagery because the fine resolution (28.5 x 28.5
pixels) and large spatial extent (185 x 185 km) would permit detailed habitat analysis within ranges of
widely foraging raptors. We based our habitat classification on vegetation characteristics that were
(1) separable in the satellite imagery, (2) representative of major habitat classes, and (3) important for
our studies of relationships among habitats, prey, and raptors. We distinguished 9 vegetation
categories that included 2 agriculture, 2 grassland, 3 shrubland, and 2 tree classes. We also separated
water and wetland vegetation into seasonal and permanent classes because of the temporal importance
to waterfowl, an important prey for eagles. Remote sensing applications in isolated regions of the
world present special challenges because of limited availability of information and difficult field
logistics. However, we demonstrate that reliable habitat maps can be classified and that subsequent
integration with animal data in a GIS can be an important component in conservation planning and
ecological studies.
      KOVÁTS, LÁSZLÓ, and GERGÖ HALMOS. The importance of riparian habitats in Inner
Asia according to fat accumulation of migrants. Duna-Dráva National Park, Tettye tér 9., Pécs, 7625,
HUNGARY (LK); Department of General Zoology, Eötvös Lóránd University, Puskin u.3., Budapest,
H-1088, HUNGARY (GH).
       Inner Asia is a special area for migratory birds because of the geographical isolation and the
high percentage of high mountains and deserts. The role of stopover sites for fat accumulation is of
extreme importance. In this study we concentrated on rivers followed by homogene willow gallery
forests as important riparian habitats on autumn migration. The study areas were situated in North-
and West-Mongolia in the valleys of the rivers Delgermörön (N49 35, E 100 05) and Khovd (N 48 25,
E 91 47). The birds were captured with mistnets between 5 and 18 August 1995, and between
3 August and 25 September 1996, respectively. Fat accumulation was measured on an 8-point scale of
subcutaneous fat, which is the best predictor of body condition. The most abundant species were used
in the study: Phylloscopus humei (2, 14), P. collybita (122), P. trochyloides (40), Sylvia curruca
(560), Muscicapa striata (94), Emberiza aureola (26), and Carpodacus erythrinus (40). Fat category
percentages were compared between study areas with a test of homogeneity. The results show that in
the early August period the lean birds dominate while in the later migration period, the percentage of
lean birds is decreasing and the percentage of fat birds is increasing. Significant difference was found
between the areas in fat category percentages. Based on these facts we conclude that the willow
gallery forests are of high importance in the autumn migratory season as stopover sites for migrants.
The determination and protection of the fat accumulating areas is a prerequisite for the successful and
effective protection of migrants.
117                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      KRASINSKI, ZBIGNIEW A., and MALGORZATA KRASINSKA. Threats to free-ranging
populations of European bison, Bison bonasus (L.). Bialowieza National Park, 17-230 Bialowieza,
Poland; Mammal Research Institute PAS, 17-230 Bialowieza, POLAND.
      In the end of 1997, the world population of the European bison comprised 2, 25 individuals,
including 1, 99 bison in 32 free-ranging populations in Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, and
Lithuania. In 1997, a decline of bison was recorded, as compared with earlier years. Free-ranging
populations of European bison must comprise at least 100 individuals each, to be demographically
safe. However, from a genetic point of view, they should be even bigger. Only 7 free-living
populations of bison are most important for the species protection: (1) Bialowieza Forest, Polish and
Belarussian populations, 522 individuals; (2) Bieszczady, Poland, 155; (3) Borecka Forest, Poland,
65; (4) Bukovynska, Ukraine, 224; (5) Cumanska, Ukraine, 170; (6) Davinska, Ukraine, 72; and
(7) Uladivska, Ukraine, 66. European bison, as animals threatened by extinction, still remain a
protected species in most countries. Active protection of bison continues to be a necessity because of
population threats (high inbreeding), and environmental threats such as reduction of food and water
resources, winter additional feeding, winter concentrations of herds, lack of natural selection, and
possible impact of diseases.
      KRAUSMAN, PAUL R., LISA K. HARRIS, WILLIAM W. SHAW, WILLIAM DUNN, and
WALTER M. BOYCE. Can mountain sheep and humans coexist? School of Renewable Natural
Resources, 325 Biological Sciences East Building, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-
0043 USA (PRK, WWS); Harris Environmental Group, Inc., 1749 E. 10th St., Tucson, AZ 85719
USA (LKH); New Mexico Game and Fish Department, Santa Fe, NM 87504 USA (WD); Department
of Veterinary Medicine: PMI, Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 USA (WMB).
       Since 1933 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) have been classified as a wilderness species,
species harmed by economic land uses. However, when urban areas encroach into sheep habitat,
developers and planners insist that humans and sheep can coexist in sheep habitat (i.e., trails, golf
courses, housing developments, roads, resorts). Our objective is to document 2 case studies in the
Southwest, USA, where humans and their related activities have directly caused the demise of bighorn
sheep (i.e., Sandia Mountains, New Mexico; Catalina Mountains, Arizona), and use those examples as
a model to predict the demise of a population of peninsular bighorn sheep (O. c. cremnobates) in the
northern Santa Rosa Mountains adjacent to the developing city of Palm Springs, California. We
documented population declines of bighorn sheep associated with humans from field studies,
population surveys, reviews of historical photographs and records, and personal interviews. Bighorn
sheep in the Sandia and Catalina mountains have declined from more than 200 to less than 10 from
the 1950s to the 1990s. During this same time period human intrusion increased dramatically into the
habitats of sheep in both ranges. The peninsular bighorn sheep was listed as endangered in 1998 and
the population has also declined. The population segment adjacent to Palm Springs is attempting to
coexist with resorts, housing, golf courses, and other forms of human activity, and managers and
planners are trying to mitigate for the intrusion into sheep habitat. Unless decisive action is taken, the
sheep in the northern Santa Rosa Mountains will be the third population to strengthen the hypothesis
that sheep are harmed by economic land uses. How many examples are needed before managers and
developers realize that coexistence cannot be successful?
      LANDRY, JEAN-MARC. Protect large carnivores by protecting livestock. Vicduc 58, Moutier
2740, SWITZERLAND.
       The competition between humans and large carnivores for habitat, livestock, and prey-species
helped their disappearance or reduction in several regions or countries. In countries where large
carnivores still exist, the modern lifestyle doesn’t encourage shepherds to keep their livestock in
traditional ways, which is often responsible for increasing livestock damages. In several countries,
large carnivores are endangered species and their long-term preservation is often correlated with the
decrease of conflicts with local people. Therefore, protecting livestock in an effective way means also
protecting large carnivores. Several techniques were used in old times to protect livestock from
118                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



predators, but livestock guard dogs seem to be one of the most used and most effective ways to
prevent damage. There are at least 34 breeds or types of livestock guard dog throughout Europe.
The guard dog has been chosen for its ability to become attached (bonded) to any social species:
sheep, goats, cows, horses, llamas, etc. The dog is attentive to sheep, for they satisfy its social needs
and therefore it maintains permanent contact with the flock, without interrupting their activities or
injuring them. Guard dogs are chosen for their ability to react (barking) to unusual or new activities.
A predator often avoids a dog that shows such behavior, or its attention is diverted to the dog and no
longer to the livestock; it is very rare that the dog kills the predator. The correct use of this type of dog
provides an effective method of protection (although never 100%), which also saves the predator.
Nevertheless, livestock guard dogs cannot be used in all cases and often should be used with other
protection techniques. This paper will mainly discuss livestock guard dogs and their limitations, as
well as other means of protection, like guard donkeys and other non-lethal methods, often used as
complementary to the dog (shepherd, electric fences, lighting appliances, sound appliances, etc.).
Livestock must be guarded in a way that is economically and socially viable for breeders and
shepherds if we want to be successful in the preservation of large carnivores in the future.
     LAWS, TONY. The sustainable use of wildlife with particular reference to European wetlands
and wildfowling. British Association for Shooting and Conservation, Marford Mill, Rossett, UK-
LL12 0HL Wrexham, UNITED KINGDOM.
       This paper examines the role of the European hunter as a key partner in the conservation of
waterfowl and their habitats. Case studies are used to illustrate how sport hunting motivates and
drives significant national and international conservation lobbies. It also provides valuable manpower
and financial resources for effective management. The development of “Best Practice” for sustainable
hunting is discussed alongside the importance of involving hunters as local stakeholders in such
strategies to ensure ownership and ultimate success.
      LICHTENSTEIN, GABRIELA, F. ORIBE, M. GRIEG-GRAN, and S. G. MAZZUCCHELLI.
Is CWM a sustainable alternative for local communities in South America? IIED-America Latina.
Gral Paz 1180, (1429) Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA (GL, FO, SGM); IIED-UK, 3 Endsleigh Street,
London WC1HODD, UNITED KINGDOM (MG-G).
       Community wildlife management (CWM) aims at promoting sustainable use of natural
resources by providing social and economic incentives to local people. A review of CWM projects in
South America done in the context of the Evaluating Eden Project revealed that ecological,
economical, social, and legal factors have to be addressed in order to achieve sustainability. We
investigated the sustainability of 2 case studies: 1 species-based (community management of vicu as
(Vicugna vicugna), in Peru; and the other ecosystem-based (Mamiraua Sustainable Development
Reserve in the Brazilian flooded forest). Andean communities capture vicu as communally with
a process that draws on methods practiced by the Incas. The fibre produced is stocked and sold by the
National Vicu a Society. A government agency, CONACS, provides technical assistance to
communities and is currently promoting a move towards semi-captive management. The case study
has found that for communities endowed with large number of vicu as the harvesting of fibre can be
profitable in the medium term. The economic viability for communities with small numbers of vicu as
is more questionable, especially where semi-captive management is involved. There is considerable
uncertainty over the ecological impacts of moving from management of vicu as in the wild to semi-
captive management. In Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve a management plan was
developed with solid research efforts. The project is aimed at biodiversity conservation and
sustainable resource management by the local population. The sustainability of the project is more
vulnerable to external factors such as discontinuity of funding, or powerful financial interests by
fishing groups from nearby towns, than to internal factors.
      LICOPPE, ALAIN M., and SIMON A. de CROMBRUGGHE. Using an habitat suitability
index (HSI) for red deer management. Wildlife and Game Management Laboratory, Forest Research
119                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Station, av. Marechal Juin 23, B-5030 Gembloux, BELGIUM (AML); MILA EFOR, Catholic
University of Louvain, av. Marechal Juin 23, B-5030 Gembloux, BELGIUM (SAC).
       In the context of a global management project and in order to integrate wildlife requirements
into economical priorities, a habitat suitability index (HSI) model was performed. The study deals
particularly with red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus L.) and its habitat in a forested area (10, 00
ha) near St-Hubert (Ardennes, Belgium). The model, based on the knowledge of ecological trends of
the species, is built considering 6 variables: soil quality, canopy closing, type of planting (species and
age), pastures, coniferous thickets proximity, built-up areas, and road proximity. Each variable is
arbitrarily characterized by values in relation to red deer preferences. These variables that include
both alimentary and behavioral requirements of red deer are then combined into a simple model.
Results can be expressed in the form of an easily readable map using a GIS. Choice of variables,
calibration of the model and different methods of validation of the model are discussed. We conclude
that HSI is a relevant tool for the field manager who must keep under control forestry, game,
biodiversity, and forest recreative constraints in both time and space.
       LINDLEY, ARTHUR. Sustainable wildlife use, animal welfare, and avoidable suffering:
a rational approach to ethical decisions. Wildlife Department, Royal Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals, Causeway, UK-RH12 1HG Horsham (West Sussex), UNITED KINGDOM.
       In the same way that the principle of responsibility for the conservation of species is now
widely accepted, so also (as in IUCN Resolution 18.24) is the principle that wild animals should be
protected from avoidable cruelty and suffering. This paper seeks to develop a rational basis on which
decisions can be made on animal welfare issues in the context of this latter principle. A range of
possible welfare indicators is proposed, and methods of measurement discussed. Areas of potential
concern, where the welfare of animals affected by wildlife use may in some circumstances be
compromised, are identified and categorized. Some suggested criteria for assessment of animal
welfare impact in relation to these areas of potential concern are presented for discussion. These
suggested criteria are broadly drawn, assuring some degree of uniformity in a regional or global
context worldwide, while leaving detailed interpretation open to variation in different cultures. The
criteria are designed to be applicable to all animal species, although there may be substantial
differences in the management practices required to achieve humane treatment in different taxa.
      LINSCOME, OBERT G. Trapping, furbearer management, and the development of Best
Management Practices in the United States. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, 2415
Darnell Road, New Iberia, LA 70560 USA.
       Furbearer management in the United States is almost a century old and the system is considered
to be among the best in the world. Trapping is one of the most intensively regulated wildlife harvest
techniques in the U.S. The first and foremost goal of furbearer management is the conservation of
furbearer and other wildlife populations. Populations of most furbearers in the U.S. are at or above the
highest historical levels ever seen on this continent as a result of conservation programs that
encourage respect and sustainable use. Secondary goals of furbearer management provide for
sustainable use of these populations and societal benefits including control of damage caused by
furbearers, enhancement of other species, regulation and restocking, subsistence, disease
management, and economic and lifestyle benefits. During the 1990s approximately 160, 00 trappers
were licensed annually and operated under state trapping regulations in the U.S. Distribution of
trappers was the result of culture, habitat, and wildlife abundance. The types and number of traps used
were influenced by species, habitat, climate, and state regulations and vary by region. State wildlife
agencies working under the coordination of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife
Agencies and with trappers, have embarked on a multi-year program to develop “Best Management
Practices” (BMPs) for trapping. BMPs for trapping will be a set of recommendations, based on
scientific research, which will improve animal welfare while maintaining efficiency, selectivity,
safety, and practicability. The development of BMPs is part of the understanding reached between the
European Union and the U.S. in December 1997. Researchers in the U.S. coordinated trap testing with
120                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



their colleagues in Canada and Russia in an attempt to maximize efficiency and avoid duplication.
The second year of trap testing was completed this past fall and winter.
     LIZARRALDE, MARTA. Economic significance of trapping and standards development in
Argentina. CADIC, CADIC, CC.92 (9410) Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, ARGENTINA.
       Argentina is one of the main exporters of wildlife species in the world. These are mainly
furbearers. The estimated exportations are about $80 million since trapping is the main wildlife
management tool. Wild furbearer trapping remains a traditional way of life in several communities,
especially the Pampa Deprimida, Delta del Parma, and Patagonia regions. Trapping activities
represent a major alternative employment and provide the original people with the necessary support;
their traditional life style also constitutes the unique source of subsistence for many other people.
The most important wild furbearers exploited are native species of foxes, the culpeo fox (Pseudalopex
culpaeus), the chico grey fox (P. griseus), also the coypo or nutria (Myocastor coypus), and more
recently exotic species such as beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). These
wild furbearer species and trapping activities constitute a natural resource of important social,
cultural, and economic value and are also necessary to control the introduced species that
overpopulate and overuse their habitat. Historically, the traps more used by the Argentine trappers
were the traditional restraining traps; however, the requirements of the European Union and the social
concerns regarding the matter of humane traps are being evaluated for species usually exploited. All
around the country, trapping has significance for wildlife biologists, to provide data on the dynamics
of populations. In Argentina wild furbearer trapping is needed by wildlife officers, fur industry pest
controllers, and aboriginal people, and should be oriented to respond effectively to the international
requirements. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the development of trapping in
Argentina, to describe the significance and improvements of current trapping techniques, and finally
to define the main social, cultural, and economic perspectives of fur harvest.
      LOEGERING, JOHN P., and W. DANIEL EDGE. Reaching a broad audience with
a conservation message. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis,
OR 97331-3803 USA.
       Recent developments in “distance education” technologies permit educators to deliver a natural
resource conservation message to a worldwide audience. Most past conservation programming
directed at the general public was in the form of nature programming on public television or written
material. However, we delivered a contemporary, science-based message worldwide via satellite, and
then videotape. In our model, we delivered “Principles of Wildlife Conservation” to local educators at
colleges, universities, and high schools; high school students internationally; and to the general public
via public access cable television. “Principles of Wildlife Conservation” is a sophomore-level college
course and was designed to appeal to a broad audience. Response from educators and the general
public was overwhelmingly positive. In addition, a growing number of courses on natural resources
conservation are available from institutions worldwide. Distance Education courses are an emerging
education and outreach resource for conservationists and offer additional opportunities to reach
professionals for professional development and training and the public through public access cable
television, libraries, and learning centers.
       LOPEZ, ROEL R., TARLA R. PETERSON, and NOVA J. SILVY. Emphasizing numbers in
the recovery of an endangered species: a lesson in underestimating public knowledge. Department of
Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 USA (RRL,
NJS); Department of Speech Communication and Theatre Arts, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843 USA (TRP).
      Since its enactment in 1969, the United States’ Endangered Species Act (ESA) has been
instrumental in protecting many threatened or endangered species. Historically, population numbers
have served as an important criterion in determining species status. Simply an increase in numbers of
an endangered population, however, cannot be interpreted as a species being saved from extinction. In
some cases, we propose that emphasizing population numbers to the public instead of limiting factors
121                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



(i.e., amount of suitable habitat) can be a serious pitfall for resource managers. In a case study of the
endangered Florida Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium), we found population estimates were
used to justify Key deer protection in the past. Currently, the record number of road mortalities, which
accounts for the majority of known Key deer deaths, has raised some questions about the population
size. Tension between residents, businesses, and developers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
environmental groups has escalated in the past 10 years, with the debate centered on population
estimates. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how communication has influenced this issue, and
more importantly, how use of this population estimate has been manipulated in this conflict.
An attempt will be made to illustrate how key players in this dispute have reached an impasse, with
the remainder of the paper offering solutions to promote cooperation and resolution between
stakeholders.
      LORENZ, KRZYSZTOF, ANTONI CHYLA, and MARTA CHYLA. Sparrow feathers as
nondestructive bioindicators of environmental pollution. Institute of Environmental Protection
Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw,
POLAND (KL); Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology,
Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, POLAND (AC); Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and
Metallurgy of Rare Elements, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-
370 Wroclaw, POLAND (MC).
      Concentration of mercury in feathers collected from sparrows caught in nets in industrial and
nonindustrial regions of Lower Silesia, Poland is reported. Statistically relevant differences were
shown for the content of mercury in feathers from industrial and nonindustrial areas. Average content
of mercury for industrial and nonindustrial areas was 2.0 and 1.3 mg/kg of dry weight, respectively.
Maximum content of mercury in feathers from nonindustrial regions was 2.1 mg/kg, while for
industrial areas the percentage of samples containing mercury in concentration above 2.1 mg/kg
exceeded 40%. This preliminary research confirms the assumption that feathers of nonmigratory birds
may reflect the level of environmental contamination and can be recognized as bioindicators.
      LOTZ, ANNETTE, and RALF BÖGEL. Habitat modeling and GIS-based management of
chamois in Berchtesgaden National Park, Germany. Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, Doktorberg 6,
D- 83471, Berchtesgaden, GERMANY.
       Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) do not belong to the group of endangered species within the
European Alps. However, according to their seasonal changing of habitat, chamois can cause damage
to wooden plants and are thus subject to various population management plans. One of the principal
objects of Berchtesgaden National Park is to reduce spruce monocultures in favor of mountainous
mixed forests by the means of plantations and professional hunting. During the past 20 years, density
of ungulate species in the park (red deer [Cervus elaphus]), roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], and
chamois) has been severely reduced. There is a need to develop a management strategy that allows
chamois to choose their natural seasonal habitat in woodland areas as well as tree seedlings to
persevere in spite of ungulate feeding. A habitat suitability model based on telemetric data and
6 ecological key factors (elevation, slope, vegetation type, snow cover, insolation, and human
disturbance) has been developed for the national park and its surroundings. This model describes
zones of major and minor habitat quality and has been validated by the aid of local hunters. Referring
to the habitat suitability areas of highest and lowest chamois densities can be easily predicted.
Observation data on the upcoming of tree seedlings reveal the spatial distribution of ungulate feeding
pressure. Analysis of chamois rumen contents sampled from woodland individuals show to what
extent chamois feed on herbs and wooden plants. Combined evaluation of habitat quality and feeding
pressure by chamois will help to elaborate a management plan that suggests different hunting
strategies according to the spatial conditions identified by GIS modeling.
      MAEHR, DAVID S., THOMAS S. HOCTOR, and LARRY D. HARRIS. Remedies for
a denatured biota: remembering Florida’s native landscapes. University of Kentucky, Department of
Forestry, 205 Cooper Building, Lexington, KY 40546 USA (DSM); University of University of
122                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Florida, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, 303 Newins-Zeigler Hall, Gainesville,
FL 32601 USA (TSH, LDH).
       A terrestrial history spanning more than 25 million years in Florida has created landscapes and
biota that belie its simple topography (Webb 1990). Six geological epochs, 9 land mammal ages, and
19 major fluctuations in sea level anchor Florida’s modern biodiversity. These changes over time and
space occurred subtly or catastrophically, depending on the speed of climate and sea level change.
Despite the range contractions periodically imposed upon Florida’s ancestral communities, receding
coastlines encouraged periodic recolonization of “new” uplands. Vertebrate taxa such as the Florida
scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), Florida mouse (Podomys floridanus), gopher tortoise
(Gopherus polyphemus), sand skink (Neoseps reynoldsi), and even the Florida panther (Puma
concolor coryi) are likely products of the dynamic processes that have shaped the Florida landscape.
The modern distribution of Florida’s terrestrial vertebrates is increasingly a product of anthropogenic
influences. Despite substantial advances in the protection of natural areas, Florida biodiversity suffers
from increasingly fragmented landscapes and dysfunctional management philosophies. For example,
the Florida black bear (Ursus americanus floridanus) may exist as a statewide metapopulation but is
managed as a subset of individual, isolated populations. The continued adherence to the park
paradigm (Harris et al. 1996) prevents land management agencies from recognizing the need for
species assemblages to move across landscapes, obviates the need for connectivity among
increasingly isolated habitat patches, and removes incentives to restore denatured landscapes and
extirpated fauna. Effective conservation requires the operation of functional ecological processes
across proper spatial and temporal scales, and interspecific boundaries. The rememberment of
Florida’s natural landscapes will require a comprehensive strategy that spans gamma, delta, and
epsilon diversity gradients. We propose a statewide conservation blueprint that effectively integrates
a variety of species, community, and landscape attributes. Not only would such a system reflect the
dynamic processes shaped by 25 million years of evolution, but would drive the maturation of
management philosophies reflective of the evolving field of conservation biology.
      MARKER, LAURIE, and BONNIE D. SCHUMANN. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) as problem
animals: management of cheetahs on private land in Namibia. Cheetah Conservation Fund, P.O. Box
1755, Otjiwarongo, NAMIBIA.
       The management of problem animals on private land is a complex, difficult issue. When an
endangered species is involved, the necessity for crisis management can further complicate matters.
Namibia is fortunate to be in a position where cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) numbers are, at this stage,
sufficient to sustain the population. However, with growing human population expansion and the
demand for more land and increased pressure on resources, time is running out for the cheetah. The
extensive nature of farming practices in Namibia has inadvertently maintained habitat favorable for
cheetah. The primary problem is conflict with livestock farming, for which there are solutions other
than traditional lethal predator control. In order for agriculture practices to be compatible with the
survival of wildlife, new methods and policies of farm management, wildlife management and
predator control urgently need to be incorporated into land management.
       MARTIN, KATHY. Alpine biodiversity and conservation—ensuring connectivity with high
latitudes and low elevations. Canadian Wildlife Service, 5421 Robertson Road, RR1, Delta, British
Columbia, V4K 3N2 CANADA.
       Alpine areas represent climatic and ecological extremes, and animals residing in these habitats
have remarkable adaptations for energy conservation and survival. Despite being highly valued for
their intrinsic beauty and wilderness values, however, high elevation species and habitats have been
neglected in management and research. Alpine ecosystems are sensitive to sustained recreational and
resource use, and many show significant deterioration with major disturbances caused by recreational
activities, livestock grazing, and air-borne contaminant levels. In North America, conservation efforts
have been largely passive, relying on difficulty of access to alpine areas for protection. There is
evidence that life history traits vary with altitude. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus), a high
123                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



alpine grouse, showed longer laying rates, lower clutches, longer incubation periods with consequent
higher failure, and strong age dependence compared to willow ptarmigan (L. lagopus), its arctic
congenor. Densities often decrease with increasing elevation, but the scale of dispersal may be greater
for species living in naturally fragmented alpine habitats. Thus, if we use management paradigms
developed for lower elevation systems, we will likely overestimate production and underestimate
impacts of harvest and spatial population structure for alpine species. Additionally, we currently
underestimate biodiversity of alpine ecosystems. Recent work indicates extensive use from August to
October by up to 200 species of high latitude avian migrants and lower elevation forest birds and
mammals, when alpine habitats offer rich food resource gradients. Thus, in addition to concerns about
impacts of global warming on alpine species and habitats, we need to ensure that connectivity is
maintained across alpine habitats, and also with adjacent lower elevation forested habitats to retain
existing ecosystem entities and processes.
      MARTIN, ROWAN B. Commercial uses of wildlife, control systems, and sustainability.
P. O. Box BW475, Borrowdale, Harare, ZIMBABWE.
       This paper explores the concept that the dependent variable sustainability is a simple function
of the demand for a resource and the controls that are exercised over its exploitation. The aim of the
paper is to compare the efficacy and efficiency of various control systems and, therefore, several
variables have been held constant to facilitate the comparison. Sustainability and control are analyzed
in the limited context of recreational hunting in southern African savannas: a situation for which the
demand is relatively constant and the study areas across the region are similar. Controls may be
exercised by governments, private landholders, communal property landholders, national stakeholder
associations, or any combination of these 4 categories. Case studies have been chosen to illustrate
each of the possible combinations of control systems and their relative merits are compared. In those
situations in southern Africa where governments assume the full responsibility for control,
sustainability appears less likely than in all other situations. The highest likelihood of sustainability
occurs in situations where local communities have developed effective institutions for resource
management.
     MASKEY, TIRTHA MAN. Leopard problems in Nepal. National Parks and Wildlife
Conservation Department, Kathmandu, NEPAL.
      The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a common species and is found almost everywhere in the
country of Nepal. Unlike the tiger (Panthera tigris), it can thrive in sparsely forested areas, living on
domestic stock. There has been a tremendous increase in leopard-human encounters in recent years.
Most of these cases result in injury to one or both sides. In recent years, public pressure is building up
on the government to formulate a specific system to allow hunting of the leopard. Management of
such a problem, and capturing leopards, is becoming a challenge in Nepal primarily because of the
lack of funding.
       MATHEVET, APHAËL. Commercial value of reed and the impact of agro-environmental
policies in the Rhône Delta, southern France. Centre de Recherche en Géographie et Aménagement,
Université de Lyon 3 and Station Biologique de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc 13200 Arles, FRANCE.
       The Rhône Delta (Camargue) constitutes a wetland of international importance comprising 8,
00 ha of reedbed. In spite of their conservation value, reedbeds are increasingly submitted to artificial
water management in order to maximize reed harvest, cattle grazing, and waterfowl hunting. Within
this context, this study aims at assessing the economical value of reed and the impact of the recent
agro-environmental measures on the conservation and commercial exploitation of reedbeds. Based on
field surveys and remote sensing, reed cutting involves 2, 00 ha or 25% of the reedbed area in the
Camargue. Mechanical harvest has replaced traditional manual cutting, yielding 1 million bundles
annually, of which 90% is used for roof thatching and 10% for making straw-matting and brooms.
The Rhône Delta contributes nearly 80% of the French thatch market. Exports constitute 30% of the
annual global turnover estimated at US$2.2 million. Despite the relative economical opaqueness of
the business, the future of reed exploitation in the Rhône Delta appears fragile. While competition
124                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



among reed growers, farmers, and hunters is increasing, yield and quality of the reed harvest is
decreasing. The arrival of Turkish reed on the European market has further weakened the regional
quasi-monopoly on domestic trade, generating price fluctuations on the international market. Agro-
environmental measures have supported the reed industry in the Camargue since 1997. Although
these measures were implemented to improve the conservation value of reedbed habitat, they have
mostly resulted in increased exploitation and artificial compartmentalization of reedbeds.
     MÁTICS, RÓBERT, GYÔZÔ HORVÁTH, and LÁSZLÓ BANK. Population monitoring and
management of the barn owl Tyto alba (Scop.) in County Baranya, South Hungary. Department of
Ecology and Zoogreography, Faculty of Sciences, Janus Pannonius University, Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6.
H-7601 HUNGARY (RM, GH); The Baranya Group, Hungarian Society for Ornithology and Nature
Conservation, Pécs, Felsômalom u. 22. H-7621, HUNGARY (LB).
       Changes in the population of barn owls (Tyto alba Scop.) in County Baranya and their nesting
success were monitored between 1994 and 1998. Together with the local organization of the national
ornithological society, owls nesting in artificial nest-boxes were surveyed, and from 1996, further
potential nesting sites in church towers of settlements in the region of River Dráva have been visited.
The number of such non-nest-box nesting sites was 16–25 during the 3 years. The number of nest-
boxes placed out grew from 28 to 98 between 1994 and 1998. The proportion of nest-boxes occupied
by barn owls ranged between 11.1% (1997) and 59.6% (1995). The rate of renestings varied between
0% (1996) and 25.5% (1995). Throughout the years barn owls nested in 18.9%–43.5% of the church
towers without nest-boxes. However, church towers in which no nesting had occurred in the previous
years were visited less frequently. It became possible to analyze reproductive biological features in
4 years in locations with nest-boxes, and in 2 years in places without. The number of eggs laid in
locations with nest-boxes showed some fluctuation through the years. Out of the 5 years included in
the analysis it was 1995 when the number of eggs was higher than in the following years (t = 2.18–
3.28; P < 0.05). Yearly averages in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 were 7.6; 6.2; 5.7; 6.5, respectively.
However, this excess did not manifest itself in the number of fledglings leaving the nest; no statistical
difference occurred in this respect. The average ranged between 3.5 and 4.9. The number of
hatchlings did not vary considerably, ranging between 2.8 and 3.5. At places without nest-boxes, no
significant difference occurred between 1997 and 1998 in respect to the above parameters. Average
clutch size was 5.6–5.9, while the average number of hatchlings was 4.8–5.4. We have little
information on survival after owls left the nest. Despite the intensive restoration activity proceeding in
many of the observed churches, nesting in artificial nest-boxes seemed to have contributed to the
survival of the population in the investigated region.
      MÁTRAI, KATALIN, SZILVIA OROSZ, LÁSZLÓ SZEMETHY, MIKLÓS MÉZES,
BALÁZS PÖLÖSKEI, and GYULA SZAKA. Does the diet composition and nutrient content affect
the spring habitat change of red deer? University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife
Biology and Game Management, Gödöllö, H-2103 HUNGARY (KM, LS, BP, GS); University of
Agricultural Sciences, Department of Nutrition, Gödöllö, H-2103 HUNGARY (SO, MM).
       Westudied the causes of the seasonal home range shift between the forest and agriculture of
radio-collared red deer (Cervus elaphus). We hypothesized that home range shift can be obviously
explained by the more nutritious food found in the agriculture in spring. Therefore we compared the
plant composition of deer by microhistological analyses of feces (n = 46). Crude protein, crude fat,
crude fiber, ash, and nitrogen-free extract were then estimated of a forest and field plant mixture
composed of the species proportion found in the feces. Deer diet was dominated by browses in the
forest (85%), and herbaceous species in the field (74%). Deer diet was not more nutritious in the field
than in the forest according to chemical analysis. The forest diet significantly exceeded (P < 0.05)
field diet in all chemical components (except crude fiber). Crude protein content of black locust
(Robinia pseudoacacia) for example was similarly high to that of alfalfa (Medicago spp.) (24%) but
deer ate only 6% alfalfa in the field and 14% black locust in the forest. Willow (Salix spp.) that was
preferred in the field contained only 14% crude protein. Pine (Pinus spp.) has the most crude fat
125                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



content (7%) among all plants. Therefore deer home range shift has not been explained either by the
plant species of better nutritive value or plant selection.
      MAUCHAMP, ANDRÉ. Characteristics of managed and unmanaged reedbeds in southern
France and the environmental variables influencing selection of colonial breeding sites by herons.
Station Biologique de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, FRANCE.
       Common reed (Phragmites australis) is a long-lived species whose clonal habit leads to often
very homogeneous stands. These stands are the habitat of particular animal communities, and reedbed
use by humans interferes with the long-term viability of those communities. Most of the reedbeds in
coastal marshes in southern France are managed to some extent, either by reed cutting for thatch or
via the control of water levels. However, the relationships between the structural parameters and the
environmental factors are poorly known. Characteristics of reed and its associated flora were
described for 35 reedbeds from coastal marshes of southern France. The monitoring of salinity, water
levels, and the description of soil characteristics at the same sites allowed the underlining of those
relationships. The structure of Mediterranean reedbeds is highly variable, and the range of
environmental conditions where reedbeds are found is broad. The plasticity and tolerance of the plant
provides a large resistance/resilience to the formation, and the history of each reedbed partially
determines its characteristics. The consequence of these relations on reedbed management will be
discussed, with a particular focus on the use of reedbeds by purple heron (Ardea purpurea) colonies as
nesting sites.
      McCLURE MARK, and JOHN A. BISSONETTE. A multi-fractal approach for studying scale-
dependent wildlife-habitat relationships. Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, U.S.
Geological Survey-Biological Resources Division, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, College of
Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5290 USA.
       Ecologists are now acutely aware that scale must be considered overtly when examining
wildlife-habitat relationships. Despite this recognition, little progress has been made on how to isolate
the effects of scale in a biologically meaningful way, and how to explicitly incorporate scale into
wildlife-habitat studies. We developed a scale-dependent methodology for evaluating habitat use
versus habitat availability. Our methodology consists of 2 steps. First, we compare the multi-fractal
characteristics of animal point locations to habitat variable distributions across a broad range of scales
using presence-absence data. This procedure reveals the degree to which animal locations and habitat
variables fill space, and the degree to which they are dispersed across the landscape. A fundamental
rule that emerges from this procedure is that, at any given scale, habitat use can only be measured if
the dimensional value of animal locations exceeds that of habitat variable distribution. After
ascertaining the scale at which habitat use can be meaningfully measured, our second step is to
correlate the intensity values of animal locations to the habitat variables of interest versus the habitat
matrix. We provide a demonstration of our methodology using mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that
live in 2 distinct habitats.
       McCLUSKEY, DANIEL C., and CHRISTINE A. JAUHOLA. Cooperative approaches to
aquatic/riparian habitat restoration. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management,
Fish, Wildlife and Forests Group, 1387 S. Vinnell Way, Boise, ID 83709 USA (DCM); U.S.
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Fish, Wildlife and Forests Group, 1849
C. St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20240 USA (CAJ).
       Resource managers in the United States have long recognized the value of healthy
aquatic/riparian habitats and the need to accelerate restoration of degraded areas. In the arid western
U.S., riparian habitats make up less than 1% of the landscape, but are essential for stabilizing stream
channels, storing sediments, serving as nutrient sinks for surrounding watersheds, maintaining water
quality and quantity, and providing fish and wildlife habitat. Riparian areas may also be focal points
for uses such as livestock grazing and recreation. Aquatic/riparian areas provide vital migration
corridors for fish and wildlife species. For some species, such as anadromous fish, maintaining these
linkages is critical to species survival. Aquatic/riparian areas are excellent indicators of watershed
126                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



health, as they are among the first landscape features to reflect damage from improper management
within the watershed. The U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management has made
restoration of aquatic/riparian habitats an agency priority. Historical settlement patterns in the western
U.S. created a fragmented land ownership pattern. As a result, aquatic/riparian health issues are best
addressed by working closely with a variety of agencies, organizations, and land owners. Because
aquatic/riparian habitats serve as linkages that connect both land owners and wildlife habitats,
coordinated restoration at the watershed scale is critical. This presentation will highlight successful
strategies that can be applied in local communities including assessing riparian condition; determining
causes of watershed degradation; working with multiple agencies and land owners to establish
partnerships for action; setting restoration and management priorities; using coordinated training
approaches to accelerate restoration; and monitoring results.
     McKENZIE, OHN A. Elk-human conflict management in Banff National Park, Alberta,
Canada. Banff National Park Wildlife Laboratory, Box 900, Banff, Alberta, T0L 0C0 CANADA.
       The spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park
changed considerably in the last decade. Elk population density near the town of Banff increased
following the recolonization of wolves (Canis lupus) in the mid 1980s. The present population of
450–500 elk near the town of Banff creates a significant human safety problem, resulting in numerous
elk-human conflicts (i.e., aggressive elk behavior resulting in human injury). We investigated home
range patterns, survival, and recruitment of elk in the Bow Valley to determine whether the town of
Banff provides a refuge from predation in the Bow Valley. Elk near Banff showed high site fidelity to
the town of Banff. Elk near Banff had higher survival and recruitment rates than did elk in other areas
of the Bow Valley. Management actions to restore predator-prey dynamics and reduce elk-human
conflicts include translocation of selective herds from the town of Banff to other areas of the Bow
Valley, community involvement in elk management decision making, and extensive public education
programs.
      MEINE, CURT. The problem of scale in wildlife conservation: lessons from history.
International Crane Foundation, Box 447, Baraboo, WI, USA.
       All efforts at wildlife conservation implicitly involve actions that are undertaken and have
consequences at various spatial scales. Successful efforts take these various spatial scales into account
simultaneously, recognize the feedback processes that connect them, and develop conservation plans
in an integrated fashion. The appreciation of scale issues within wildlife ecology and management is
still emerging, but can be traced through the history of the field as it has emerged over the last
century. Scale was not an important consideration in the earliest applications of ecology, in the early
decades of the 20th Century, to the management of wild plant and animal populations. Even these
efforts, however, contained the seeds of more integrated approaches. By the later decades of the
century, the conservation professions had begun to meet this challenge through such integrative
organizing concepts as biodiversity, ecosystem management, landscape ecology, and community
conservation. The degree to which such concepts have redefined on-the-ground conservation efforts
itself varies according to historical circumstances, and to the conservation issue being addressed.
Examples from American and European forestry and wildlife conservation are used to illustrate these
historical circumstances.
      MIAN, AFSAR. Population study technique for desert animals. Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Arid Agriculture, Murree Road, Rawalpindi 46300 PAKISTAN.
       Deserts constitute tracts with harsh environmental conditions, where animal and plant life is
distributed in patches of suitable environment. Studying the population density and size has always
been difficult in these tracts. A quadrat sampling technique has been exploited for the population
studies with special reference to the cursorial Houbara bustard (Chalmydotis undulata macqueenii)
distributed over some 80, 00 km 2 of desert/semi-desert tracts of Balochistan, Pakistan, during winter.
This technique has also been effectively used for similar studies on different species of birds and
mammals of the area. The technique can be effectively used by using semi-trained technicians who
127                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



can help in regular monitoring of populations in these vast and difficult tracts involving limited
financial inputs.
      MIKLAY, GYÖRGY, and TIBOR CSÖRGÖ. Role of Black Sea coast for Acrocephalus
species at autumnal migratory period. Department of General Zoology, Eötvös Lóránd University,
Puskin u.3., Budapest, H-1088, HUNGARY.
       Loss of the necessary habitats along the migratory route could make a population level
decrease. Knowledge of stop-over sites and refueling areas are very important in the conservation of
migratory birds. The trans-Saharan, long-distance migratory Acrocephalus species have different
migratory strategies not only without but within species. Some of them are “jumpers” (migration
distance can be covered in a small number of long flights), and others are “hoppers” (migration
distance can be covered in a great number of stop-over localities). In 1984 EURING started the
Acroproject, an all-European research program in migratory strategies of Acrocephalus warblers.
There is much information from northern and western Europe, but only a little from the other parts of
the continent. The Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society organized ringing
projects at the autumnal migratory season, cooperating with local ornithologists near Burgas (Bulgaria
1990) and near Histria (Rumanian Dobrudja 1991–92). The birds were caught with mistnets, aged,
ringed, and weighed. We analyzed body mass data and the percentage of heavy birds (>13g) of sedge
(Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), reed (A. spp.), and marsh (A. palustris) warblers. The value of
average weight in the consecutive pentads increased moderately in the migratory period. The stop-
over length of recaptures was short, and they had no weight gains. The percentages of heavy birds
varied with age, year, and site. The percentage of birds heavier than 13g was much higher in Burgas
than in Histria for sedge and reed warblers and was lower for marsh warblers. The ratio of heavy birds
was similar or higher than it was at the known west and south European stop-over and refueling sites.
The regions that were studied are very important for north and northeastern European populations of
Acrocephalus warblers. The wetland areas on the coast of the Black Sea are refueling sites for birds
before passing through the Mediterranean.
     MILLER, JAMES E. The role of The Wildlife Society in international wildlife conservation
and management. USDA-CSREES/NRE, Room 829 Aerospace Center, AG Box 2310, Washington,
D.C. 20250-2210 USA; President, The Wildlife Society, 4240 Sideburn Road, Fairfax, Virginia
22030 USA.
        On behalf of The Wildlife Society, I join our colleagues from the host Republic of Hungary in
welcoming you to this Congress, and I encourage you to participate in as many of the symposia,
workshops, and sessions as you possibly can. This is a wonderful opportunity to strengthen your
networking skills, add to your continuing education and professional development, gain expertise and
insights from colleagues in other countries, and make new friends. I am delighted to be here for this
2 nd International Wildlife Management Congress and look forward to it being a great success. One of
the objectives of The Wildlife Society is to “Provide and promote periodic international forums
outside North America to enhance the educational experiences of wildlife professionals, yet the role
and commitment of the Society and its members, individually and collectively, is significantly greater
than in this stated objective. For many years, The Wildlife Society has shared information with,
supported activities, and provided leadership to numerous international wildlife and natural resource
efforts and activities. For example, the Society currently maintains representation to the International
Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species; International Congress of Game Biologists; and the International Association of
Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Individual members within The Wildlife Society have made significant
international contributions over the history of the Society to wildlife and natural resource programs in
other countries, and many of those have provided needed leadership and support to both the First and
Second International Wildlife Management Congress. Without these leaders and our professional
colleagues in other countries who have a passion for promoting “Excellence in Wildlife Stewardship
through Science and Education, it is clear to me that we would not be attending this Congress here
128                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



today in Hungary. We expect this Congress to be yet another milestone in the growth of The Wildlife
Society in international cooperation.
      MINKOV, SERGEI, and EVGENY KUZNETSOV. Russian trapping perspective and furbearer
conservation management. Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming. 79
Engels Str., Kirov, 610601, RUSSIAN FEDERATION.
       The sable (Martes zibellina) population in Russia has nearly doubled in the past 20 years,
reaching approximately 1.2 million animals. A sustainable harvest of 300, 00 animals/year is possible;
current harvests approximate 200, 00. The status of fur harvesting in some areas is now uncertain. The
pressure of trapping and hunting in some populated regions is too great, but more remote areas are not
heavily used, due to the high cost of transportation. This phenomenon has a positive side inasmuch as
these remote areas act as natural breeding reserves from which animals migrate. It has long been
established that trapping, combined with natural factors, is a regulator of wild furbearer populations.
Economic crisis has, in many areas, caused a decline in trapping. As a result, there is probably an
upset of long-standing balances between some species, such as between mustelids, and prey species
like sciurids and cricetids. Within several years, the natural environment will adjust to factors related
to a decrease in trapping. The Russian Federation is a party to the International Agreement on
Humane Trapping Standards, with Canada and the European Union, and traps that do not meet
standards specified in the agreement will soon be prohibited. This will no doubt cause some short-
term economic and technical problems for trappers. However, our investigations indicate that traps
meeting the standards of the agreement are more effective for trapping major species of furbearers,
such as sable, marten (Martes martes), beaver (Castor fiber), and muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). We
are convinced that the transition to a new generation of traps will, in the long run, ensure a high level
of well-being for trappers and their families, as well as populations of furbearing animals.
       MOSKÁT, CSABA, ANDRÁS BÁLDI, and ANDRÁS ZÁGON. Monitoring of the bird fauna
in a threatened riparian area along the River Danube: a comparison of techniques. Animal Ecology
Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Natural History Museum,
Budapest, Baross u. 13., H-1088, HUNGARY.
       The Szigetköz floodplain area is situated in North Hungary, along the River Danube. This river
forms the borderline between Hungary and Slovakia. In the Slovakian part a new hydroelectric power
station, a reservoir, and a bypass channel were established. As a consequence, the water level in the
main river bed and in the side branch system along the river decreased relevantly, and the water table
in the Szigetköz region also decreased. The usefulness of different monitoring techniques was
compared in order to select the most appropriate methods for monitoring the avifauna on the regional
scale. We applied the line transect technique to census marshland bird communities, the Danish point-
count technique for monitoring woodland bird populations, and faunal mapping for the whole
floodplain area. The faunal mapping method, applying 62 quadrats of 1 km x 1 km, proved to be
superior to any bird census techniques to demonstrate avifaunal changes in the region. Based upon the
distribution maps of species, an analysis by the GIS technique revealed more details about the effects
of the decrease of water level on the composition of the avifauna. When more reliable data were
needed for ecological interpretation, the double-visit fixed-radius point-count technique was applied
instead of the Danish point-count method to reveal bird-habitat relationships.
      MÜLLER, ZOLTÁN, GYÖRGY DÉVAI, MARGIT MISKOLCZI, BÉLA KISS, ALBERT
TÓTH, SÁNDOR NAGY, and ISTVÁN GRIGORSZKY. Dragonflies as indicators of habitat patterns
in Hungarian floodplain wetland complexes. Department of Ecology, L. Kossuth University, H-4010
Debrecen, POB.71, HUNGARY (ZM, GD, MM, BK, SN); Department of Applied Ecology,
L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, POB. 22, HUNGARY (AT); Department of Botany,
L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, POB. 14, HUNGARY (IG).
      The active floodplain of River Tisza, a major watercourse across eastern Hungary, abounds in
wetland habitats including various riparian forests, oxbow lakes, marshes, etc., constituting an
outstanding nature conservation value both as a core area and a green corridor. In the scope of the
129                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



country-wide Environmental Management Studies program, a reference status survey was carried out
in 1989–1990, followed by a comprehensive biotic survey in 1996 within the framework of the
PHARE-sponsored “National Biodiversity Monitoring Program” (NBMP). Results of these suggest
that the floodplain section between the villages Balsa and Tiszabercel maintains an exceptionally rich
dragonfly assemblage. This richness is mostly related to the structural diversity of water bodies in the
area. Dragonfly assemblages are widely known to be subtle indicators of the structural characteristics
of aquatic habitats and thus enable the survey of habitat diversity and landscape composition. To
extend the NBMP Pilot Project completed in 1996, we undertook an intense odonatological study
series in 1998, including all the sampling localities of the previous work. Dragonfly occurrences were
expressed as presence-absence data and evaluated by cluster analysis. Our results revealed that
variation between contrasting habitats within the same water body may exceed those among different
water bodies, despite mobility of adult dragonflies. Comparing our results with those of earlier
surveys indicates an overall adverse trend in biodiversity status of the area, probably due to intensified
human use (angling, forestry, and farming).
       MUSIANI, MARCO, ELISABETTA VISALBERGHI, and LUIGI BOITANI. The avoidance
of virtual barriers by wolves in captivity. CNR Psychology Institute, Via Aldrovandi 16b, Rome,
ITALY (MM, EV); Universit “La Sapienza, Viale dell ‘Universit ’ 32, Rome, ITALY (LB).
       The technique known as fladry, traditionally used to hunt wolves (Canis lupus) in Eastern
Europe, consists of driving them into a bottleneck formed by 50- x 10-cm red flags hanging from
ropes stretched over the ground. Okarma and Jedrzejewski (1997) have employed this technique to
live trap wild wolves. The aim of this study was to see whether 5 captive wolves living in
2 enclosures (120 m 2 and 850 m 2 ) at the Rome Zoo were also responsive. We found that avoidance
was maximal when the flags were #50 cm apart and the ropes were 50 cm above the ground. Wolves
never crossed red flags (nor gray of the same brightness) intersecting their usual stereotyped routes
(baseline: 7.4 ± 2.17 SD crossings/min.). Flags were not crossed even when the daily food ration was
placed on the other side of them. In contrast, crossings took place when the flag distances were $75
cm, or the rope heights were #25 cm or $75 cm, though their rates decreased below the baseline
(P < 0.02, Mann-Whitney U Test). There was no significant reduction in the crossing rates when
plastic pipes and branches, instead of flags, were used, and interactions with them were fewer than
with the flags (P < 0.01). These results indicate that (1) in contrast to what Okarma and Jedrzejewski
have argued, fladry is effective on captive wolves; and (2) fladry can be employed to confine wolves
to a limited space. Our study provides knowledge relevant for capturing wild wolves and for the short-
term protection of livestock from wolf predation. Therefore this technique has great potential for
future wolf management.
      NAGY, OHN, and NORMAN SNOW. The delineation of barren-ground caribou herds in the
Western Canadian Arctic, with special references to the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Wildlife
Management, Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Bag Service No. 1,
Inuvik, NT X0E 0T0 CANADA (JN); 107 Mackenzie Roar Suite 301, P.O. Box 2120, Inuvik, NT
X0E 0T0 CANADA (NS).
      Biologists have tended to characterize caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds according to their
calving ground distribution, and this is reflected in their nomenclature. Inuvialuit traditional
knowledge has held that 1 of the 2 large barren-ground caribou herds that use the Inuvialuit
Settlement Region (ISR), the “Bluenose Herd, is not a single herd. Our research from early 1996 to
the present confirms that this is the case. Based on a confirmation of the historical distribution and
population characteristics, satellite-telemetry, and mitochondrial DNA analyses, our results provide
compelling evidence that there are at least 2, and possibly 3 genetic units (“herds”) comprising the
Bluenose Herd. This poster presents the results of this research, suggests an alternative rationale for
designating caribou herds, and considers the implications for sustainable harvest levels, quotas, and
the overall management regime.
130                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       NAGY, JOHN, and NORMAN SNOW. Wildlife management in the Western Canadian Arctic
and the development of species co-management plans. Wildlife Management, Department of
Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Bag Service No. 1, Inuvik, NT X0E 0T0 CANADA
(JN); 107 Mackenzie Roar Suite 301, P.O. Box 2120, Inuvik, NT X0E 0T0 CANADA (NS).
       An aboriginal land claim settlement, the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (1984) has allowed for the
establishment of a system of cooperative wildlife management pursuant to the principles of
conservation and sustainable use. The terrestrial and avian wildlife, the management vehicles, are
2 wildlife management advisory councils and a regional Inuvialuit Game Council. The poster sets out
the principles, the goals, and the process by which they are being attained in order to conserve
wildlife, habitat, and to preserve the harvesting rights of the Inuvialuit. Human-wildlife interactions
are addressed, in addition to wildlife-wildlife interaction. The planning process itself is predicated on
the incorporation of local knowledge, scientific knowledge, and management interactions. To date
5 co-management plans have been developed. Each is for a 3- or 5-year time-frame and are both
species and zone-specific. They deal with (1) caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskox (Ovibos
moschatus), arctic wolves (Canis lupus), lesser snow-geese (Chen caerulescenscaerulescens), and
small herbivores on Banks Island, Northwest Territories; (2) caribou, muskox, arctic wolves, eiders,
and small herbivores on North West Victoria Island, Northwest Territories; and (3) grizzly bears
(Ursus arctos) in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Yukon and Northwest Territories; (4) the
Bluenose (mainland barren-ground) caribou herd within its range; and (5) the fur industry in the
Inuvik Region, Northwest Territories. These plans cover most of the principal resource species and
will be summarized in the poster.
      NANA, OHIL. Cultural factors affecting community wildlife conservation in Pakistan. Central
Asia Sustainable Use Specialists Group, World Conservation Union (IUCN), Quetta, PAKISTAN.
       Initiated, developed, and encouraged by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), especially
IUCN and WWF, communities in the federally administered Northern Areas (NAs) of Pakistan have
been taking an active role in the conservation of wildlife and its habitat in community forest and
grazing areas. The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has recognized this initiative and has assigned both
policing and development functions to such communities, and has signed agreements with one or
other NGO to prohibit hunting and other exploitive uses of wildlife and natural resources, except
under jointly prepared resource management plans. Whereas most such communities are thus far
those located in the NAs, there are also important wildlife conservation areas of decades-long
standing in each of the other provinces of Pakistan, and the success of these and the NAs program has
made it imperative that such programs be inculcated in all areas of wildlife potential. Since this
devolves around community participation without any aspect of imposition, it is necessary to get
community commitment to such programs, and this is where different cultural factors come into play.
The geographical area of Pakistan stretches from high Himalayan mountains, plateaus and meadows
in the north, through the rocky semidesert hills of the northwest, and the true desert of the south-
central flats, to the coast of the Arabian Sea. Each of these areas (and the riverine belt of the Indus
River, which runs north-south through the country) is typified by different “decision-making regimes”
or entities, all of which are recognized “de facto” by GOP, and by others “de jure” as well. These
entities run almost the entire gamut of civic regimes, from the democratically elected village council
to the aristocrat/autocratic single individual whose decisions affects thousands of literal “subjects.”
Finding the right approach and identifying the correct incentives for each of these different regimes
requires knowledge of cultural and tribal realities and the skill to amalgamate responsibilities and
rewards within the particular cultural framework being addressed. Each decision-making regime has
certain distinct advantages and obstacles that have to be taken into account in initial proposals; this is
rapidly becoming evident, and forms the basis of the paper to be presented.
      NEET, ORNELIS R. Factors influencing the spatial expansion of wild boar (Sus scrofa)
populations in Western Switzerland. Institut d’Ecologie, Université de Lausanne, CH- 1015 Lausanne,
SWITZERLAND; and Centre de conservation de la faune et de la nature (Etat de vaud), CH - 1025
Saint-Sulpice, SWITZERLAND.
131                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       In many areas of Europe, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a major concern for wildlife managers
and a source of conflicts with farmers. I examine the influence of factors such as hunting pressure,
meteorological and habitat quality data on the spatial expansion of S. scrofa in Western Switzerland.
Statistical analysis of a 10-year data set shows that the rate of spatial expansion of the population is
not correlated with harvesting pressure but that meteorological and habitat quality variables have an
influence on the species’ range. This suggests that the heavy and non-selective harvesting strategy
followed over several years in Western Switzerland did not contribute significantly to the observed
spatial expansion of S. scrofa, which appears to be a natural process. Some implications of these
conclusions for wild boar management are discussed.
      NEMETH, RWIN, M. DVORAK, K. BUSSE, M. RÖSSLER, A. SCHUSTER, and
P. GRUBBAUER. Bird distribution in the reedbed of Lake Neusiedl and its relation to conservation.
Konrad Lorenz Institute for Comparative Ethology, A-1080 Vienna, Savoyenstraáe 1a, AUSTRIA
(EN, MR, AS, PG); BirdLife Austria, A-1070 Vienna, Museumsplatz 1/10/8, AUSTRIA (MD);
Biologische Station A-7142 Illmitz, AUSTRIA (KB).
       The extensive reedbeds of Lake Neusiedl on the eastern border of Austria are home to bird
populations of international interest. Effective conservation planning for this area necessitates data on
bird abundances but the hardly accessible reedbeds prevent accurate estimates on a large scale. During
a 2-year study, we applied a remote sensing method to derive the numbers and distribution of
territorial bird species from aerial infrared imagery. A linear regression model based on infrared data
and abundance estimates by point counts allowed us to predict the distribution of 6 bird species (little
crake [Porzana parva], water rail [Rallus aquaticus], Savi's warbler [Locustella luscinoides],
moustached warbler [Acrocephalus melanopogon], reed warbler [A. scirpaceus], and reed bunting
[Emberiza schoeniclus]) and to estimate their population size. Compared to former estimates, our
results show that species preferring old reed stages (little crake and moustached warbler) were more
common than expected. An ongoing 3-year study on the colonial nesting great white egrets (Egretta
alba) involving aerial counts showed that most of the foraging occurred in reedbeds. Again, it was
possible to associate the occurrence of egrets with reedbed structure. Overall, our results indicate
long-term changes in bird population sizes resulting from human-induced changes in reed structure
through reed harvesting and water level regulation. Future conservation and management efforts have
to take into account the potentially diverging habitat requirements of the different reedbed bird
species.
       NEMTZOV, SIMON C. Successful field trials of a new slow-release capsaicin-based animal
repellent, for reducing a variety of human-wildlife conflicts in Israel. Department of Terrestrial
Ecology, The Nature and National Parks Protection Authority (NNPPA), 78 Yermiyahu St., Jerusalem
94467, ISRAEL.
        In recent years there has been increased interest in the use of non-lethal methods for keeping
wildlife away from points of conflict with humans. Effective chemical repellents can assist nature
conservation by reducing conflicts between wildlife and farmers. Although previous work has shown
that mammals are usually repelled by bitter or spicy compounds (e.g., capsaicin, the active ingredient
in hot peppers), these have not been widely used because of the lack of an effective delivery
mechanism. An Israeli chemical company has recently developed a new long-lasting capsaicin-based
product that provides slow-release of the active ingredient, and high persistence outdoors. In initial
field trials, this new product has been effective in Israel in repelling wolves (Canis lupus) and jackals
(C. aureus) from depredation on livestock, foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from various crops, wild boar (Sus
scrofa) from military installations and from crops, gazelles (Gazella gazella) from orchards, and hyrax
(Procavia capensis) from a variety of vegetation. The Israeli Nature and National Parks Protection
Authority continues to promote the use of chemical repellents as an aid in reducing wildlife-human
conflicts, provided they meet the following criteria: the chemical provides effective repellence of the
target species, causes no lasting harm to the affected animal, and is benign to the environment, to
people, and to crops. The farmer can then determine the cost-effectiveness of using the approved
chemical repellents as opposed to other non-lethal methods.
132                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      NERONOV, VALERY M., YURI A. GRACHEV, and OLGA M. BUKREEVA. Commercial
harvest of saiga in Kalmykia (GUS); comparison with the situation in Mongolia and in Kazakhstan.
Laboratory of Landscape Ecology of Mammals, IEE Russian Academy of Science, 13 Fersman Street,
Moscow, 117312, RUSSIA (VMN); Institute of Zoology, NASK, 93 Al-Farabi Ave., Alma-Aty,
480060, KAZAKHSTAN (YAG); Department for Hunting Management, 273 Lenin Street, Elista,
358000 Kalmykia, GUS (OMB).
       The saiga (Saiga tatarica L.) is a medium-sized antelope distributed in dry steppes and semi-
deserts of Eurasia. Males have horns about 30–32 cm long that are very valued as an ingredient for the
traditional Chinese medicine. As a territory of the former USSR there was no commercial saiga
harvesting up to 1951, but later on it was developed on a large scale and became very profitable.
During 1951–90 more than 7.5 million saigas were harvested but in recent years the hunting
management has deteriorated and the illegal trade of saiga horns has increased enormously. In 1994,
to better control horn exports, 2 saiga subspecies were listed on the CITES Appendix II. Based on our
1997 survey and other data, there are not more than 1, 00 saigas in Mongolia; hunting of saiga was
forbidden completely since 1953, but even so, poaching is a serious threat to the saiga’s survival. In
Kalmykia, after 1986, when 16, 00 animals were harvested, the saiga numbers decreased considerably
and varied between 140, 00 and 380, 00. Hunting was closed for many years and only twice (in 1990
and 1996) the saiga harvesting was authorized (11, 00 and 14, 00 animals taken, respectively) but its
organization was far from perfect. If the management of saiga populations would be improved,
Kalmykia could export 1.2–1.5 tons of horns every year. In Kazakhstan there are 3 main geographical
saiga populations and harvests are based on their separate counts and annual quotas. During 1989–92,
95, 00–112, 00 saigas were procured and in 1993–97, only 13, 00–62, 00. In total, Kazakhstan
exported 0.6–0.2 tons of saiga horns in 1993–97, the maximum (20 tons) was registered in 1992. In
China, about 800 tons of saiga horns were consumed by only 4 main traditional medicine
manufacturers in 1990–95 (Guo Yinfeng et al., 1997). Other details important for the conservation
and sustainable use of the saiga populations will be presented in our report.
      NICHOLS, JAMES D., PATRICIA J. HEGLUND, JOHN R. SAUER, JANE FALLON, and
FRED FALLON. Incorporating habitat into estimations of avian detection probabilities based on the
double-observer method. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Biological Resources Division, U.S.
Geological Survey, Laurel, MD 20708 USA (JDN, JRS, FF); Department of Biological Sciences,
University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 USA (PJH); AScI Corporation, 1365 Beverly Road, McLean,
VA 22101 USA (JF).
       The variable circular plot and double-observer methods are distinctly different approaches to
estimation of detection probabilities. We applied the double-observer approach originally developed
for aerial surveys to avian point counts as a way to develop better estimates of species abundance and
to determine observer and habitat-specific detection probabilities. Results from our previous work
have demonstrated that observer identity and bird species are important sources of variation that
should be incorporated into all attempts to model detection probability. Habitat is another important
source of variation that should be considered. We focused our current efforts on an examination of
differences in detection probabilities related to habitat. Data were gathered from 17 Breeding Bird
Survey routes conducted by paired observers near Patuxent, Maryland, USA in 1998. Prior to
analyses, data from our field trials were stratified based on broad habitat structure (field/scrub vs.
forest) and used to model detection probabilities based on habitat. Our results show that it is important
to classify habitats associated with individual point-count locations and then to incorporate these
habitat categories into models estimating detection probabilities. Whether the objective of a point-
count survey involves monitoring goals or specific study goals, inclusion of spatial variation in bird
abundance or density based on differences in habitat will likely yield stronger and more widely
applicable inferences.
     NSOSSO, DOMINIQUE. Approach to managing human-wildlife conflict in Central Africa.
Headquarters for Wildlife and Protected Areas, B.P. 15344, Brazzaville, CONGO.
133                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Intentions were to show that lack of pasture areas and protected rain forests incited wildlife to
wander into riverside communities. We expected to raise awareness of donors and obtain financing
and equipment. Limited resources normally lead to sparse efforts in Central Africa to reserve
protected rain forests for wildlife, leading to the creation of numerous constraining factors,
particularly their degradation resulting from the impact of often illicit overpopulation, logging, and
drilling operations. These factors encourage migrations of large mammal wildlife toward riverside
community plantations, which they destroy. This produces conflict situations, increasingly difficult to
manage, for which state legislation does not allow specific compensation. Communities will then take
justice upon themselves through slaughtering of fauna for revenge. BARNES R.F.W. et al. (1991) in
“Inventaire des éléphants de for t (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) dans la réserve de Conkouati au
Congo Brazzaville” revealed this phenomenon’s importance in peripheral villages, where crop
destruction leads to short cassava supplies and insignificant revenues for peasants who will be unable
to buy it elsewhere. Annual field losses by 2, 00 agricultural workers have often been noted,
representing US$144, 00, considering that each worker is losing 0.15 ha. Loss of human life must also
be stressed: 1 death per annum has been recorded in Conkouati from 1984 to 1994. We recommend
that research be promoted and personnel trained to implement techniques to eradicate this scourge.
      NSOSSO, DOMINIQUE. Balancing: the solution equation to attenuate conflict. Headquarters
for Wildlife and Protected Areas, B.P. 15344, Brazzaville, CONGO.
       The objective is to harmonize human-wildlife interactions, creating relaxation. Expected results
are harmonious relationships, improved living conditions, and local communities favorable to
conservation. Briefly, the proposed solution approach, through developing forest grazing areas by
means of sylvan and agroforestry techniques, appears to act contrary to environmental laws. But
considering the extent of the human-wildlife conflict problem that is evolving like a plague, viable,
sustainable solutions need to be sought out continuously. Concerted efforts constitute a promising trail
since they contribute to creating avenues of technological information. Networking should be
exploited to permit innovation in which policies are to be formulated and reformulated, examined and
reexamined in the process of their implementing. Their success is not to be measured by the
correlation of actual implementation per original formulation but by the degree to which the
reformulated policy satisfies intended objectives, responding to the needs of protected area managers
who note local community satisfaction and acquired through conservation impetus in reducing crop
devastation, creating a relaxed environment. It is recommended to encourage and develop bilateral
and multilateral cooperation as well as critical assistance from UICN, WWF, UNEP, FAO, World
Bank, USAID, FEM, and the European Union. Indeed, if individualistic conceptions disintegrate
before large political and economic groupings such as the European Union, formulated
recommendations must be admitted and/or considered as basic grass-roots programs responding
effectively to the questions before us.
      NSOSSO, OMINIQUE. Pasture reserves: approach to sustainable management. Headquarters
for Wildlife and Protected Areas, B.P. 15344, Brazzaville, CONGO.
       The aim is to create optimal conditions for wildlife in order to diminish conflict; expected
results are improved life conditions. If grazing reserves and protected areas of the Sudano-Guinean
savannas in Central Africa are to profit from a range of techniques “Pas de point” (Riney, 1963);
“Bande d’interception” (Monnier, 1961); “Méthode de KLAPP” (1929) and Brann Blanquet (1927),
etc., such is not the case for protected areas of rain forests because of their complex stratification. To
do this, sylvan and agroforestry techniques are to be introduced into pasture-land with an
experimental approach to solutions. Most of these production systems have been tested in the Congo
basin and in West Africa, involving improvement techniques of natural and artificial regeneration
aimed at timber production. In the present case we would practice exclusion, i.e., instead of producing
timber, fodder plants would be cultivated using high value bromatological species or by ameliorating
densities of forest fruit trees. These techniques may be the Tropical Shelterwood System (TSS),
Taungya Limba (Terminalia superba), Okoumé (Autoumea klaineana), classical service-path, etc.
published in “Memento du Forestier par la Cooperation Francaise” (1974). However, other more
134                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



recent technologies would be welcome. We would proceed by opposing translocation techniques and
harmful, costly electric fencing, an alternative unique to rain forest settings. We recommend
reinforcing institutional support, partnerships, twinning, cooperative development as well as the
establishment of development funds for protected areas and rain forests.
      NUDDS, THOMAS D. Practical implications of scale mis-matches: landscape-ecological
perspectives on waterfowl management and its evaluation in North America. Department of Zoology,
University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 CANADA.
       My Welsh colleagues say “Every mickle makes a muckle, or every nickel adds to a dollar, but
it is not the case that every part matters to the whole in ecological systems. Hierarchy theory has
alerted ecologists to the pitfalls of “reductionist” small-scale explanations for large-scale phenomena.
What is signal (cause of change) at small scales of space or time is not necessarily signal, but rather
noise, at large scales. This observation has important implications for inferences about dynamics of
wildlife populations and, therefore, the efficacy of different management options. Wildlife biologists
and managers encounter scale mis-matches when management, or its evaluation, is incommensurate
with scales at which “problems” are observed. For example, if some large-scale (ie., “macro”)
indicator of population performance is monitored when small-scale management is affected, there are
4 possible outcomes. Management at the small-scale is deemed effective (and it really was);
management is deemed ineffective because no change in the macroindicator occurs (and it really
wasn’t); management is deemed effective, but it coincided with change in the macroindicator (it really
wasn’t); and management is deemed effective, even if there is no change in the macroindicator (blind
faith in Welsh economics). These latter cases are commonly encountered in wildlife management.
Examples from waterfowl management in North America are illustrative: the effects of nest-predator
removal to reverse population declines; competition/hybridization with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
on black ducks (A. rubripes); and culling on the population of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens
caerulescens). Scale mis-matches generate potentially misleading inferences about the efficacy of
management. In short, because of landscape-level causal mechanisms, the effects of which may
swamp signals generated by small-scale “remedial” management, it is unlikely that management of
nest predators, mallard removal, or culling snow geese will be effective. Management directed at
ultimate causes, rather than proximate indicators, and evaluated at commensurate scales, might prove
more cost-effective.
      ODURO, WILLIAM, and FRANCIS N. K. BONSU. Perception of farmers and non-farmers
around Bui National Park toward management of problem wildlife. Department of Wildlife and
Range Management, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and
Technology, Kumasi, GHANA (WO); Ghana Wildlife Department, Bui National Park,
P.O. Box M.239, Accra, GHANA (FNKB).
       Farmers and non-farmers in 10 fringe communities around Bui National Park were surveyed to
examine perceptions of human-wildlife conflicts and their management. Participatory Rural Appraisal
(PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) tools were used to gather information. The response groups
tended to attribute different degrees of depredation to certain wildlife species. In choosing control
methods to manage wildlife conflicts, both farmer and non-farmer groups tended to prefer lethal
methods. Most farmers (84%) and non-farmers (68%) believed baboons (Papio spp.) were the most
severe or frequent source of crop depredation followed by bush fowl and patas monkey (Erythrocebus
patas) in descending order of severity of depredation. Approximately 86% of farmers and 72% of
non-farmers felt hunting reduced depredation-related problems, but non-farmers were approximately
3 times as likely as farmers to prefer non-lethal control techniques for warthogs (Phacochoerus
aethiopicus). The fact that there is no disparity in perceptions of crop depredation wildlife makes it
easier for development of a management plan for the park. On the contrary, the existence of
disparities in perceptions of control techniques for depredation wildlife is a potential source of
conflict in the development of management plan for Bui National Park. However, residents of fringe
communities of the park agreed to suggested use of non-lethal means of control only if they would be
135                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



compensated for crop and livestock losses. Local people also suggested their involvement in the
protection and management of the park.
       ORTNER, NIKOLAUS, and JOHANNES FRITZ. Survey results of game farming in Austria.
Institute of Zoology, Department of Ethology, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, AUSTRIA (NO);
Konrad-Lorenz-Institute, Auingerhof, A-4645 Gruenau 11, AUSTRIA (JF).
       We have collected detailed information about game farming in Austria. From 1, 09 forms we
sent to farms all over in Austria, we got back 204 (20%). The forms contained questions on the topics
biology, economy, and keeping conditions. The statistical analysis showed that game farming has
a long tradition. On average farms are in operation for 9.6 ± 6.4 years (means ± SD) and are the main
secondary landuse besides classical agricultural farming. The reserves are located mainly in the East
of Austria. Primarily fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis musimon),
and wildboar (Sus scrofa) are kept. Fallow deer dominates with a 60% portion of all farms and an
estimated total number of 28, 00 individuals. On average fallow deer, red deer, and mouflon
reproduce at a rate of 0.8 young/adult female. In the case of meat production with fallow deer, the
density (6.2 adults/ha) and the proportion of males to females (1:5.8) greatly exceeds the value of red
deer or mouflon. The meat is frequently sold directly to households and to the gastronomy, where the
marketing age for fallow deer is 1.4 years. Beside meat production, the selling of live red deer and
mouflon is important. In contrast to other European countries, our results show that the population
density of fallow deer and red deer is very high. The animal density and sex ratio in the reserves are
much lower than indicated in the literature.
      OYLER-McCANCE, ARA J., KENNETH P. BURNHAM, and CLAIT E. BRAUN.
Development of a model to assess management and conservation strategies for Gunnison sage grouse.
Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA
(SJO); Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, CO 80523 USA (KPB); Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 W.
Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526 USA (CEB).
       The Gunnison sage grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a newly recognized species that occurs
only in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah. Because populations are small and isolated,
risk of imminent extinction is high. We developed a GIS-based model to prioritize management and
conservation strategies for Gunnison sage grouse based on several layers of information. The current
distribution of Gunnison sage grouse and a coverage of sagebrush habitat provide the base level for
the model. Further, we included a measure of habitat quality determined from a previously developed
habitat-based model for Gunnison sage grouse. Information on relative gene flow, isolation of
populations, and genetic diversity was also incorporated from a genetic study. Predictions of future
habitat loss based on past patterns of habitat loss coupled with trends in human population growth
were also included. This model can be used to assess different management and conservation
strategies including land mitigation, translocation of birds to increase genetic diversity, reintroduction
of birds into previously occupied habitats, and habitat improvements.
       PANDYA, TVISHA M., and GUNAVANT M. OZA. Biodiversity conservation and tribal
cultures—an Indian perspective. Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390
002 Gujarat, INDIA (TMP); International Society of Naturalists (INSONA), Oza Building, Salatwada,
Vadodara 390 001 Gujarat, INDIA (GMO).
       Our terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity are being eroded due to environmentally unsustainable
lifestyles of urban and rural populace. The need of the hour is linking livelihood security with
ecological security of a bio-region. Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary (JWLS), Gujarat, India, is such
a bio-region, with a dry deciduous teak forest, and it is the home of tribal people. Conservation of
biodiversity in the region requires a wide range of management tools from local peoples’ involvement
to intensive forest management. Our field studies during 1992–98 in JWLS have ascertained its
richness of biodiversity. This includes105 forest tree species of which 19 species are rare and not
found in surrounding areas; 132 bird species have been listed, of which some are migratory, finding
136                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



a haven here on their southward journey; 17 species of mammals; 19 species of reptiles; and 6 species
of amphibians. The close proximity of the sanctuary to an urban industrial center such as Vadodara
(82 km) in the western part of India, provided us an opportunity for frequent visits to carry out
intensive and extensive field work. Understanding the local tribal peoples’ lifestyles formed one of the
major thrust areas, as we hoped our study would reinforce that the local people should be the
custodians of their natural resources and have a major stake in managing the protected area. This may
then contribute to sustainable conservation achievement.
      PAQUET, PAUL C., CAROLYN CALLAGHAN, DANAH DUKE, MARK HEBBLEWHITE,
KARSTEN HEUER, OM HURD, CLIFFORD A. WHITE, and JACK WIERZCHOWSKI.
Restoration of a large carnivore movement corridor in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Central
Rockies Wolf Project, 910 15th Street, Canmore, Alberta, T1X 2W1, CANADA (PCP, CC, DD,
MH); Banff National Park Warden Service, P.O. Box 900, Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta, T0L
0C0, CANADA (KH, TH, CAW); Wildlife Biology Program, University of Montana, Missoula,
Montana, 59812, USA (MH); Geomar Consulting LTD, Heritage P.O. Box 78003, Calgary, Alberta,
T2H 2Y1 CANADA (JW).
       Gray wolves (Canis lupus) naturally recolonized the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park,
Alberta, Canada, in the mid 1980s. However, research showed high levels of human activity
prevented wolves from moving between critical habitats within the valley. Using empirical data, we
developed a spatially explicit predictive model that quantified wolf habitat use and movements. The
model predicted that reducing human activity in dysfunctional travel corridors would increase use of
these pathways by wolves. During 1997, management actions reduced human activity within
1 affected corridor to a level shown by the model to be compatible with wolves. We evaluated the
response of radio-collared wolves to corridor restoration by comparing 1 winter of post restoration
movements (1997–98) with 1 year of pre-restoration movements (1996–97). Wolf use of the corridor,
as measured by wolf radiotelemetry days, was significantly higher after corridor restoration.
Preliminary results suggest empirically based habitat/movement models can be used successfully to
identify travel linkages and determine levels of human activity that impede wolf movements. We
believe this process is a very promising approach for identification and restoration of wildlife
movement corridors.
      PAULOVICS, PÉTER, and NÓRA MOLNÁR. Experiences with new types of bat boxes: an
arms race against other inhabitants. Department of Ecology, JATE University, Egyetem u. 2., Szeged,
H-6722 HUNGARY.
       We developed 2 new types of bat boxes, taking into consideration requirements of bats in roost
selection and avoidance of inhabiting by other animals. The boxes with an entrance at the bottom are
hanging down on a wire and bats have to climb in upright through a 15- to 20-mm-wide slit. We
formed 17 groups consisting of 4–18 boxes from the new types and an older one (Stratman I). We put
them in the forests situated along the Tisza and Maros rivers, constituting a roost network. The first
bats occupied the boxes after about 1 year. We can record occurrences by checking the boxes or by
observation of bats’ droppings. Four species, predominantly Nyctalus noctula and Pipistrellus
nathusii, have been observed since 1996. Occupancy rate was up to 50% depending on the place and
the season. Three other species exhibited a strong urge to use our boxes. The blue tit (Parus
coeruleus) often sleeps or even builds a nest in the boxes in spite of its lower reproductive success in
these roosts. We tried to keep it off by providing bird boxes in the vicinity of the bat boxes concerned.
The common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) can easily commute on the wire and frequently
builds compact nests in the boxes. We pulled plastic pipes over the wires and also developed a box
type for this species. These boxes are optimal shelters for nests of the hornet (Vespa crabro). We did
not manage to develop an appropriate method for keeping them off. Structure of the boxes and results
are detailed.
137                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      PECHACEK, PETER. Tree selection for roosting and nesting in the three-toed woodpecker,
and possible consequences for forest management practices. Nationalparkverwaltung, Doktorberg 6,
83471, Berchtesgaden, GERMANY.
        The three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is mostly known to chisel out fresh cavities
for nesting, but will roost in older cavities even built by other woodpecker species. Thus,
I hypothesized that the nesting sites of the three-toed woodpecker differ compared with its roosting
sites. I investigated several parameters and spatial distribution of the trees used by marked individuals
for both nesting and roosting. I further documented data on breeding biology and sexual segregation
in body size in Berchtesgaden National Park (Germany), to provide recommendations that would
minimize the conflict between forestry practices and the conservation of woodpecker habitats.
Norway spruce (Picea excelsia), averaging 37 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was the most
important tree species for both nesting and roosting. Decaying snags with broken tops were preferred
for roosting, while living trees infested with heart rot were used for nesting. The three-toed
woodpecker occupied cavities that were located up to 10 m above the ground. If nesting cavities were
exceptionally excavated in a dead trunk, trees in a better decaying condition were used compared to
those used for roosting. Nesting trees were surrounded by standing trees that contrasted with missing
cover observed at roosting sites. This indicated that anti-predator strategies varied among different
microhabitat sites. The laying of the first egg averaged around 15 May. Adult males were significantly
heavier than females, which coincided with the dominant position of foraging males as reported
elsewhere. I concluded that leaving at least 10 snags/km may be crucial to provide suitable
woodpecker habitat in managed forests. Furthermore, if logging operations in breeding habitats would
be avoided between 20 April and 15 July, disturbance of breeding woodpeckers can be decisively
minimized.
      PEI, KURTIS JAI-CHYI. Hunting system of the Rukai Tribe in Taiwan, Republic of China.
Department of Wildlife Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology,
Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan 91207, REPUBLIC OF CHINA.
       The hunting system of the Rukai tribe in southern Taiwan was studied based on interviews with
tribal members from January 1996 to January 1997. Three characteristics in their hunting system were
identified that may contribute to the maintenance of intensive hunting activity in the present day:
(1) they hunted only in winter months and hunted mainly hoofed animals, whose higher reproductive
performance allowed the game species to withstand prolonged hunting pressure without significantly
declining; (2) the scattered distribution of their hunting territories not only disperses their hunting
activity, but also makes areas outside of the hunting territories function as wildlife protective areas;
(3) the limited number of users for each hunting territory reduces the possibility of over-hunting.
     PEI, KURTIS JAI-CHYI. Predicted spatial distribution patterns of the red-bellied tree squirrel
and Owston’s long-nosed tree squirrel in natural forest in southern Taiwan. Department of Wildlife
Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan
91207, REPUBLIC OF CHINA.
       Spatial distribution patterns of the sympatric populations of the red-bellied tree squirrel
(Callosciurus erythraeus) and Owston’s long-nosed tree squirrel (Dremomys pernyi owstoni) were
investigated in a natural forest between 1, 00 and 2, 00 m in elevation in southern Taiwan from
October 1995 to April 1997. Occurrence data for the 2 species were collected by auto-trigger cameras
and the frequency of occurrence (number of pictures taken/1, 00 camera hours) was used to represent
the relative population density of both species in 21 camera sites. The correlation between the
population density and environmental dimensions (i.e., elevation, slope, aspect, and whole light sky
space value) showed C. erythraeus has a much narrower niche width than D. p. owstoni. Moreover,
there was no evidence of inter-specific competition. C. erythraeus existed mainly in the moist, dense
forest-covered stream valleys with steep slopes and its density decreased gradually towards the
montane ridges and higher elevation, while D. p. owstoni was distributed rather evenly throughout the
whole area. C. erythraeus did not occur in areas above 1, 00 m. Most of the habitat preferences
138                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



showed by C. erythraeus can be attributed to the dense canopy cover, which is in agreement with the
more arborial behavior of the species. C. erythraeus also exhibited a ramp (graduated decrease) of
density from 1, 00 to 1, 00 m, which indicated that its altitudinal range of distribution was likely
determined by climatic factors or climate-related resources. In contrast, D. p. owstoni exhibited a step
(sharp decrease) in density on both of their lower and higher altitudinal boundaries. While the
cessation of forest in the high altitude could be the determinant of the upper distribution boundary for
D. p. owstoni, no obvious determinant of their lower distribution boundary was detected in the present
study.
       PERZANOWSKI, KAJETAN A., and IHOR I. KOZAK. Present status and perspectives for re-
establishing the European bison over its former Carpathian range. International Centre of Ecology,
Polish Academy of Sciences, 24 Belzka, 38-700 Ustrzyki Dolne, POLAND (KAP); Institute of the
Ecology of Carpathians, 17 Chaikovski, 290000 Lvov, UKRAINE (IIK).
       The original population of the European bison (Bison bonasus) had been extirpated in the
Carpathians for more than 200 years. During an attempt to re-establish a bison population in
Bialowieza, Poland, some individuals with mixed blood of a lowland bison and Caucasus line were
produced. In the beginning of the 1960s, those animals were released in Bieszczady Mountains, and
since then form the only free-living population of the bison in the western Carpathians. In Ukraine,
the bison has been introduced to various parts of the Carpathians since 1965, and now lives in several
small, isolated herds. Since the recent political changes in Central and Eastern Europe, there is
a chance to re-establish a viable population of the bison over the Carpathian Range. Present status of
the population, habitat requirements, potential threats, and the conservancy plan for the Carpathian
bison will be presented and discussed.
      PETRAM, WELF, FELIX KNAUER, and PETRA KACZENSKY. Availability and use of
caves as winter dens relative to human presence by brown bears in Slovenia. Munich Wildlife
Society, Linderhof 2, D-82488 Ettal, GERMANY.
       Wecompared availability and use of caves suitable for denning by brown bears (Ursus arctos)
in respect to human presence. The study area is located in Central Slovenia, where human density is
around 40–50 inhabitants/km and bear density is estimated at 1 bear /10 km . On an area of 200 km
we chose 200 representative plots of 250 x 250 m on which we mapped all caves suitable for denning.
In addition, rocky areas like canyons and karst dolins were searched for these caves. Use of caves as
winter dens was evaluated by the presence of a nest or bear hair. Caves without bear signs were
classified as suitable, but non-used, if characteristics were within the range of caves used as winter
dens. For 76 non-used and 54 used bear dens, we measured the distances to villages and roads and
mapped topography and security cover. The minimum distance to a forest road was 75 m and to
a village was 425 m. We could not find an avoidance of suitable caves by bears because of closeness
to civilization, but we saw a clear preference for caves with difficult access. In Slovenia, brown bears
seem able to cope quite well with human land use and use winter dens closer to human presence than
expected.
     PIDGEON, ANNA M., and NANCY E. MATHEWS. Landscape scale effects on distribution
and productivity in Chihuahuan Desert birds. Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of
Wisconsin at Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
       There is evidence that in some habitats birds respond to habitat patchiness at the landscape
scale. In other habitats, this response is difficult to detect. We tested the hypotheses that bird
distribution and productivity can be explained by landscape-level patterns in the northern Chihuahuan
Desert. We examined avian patterns among 3 desert upland habitat types: creosotebush (Larrea
tridentata), honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) and sandsage (Artemisia filifolia), as well as the
spatial variation of abundance and productivity within these habitat types. Correlation of landscape
metrics with avian productivity and abundance indicates little consistency among bird species and
landscape variables. Both landscape-level and ground-level patterns explained variation in distribution
and productivity among bird species. This study furthers understanding of the scale at which these
139                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



desert birds assess and respond to habitat, and has implications for land managers assessing reserve
design and habitat quality.
      POULIN, BRIGITTE. Introduction: reedbed management and conservation in Europe. Station
Biologique de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, FRANCE.
       Common reed (Phragmites australis) is a well-known, cosmopolitan plant species that
generally dominates where it occurs, forming dense beds within lakes, rivers, and canals. Either
considered as a declining species or an invading weed, reedbeds have been protected, managed,
created, and destroyed. Reedbeds are peculiar habitats indeed. They provide a home to several
animals, among which are many threatened bird and insect species. They are commercially harvested
to provide building material such as roof thatch. They are grazed by cattle and suffer from pest
infestation, similarly to agricultural crops. In short, reedbeds can be considered as an agro-ecosystem
sharing unequaled features of both natural and human-made habitats. While commercial exploitation
is often beneficial in the long-term by maintaining the habitat at a reed-dominant stage, it reduces
biological diversity in the short-term. A proper management of reedbeds is thus important both for
socio-economic reasons and nature conservation. Because reedbeds are a prime example of the
coexistence of commercialism and conservation, they offer outstanding possibilities for improving
habitat management in a sustainable way. This symposium was convened to integrate the commercial
and conservation values of the reedbed habitat, and will address topics such as habitat degradation and
fragmentation, reedbed management, commercial exploitation, reedbed ecology, and wildlife
conservation.
      PRATESI URQUHART, WILLIAM B. The Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe (LCIE): to
maintain and restore, in coexistence with people, viable populations of large carnivores as an integral
part of ecosystems and landscapes across Europe. C/O WWF Mediterranean Programme, Via
Garigliano 57, Rome 00198, ITALY.
       The challenge of conserving large carnivores is complex and dynamic, involving ecological,
economic, institutional, political, and cultural factors, and any attempt to solve this conservation issue
must take this into account. Realistically, no single agency, organization, or institution will be able to
solve the carnivore conservation issue alone. No single plan or strategy can be completely
comprehensive and correct as a guide for action and continual monitoring is required. Recognizing the
need to build strong partnerships with land managers, researchers, citizens, government officials, and
international organizations and conventions, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), together with
partner organizations and experts in more than 20 European countries, has decided to get to grips with
the issue so that the future for large carnivores (brown bear [Ursus arctos], Eurasian lynx [Lynx lynx],
Iberian lynx [Lynx pardinus], wolf [Canis lupus], and wolverine [Gulo gulo]) in Europe can be
substantially improved. The LCIE has as its main aims (1) to create a network of interested parties
and act as a focal point for information and research relative to large carnivore conservation in
Europe; (2) to develop and implement new ideas and methods to ensure the coexistence of large
carnivores with people; (3) to support and build on existing initiatives and projects within Europe, and
encourage Europe-wide cooperation in order to avoid duplication of effort; (4) to disseminate valuable
experience and knowledge; and (5) to encourage public discussion on the future of large carnivores
within Europe, especially with regard to rural support systems that maintain the economic and social
well being of local people.
     PRIME, KEVIN, OLIVER R. W. SUTHERLAND, JOHN G. INNES, and GRAHAM
NUGENT. Maori leadership of a native bird recovery program in New Zealand. Manaaki Whenua—
Landcare Research, P.O. Box 69, Lincoln, NEW ZEALAND.
       The European colonization of New Zealand alienated the indigenous people, Maori, from high-
level conservation management. It also brought exotic predators that have since decimated
populations of native birds, many of which were treasured and culturally important food species for
Maori, including the kukupa or New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), a large (600–700
g) forest bird. Both Maori and non-Maori are keen to restore kukupa numbers, in order to regain the
140                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



bird’s unique role as a seed disperser and, perhaps ultimately, to be used once again as a food
resource. In a rare example of the re-establishment of a tribal role as kaitiaki (guardians) of a natural
resource, the Ngati Hine tribe now leads an attempt to restore kukupa numbers in Motatau Forest
(350 ha). By establishing a collaborative partnership with central government agencies, the Ngati
Hine have been able to initiate a program of intensive predator control that has seen quick success. In
1996–97, before this program started, none of 13 kukupa nests located lasted longer than 10 days.
With 24-hour time-lapse infra-red video cameras, we filmed egg predations by both possums
(Trichosurus vulpecula) and ship rats (Rattus rattus). In 1997–98, when possum and rat numbers had
been substantially reduced, 1 of 8 nests did fledge a chick, but only after extra possum trapping at the
nest tree. By 1998–99, however, both possum and ship rat numbers were extremely low and all of
7 monitored nests successfully fledged young, with no extra protection at the nest trees. This dramatic
turn-around in kukupa breeding success has heightened public awareness of their plight, and resulted
in an expansion of the partnership at Motatau to include local landowners and regional government.
       PUTZE, MATTHIAS, and TOM KIRSCHEY. Vulture conservation management in the
Adygeyan Republic and the Krasnodar administrative region and a schedule of a protected aerie zone
site. Umwelt und Bildung e.V., Geschwister-Scholl-Str. 19, D-15537 Neu Zittau, FRG.
       During the German-Russian conservation project that created the protected area of the Bolshoj
Tkhach mountainous region, we researched vulture population composition and discussed the
conservation needs. The 4 European vulture species, the lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), the
Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), the black vulture (Aegypius monachus), and the Griffon
vulture (Gyps fulvus) do use this area for breeding and foraging. They all are listed in the Red Data
Book of Russia and their occurrence is of European account. Our schedule of a protected aerie zone
site consists of the realization of the poaching prohibition, pasturing, ungulate game management, and
tourism guidance.
       RADELOFF, OLKER C., D. J. MLADENOFF, and M. S. BOYCE. Mimicking disturbance
patterns in forest landscape management—impacts on wildlife habitat. Department of Forest Ecology
and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706 USA
(VCR, DJM); College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point,
WI 54481 USA (MSB).
       Natural landscape patterns are often shaped by disturbance processes such as fire, windthrow,
and insect outbreaks. Human habitation has altered landscape patterns worldwide. Intensive research
during the last decade revealed the importance of landscape pattern for habitat quality and population
viability of many wildlife species. However, our understanding of landscape pattern effects on
wildlife communities is incomplete, and general management recommendations are lacking. Our
objective is to review the current discussion on mimicking natural disturbance patterns by forest
management, and to provide an example highlighting the importance of this discussion for wildlife
management. For example, disturbance patterns in mesic temperate forests are shaped by small-scale
gaps created when single trees fall. Such landscape pattern ensures a high proportion of interior forest.
In contrast, the northwest Wisconsin Pine Barrens (USA) are a good example of a fire-dominated
landscape. We analyzed surveyor records predating European settlement and found evidence for large
open patches created by crown fires. Open habitat species such as sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus
phasianellus) require such openings as habitat. Current forest management suppresses fire and creates
only clear-cuts of relatively small size. It has been suggested to aggregate clear-cuts in the Pine
Barrens to create large openings. The effects of such management could be examined during a recent
outbreak of jack pine budworm followed by extensive salvage cuts. We classified these salvage cuts
using multi-temporal satellite images, and quantified landscape pattern changes. Cutting rates during
the outbreak were 4 times higher than before the outbreak, and salvage cuts were significantly larger
than pre-outbreak cuts, thus creating some large openings. Sharp-tailed grouse surveys on these
salvage cuts revealed high population densities, thus indicating that large clear-cuts can provide
habitat for certain wildlife species previously dependent on fire patches. While not duplicating all
141                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



processes of fire, landscape-scale resource management can offer a chance to maintain wildlife
species that depend on landscape pattern in managed landscapes.
       RAHMAN, ANZIDUR, and GOLAM MONOWAR KAMAL. Applicability of economic tools
for sustainable wildlife conservation in Bangladesh: an overview. Agriculture, Conservation, and
Rural Development Program, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of
Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, THAILAND (SR); WWF-TPO, Asian
Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, THAILAND (GMK).
       It is arduous to increase motivation of the policy makers, planners, and people for conserving
wildlife in a country like Bangladesh, where 120 million people are living in an area of 144, 00 km 2 .
For thousands of years, people in Bangladesh were living in harmony with nature. In the last few
decades, an unprecedented change occurred in population growth, land use, and pattern and rate of
resources exploitation. As a result, 94% of the natural habitat of Bangladesh has been altered by
human intervention (UNCED, 1992). These unsustainable changes have created a tremendous
pressure on the wildlife habitat in Bangladesh as well as the economic development. Changes in the
natural habitat have increased degradation of the other natural systems as well. Planners in
Bangladesh are always concerned about calculable short-term income from nature, ignoring long-term
natural disaster due to these short cited visions of economic growth and development. Thus far, no
serious consideration has been made to use the economic tools relevant to natural resources
conservation measures that are increasingly used in the developed world. Given this context, the
present paper highlights the potential for applying these economic tools for decision making in natural
resources management and conservation in Bangladesh. It is apparent that applicability of the
concepts of Total Economic Valuation requires extensive and systematic information. A thorough
review of the existing information relevant to wildlife and natural resource conservation in
Bangladesh revealed concentration of inventories only. Therefore, a dearth of systematic information
for economic evaluation for wildlife resources remains a serious constraint. Also, the knowledge on
the externalities of natural resource utilization is nonexistent. Therefore, an institutional framework is
proposed that will create a favorable environment to enable collection, processing, and
implementation of a wildlife and natural resource related database for effective policy formulation.
       REIMOSER, FRIEDRICH. Roots of the forest versus ungulate problem and strategies for
integrating wildlife and forest management practices. Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, Vienna
Veterinary University, Savoyenstrasse 1, A - 1160, Vienna, AUSTRIA.
       It is recognized that ungulate herbivores can have a profound effect on the vegetation and soil
of forests and woodlands. Damage to growing stock by twig browsing and bark peeling is an
increasing problem in many European countries and elsewhere. However, there are considerable
difficulties in objectively assessing the damage done by ungulates, and in determining the reasons for
the problem. Hasty and false inferences about damage and its causes frequently result in conflicts
between foresters, landowners, hunters, nature conservationists, federal authorities, and even tourist
agencies. To obtain an understanding of the forest-ungulate compartment in the ecosystem with the
aim of better management, the impacts of ungulates on forest vegetation and, conversely, the impacts
of habitat structure and dynamics on ungulates (density, distribution, etc.) and on the forest’s
predisposition to game damage are demonstrated. It is shown that browsing and peeling impacts
depend markedly on landscape type and silvicultural techniques. If forestry practices are “close to
nature, abundance of ungulates may also result in a greater density of forest regeneration and a better
mixture of tree species. Potential impacts of ungulates on forest regeneration, man-made disturbances
of the ungulate-vegetation system, and strategies to avoid game damage are discussed.
     REIS, KATHRYN B., HENRY R. CAMPA III, R. BEN PEYTON, and SCOTT
WINTERSTEIN. Educational workshops: a proactive approach to conflict resolution in wildlife
management. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
48824-1222 USA.
142                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       Crop damage by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been an on-going issue in
Michigan since the 1940s and reached its present peak during the 1980s. Like other human-wildlife
problems, this issue is rooted in conflicting interests over wildlife access, protection, and management
objectives. A previous study at Michigan State University (MSU) discovered that deer crop damage is
perceived differently both between and within stakeholder groups. Consequently, investigators at
MSU recommended a communication program that described the diversity of views. Our study
pursued this suggestion and explored the utility of educational workshops as a method for teaching
stakeholders about wildlife biology/ecology and the diverse objectives wildlife biologists must
consider when developing management plans. Also, it evaluated the ability of such workshops to
contribute to conflict resolution among stakeholders on any wildlife management issue. Day-long
workshops were piloted in the northern Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan. They began with
the formation of 5 multi-disciplinary groups, each containing 4 farmers, 4 hunters, and 2 wildlife
biologists, followed by a discussion of deer biology/ecology to prepare participants for a management
planning exercise. Goals of the planning activity were to develop habitat and population management
strategies for a deer crop damage scenario and to identify issues that demand further consideration
during management planning. Groups were instructed on how they may use aerial maps and a variety
of data describing the scenario’s deer population, habitat, and crop-damage levels to address activity
goals. Workshops concluded with a presentation of each group’s management decisions and
a debriefing of the learning experience. A survey evaluated whether the participants believed the
workshops achieved education goals and whether they developed collaborative working relationships
among stakeholders. Results of the evaluations will be discussed in the paper.
     REYNAL, MIGUEL ALFREDO. Future for in-country philanthropy in Latin America.
Fundacion Ecos. “La Aguada, Calle de las Becasinas, Laguna Blanca, Maldonado, URUGUAY.
       The establishment of expectations and indicators for future national funding performance for all
32-odd Latin American nations is complex and inexact. Philanthropy trends in this region, as
anywhere, are governed by economic, political, social, and cultural present realities and future
expectations. Having stated this limitation we will try to obtain through WWF and our network of
non-governmental organizations and country representatives an updated country by country or
regional analysis of expected donor trends involving the public and private sector. This information
will be analyzed and summarized, indicating major changes in both sectors that could positively or
negatively affect donor tendencies. As a framework to this projection, historical, regional, or country-
by-country statistics will be presented (when and if available) illustrating past funding performance,
habits, and incentives. In conclusion, it will be demonstrated that in-country philanthropy is a weak
response to the region’s wetland conservation demands.
      ROBINSON, JOHN G. Sustainable use: a paradigm in conservation of wild, living resources.
Wildlife Conservation Society, 185th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460-1099 USA.
       I explore the biological limits to sustainable hunting in tropical forests, drawing on examples in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. People have hunted wildlife in tropical forests for thousands of
years, depending largely on ungulates, primates, and rodents. Standing biomass of these taxa in
forests, however, is low in comparison to biomass in open habitats, rarely exceeding 3, 00 kg/km 2 .
Consequently, maximum production for human harvest in tropical forests is correspondingly low,
rarely exceeding 150 kg/km 2 . Primates in particular, because of their low intrinsic rates of population
increase, have low annual productions. Population densities of forest-dwelling people who depend on
wildlife harvesting are therefore limited, and densities of indigenous peoples traditionally have been
much less than 1 person/km 2 . Despite these limits to wildlife production, tropical forest wildlife
harvests have increased dramatically in recent years, through (1) increases in the accessibility to
tropical forest areas, (2) increases in effective human population density, (3) increased sedentarism
and social differentiation, (4) changes in hunting practices, (5) increased commercialization of wild
meat trade, and (6) income increases of urban consumers. Today, much of the subsistence and
commercial hunting in tropical forests is no longer sustainable.
143                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      ROBINSON, SCOTT K. Large-scale spatial dynamics of migratory songbirds in North
America: effects of fragmentation at a regional scale. Center for Wildlife Ecology, Illinois Natural
History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820, USA; and Department of Ecology,
Ethology, and Evolution, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
       The population trends of migratory songbirds in North America have received a great deal of
attention in the establishment of conservation priorities. While attention has focused on species that
are declining, the majority of forest species are not showing dramatic population declines. Given the
very large number of threats and conservation problems faced by migrants, this lack of strong declines
in many forest-nesting species is more surprising than the declines that have been demonstrated. Work
in the Midwestern U.S. suggests that high nesting productivity from very large forest tracts may be
propping up populations of many species that suffer very low reproductive success in more
fragmented landscapes (“black hole” population sinks). Species nesting in mostly forested landscapes
escape from the most severe negative consequences of habitat fragmentation, such as high nest
predation rates and levels of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), which
thrive in more fragmented landscapes. This regional source-sink hypothesis still rests on several
untested assumptions, which should be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, I would argue that we
have enough information to recommend conservation plans that aim to maintain the current very large
forest tracts that still exist in most, but not all ecoregions of North America. Indeed, this is the basis of
most of the regional conservation plans being advocated by Partners in Flight. The extent to which
birds of other habitats such as grasslands depend on productivity from very large habitat tracts
remains to be determined.
     RODRIGUES, DAVID C., A. FABIRO, and M. A. FIGUEIREDO. The use of nasal markers
for monitoring mallard populations. Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Instituto Superior de
Agronomia, 1399 Lisboa Codex, PORTUGAL.
       We discuss the advantages and limitations of alphanumerical coded nasal markers used for
monitoring resident mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations. From 1993 to the present we marked
more than 2, 00 mallards to study survival rates and movements in Portuguese wetlands. Nasal
markers proved to be efficient on small wetlands with good visibility, allowing estimates of monthly
survival rates during shooting season. On large wetlands, reading of alphanumerical codes was
difficult (demanding the best optical equipment and excellent visibility conditions). However, place of
marking could be identified by color codes. We tested 2 designs of nasal saddles, various colors, PVC
tape of various thickness and rubber tape, and alphanumerical codes with 1 or 2 digits. The first
design of nasal saddles (rectangular) disturbed some birds during feeding, so we changed it to a more
anatomic design. PVC tape had a short useful life (generally <2 years), being shortest for the thinner
types. Rubber tape is expected to last more than 4 years. The alphanumerical code was best read on
markers of light colors, especially on white during periods of bad light conditions like at dusk. Nasal
markers seemed not to affect birds’ health or pairing success. We conclude that the use of
alphanumerical coded nasal markers is an efficient method of marking mallards for populations on
small wetlands with good visibility and for relatively short study periods. On large wetlands, places
with bad visibility, or for long study periods, a previous evaluation of its adequacy to the purposes of
the study must be performed.
      ROUYS, SOPHIE, and MALGORZATA KRASINSKA. Activity and movements of European
bison in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland. Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences,
17-230 Bialowieza, POLAND.
       We investigated activity and movements of European bison (Bison bonasus) to assess how they
are influenced by supplementary winter feeding in contrast to summer months when bison find their
own food. In the Bialowieza Forest, our study area, bison are provided with hay when there is snow,
as foresters fear damage to standing timber. We collected data by 24-hour radio-tracking of bison over
a 12-month period. In snow-free months when radio-tracked bison lived in small groups, the animals
were active in blocks throughout the day and the temporal distribution of these blocks changed from
144                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



day to day. Pooled data for all radio-tracked animals indicated that bison were active about half of the
time, with slight peaks in the early morning and afternoon. We found no periods of inactivity but
small troughs after midnight and in mid-morning. Bison movements were greatest in the early
afternoon and smallest in the middle of the night. Temperature and rainfall had no significant impact
on activity or movements. In months with snow cover, when bison aggregations can reach over 100
individuals, movements were mainly restricted to the feeding stations’ neighborhood and activity was
lower than in snow-free periods. We conclude that seasonal differences in the activity and movements
of European bison can be attributed to artificial feeding. If the objective of European bison
conservation program is to maintain the animals’ wild behavior pattern, the necessity for winter
feeding should be reconsidered not only in forests where bison already exist but also where they are
proposed as candidates for reintroduction.
      SALTZ, DAVID, MARY ROWEN, and DAN I. RUBENSTEIN. Space use patterns and their
sociobiological and conservation implications in reintroduced Asiatic wild ass. Mitrani Center for
Desert Ecology, Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University, Sde Boqer, Campus
84990, ISRAEL.
       We studied space use patterns in a growing population of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus)
reintroduced into the Ramon erosion cirque in the Negev Desert, Israel. Dominant male home ranges
had little overlap between them suggesting that males in this population are territorial. After the first
release of males and females into the wild, only 1 male territory was established covering most of the
cirque. This situation remained for 6 years. As the number of males in the population increased, so did
the number of territorial males, and average territory size decreased. Male territories were set up in
the vicinity of permanent and ephemeral water sources, however the water sources were at the
peripheries of the home range and were not a center of activity. When only 1 male held a territory,
female home ranges were almost entirely within the home range of the male. As male territory size
decreased, so did the spatial association of females with a single male. During the breeding season,
males spent more time in close association with female groups, which may temporarily appear as
a harem breeding strategy. While demographic and environmental factors are considered to pose
a greater threat to small populations, our data support the hypothesis that in small populations of
polygynous animals, genetically effective population size may be considerably smaller. Our data
suggest that this situation may last for several years until new males are recruited into the population.
Thereafter, rapid male turnover and female home ranges traversing several male territories ameliorate
this problem. We found no relation between male turnover rate and female reproductive success.
Possible management options are discussed.
      SANDERSON, JAMES G. Ecosystem ecology, conservation biology, and landscape ecology:
the question of definition and scale. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA.
       The International Biosphere Program (IBP) and the Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) have
powered studies in ecology for decades. In the early 1980s conservation biology called attention to the
plight of many species not covered by the blanket of IBP and TIB. Ecosystem studies continue to
evolve and add to a growing list of research achievements. The TIB is still today invoked to support
studies in isolated areas in the centers of continents. Conservation biologists have recently identified
so-called “hotspots” of high biodiversity that should be protected. Despite decades of achievements,
a growing anxiety among thoughtful ecologists is leading many to question the old theories, the
experimental procedures, and the wisdom of protecting disarticulated areas. A new journal
Ecosystems publishes ecological studies across the full spectrum of time and space from milliseconds
to millenia, and from small plots to biomes. Can the well developed procedures of ecosystem science
be extended to produce valuable results across landscapes? Can species or hotspots be protected in
perpetuity? Does TIB apply everywhere? Is there even a need for landscape ecology? I will address
these issues with definitions, examples, and a discussion of scale. By considering examples of
previous successful investigations and examining notable cases where ecological investigations have
come up short, I will argue the case for the study of the ecology of landscapes. Perhaps the time has
come for a General Theory of Insular Biogeography that makes a special case of TIB, refocuses
145                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



conservation efforts from protecting species to protecting the evolution of species (i.e., through time),
and insists on a top-down approach to the study of mobile influences on chemical flows in ecosystems
(i.e., across space).
      SÁNDOR, ISTVÁN, and GÁBOR SZILÁGYI. Grassland management with Przewalski's
horses. Hortobágy Nature Conservation Public Company, H-4071 Czinege J. u 1., Hortobágy,
HUNGARY (IS); Hortobágy National Park Directorate, H-4024 Sumen u. 2., Debrecen, HUNGARY
(CS).
        Proper management of grasslands has always been one of the key questions of practical nature
conservation. In the major part of the Holocene natural grasslands of the Hortobágy region (Eastern
Hungary) were grazed by big ungulates (aurochs, wild horses), whose function was taken over
transitionally by domesticated species, parallel with the human occupation of the area. Hortobágy
National Park, covering the largest (54, 00 ha) continuous natural grassland area in Central Europe,
has to face 2 major management problems. The number of domestic grazing animals has seriously
decreased in the last 20 years, while the introduction of modern ways of animal keeping and other
uses of grasslands (hay-making) increase the level of human disturbance on habitats and some
endangered species (e.g., great bustard [Otis tarda]). In co-operation with the Köln Zoo, a 2, 00-ha
core area of Hortobágy National Park (Pentezug) was fenced in 1997, where Przewalski’s horses
(Equus caballus) were introduced for both grassland management and species protection purposes.
Initial results of the monitoring of the habitat indicate that grazing by wild ungulates can be a useful
tool in protected area management and this combined project is suitable for studying nutritional
ecology and social organization of Przewalski's horses under nearly natural conditions.
      SARMENTO, PEDRO, and JOANA CRUZ. Managing rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
populations for Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) conservation. Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata. Rua
dos Bombeiros S/N. 6090 Penamacor, PORTUGAL.
       In the Iberian Peninsula, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations have suffered a notorious
decline during the last 40 years. This decline is primarily related with habitat alteration, epizootic
diseases, and over-hunting. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), the most endangered cat species in the
world, is a predator that depends heavily on the wild rabbit as its main prey. Rabbit regression is one
of the main factors for the decrease of the Iberian lynx populations. Serra da Malcata is a protected
area in central Portugal created with the main objective of protecting the Iberian lynx. Measures for
conservation include protecting and improving the habitat, increasing prey populations and
minimizing non-natural causes of mortality. The rabbit recovery program consists in opening
pastures, creating artificial warrens, and restocking operations. In the present study we describe these
measures, their respective success, and their relative importance for lynx conservation.
     SAUER, JOHN R., JAMES D. NICHOLS, J. E. HINES, THIERRY BOULINIER, and
CURTIS H. FLATHER. Regional variation in detection probabilities of species counts from the North
American Breeding Bird Survey. U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel,
MD 20708 USA (JRS, JDN, JEH, TB); U.S. Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO 80526 USA (CHF).
       Data from continent-wide surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) are
often used in analyses of temporal and spatial variation in species richness. Unfortunately, the BBS is
based on point-count sampling, in which only a portion of the bird species that actually occur on
a survey route are actually counted. If regional patterns exist in the proportion of species detected
during counting, spatial patterns in observed counts of species may provide a misleading index to
spatial patterns in actual species richness. However, capture-recapture estimation procedures can be
applied to BBS data, allowing direct estimation of regional variation in proportion of species detected
during counting. We estimated species richness and detection probabilities from BBS data collected in
1996. Among survey routes, detection probabilities of species averaged 0.77 (range = 0.38–1.0), and
varied as a function of several factors, including region, habitat openness, quality of observer, and
species group. Maps of species richness demonstrate clear regional patterns in detection probabilities.
146                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Use of counts of species in analyses of BBS data without adjustment for detection probabilities may
result in biased estimates of spatial change in species richness.
      SCANLON, PATRICK F., D. E. STEFFEN, J. M. CHAPMAN, JOHN F. ZOHN, and
GREGORY A. SPEIGHTS. Annual variation in kidney-indices of mule deer by sex and age.
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0321 USA.
       Fat deposits in various areas of the body have been found to indicate the condition of wild
animals, particularly as condition relates to preparation for winter. One fat deposition site is the
perirenal connective tissue. The ratio of kidney weight to weight of perirenal fat stored within the
bounds of perpendiculars drawn at the poles of the kidney has been used to develop a kidney-fat index
(%KFI). This study was conducted in order to examine the seasonal variation in kidney-fat indices
among mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Colorado. The deer were collected from the United
States Air Force Academy site, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. The sample included both hunter
harvested and road-killed deer, giving a full distribution of samples throughout the year. There were
distinct patterns in %KFI. Fawns had the lowest maximum %KFI. Yearlings had a higher maximum
%KFI than fawns, but lower than that for adults (>1.5 years old). We also found that there was
a significant difference in %KFI distribution between males and females (P < 0.001). Males showed
a sharp increase in %KFI during September, but rapidly lost %KFI during the following rut. At the
onset of spring, males seemed to begin regaining %KFI. Females had high %KFI during the fall,
which dropped to moderate levels through the winter. Very low %KFI was observed in females
during May and June, which corresponds with the time of parturition and the early stages of lactation.
       SCHADT, STEPHANIE, FELIX KNAUER, and PETRA KACZENSKY. A habitat suitability
and connectivity model for lynx in Germany. Munich Wildlife Society, Linderhofer Str.7, D-82488
Ettal, GERMANY.
       After an absence of almost 100 years, the lynx (Lynx lynx) is now slowly recovering in
Germany along the German-Czech border, due to reintroductions on the Czech side. We used
a predictive rule-based model using a GIS to make predictions about the (1) location of potentially
suitable habitat for lynx in Germany, (2) possible number of resident lynx, (3) connection of the
potential habitats, and (4) structure (metapopulation, islands, continuum) such a population could
have. The goal of this analysis was to create a working basis for the implementation of further
management strategies for lynx in Germany. The most important factor in the model was availability
of forest cover with the parameters being its size, degree of fragmentation, and spatial structure.
Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the variability of the results with respect to changes in
these parameters. The dispersal routes between suitable patches were modeled with a cost-path
analysis, based upon habitat type specific probabilities for lynx to cross. Our results show that habitat
suitability is higher in the Eastern part of Germany due to larger forest patches and the higher degree
of undisturbed areas. In all of Germany there is enough suitable habitat for about 300–400 resident
lynx. Habitat patches vary greatly in size, with few areas being suitable for a continuous and viable
population, others allowing a metapopulation structure or being completely isolated. Our model is an
example of large-scale landscape structure analysis based upon the needs of a species with great
spatial requirements; an approach suitable to solve complex spatial questions in wildlife management
and conservation.
       SCHARNINGHAUSEN, JERROLD J., HERMANN MEYER, MARTIN PFEFFER,
DONALD S. DAVIS, and RODNEY L. HONEYCUTT. Genetic evidence for the existence of new
strains of hantavirus in Europe. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 USA (JJS, DSD, RLH); Institute for Microbiology,
Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich, GERMANY (HM); Institute for Medical
Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich,
GERMANY (MP).
147                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       In order to determine the distribution of hantavirus in the United States’ military training and
deployment areas, 301 tissue samples from 5 rodent species trapped in 7 different localities of
3 European countries were studied. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction revealed
positive samples from 3 species. Dobrava virus was sequenced from Apodemus agrarius in Hungary.
Tula virus was sequenced from Microtus arvalis in Germany and also from M. arvalis and M. agrestis
from Croatia. Previous evidence indicates that specific hantaviruses are maintained at high prevalence
primarily within 1 species of rodent host although other species may be infected. Comparison of
results with known sequences revealed a separate monophyletic viral grouping of Dobrava strains
from A. flavicollis and A. agrarius. This suggests an early origin of Dobrava virus within Apodemus.
From Croatia, identical sequences were found from M. arvalis and M. agrestis, suggesting a more
recent introduction of Tula virus into 1 or both of the hosts.
      SCHMITT, KLAUS, WOLFRAM JAECKEL, and APOPHIA ATUKUNDA-MUHIMBURA.
An information system for wildlife monitoring based on data collected by park rangers in Uganda.
GTZ-UWA Project, P.O. Box 10346, Kampala, UGANDA (KS); James-Franck-Ring 99, 37077
Goettingen, GERMANY (WJ); Uganda Wildlife Authority, P.O. Box 3530, Kampala, UGANDA
(AA-M).
       Uganda Wildlife Authority has developed a monitoring information system (MIST) based on
the analysis of data on mammals and human disturbance collected by rangers on routine patrols in
savanna ecosystems, designed to provide protected area managers with information necessary for their
management decision making. All data collected is geo-referenced using Global Positioning Systems
(GPS). Technically, the spatial information system consists of 3 integrated components: a graphical
user interface programmed in Delphi, an SQL database (InterBase) and a mapping and spatial data
analysis component based on a customization of ArcView GIS. Information provided by MIST
includes patrol coverage, human disturbance, species distribution maps, tables and graphs on sex,
proportion of young, and group size, as well as indices on mammal densities. The indices
(mammals/patrol km) are based on opportunistic observations by routine ranger patrols. Their
accuracy has been tested using systematic transect flights and total counts from the air. The aerial
surveys show that indices based on data collected by rangers on routine patrols can be used to monitor
relative changes in wildlife numbers in a simple and cost-effective way.
       SCHROEDER, WOLFGANG. Challenges and opportunities for human dimensions in meeting
wildlife conservation needs in the next millennium. Department of Wildlife Biology and
Management. School of Forestry, University of Munich. D-85354 Freising, Am Hochanger 13,
GERMANY.
       The essence of all management is getting things done through people. This is just as true for
wildlife management, but too many wildlife professionals consider human dimensions a necessary
add-on at best. This is inadequate, because in the future wildlife conservation will be challenged by
further population growth and/or economic development. Most countries will not have effective
wildlife agencies and wildlife issues will not be of high priority in the minds of people. International
cooperation in training professionals and in solving wildlife issues will gain importance. More
wildlife managers will have to understand the policy and management process. Examples are shown
from Romania and Uganda.
       SCHROEDER, WOLFGANG, CHRISTOPH PROMBERGER, and OVIDIU IONESCU.
A strategy and action plan for large carnivore conservation in Romania. Department of Wildlife
Biology and Wildlife Management, University of Munich, Am Hochanger 13, 85435 Freising,
GERMANY (WS); Munich Wildlife Society, Linderhof 2, 82488 Ettal, GERMANY (CP); Forest
Research and Management Institute, Sos Stefanesti 128, Sector 2, 72904 Bucharest, ROMANIA (OI).
       Large carnivores have fared well in the Romanian Carpathians. Today 5, 00 brown bears
(Ursus arctos), 2, 00 wolves (Canis lupus) and 1, 00 lynx (Lynx lynx) are reported. However,
Romania is undergoing major political and socio-economic changes and the cumulative effect
threatens the future of these species. In this context, a GEF (Global Environmental Fund) sponsored
148                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan was completed and the following major
issues were identified: there is a lack of information for sound decision-making; people have negative
attitudes towards predators and distrust authorities; the number of hunters, as well as poaching, is
increasing; habitat will be lost and become fragmented; large carnivores are of little value to people;
and damage prevention to livestock is inadequate. The strategic responses to these issues are to
develop national management plans for the bear, wolf, and lynx; develop a management information
system; integrate habitat conservation into land-use planning; create economic benefits from large
carnivores through eco-tourism; implement new livestock protection methods; and raise public
awareness through education and public relations programs. These actions are currently being
implemented with international support.
      SCHUSTER, ASTRID, and ROLF EBERHARDT. The capercaillie: habitat model used for
conservation strategies. Nationalparkverwaltung Berchtesgaden, Doktorberg 6, D - 83471
Berchtesgaden, GERMANY.
       The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is extinct or declining throughout central Europe. Various
causes of this decline have been suggested: habitat loss due to forestry practice, predation by fox
(Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa), or crows (Corvus spp.), wet weather conditions causing poor
chick survival, and disturbances from forestry or recreational activities. In the Berchtesgaden National
Park and its surroundings the capercaillie population seems still to be intact. But increasing
recreational activities and clearcutting related to a program to reduce the area of forest pasture in the
Bavarian Alps may jeopardize the species even in the national park. To provide detailed background
information for planned management activities, a complex habitat suitability model was developed,
including the land cover types and their diversity as well as the distance to other suitable land cover
types. Likewise altitude, slope, the curvature of the relief, the microclimate close to the ground, and
disturbances in summer and winter were included in the habitat model. The model has been validated
by observational data. In a project on sustainable ski mountaineering it was used to indicate the
management activities required.
      SCHWAB, GERHARD, and MARKUS SCHMIDBAUER. Managing a strictly protected pest
species: the beaver in Bavaria. Wildbiologische Gesellschaft München e.V., Linderhof 2, D-82488
Ettal GERMANY (GS); Bund Naturschutz in Bayern. e. V., Bauernfeindstr. 23, D-90471 Nürnberg,
GERMANY (MS).
       Beavers (Castor fiber L.) lived in Bavaria for 15 million years until 1867. In 1966, the öBund
Naturschutz in Bayernö started the reintroduction of this meanwhile strictly protected species. Since
then, beavers had a successful come back, and they spread all over into their historical range. While
nature conservationists are happy, a different point of view was growing among farmers and other
landowners. They had moved into beavers’ former habitats; now the beavers came back, fed on crops,
flooded forests, undermined roads, fields and dams, and felled apple trees in backyards. Aside from
these real problems, politicians and mass media abused this conflict between nature conservation and
land owners for personal gain. The beaver was even seen as the reappearance of the medieval pest
plague. This was not only deadly for many beavers, but deteriorated also cooperation between nature
conservationists and farmers in other topics. Beginning in 1996, we started to solve the conflict by
establishing a beaver management in Aldo Leopold’s purest sense: don’t manage the beaver, manage
the people. The goal is to prevent beaver-human conflicts by creating acceptance for beavers and their
activities, and by recreating riverside forests, not only for beavers, but also for many other species,
last not least man himself. To achieve this goal, we do local consulting in case of beaver conflicts; we
developed an information program about beavers’ benefit for wildlife, landscape restoration and water
retention; and we implement beavers in long-term landscape planning. Or in other words, we try to
bring back the beaver in the mind and hearts of the people who simply forgot how to live with this
fascinating creature.
      SEGELBACHER, GERNOT, and ILSE STORCH. Comparing geographic distribution and
genetic distance in grouse: genetic markers as a tool for large-scale conservation. Institute of Wildlife
149                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Research and Management, University of Munich, Am Hochanger 13, D-85435 Freising,
GERMANY.
       Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and black grouse (T. tetrix) are threatened species in central
Europe. Their habitats are fragmented both at a continental and a regional scale and spatial
connectivity may play an important role for (meta-) population dynamics and persistence. To identify
conservation priorities, it is important to know if and to what extent exchange between local
populations can be anticipated. To provide this information, we investigate the dispersal patterns of
grouse using non-invasive genetic methods. We assess the genetic differentiation of spatially distinct
populations using micro satellite loci analyses based on DNA extracted from feathers. We expect
a correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Our approach allows us to identify critical
geographic distances beyond which demographic connectivity between populations is not assured.
      SEIDEL, BERNHARD. Impacts of hydroelectric power plants on river bank ecology, Danube,
Austria. Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Zoology of the University of Vienna,
Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, AUSTRIA.
       The negative ecological impacts of storage lake fine sedimentation to frequently flooded river
bank areas were studied at 2 locations of the River Danube in Austria. The field work was carried out
in the years 1988, 1989, 1992, and 1995 and it was focused, firstly, on population monitoring of the
agile frog (Rana damlamtina) and the common frog (R. temporaria) and, secondly, on quantitative
captures of terrestrial arthropods, in particular, Carabidae and Myriapoda. The results: the fine
material depositions lead to edaphic changes, to changes of the soil fauna prey, and to a decreasing
quality of spawning sites. The studied local frog populations decreased almost 80% as an outcome of
a huge December flood beyond a rather newly constructed power plant. Both the number of species
and the number of individuals of soil arthropods were found to be low compared to natural-like
situations. The study stands in contrast to applied ecological planning, for a Danubian hydro-plant
construction in Austria that did not even mention the possibility of ecological impacts of storage lake
fine sedimentation to terrestrial flood areas.
      SHALOVENKOV, NICKOLAI N. Development of recreation, anthropogenic load, and nature
conservation of Crimea Coast (Black Sea). Department of Shelf Ecosystems, Institute of Biology of
the Southern Seas, 2 Nakhimov av., 335011 Sevastopol, Crimea, UKRAINE.
       The Crimea is an important recreational region of the Ukraine. An estimated 7 million people
visit the numerous resorts at the coast of the Black Sea in the Crimea each year. The climatic
conditions in Crimea are believed to be favorable for strengthening the health of people, especially at
the coast of the Southern Crimean Peninsula. Here on the sea coast are many health establishments for
the treatment of different human diseases. The development of recreation in the Crimea is important
for the economy and steady development of this region. Successful use of the recreational resources
of the region depends on management of the condition and of the conservation of the environment of
the coast of the Crimea. The sea and nature landscape complexes are important resources in the
summer season. The maximum recreation loads coincide with the reproduction season of many sea
organisms. Therefore it is necessary to create a system of sea coastal reserves for the maintenance of
biodiversity of sea organisms in a natural state. Coastal currents would carry sea larvae from the
reserves to recreation areas, supporting the population in a steady condition. Eleven national reserves
and parks are found along the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. However, they lack scientific
organization and input. This problem should be addressed by scientists from all countries of the Black
Sea region.
      SHENK, TANYA M., and MAILE M. SIVERT. Development of a conservation strategy for
Preble’s meadow jumping mouse: what can you do with little information? Colorado Division of
Wildlife, 317 West Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526 USA.
       Preble’s meadow jumping mouse (Zapushudsonius preblei) has recently been listed as
a “threatened species” under the Endangered Species Act of the United States because of rapid habitat
alteration occurring throughout the restricted range of the subspecies. Thus, although very little is
150                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



known about this rare riparian rodent, a conservation strategy including intensive active management
plans was requested to provide immediate protection for the subspecies. Information on 4 key
components of the ecology of Preble’s meadow jumping mouse were identified as necessary to
develop a sound conservation strategy for this endangered subspecies. These key components are
population abundance, survival rates, habitat use, and movement patterns. Estimates of population
abundance and survival were derived using mark-recapture techniques. Habitat use and movement
patterns were investigated by tracking radio-collared mice. Preliminary estimates (i.e., from single-
year studies) of these demographic parameters were synthesized to develop a range-wide conservation
strategy. The conservation strategy includes (1) selection of populations deemed critical for
minimizing the possibility of extinction of the subspecies, (2) management recommendations for
those critical populations including habitat protection or enhancement and predator control, and
(3) a future monitoring program for the subspecies.
      SHIVIK, JOHN A., and KEN S. GRUVER. Using advanced technology and engineering to
solve predator depredation problems. National Wildlife Research Center, 1716 Heath Parkway, Ft.
Collins, CO 80524 USA.
        The objective of the predator depredation project at the National Wildlife Research Center is to
develop and evaluate new techniques for resolving predator depredation problems. We have
accumulated baseline data on historically available capture devices and have defined the state of the
art in terms of efficiency, injury, and cost. Our current projects include devices that will be required to
reduce the adverse human-wildlife interactions that are likely to increase into the next century.
Working with engineers and private companies, we are developing and testing alternatives to the
historically available means of capture. Recently developed devices include low-injury powered snare
collars for canids, a sound-activated aversive conditioning collar for the protection of livestock from
large predators, and remote radio-collaring devices for safe and efficient radio-tagging of large
carnivores.
       SINGH, NIL KUMAR, RINA R. SINGH, and SUSHANT CHOWDHURY.
Relationshipbetweenlandscape features and human-elephant conflicts in south West Bengal. Wildlife
Institute of India, Post Box 18, Chandrabani, Dehradun 248001 INDIA.
       Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to document spatial association of elephants
(Elephas maximus) with landcover and landuse changes in south West Bengal from September 1995
to August 1997. An account of the migratory flux of elephants (n = 35–40) visiting from Dalma
Wildlife Sanctuary, Bihar and 4 satellitic sub-populations (26 elephants) that remained throughout in
south West Bengal were monitored for their conflict dimensions. A 500-m point buffering technique
for 421 location data of elephants was used as a function for extracting landcover and landuse features
within it. The elephants in south West Bengal used a range of 3, 68 km 2 . However, core use remained
restricted only to 7.21 % of the range (243 km 2 ). Landcover class restoration (>37 %) from
a degraded coppice Sal shoot forest in 1960 to pole and its beyond stages, through JFM activities until
the late 1980s, favored recolonization of elephants from neighboring areas. Landuse changes also
showed increased land investments under paddy and various other cash crops between 1986–87 and
1995–96: boro paddy (70 %), potato (150 %), vegetables (30 %), and oilseeds (50 %). We have
identified 3 major crop depredation zones: high (696 km 2 ), medium (343 km 2 ), and low (475 km 2 ).
The intensity of human-elephant conflicts took place during the post-harvest period of paddy crops
and with the advent of potato crops on high irrigated land near human habitations. The satellitic sub-
populations were mostly responsible for this conflict. Land attributes ratio in terms of landcover and
landuse ranged between 1:1.2 to 1:1.7, with high interspersions of forests and crop field being the
major reasons for crop depredations. Any shift towards increased landcover or landuse further reduces
the crop depredation situations. Mitigatory measures for reducing human-elephant conflicts are also
suggested.
151                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       SINGH, D. P. Conservation of tigers (Panthera tigris) in the 21 st Century—a challenge to
veterinarians. Department of Animal Husbandry, District Veterinary Hospital and Disease Diagnostic
Lab, Campus-Alanpur, Sawai Madhopur, 322021, Rajasthan, INDIA.
       Conservation of free-ranging tigers under the present disturbed ecology has been a reason for
the great advance of veterinary research application in the scientific management and conservation of
the two-third’s of the world’s population of tigers in India. An attempt was made to keep a close
watch on free-ranging and captive tigers in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve and zoos and to collect
biomaterials (blood, semen, etc.) from 25 animals. Specimens were examined in the lab; 8.5–14.3% of
blood samples were found positive for Trypanosomiasis by wet blood smear examination, and 11.5%
were positive with the micro haematocrtis centrifugation technique. Ejaculates of some individuals
contained mostly dead and deformed sperm, and autopsy of lesions indicated several fatal diseases.
This case study suggests a high-technology, diagnostic veterinary-based research at cellular,
molecular, genetic, and ecodevelopmental levels in the scientific community in cooperation with
developed nations for the bright future of the tiger and people in the 21 st Century.
      SINNARY, ABDELWAHAB S. M., and JAMES L. KIYIAPI. Environmental problem solving
(EPS): a marriage of international education and community conservation in Kenya. The Center for
Wildlife Management Studies, P.O. Box 47272, Nairobi, KENYA.
       Environmental Problem Solving (EPS) has been adopted as an educational approach by the
School for Field Studies (SFS) for its 6 global study abroad programs. It has proven a challenging and
effective means of educating international university students in environmental science by enabling
them to work to solve real-life problems for actual clients. Clients of the Center for Wildlife
Management Studies (CWMS), SFS’s field center in Kenya, include the Kenya Wildlife Service and
communities aspiring to obtain tangible benefits from the sustainable use of wildlife resources on
their land. For many years, most rural communities have sustained wildlife on their land at
considerable cost, but without obtaining financial benefits from the resource or being compensated for
damages. In recent years there has been a policy shift by the Kenyan government that can provide
a framework for communities to sustainably manage and benefit from their wildlife resources. Most
communities, however, lack the technical knowledge to produce wildlife data, feasibility studies, and
management plans as a prerequisite required by the government before user rights can be granted. For
the last 2 years CWMS has been involved in producing data for management plans, carrying out
feasibility studies, and evaluating the potential of various wildlife utilization options for communities
and collaborating government agencies. This paper presents a detailed description of the CWMS
experience in using the EPS approach in several predominantly pastoral areas in Kenya, where the
majority of wildlife is found. Both the advantages and limitations of the EPS approach are discussed
and guidelines are suggested for application by other academic institutions.
      SMITH, JOHN K. Industrial sites—the value and importance for the conservation of wildlife
habitats. Grange Communications Centre, P.O. Box 54, ICI Chemicals & Polymers Ltd., Wilton,
Middlesbrough. TS90 8JA UNITED KINGDOM.
       In common with many other major industrial companies, ICI plc owns large areas of land that
are not, and probably never will be, used for operational purposes. The objective of the company’s
Nature Link initiative is to manage these areas for wildlife conservation. Ecological studies of many
industrial sites around the world have revealed diverse habitats holding plants and animals of
considerable conservation interest. Under the Nature Link initiative, scientifically based management
plans for these areas are being developed and where appropriate, recommendations made to restore or
recreate specific habitats on the sites where they have been lost or degraded. Wetlands in particular
have received particular attention, especially the concept of multi-use systems incorporating effluent
treatment and wildlife conservation. It is shown that the intrinsic security of industrial sites can
greatly assist conservation efforts. However, the considerations in planning and managing
scientifically rigorous conservation projects on operational sites differ considerably from those carried
out on non-industrial land. We conclude that the Nature Link scheme has passed beyond the often
152                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



held view that industrial conservation projects are principally public relations exercises. Using
worldwide examples ranging from relatively modest conservation schemes for invertebrates to
projects involving extensive populations of large mammal species, it is shown that industrial sites can
make a genuine and significant contribution to nature conservation. A combination of managerial
commitment and employee and local community involvement based on sound ecological planning is
seen as the key to Nature Link’s success. The initiative could be a model for similar schemes operated
or planned by other organizations.
      SMYTH, ANITA K. Towards sustainable management of forest birds in agricultural
ecosystems: model species as sentinels. Department of Botany, The University of Queensland,
Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, AUSTRALIA.
       Differences in the ecology of bird species predict that forest patches will be used in different
ways to satisfy their habitat requirements. Unfortunately, available resources make it impossible to
study the habitat use of all resident species. Alternatively, indicator or surrogate species could be
studied and used to generalize about species-habitat relationships relevant to biodiversity
management. However, ecologists recognize that the use of indicator or surrogate species mostly
misrepresents the complexity of these relationships. One solution is to derive ecologically meaningful
guilds that represent similarities in the extremes of habitat use. In this paper, I derived spatial guilds of
foraging and nesting habitat use and show how a model species within each spatial guild can be used
as a sentinel of adverse impacts at ecologically meaningful spatial scales. I conclude that this
approach provides wildlife managers with an affordable and ecologically meaningful strategy to
manage sustainability of forest bird diversity in agricultural ecosystems.
       SOKOLOV, LEONID V. Long-term population monitoring of passerine birds on the Courish
Spit of the Baltic. Biological Station Rybachy, Zoological Institute, 199034 St. Petersburg, RUSSIA.
       The aim of the study was to reveal the trends in breeding and migrant passerine populations on
the Courish Spit. I analyzed spring, breeding, and autumn catches of 22 passerine species by the large
traps from 1958 to 1998 (41 years). Spearman rank correlation was used to reveal relationships and
trends. Numbers of juveniles caught in 1–2 large traps during the post-breeding period (before
15 August) and autumn (from 16 August to 1 November) were higher in the 1960s and 1980s
compared to the 1970s and 1990s. The increase of juvenile numbers in the 1960s and 1980s was
significant for most species. In 14 species, numbers of juveniles correlated negatively with the timing
of post-juvenile dispersal (i.e., with timing of breeding); early dispersal was associated with high
numbers. In some species similar relationships between the number of autumn migrants and the
timing of breeding was found. A positive correlation between the numbers of local breeders and
transient populations was revealed in 10 species. The estimate of juvenile numbers in local and
transient populations correlated well with the mean April and May temperatures in most species. High
temperature in spring resulted in an increase in juvenile numbers. The following conclusions are
possible: the trends of breeding and probably also the passage populations in our area were controlled
by climatic changes, and not by human influences such as environment pollution, Sahara droughts
etc., as is widely believed; numbers of local and migrant juveniles during the post-breeding and
autumn periods were highest in the 1960s and 1980s during the warm period in northwestern Europe
for most species.
      SONI, V. C., and NISHITH DHARAIYA. Ecological studies on Asiatic lion (Panthera leo
persica) living in the Girnar Forest. Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot û 360
005 (Gujarat), INDIA.
      The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) is now confined only to a small pocket of Gir Wildlife
Sanctuary and National Park (GWSNP) in India. According to a 1995 census, the population of
Asiatic lion is 304; some of them have started migrating outside the protected area, probably because
of the saturation of the carrying capacity of the GWSNP. During the 1995 census, few lions were
located near the coastal border of GWSNP and in the Girnar Forest near Junagadh city. The present
study describes the pride structure, feeding ecology, and conflicts with humans in the Girnar Forest.
153                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



The methodology includes direct day-to-day observations, scat analysis for prey identification, and
analysis of the data regarding the livestock depredation in the said area. The study has found that the
lion living in Girnar Forest mainly feeds upon the domestic cattle and other stray animals like pig,
donkey, etc. and visits the villages in the vicinity. It was also observed that 2 males are dominating the
whole population by moving throughout the Girnar Forest. The study also shows that the feeding
habits of the lion of the Girnar Forest differs from those of the lions living in the GWSNP, and the
rate of lion-human conflict is also higher in the Girnar Forest than in the GWSNP.
      SOULÉ, ICHAEL. Sustainable development versus rewilding. University of California, Santa
Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
       Prominent biologists claim that we are midway into an unprecedented global extinction of
species. The major driving forces behind the contemporary wave of habitat destruction and species
loss are human population growth, technological innovation (e.g., mechanized forestry and fisheries),
and the globalization of commerce. How has society responded? Governments and the conservation
establishment, encouraged by traditional economists and the development community, have said that
we can “develop out” of environmental problems (sustainable development). Thus, the policy
pendulum has swung away from strict nature reserves, including national parks. But recent analyses
have shown that sustainable development is not happening fast enough to save nature. Some
conservation organizations have responded by setting targets for the amount of habitat to be
protected—such as the 10–12% guidelines. These guidelines may be justifiable politically, but setting
aside only 10% guarantees the extinction of, perhaps, 50% of Earth’s species. Habitat destruction is
the major problem. Its causes include farming, industrial forestry, livestock grazing, mining,
urbanization, water projects, recreation, extraction of natural resources from wildlands, and road
construction. These forms of habitat destruction also cause fragmentation of habitats—the creation of
island-like remnants. The loss of species from habitat fragments (from small remnants of habitat to
large national parks) obeys certain rules. Conservation biologists have proposed guidelines that
minimize the loss of species diversity in such remnants. One of these is the protection or
reintroduction of large keystone species—“rewilding.” There is increasing evidence that many
ecosystems are regulated from top-down by large carnivores, and that ecosystems may collapse
without them, losing diversity and resilience. Other guidelines include (1) maximize the size of the
habitat remnants, including reserves (management effort and expense per hectare must be intensified
in inverse relation to the size of the remnant); (2) minimize edge effects (e.g., including those caused
by roads); (3) minimize the distance between remnant islands (nature reserves); (4) maintain or
restore connectivity (landscape linkages); (5) maintain the optimum scale, intensity, and frequency of
disturbance; (6) search out and destroy accidentally introduced alien species before they become
invasive and destructive. What we need now is a compelling vision that inspires nations to protect
wildness, ecological diversity, and species richness within their boundaries. The Wildlands Project is
one example of such a vision. TWP challenges conservationists to embrace science while articulating
a positive alternative to business as usual.
      SRIVASTAVA, ARUN. Protected area network: answer to primate conservation. Indo-US
Primate Project, Northeast Centre, P.O. Box 152, Guwahati 781001, INDIA; and Department of
Zoology, JNV University, Jodhpur -342001, INDIA.
       Within India the northeast region is very important because it represents the “transition zone”
between Indian, Indo-Malayan, and Indo-Chinese bio-geographical subregions. Northeast is the
“biogeographical gateway” to India’s richest biodiversity zones important for genetic resources the
world over. Ironically this is also one of the world’s most threatened areas. The chief objectives of our
study of the status of primates are to make a systematic distribution map of different species; to record
habitat fragmentation; and to make an assessment of present forest status and assess the human
population pressures. During 1994–98, we were able to survey several reserve forests, WLS and most
of the national parks of northeast India, covering over 600, 00 ha to estimate density and distribution
of primate species. Transect and total count methods were followed. Four species of macaques, the
rhesus (Macaca mulatta), Assamese (M. assamensis), pig-tailed (M. nemestrina), stump-tailed
154                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



(M. arctoides), and 3 species of langurs, capped (Trachypithecus pileatus), golden (T. geei), and
Phayre’s (T. phayrei), and 1 each of gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) and loris (Nycticebus coucang) were
sighted. Species recorded are threatened by habitat loss, hunting, and trade. Many species known to be
common are either critically endangered or facing extinction in India. Ironically the most common
and widely distributed species, the rhesus macaque, is becoming a serious pest of agriculture and
a menace to human habitation. This often contradicts policies for primate conservation and
management, thereby making conservation difficult to advocate and practice. It seems that protected
area network is the best possible answer for primate conservation in India. Based on present findings
and using primates as flagship species, recommendations were made to upgrade the status of many
reserves for the effective primate conservation.
     STASHKO, EDWARD R. An educational model for community-based applied conservation.
School for Field Studies, 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915 USA.
       Anapplied education model using environmental problem-solving techniques was applied to
Masaai group ranches in Kenya to create a community-based approach for the management of
wildlife resources. Programs were developed involving undergraduate students mentored by senior
faculty engaging in research projects to develop a basis for creation of community development plans
that are culturally acceptable, economically viable, and allow for the sustainable management of
wildlife. Following extensive community surveys to establish research priorities and to create
management goals, an interdisciplinary research program was conducted on 2 group ranches. Wildlife
management plans were formulated following extensive game assessments and land-use mapping.
Community surveys were carried out to create both a cultural impact assessment and to create
a sustainable long-term economic development plan. Masaai leadership was critical in the
development of community support to implement wildlife management initiatives and to secure
funding to create viable sustainable development plans. Following the implementation of this
approach on 2 group ranches, a long-term program is being established on a Masaai group ranch in
southern Kenya. Key to success are the fostering leadership teams within the Masaai group ranches,
the inclusion of the community in decision making, and the technical research provided by faculty-
student research teams.
       STEIDL, ROBERT J., and LEN THOMAS. Practical and statistical considerations for
establishing monitoring programs. School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona,
Tucson, AZ, 85721 USA (RJS); Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, Mathematical
Institute, University of St Andrews, SCOTLAND (LT).
       We believe that in the relative long-term (10 years), few efforts will prove as valuable to
ecologists and to conservation as population monitoring. Reliable time-series of population
characteristics have and will continue to prove valuable for assessing temporal changes in
populations. Further, these data provide the baseline information necessary to assess the effects of
planned management manipulations that fall within the context of adaptive management, as well as
for unplanned manipulations that might be viewed as opportunistic “experiments.” Despite their
importance, few agencies have put forth the effort necessary to collect these data using methods high
in reliability and statistical power. This may partially be due to the complex of interrelated decisions
that must be made when designing a monitoring program, many of which will effect the ultimate
quality, reliability, and value of the data yielded. We will discuss the trade-offs involved in these
decisions, including defining objectives of the monitoring program, defining the population of interest
and scope of inference, determining response variable(s) to measure, selecting methods to measure
changes in the response, developing a sampling framework, estimating sample sizes (number of plots
to monitor) necessary to meet monitoring objectives, choosing an appropriate technique for data
analysis, evaluation and revision of the program, and considerations for concurrently monitoring
changes to habitat. We will also make suggestions to improve the precision of these programs by
incorporating the principles of sampling design, as well as the importance of treating monitoring
programs as iterative designs, whereby all programs incorporate and stress reevaluation as part of
their basic plan.
155                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       STRONG, THEODORA. Using laws of a matrix society and tribal needs to develop a new
endangered species management approach. Northwest Power Planning Council, 851 S.W. 6 th Ave.,
Suite 1100, Portland, OR 97204 USA.
       Commercial forestry on federal, state, and private lands is primarily constrained by
profitability, silvicultural objectives, and state and federal environmental statutes. Indian forestlands
must also be managed for cultural and religious values that may be without statutory protection.
Conservation of those values mandates protection of sacred sites, traditional use areas, archeological
sites and materials, culturally important wildlife, and culturally significant ecological and aesthetic
settings. The Yakama Indian Nation of Washington has adopted an effective approach to integrating
Native American values into an economically viable commercial forestry program. This approach
uses a land unit classification scheme to set resource priorities and mandates site-specific conservation
measures to achieve desired objectives. The Yakama Indian Nation’s approach to integrating
multiple-resource conservation into forest management blends profitable forestry with cultural
resource protection. The program has proven highly profitable. In recent years an average of 100
million board feet of timber has been harvested annually; the current annual allowable cut is 143
million board feet. However, success cannot be measured by income generated or volume marketed.
Tribal values dictate that a broader, more holistic standard of success direct management of Indian
forests. Optimization of economic return has been purposefully compromised to protect the wide
array of non-timber values that form the foundation of local Tribal culture.
      SUTER, ERNER. Cormorants and fisheries—strong beliefs and weak facts in a conflict over
aquatic resources. Wildlife Ecology Group, Institute of Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL),
8903 Birmensdorf, SWITZERLAND.
        Following the recovery of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) populations in Europe and
double-crested cormorant (P. auritus) populations in North America, conflicts between fish-eating
birds and freshwater fisheries have intensified. If both fish and bird populations are to be managed
properly, scientifically rigorous studies quantifying the impact of birds on fish population dynamics as
well as on fisheries are needed. Insight into bird-fish interactions is also of eminent scientific interest
for understanding predator-prey relationships in general. This paper explores minimum standards for
the kind of data needed for reliable impact assessments, measures existing papers against these
standards, and reviews the current knowledge of the nature and strength of impacts. Possible impacts
by birds depend on the type of fishery. In aquaculture, assessing fish removal by birds and calculating
financial losses can be relatively straightforward, although in practice, the situation may be more
complicated than generally thought. Fish farms have potential for conducting experiments to solve
questions about foraging decisions in predators, but this potential has so far been neglected.
Interference of piscivorous birds with aquaculture is, however, a problem restricted to certain areas,
and the conflict as a whole is fueled more by perceived problems of bird predation on free-living fish
populations in more or less natural habitats such as ponds, reservoirs, rivers, lakes, or coastal waters.
Here, empirical studies are usually the only way out, but modeling and simulations could greatly
assist. Because basic data are often unavailable, using surrogate data sets (such as catch statistics) and
indirect hypothesis testing may be necessary but should be cautiously applied. In reality, there are
very few studies available worldwide that include enough data for assessing the impact of bird
predation, and modeling attempts are virtually nonexistent. In Central Europe, there are many papers
in semi-scientific journals apparently demonstrating deleterious bird impacts on fisheries, but none of
these papers meets minimum standards of scientific rigor, and many even lack the most basic data.
Nevertheless, these publications create the body of “evidence” on which management decisions are
based.
     SVENSSON, TOMMY. Traps and trapping in Sweden. Swedish Environmental Protection
Agency, S-106 48 Stockholm, SWEDEN.
      Hunting with traps has been done since time immemorial. The first traps used were some kind
of box-trap, snare, dead-fall, or pitfall. The income from trapping was large until the middle of the 20
 156                  Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



thCentury. Species trapped for their fur were red fox (Vulpes vulpes ), marten (Martes sp.), squirrel,
and ermine (Mustela erminea). For meat, hares and forestbirds were trapped. No regulations existed
and trapping could be practiced by anyone. Since the beginning of the 20 th Century, hunting rights,
trapping included, are regulated by law. The hunting rights belong to the landowner, and can be let
out on lease. Hunting with weapons or traps is strictly regulated in the hunting ordinance decided by
the Swedish environmental protection agency. Concerning trapping, it is only allowed to use traps that
are tested and approved. Sweden has been testing traps since 1984 and today we have about 130
approved traps for different species. Hunting ordinances also regulate when traps should be checked
and use of which kind of traps require an education program. In general, education is voluntary and
not a requirement for trapping in Sweden. The most commonly trapped species today are red fox
(by box-trap or footsnare); badger (Meles meles, by box- or cage-trap); mink (Mustela lutreola, box-,
cage-, or killing-trap); and marten (killing-trap). Other species that are trapped are muskrat
(Ondatrazibethicus), beaver (Castor fiber), lynx (Lynx lynx), and various birds. In the future, there
will be an obligatory education program for those who want to use traps, and a more extensive testing
program and coordination in the area of research.
      SZEMETHY, LÁSZLÓ, MIKLÓS HELTAI, and ZSOLT BIRÓ. Actual problems of predator
management in Hungary. Gödöllö University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife
Biology and Management, H-2103. Gödöllö, Páter K. u. 1., HUNGARY.
        There are many problems with predator management in Hungary: (1) the rules of nature
protection are very rigorous, 9 of 15 carnivores are totally protected; (2) the methods of control are
strictly restricted; (3) the immunization against rabies probably increases the predator density; (4) the
hunters’ efficiency is insufficient. Moreover there is no sufficient information about the populations
of various predators. That is why mail questionnaire surveys were made among hunting associations
5 times between 1987 and 1997. The density of population and burrows, the number of cubs and the
bag records were collected. The hunting efficiency was characterized by the bag density/population
density. It could be found that both the population and the burrow density increased during the years,
but this growth was more intensive in Transdanubia, where the immunization was made. This trend
could not be caused by the growth of the litter size, but rather, the better survival of young animals.
The effectivity of control is very low. Only the 1/4 of the hunting associations could decrease their
fox populations. Moreover, the efficiency of control decreased with the increasing population density,
so it can be concluded that hunting was not able to control effectively the predator population with the
recently used methods. The solution could be that the simple control would be changed by planned
predator management: (1) powerful and density dependent methods should be applied, for example
live trapping; (2) the surplus should be estimated and removed; (3) the foxes should be hunted also
during the period of rearing of cubs; (4) new methods should be used to decrease the litter size, for
example, contraception or effective live trapping.
     SZEMETHY, LÁSZLÓ, DÁVID RITTER, MIKLÓS HELTAI, ZSOLT BÍRÓ, and ZOLTÁN
PETÖ. The effects of large scale habitat use of red deer (Cervus elaphus) on game management in
Hungary. Gödöllö University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Wildlife Biology and
Management, H-2103, Gödöllö, Páter Károly u. 1, HUNGARY.
       The possible causes and mechanism of red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) seasonal
migration and area expansion were investigated with long-term radiotracking of 31 individuals in
a forest-agriculture complex. Significantly larger home ranges were measured than were expected
from previous study and from the literature. However the hypothesis of long-distance migration was
not proved, 3 different strategies of habitat use were found: (1) most individuals did not migrate and
showed strong fidelity to their home ranges; (2) one third of them had separated home range
fragments in forest (autumn–winter) and in agricultural fields (spring–summer) seasonally; (3) several
animals showed less regular habitat use and moved long distances (up to 40 km) occasionally out of
the population’s area. This phenomena could be the way of the occupation of new habitats.
The human disturbances (forestry works and hunting) and the social interactions played important
roles in this process. The long-range movement and dispersion of red deer generate several conflicts
157                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



in wildlife management. The average size of hunting estates is smaller than the distance of red deer
movements. The costs (damages) and benefits (harvest) of red deer management can be separated in
time and space. Consequently the same deer population is managed by different and distant hunters by
different interests and with different aims. The long-range movements and area expansion of red deer
should be a concern to managers; regional planning is necessary.
      SZINOVATZ, VERONIKA, and HARTMUT GOSSOW. The human dimension within the
bear recovery project in Austria. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of
Agricultural Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Str. 76, 1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA.
       In 1989, brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) reintroduction activities started in the eastern Alps of
Austria. Since then damage levels and close encounters with human-habituated bears increased as
well as the coverage of bear and damage issues in the media. Thus the human aspect within the
conservation and reestablishment process of brown bears in Austria came to be one of the key
variables. Therefore this topic became the target of several human dimension oriented studies.
Sociological surveys were carried out in parts of the eastern Alps where the bear population has
steadily increased since the reintroduction. Data were obtained through a questionnaire survey
(a = 693) in 1995 and 5 interview sessions (n = 377) within a 4-year period (1993–96). A media
analysis for a specific period of rapid attitude changes (1993–94) also was conducted. We examined
attitudes and knowledge levels toward the brown bear, differentiated by tourists, local inhabitants, and
specific professional groups. Due to the recent history of the brown bear, we focused on attitude and
knowledge changes over the time. Furthermore, preferences of specific management strategies toward
so-called “problem bears” were examined. The influence of information campaigns on the public
awareness of the problem of bears being attracted by garbage was assessed. These studies helped us to
gain overall information about factors that might be affecting attitudes toward brown bears within
different publics.
     TEER, JAMES G. Commercialization and ownership of wildlife in North America: is it
a model for other regions? Welder Wildlife Foundation, P.O. Drawer 1400, Sinton, TX 78387 USA.
      Utilization of wildlife resources in the United States is trending toward the European system,
and in some instances, toward protectionism. Commercialization is forcing ownership of wildlife to
be devolved to the private sector. Hunting remains an important use of wildlife but is losing ground in
the number of participants. Non-consumptive uses are outstripping other uses but, as yet, are not as
important in providing funding and public support for conservation. The debate over property rights
of individuals and conservation regulations is slowly abating. Societal concerns have begun to
produce flexibility and reason in implementation of laws and regulations. The reason: organizations in
and out of government understand that conservation will succeed only when the human condition is
considered in plans. Some changes in ownership may put biodiversity at risk, yet proprietary
ownership has the enormous potential of instilling care and protection of wildlife resources.
      THEUERKAUF, JÖRN, WLODZIMIERZ JEDRZEJEWSKI, KRZYSZTOF SCHMIDT,
BOGUMILA JEDRZEJEWSKA, and ROMAN GULA. Impact of human activity on spatio-temporal
habitat use by wolves in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland. Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy
of Sciences, 17-230 Bialowieza, POLAND.
       Wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe must coexist with humans as most land is dedicated to
agriculture and forestry. We hypothesized that European wolves live spatio-temporally separated from
humans. We investigated activity, movements, and space use of 4 wolf packs under different levels of
human land use in the Bialowieza Forest (600 km , East Poland). We also monitored human activity
throughout the forest. Individual wolf activity and movement patterns greatly varied between packs.
When we analyzed the data pooled for all radio-collared wolves, activity and movements were nearly
equally distributed over 24 hours but with small peaks in the morning and evening. Human activity in
the forest was virtually restricted to daylight hours and peaked in the middle of the day. Human
activity had no visible effect on wolf activity distribution. We found that wolves living in the
managed part of the Bialowieza Forest were tolerant to human presence near resting and denning
158                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



sites. The wolves living in the Bialowieza National Park under low human influence were sensitive to
human proximity and denned in the most remote areas of the park. We found no spatial separation
between people and wolves as the animals used parts of the forest with temporarily high human
activity only when humans were absent. Cases of strong human disturbance to wolves were limited to
occasional accidents and death in ungulate snares. We conclude that wolves prefer remote areas
whenever possible but can adapt to human presence when they are able to satisfy their food and
reproduction needs.
     THOMAS, VERNON G. Conservation issues amidst social change in the 21                     st   Century.
Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, CANADA
      At the start of the 21 st Century, the era of game management with its emphasis on single
species has not yielded to ecosystem management with its emphasis upon landscape processes. In
Europe and North America, there is a rapid decline in the number of hunters and trappers and
a growing social involvement with the non-consumptive uses of wildlife. Increased human population
size and density will cause yet more habitat losses and fragmentation, leading to further declines of
species intolerant of human culture. Yet species tolerant of human culture, e.g. Canada (Branta
canadensis) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens), deer (Odocoileus spp.), beaver (Castor spp.), and
small mammalian predators have already attained population sizes in some regions deemed
inappropriate by managers. Given that hunting may reduce wild populations less in future, natural
density-dependent mechanisms and other processes will operate to control populations locally.
Allowing an ecosystem/landscape approach to wildlife management will involve de-emphasizing the
value of favored game species and require that community-regulating processes operate. There will
not be the resources available to allow every species or guild to be managed according to the
divergent social views that are likely to prevail in Europe and North America in the 21 st Century.
Then the major role of managers will be to secure areas of habitat that are large and diverse to allow
natural community processes to prevail. This paper examines these scenarios with respect to habitat
area size, natural mortality, disease outbreaks, social perceptions of management goals, and the
upkeep of wildlife habitat in private ownership.
      TÖRÖK, KATALIN, LÍVIA FODOR, and EDIT KOVÁCS-LÁNG. The Hungarian
Biodiversity Monitoring System. Institute for Environmental Management, Service for Nature
Conservation, Budapest, Alkotmány u 29. H-1054, HUNGARY (KT, LF); Institute of Ecology and
Botany, Vácrátót, 2163, HUNGARY (EK-L).
       The rapid mass extinction of species and the decline of habitats threatens the future of
a habitable environment and calls for intervention. The Convention of Biological Diversity is the first
global attempt that agrees to develop national strategies and nature conservation law to safeguard the
preservation of the biosphere. This task cannot be fulfilled without the monitoring of changes.
Biodiversity monitoring is defined as regularly repeated and standardized measurement of selected
characteristics of chosen biological entities on a long-term basis. The program of the Hungarian
Biodiversity Monitoring System (HBMS) was developed in 1995–96 with the participation of about
30 experts. The program has been published in 10 manual volumes. HBMP follows the hierarchy of
biological organisations: landscape, community, and population levels are sampled. A strict selection
of entities and methods is needed at each level to make the tasks executable. The priorities during the
selection of objects were as follows: (1) endangered, protected values; (2) elements characteristic for
Hungary; and (3) effects of environmental or human impact (sensitive to degradation, invasive
elements). Simple, easily repeated, widely used methods were chosen, partly to facilitate the
participation of non-specialists; destructive sampling was avoided as far as possible. The HBMS was
launched in 1998 by a few activities. The monitoring is organized in units—projects—with clearly
defined aims, objects, localities, methodologies, and responsibilities. The main information from the
projects will be stored in a public database, the directorates of the national parks will be responsible
for the basic data. Standardized species lists, coded methods, geo-coordinates, and strict protocols will
assure data quality and repeatability.
159                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



     TÓTH, ALBERT, MIHÁLY BRAUN, BÉLA KISS, ZOLTÁN MÜLLER, and KUNIGUNDA
MACALIK. Environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity in created wetlands near Debrecen
(Hungary). Department of Ecology, L. Kossuth University, H-4010 Debrecen, HUNGARY.
       Wetlands have mostly been created for settling of partially treated wastewater, but recently, in
an increasing number, also for improving biological and landscape diversity. It is especially true of
areas where previous water management (flood control, extensive drainage, etc.) led to a decline of
aquatic or wetland habitats. In the vicinity of Debrecen, a major city in eastern Hungary, several
impoundments were created in the 1970s, with a prime aim of complex recreational use. These
shallow (average depth ca. 1 m), densely vegetated water bodies display the original landscape of the
sand region Dél-Nyírség, characterized by an abundance and variety of small water bodies, perennial
to temporary, denoted by the Hungarian terms “nyírvízlapos, “tömpöly, and “ér.” We studied the
spatial patchiness and seasonal fluctuation of water chemistry, the composition of the macrophyte
flora and aquatic fauna (with special attention to water bugs), and revealed an unexpected diversity of
life forms and assemblages, coupled with significant differences between the water bodies. Our results
suggest that created wetlands in farmed, terrestrial environments may serve as refugia for natural
aquatic biotas.
      TÓTH, ZOLTÁN, and PÁSZTOR LIZ. Monitoring by automated weighing. Population
Biology Group, Department of Genetics, Eötvös University, Muzeum krt. 4/A, 1088, Budapest,
HUNGARY.
       We worked on a method for monitoring the activity and the body + load weight of visiting
individuals by continuously weighing an object (a place). Our computerized measuring system has
been used extensively for the automated observation of (free-living) birds, especially for weighing
their nests, though it may be used to observe perches and feeders, and other taxa. The technique
allows us to obtain high-resolution data in long-term observations without handling and disturbing the
animals. These remarkable data sets can serve research on the behavior, ecology, and physiology of
certain species and populations, particularly on foraging and reproductive activity, and therefore they
can support conservation efforts. We found that the complexity and the amount of the resulting data
makes it essential to have a dedicated software that extensively supports data processing and
preparation beyond recording. Our software package, “The Wisitor” features data recording and data
processing modules (with interactive graphs, etc.) and extracts most potential variables for statistical
analyses. The resulting visit records contain identification (male/female), arrival and departure time,
length of in and out bouts, body weight, load weight, delta body weight. A crucial feature of our
system is the potential for estimating the measurement error from the recorded raw weight data. In
order to detect differences between small quantities (like average load sizes of individuals) we reduce
the average measurement error by filtering the data with an error limit. We use a reliable set of load
weights and visit-to-visit body-weight changes to define behavioral acts, as foraging trip with or
without self-feeding, for analyzing parental foraging behavior. The minimum amount of the total
collected food and its allocation between nestling- and self-feeding can be assessed. The time budgets
of the observed birds can be reconstructed from the acts for entire nesting periods.
      UDAYA SEKHAR, NAGOTHU. Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife. Centre for
International Environment and Development Studies, P.O. Box 5001; N-1432; Aas, NORWAY.
       Wild animals often destroy standing crops and prey on livestock, causing economic losses to
farmers. Crop and wildlife damage are becoming serious for many Indian protected areas, and this
study aimed to characterize the problem in villages in and around the Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR),
Rajasthan, India. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire in 37 villages followed by
a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 households, quadrant sampling, and focus group
discussions. Crop and livestock depredation evidently affected nearly half of the households in
villages adjacent to the STR, but damage varied considerably among villages and with distance from
the reserve border. Wild animal distribution and protection measures that people adopted also
influenced the damage. Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were reported to
160                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



be responsible for at least half of the total damage to the major crops caused by wild animals. Tigers
(Panthera tigris) and leopards (P. pardus) were the main livestock predators; the former preyed
mostly on larger livestock and the latter on smaller animals such as goats and sheep. More than two-
thirds of the villagers spent considerable time and money guarding crops and protecting livestock.
Guarding was the most popular means followed by physical fences around fields. In spite of damage
to crops and livestock, the local people still had a positive attitude towards the STR, because of
tangible benefits derived from the reserve in terms of fodder and fuelwood, and cultural and religious
attitudes towards wild animals. Settlement of rights to collect fuelwood and fodder within the reserve
seems to be one acceptable measure to compensate for losses besides immediate review of hunting
policy. Suggestions given by local people to minimize losses have implications for the long-term
sustainability of the STR as a protected area.
      VÁCZI, OLIVÉR, and VILMOS ALTBACKER. Grassy airports as possible refuges of
European ground squirrel populations in Hungary. Eötvös Loránd University, Department of
Ethology, 2131 Göd, Jávorka u.14, HUNGARY.
       Small environmental fluctuations can cause drastic changes in population dynamics of a species
with low ecological tolerance. The population dynamics of an indicator species depends on the
ecological status of its environment. Because of its good observability, and having low ecological
tolerance, the suslik (Spermophilus citellus) is one of the best indicator species of short-grass steppe
in Eastern Europe. Although it was regarded as a pest a few decades ago the suslik is now an
endangered species due to habitat loss, as the former grasslands were either abandoned or transformed
to intensively cultivated areas. We surveyed all of the Hungarian grassy airports, the last refuges for
this protected species, using questionnaires to obtain information about the density and significance of
the local suslik populations. In our results, 82% of Hungarian grassy airports have a suslik population;
the estimated average density is 6.2 animals/ha (SD = 5.7), which seems consistent with our earlier
experiences. According to our knowledge on suslik habitat preferences, all of the 22 airports would be
suitable for susliks, and perhaps because of geographical and historical reasons, we found suslik-free
airports. Wherever the density of animals is high, airport staff do not welcome their presence. There
are no conflicts under 4 individual/ha. Large flat fields with short vegetation, such as grassy airports,
are ideal for suslik populations but burrow entrances can be dangerous for airplane activity. This
problem can be solved by removing animals from dense populations and transferring them to suitable
areas. With this management, we could maintain stable suslik populations at relatively low density at
the airports and give refuge for this endangered species in Hungary.
      VALDEZ,        RAUL,      KENDAL        E.    YOUNG,       ALBERTO       LAFON-T,    and
BRUCE C. THOMPSON. Aplomado falcon habitat surveys in northern Chihuahua, Mexico. New
Mexico State University, Box 30003, MSC 4901, Las Cruces NM 88003 USA (RV, KEY); University
of Chihuahua, Perif. Fco. R. Almada, km. 1, C.P. 31031, Chihuahua, Chih., MEXICO (AL-T); USGS-
BRD, New Mexico State University, Box 30003, MSC 4901, Las Cruces NM 88003 USA (BCT).
       In the United States, the aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis) historically occurred in southern
Texas, southern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona. Because of its probable extirpation in the
U.S., it was declared endangered in l986, but extant populations occur in adjacent northern
Chihuahua, Mexico. Federal U.S. land management agencies lack specific knowledge regarding
suitability and availability of potential aplomado falcon habitats to initiate recovery programs in New
Mexico. To determine vegetation sites being used in northern Mexico, we surveyed for aplomado
falcons within 60–80 km 2 quadrats randomly selected in desert grassland and associated habitats in
northern Chihuahua. We surveyed 48 quadrats during May 1998 through October 1998. We located
aplomado falcons within 7 quadrats, and 2 additional sites adjacent to quadrats. We found aplomado
falcons primarily in yucca (Yucca spp.) or mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)/alkali sacaton (Sporobolus
airoides) grasslands (7 sites; 78%). One site was located in a yucca\ grama (Bouteloua spp.) grassland
and the remaining site was dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Habitat components will
be quantified. Land management practices in desert grasslands in Mexico will be an important factor
in maintaining suitable aplomado falcon habitats.
161                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      VAN HOVEN, WOUTER. The importance of recreation in African wildlife conservation.
Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 SOUTH AFRICA.
       Africa covers just under a quarter of the world land area, of which only 5% is arable land. Non-
sustainable natural resource utilization is taking place across most of Africa by the 530 million rural
population, 66% of the total human population on the African continent. Africa has less than 2% of
the world tourism market, yet this accounts for 16.5 million jobs. Africa offers unparalleled
opportunities for ecotourism and job creation in this sector will alleviate the resource utilization
pressure. Safari tourism and hunting are the 2 major recreational activities that have a direct positive
influence on wildlife conservation. Several countries in Africa are compared in this paper to show the
relationship between recreation and wildlife conservation.
       VARMA, URENDRA. Estimating population density of large mammals: further evaluation of
different methods in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India. Asian Elephant Research and
Conservation Centre, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012,
INDIA.
       The population densities of large mammals such as the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus),
Indian gaur (Bos gaurus), sambar (Cervus unicolor) and spotted deer (Axis axis) in Mudumalai
Wildlife Sanctuary in southern India were estimated using 3 different methods. The methods used
were the routine walking transect (RWT), vehicle transect (VT) and short-term intensive walking
transect sampling (STIWTS). Earlier work compared the results of RWT and VT methods. In this
paper, RWT and VT methods were compared using new data sets to confirm the earlier results, and
also STIWTS was compared with the RWT and VT. Mammal densities were estimated using
probability density function theory outlined by Burnham et al. (1980). The study area was divided into
several vegetative zones for RWT and VT methods while for STIWTS, existing administrative zones
were used. Transect lines were demarcated in these zones for both the walking transect methods and
game roads were used for vehicle transects. The density estimates obtained by different methods
differed for a given species. The VT method estimated density with high precision for spotted deer,
however the density estimated by this method is an overestimate. For sambar and gaur the RWT
method estimated densities with high precision. For the elephant, although both RWT and VT
methods estimated density with the same precision, the VT method underestimated the density. For all
4 species, STIWTS estimated density with the lowest precision. The results also indicate that spotted
deer were found to prefer road sides and open clearings and therefore vehicle transects gave higher
estimates. Sambar, gaur, and elephant, on the other hand, showed a reverse trend. The paper also
discusses the merits and demerits of all 3 methods.
       VÁSÁRHELYI, AMÁS, and Á. DELY-DRASKOVITS. Reed-dependent arthropods—new
aspects in reedbed management. Zoological Department, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Baross
u. 13. Budapest, H-1088, HUNGARY.
       Exploration of reedbeds had a new impetus over the last decades when, following a decrease in
total area of wetlands, a decay of reed was observed even in large, permanent lakes of Europe.
The literature review and field work carried out by the staff of the Hungarian Natural History
Museum and related specialists drew the attention to the many invertebrate species associated with
common reed (Phragmites australis). Besides numerous arthropod species feeding occasionally on
reed, 39 monophagous reed-eating (phragmitophagous) species were found, along with 32 mono- or
oligophagous parasitoid and hyperparasitoid species feeding exclusively on reed feeders and their
parasitoids. All these species depend on reed for their survival, and some of them are considered as
pests, causing harm to different parts of the plant and in various ways (e.g., some Hyalopterus,
Donacia, Noctuid, Chloropid, Cecidomyid, and Steneotarsonemid mite species). Pest populations are
generally suppressed by natural enemies or by self-regulation of the plant. However, in case of serious
harm (not yet reported in Hungary), management techniques such as reed cutting at specific times and
heights, removal of cut reed, and reed burning can provide an efficient pest control. Common reed-
feeders such as Chaetococcus phragmitis, and species from the genera Lipara, Giraudiella,
162                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



Lasioptera, Microlasioptera, as well as overwintering spiders play an important role in maintaining
the winter populations of reedbed passerines (e.g., blue tit [Parus caeruleus], wren [Troglodytes
troglodytes], bearded tit [Panurus biarmicus]). Several other species are rare and of great
conservation value. Whether management of reedbed aims at improving water quality, preserving
biodiversity, or maximizing reed harvest, it should take into consideration life history of these
arthropods.
       VILLAFUERTE, RAFAEL, and JOHN A. LITVAITIS. Evaluating management efforts to
sustain declining populations of Iberian lynxes. Department of Applied Biology, Estación Biológica
de Do ana, CSIC, Avda. María Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla, SPAIN (RV); Department of Natural
Resources, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA (JAL).
       The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. Global
populations were estimated at 1, 00 during the late 1980s. A decade later, populations have been
reduced by 50%. This rapid decline was a response to a precipitous reduction in the principal prey of
lynxes, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), that occurred after an accidental introduction of
rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) into western Europe. Additionally, habitat losses and human
persecution continued to reduce lynx populations. Remnant populations of lynx currently occupy
a variety of sites, from small, isolated patches to large, continuous blocks of habitat. Natural resource
agencies are responding to the plight of the lynx by initiating a variety of activities including habitat
enhancement, rabbit stocking, and captive breeding of lynxes. Because it will take years to evaluate
the actual effects of each management effort, we are using computer simulations to identify the most
effective approach. Simulations include enhanced prey abundance (increasing patch carrying
capacity), acquisition and restoration of additional habitat (increasing landscape carrying capacity),
enhanced dispersal among patches of lynx habitat, and increased productivity via captive breeding.
Our simulations also will include the role of periodic outbreaks of RHD on restoration efforts. We
believe that this approach will provide wildlife managers with the necessary evaluation of these
procedures and enhance cooperative efforts to maintain a very significant component of the Iberian
ecosystem.
      VINGADA, JOSÉ V., C. EIRA, S. SCHEICH, C. FONSECA, M. SOARES, F. L. CORREIA,
M. FARIA, P. CARMO, A. FERREIRA, A. SOARES, and B. BOBEK. Conservation of the Iberian
wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in Portugal—the everlasting conflict with man. Dep. de Biologia da
Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 Braga û PORTUGAL (JVV); Instituto do
Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra. 3000 Coimbra û PORTUGAL (CE, SS, CF, MS, FLC,
MF, AF, AS); Institute of Nature Conservation, PORTUGAL (PC); Jagiellonian University, Krakow,
POLAND (BB).
       In Portugal, some of the main problems related with wolf (Canis lupus) conservation are
livestock damage, associated with illegal killing, and habitat degradation (fires, monocultures,
decrease of forest). Other important problems are the decrease or absence of wild prey such as roe
deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa), as well as the
reduction and fragmentation of habitats favorable to the maintenance of sustainable wolf populations
and prey populations. In this work, we present the results related with the conservation of the wolf in
Portugal. Data were obtained from distribution of wolf damage, wolf diet, and restoration of wild
ungulates populations, integrated with an analysis of habitat suitability in terms of domestic prey
distribution, wild prey distribution, habitat type, human pressure and fragmentation; data were
analyzed as a whole to achieve a better understanding of the wolf population distribution. This
analysis revealed the main problems of wolf preservation and important clues that will help in the
definition of future management strategy plans. The main conclusions achieved in this work
emphasize that Portugal has potential areas for the conservation of the wolf. Thus, the physical actions
already started (such as ungulate restocking) are key factors for the preservation and restoration of the
wolf population. However, this species will be saved only with a change in human attitudes towards
the wolf and with a strong definition of the “political strategy for the wolf conservation.”
163                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



       VOELK, FRIEDRICH H. Barkpeeling damage in relation to red deer density and forest
structure in Austria. Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Universitaet fuer
Bodenkultur Wien, Peter Jordanstrasse 76/9, A-1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA.
        Relationships between red deer (Cervus elaphus) management, barkpeeling damage and forest
structure were analyzed for the Austrian provinces. The main objective was to evaluate the
importance of different factors influencing barkpeeling damage in spruce-dominated forests.
Indicators for forest structure and barkpeeling damage were recorded since 1960 by the Austrian
continuous forest inventory. Information about red deer density was derived by analyzing hunting
statistics (comparison of hunting bags and other mortality factors over the last 30 years, with
consideration of meteorological conditions). Information about supplemental winter feeding (intensity
and feeding stuff) was gathered by questionnaires via provincial hunting organizations.
The dimension of barkpeeling damage is positively correlated with the peeling damage susceptibility
of forests, which was increased by forestry practices (e.g., clear felling system and following spruce
cultivation). In particular, dense uniform stands with more than 9/10 evergreen conifers are highly
susceptible to peeling damage. The lowest barkpeeling damage was found in Vorarlberg, where red
deer density throughout was very high, but the proportion of natural and near natural forests is the
highest of all provinces. Low peeling damage susceptibility of alpine spruce forests is mainly
positively correlated with high proportions of multi-storeyed stands and an amount of at least 20
% admixed deciduous trees. Twenty years of reducing red deer densities (shooting 8–11 red deer/1, 00
ha) did not reduce peeling damage satisfactorily. No statistically significant correlations between
barkpeeling damage and red deer density could be found. I conclude that future measures of game
damage prevention in Austria will have to focus more on forestry practices.
     VON THÜNGEN, JULIETA, N. BONINO, C. FERREIRA, B. IOVANNITTI, C. PERALTA,
and D. SARASQUETA. Sustainable use of a guanaco (Lama guanicoe) population on the Mapuche
Community Reserve “Pilquiniyeu del Limay” INTA -EEA Bariloche, cc277, (8400) Bariloche, Rio
Negro, ARGENTINA.
      The Mapuche community of the Reserve “Pilquiniyeu del Limay” has been relocated to a ranch
where historically there has been an abundant guanaco (Lama guanicoe) population. This guanaco
population is now affected by subsistence hunting by people of the community and poaching by
neighbors. We hypothesized that (1) guanacos can provide a resource to diversify traditional
production in the region, and (2) use will ensure conservation of the species. We proposed to obtain
objective information on production potential of fiber and meat by guanacos on the “Pilquiniyeu del
Limay” Reserve. We followed the interaction between the guanaco population and the Mapuche
community through censuses from 1991 to 1998 and through personal interviews. We evaluated how
members in the community organized to develop experimental hunting, and to avoid poaching.
Guanaco population density varied from a minimum of 3.4 guanaco/km 2 to a maximum of
6.2 guanaco/km 2 . Average fleece weight was 0.349 gr (± 0.111), average diameter of fiber was
17.6 F (± 0.76) and average carcass weight was 46.25 kg (± 10). The Mapuche population has
remained stable since the initial settlement in 1991, hunting 13% (± 3.67) from the guanaco
population. Poaching was difficult to estimate. However, the community has increased awareness of
the value of the guanaco resource. They started observing the sources of poaching and asked for
government support to establish a control program. They also started an incipient ecotourism
enterprise. We conclude that the guanaco population offers an opportunity to diversify the traditional
wool ranching in the region through the production of fine fibers for traditional weaving, meat for the
community, and ecotourism. There is need for greater commitment from the government to help the
community establish an adequate control of poaching.
       WANDERA, PHILIP OGUBA. Human-wildlife conflict resolution: national imperatives and
strategies. Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 40241, Nairobi, KENYA.
     Human-wildlife conflict resolution is the single biggest challenge most wildlife conservation
and management bodies face today in Africa. The lower population pressure, and the lesser degree of
164                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



technological sophistication in the earlier years may have allowed more harmonious co-existence
between human beings, on the one hand, and the wildlife on the other. But with the hunger for
agricultural land ever increasing and attendant population growth, human-wildlife conflict is
increasing to the extent that the wildlife is experiencing the brunt of unsparing economic exploitation
and destruction. Unless far-sighted solutions are given, this valuable resource would soon be
nonexistent in many rural areas, and the biological diversity of the parks and reserves would be
adversely affected. The direct realities described above are recognized and are being addressed in
different ways by most Africa countries. Some of these ways, as is the case in some Africa countries,
are already paying dividends.
      WARREN, ROBERT J. An overview and evaluation of deer herd management programs in
urban and suburban communities of the USA. Daniel B. Warnell School of Forest Resources,
University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
       Since the successful restoration of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in the USA
during the early 20 th Century, wildlife managers have primarily controlled deer populations through
the use of regulated public hunting. Recently, however, deer populations have become overabundant
in many areas where public hunting may not be acceptable as a method of deer herd control. Wildlife
professionals are increasingly facing more diverse challenges and nontraditional public groups in their
efforts to manage and control deer populations, especially in urban and suburban communities. This
presentation will provide an overview of the methods and programs that have been used for
controlling deer herds in various urban and suburban areas of the USA. Examples of the specific
methods used by various communities to control deer herds include live capture and relocation,
controlled public hunts, sharpshooting, trap and kill, and fertility control. The presentation also will
include an evaluation of regional trends in the use of specific methods among different geographical
areas of the USA. These various deer herd control methods vary in their economic feasibility, efficacy
at the population level, public acceptability, and legal and political complexity. Regardless of the
methods employed, these urban and suburban deer herd management programs must be based on
specifically defined objectives (e.g., the incidence of deer-vehicle collisions, landscape damage, etc.).
In most areas, the use of a combination of methods (i.e., integrated pest management) may have the
greatest potential of achieving the stated objectives for a deer control program.
     WELLER, KARA E. The status of mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Europe. Department of Fishery
and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525 USA.
      A mouflon-type wild sheep existed in Europe prior to the Ice Age, when it was pushed further
south by advancing ice masses, and became isolated on the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and
Sardinia. The introduction of mouflon (Ovis musimon) from Corsica and Sardinia to the European
mainland began in the 18 th Century, and has continued into the present. Before this study, it was
believed that a total of approximately 60, 00 mouflon could be found in at least 23 European
countries. Through an extensive literature review, questionnaires sent to all countries of Europe, and
information obtained while working in Podyji National Park in the Czech Republic from 1993 to
1996, I estimate 114, 00 mouflon to be present in 28 European countries. The most recent mouflon
population estimates for each individual country are listed. I describe in detail the history of mouflon
introductions to each country, and discuss management issues such as its status as an exotic species,
and significance as a game species. I estimate an annual hunter harvest of 31, 00 mouflon from 13 of
the 28 countries in which mouflon are known to occur. Other management concerns such as damage
caused to forest vegetation, competition with native ungulates, and genetic issues of founding effects
and crossbreeding are discussed. I list recommendations for greater cooperation in mouflon
management between neighboring countries of Europe, especially to collect census and hunter harvest
data. Native mouflon populations on Corsica and Sardinia have been threatened with extinction,
making the status of the species on the mainland an important issue.
     WETTSTEIN, WALTER. Conservation status of the corncrake in Szatmar-Bereg.
Szoeke Tisza Foundation, Nyar u. 3, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza, HUNGARY.
165                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      Distribution, habitat preference, and status as indicator of biodiversity of the corncrake
(Crex crex) was studied in 1997 and 1998 in Szatmar-Bereg in eastern Hungary. The objective was to
obtain scientifically based data for the development of a conservation concept. The population in the
study region was estimated between 150 and 200 calling males. A comparison between 17 occupied
and 17 unoccupied grasslands showed that out of many habitat factors, height and density of the
vegetation and the large-scale structure of the grasslands were best for predicting the presence of the
corncrakes. They preferred high but not dense vegetation in grasslands additionally structured by old
riverbeds, bushes, and single standing trees. This rich structure of corncrake habitats may also be the
reason why occupied sites showed a higher $-diversity of plants, birds, and butterflies than
unoccupied sites. The small scale "-diversity however was not different between occupied and
unoccupied sites. The current way of land-use still falls together with the requirements of corncrake
conservation. In middle terms however, it must be expected that many suitable habitats will disappear
because of changes in land-use. The most important short-term measure would be to enlarge the
landscape protection areas of the region, which currently do not include the most important sites.
Because of the large number of land owners involved that are dispersed over a large region, it seems
only occasionally appropriate to design site specific management plans. In the long term, it will be
more effective to develop tools to encourage the farmers to use suitable management practices, e.g.,
by compensating the income loss resulting from special measures like late mowing.
      WHITE, CRAIG G., SARA H. SCHWEITZER, PHILIP E. HALE, LYNN A. LEWIS, JOHN J.
MORGAN, and MELINDA K. SCHAEFBAUER. Managing planted pines within an agricultural
landscape to enhance habitat for northern bobwhite, songbirds, and eastern wild turkey populations.
D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
       Populations of songbirds, including the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), associated
with early successional habitats in the southeastern United States have declined significantly in the
last 10–15 years. These population declines have been attributed to changes in land use practices such
as conversion of small farms to large, intensively managed farms and to pine plantations. We are
examining responses (habitat use, reproductive success, and mortality) of songbirds, northern
bobwhite, and eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) to experimental treatments applied to pine
plantations. Our treatments are (1) thinning to #300 trees/acre and (2) creating openings in 20% of
a stand’s area and thinning to #300 trees/acre. Geographical Information Systems, Global Positioning
System units, and radio-telemetry were used to create data layers of habitat categories, nest locations,
and home ranges of northern bobwhite and eastern wild turkey. An interspersion index obtained from
these data was used to examine responses of songbird, bobwhite, and turkey populations to landscape
conditions. Most songbird nests found in closed canopy pines were #50 m from the edge. Both
songbird and bobwhite nest success in this type of habitat appeared marginal. Successful nests of
bobwhites were found in old fields and near edges (#15 m) of closed-canopy planted pines. Before
treatments, northern bobwhite selected home ranges that included the relative proportions of habitat
categories available on the study area. Within home ranges, northern bobwhites were located more
frequently in old field, open-canopy pine, and hedgerow habitat categories (P#0.04). Turkeys
preferred open habitat, hardwoods, hardwood drains, and gaps in pine stands. Nesting occurred where
overhead cover was available and near unpaved roads. Since the imposition of treatments, we are
continuing to monitor proportional use of habitat types by songbirds and eastern wild turkeys in this
farmland-pineland landscape.
      WHITE, GARY C. Advanced features of program MARK. Department of Fishery and Wildlife
Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA.
      Program MARK provides a number of sophisticated analyses beyond just providing parameter
estimates. Features that will be discussed and demonstrated include graphs of parameter estimates
from 1 or more models, advanced models constructed with the design matrix, model averaging, use of
the bootstrap procedure to evaluate goodness of fit, using quasi-likelihood procedures to correct for
over-dispersion of the data, and the simulation abilities of the program.
166                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



      WHITFORD, PHILIP C. Human disturbance as a design factor to aid displacement of Canada
geese from urban parks. Biology Department, Capital University, 2199 East Main St. Columbus, OH
43209 USA.
       Giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima) populations have increased dramatically in
urban areas across the upper Midwest region of North America in the past decades with a concomitant
increase in complaints of human-goose conflicts. Yet, while many cities report problems of excess
geese in parks, several sites within Minnesota and Wisconsin have urban lakes or ponds surrounded
by parks that are free of goose problems. Analysis of human use patterns, vegetational characteristics,
and shoreline topography of these few parks without problems was done to try to determine what
factors might be responsible for the absence of geese at these sites. Behavioral study of goose
responses to human approach was incorporated to determine distances at which geese assumed alert
postures and/or moved away from humans. These data were compared to mean distances from water
where geese were observed to feed and rest in parks where geese were abundant. The most probable
explanation for absence of geese in the parks studied was presence of relatively smooth shorelines
without projections or islands where geese could escape from constant human disturbance of people
on foot and bike paths adjacent to the water. Geese were found to have a strong preference for resting
within 20 m of the water’s edge, and exhibited avoidance behavior when people approached to within
8–10 m. As a result, goose disturbance was greatest when the walking path was consistently about
10 m from the water’s edge and human traffic on the path exceeded 12 people/hour during daylight
hours. Constant low levels of disturbance seemed to prevent colonization of these parks by urban
geese.
      WIESMANN, KARIN M., ULRICH M. BRENDEL, and ROLF H. EBERHARDT. Modeling
population centers of the golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, for long-term conservation management in
the European Alps. Nationalparkverwaltung Berchtesgaden, Doktorberg 6, D - 83471 Berchtesgaden,
GERMANY.
       The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the European Alps occupies territory sizes between
30 and more than 100 km 2, preferring open land areas like the alpine regions above timberline.
During a conservation project for the golden eagle in the Berchtesgaden National Park, Germany,
models concerning the habitat quality of this bird of prey have been developed, validated, and finally
extrapolated to other regions within the Alps. To explain different population densities of the golden
eagle within the Alps, the factor “landscape compartments” has been implemented. These improved
Habitat-Density-Models show potential recruitment areas of the golden eagle for different parts of the
central Alps, based on the extraordinarily high data quality regarding Geographic Information
Systems and golden eagles in these regions. These modeled areas can be validated by field data and
finally considered for long-term conservation management to protect population centers of the golden
eagle.
       WILLIAMS, A. CHRISTY, A. J. T. JOHNSINGH, AND PAUL KRAUSMAN. Using mark-
resight methods to estimate an elephant population in northwest India. Wildlife Institute of India, P.O.
Box 18, Dehra Dun, 248001, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA (ACW, AJTJ); Wildlife Institute of India and
Wildlife and Fisheries Science, 325 BSE/SRNR, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
(ACW); School of Renewable Resources, 325 Biological Sciences E. Building, University of Arizona,
Tucson, AZ 85721 USA (PK).
      We used mark-resight methods to estimate an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population on
the western bank of the river Ganges in northwestern India between January 1997 and June 1998. We
estimated males and females separately. Our unit of estimation for females and juvenile and subadult
males was elephant family groups. Ten adult male elephants, identified using distinctive naturally
occurring marks, and 3 adult males fitted with radio-transmitters were used in the experiment to
estimate the number of adult males. Four family groups each with an adult female fitted with a radio-
transmitter were considered identified groups. The radio-transmitter frequencies were used only to
confirm the identity of the individual male or female group. The forest blocks in the study area were
167                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



selected randomly and searched for periods ranging from 2 to 4 hours over 200 days. All elephants
(adult males and female groups) encountered were recorded and if marked, the identity was noted. We
had 101 sightings of adult males with 48 recaptures of 13 marked males and 50 sightings of female
groups with 14 recaptures of 3 marked groups. The number of males using Minta-Mangel and
Bowden estimators using the program NOREMARK was 27–37 males and 23–41 males, respectively.
The number of females groups was estimated to be 11–19 groups (Minta-Mangel) and 6–27 groups
(Bowden). The estimates are compared with other estimates of the elephant population in this area.
Reasons for heterogeneity in capture probabilities and the usefulness of this technique as a population
estimation technique are discussed.
      WINTER, CLAUDINE. Improving and connecting beaver habitat: a national concept for
Switzerland. Swiss Beaver Conservation Office, c/o WildARK, Tillierstrasse 6a, 3005 Bern,
SWITZERLAND.
       After the reintroduction of 141 beavers (Castor fiber) to Switzerland between 1958 and 1977,
the population increased to approximately 350 individuals by 1993. However, isolation of small
subpopulations and an important lack of suitable habitat and food resources justified a more thorough
long-term plan for their protection on a national scale. Thus, the Federal Office for Environment,
Forests and Landscape established the Swiss Beaver Conservation Office in 1997, with the main aim
to work out a national concept for the conservation of beavers and their natural habitat. This concept
mainly corresponds to a habitat-connecting plan and suggests the establishment of regional working
groups and action plans for the improvement of selected riparian habitats in order to connect the
isolated subpopulations. This habitat connecting plan is indispensable, because in Switzerland beavers
live in the most densely cultivated areas, allowing only restricted dispersal and population size. The
concept required a consultation with all responsible regional authorities of wildlife management,
nature conservation, and hydraulic engineering. Such a consultation is necessary because, according
to the Swiss political system, each region is self-determined with respect to all activities regarding the
improvement of existing or potential beaver habitat. With the national concept, a coordinating
framework on a national scale will be offered to regional managers as a guideline to plan their local
activities in accordance with the most important national goals. This paper presents the strategic and
geographical priorities of the concept, as well as how its realization is now being pursued.
       YADAV, V. K. Status, distribution, and conservation strategies for tigers (Panthera tigris
tigris) in West Bengal, India. Office of the Chief Wildlife Warden, Bikash Bhawan (North Block), 3 rd
Floor, Saltlake City, Calcutta 700091, est Bengal, INDIA.
       West Bengal state, in India, harbors more than 360 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in a variety of
habitat ranging from subtropical Himalayan forests to mangrove forests. This paper highlights the
status and distribution of tigers in West Bengal. The various problems in tiger conservation inside the
protected areas (PAs) and outside the PAs have been discussed. Most of the problems are due to
anthropogenic factors. The conservation plan for tigers has been formulated. The conservation
strategy mainly aims at various habitat improvement programs and reduction of biotic pressures from
the tiger reserves. Ecodevelopment programs are given priority in the critical areas to reduce the
negative impact of humans on wildlife and also to create alternative employment to primary
stakeholders. This aspect of biodiversity conservation with people actively participating in protected
area management is discussed in detail.
       YOGANAND, K., G. CLIFFORD RICE, and A. J. T. JOHNSINGH. Behavioral ecology,
management problems and conservation of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in Panna National Park,
central India. Wildlife Institute of India, P.O. Box 18, Dehra Dun, INDIA (KY, AJTJ); Washington
Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA USA (GCR).
       The behavioral ecology of the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)has been studied since 1996 in dry
deciduous forests of Panna National Park, central India, by radio tracking and associated habitat
studies. The bears in Panna are mostly nocturnal, rest during day in secure dens, predominantly feed
on ants and termites, and have large home ranges with seasonal shift in core areas of use. Human
168                    Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



impacts on the habitat in Panna seem to have shaped bear behavioral traits to a large extent.
The presence of day resting and maternal dens along the length of the escarpment makes it an
important habitat for bears, and also makes the area around it prone to conflict with people. The forest
areas outside the park are predominantly covered with dense patches of a shrubby weed lantana
(Lantana camara). Bears use these patches frequently for day resting and foraging during monsoon
and post-monsoon seasons. The protection of bears here is not as assured as it is inside the park.
Human presence and use of the park for grazing cattle, collection of forest produce, etc., lead to
conflict with bears and pose a major problem for the conservation of sloth bear in Panna. Protecting
escarpments from human use, relocation of forest blocks that are open to grazing and relocation of
villages away from the escarpments, and educating local people about avoiding conflict with bears are
all suggested as immediate measures for conservation. Realignment of the park along its southern
boundary to include more area around the escarpments inside the park; management of the forest
areas surrounding the park as a buffer zone; and monitoring the bear population using digging sign as
an index of abundance are suggested for the long-term conservation of sloth bears in Panna National
Park.
      ZÁGON, ANDRÁS, ANDRÁS BÁLDI, and CSABA MOSKÁT. Faunal mapping of bird
populations in the Szigetköz region, an inland delta of the River Danube. Animal Ecology Research
Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest,
Baross u. 13., H-1088, HUNGARY.
       Faunal mapping of bird populations in the Szigetköz region, an inland delta of the River
Danube, was carried out in 1994, 1996, and 1998, using a 1-km x 1-km grid system. The construction
of a hydroelectric power station and a reservoir in 1992 significantly modified the water management
of the region. The upper half of the region suf-fered from a serious decrease in the water table, but the
lower parts were considered to remain unchanged. The breeding populations of shorebirds, the
wintering waterfowl, and the marsh-nesting passerines showed quick reaction to the environmental
changes, but the populations of woodland birds and herons remained relatively stable during the
5-year study period. The first survey indicated that the marsh-nesting species (e.g., reed warbler
[Acrocephalus scirpaceus], sedge warbler [A. schoenobaenus], Savi’s warbler [Locustella
luscinioides], and reed bunting [Emberiza schoeniclus]) showed clear preference for the lower parts
of the region, and disappeared from the upper parts, where marshes dried out. The little ringed plover
(Charadrius dubius), and the common sandpiper (Tringa hypoleucos) were more frequent in the upper
parts of the region where the water body in the main branch decreased significantly, and as
a consequence, the area of the gravel shore habitat was extended. The water level of the upper
Szigetköz was increased with new constructions in 1995. As a consequence, the second survey
showed that the populations of the above mentioned species were more evenly distributed in the
region than in 1994.
      ZEDROSSER, ANDREAS, VERONIKA SZINOVATZ, and HUBERT ZEILER. The influence
of agriculture, climate, and predation on the decrease of the brown hare in Austria. Institute for
Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of Agricultural Sciences Vienna, Peter Jordan
Strasse 76/9, A-1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA
       Austrian brown hare (Lepus europaeus) populations have undergone dramatic changes since
World War II. According to bag statistics, a population peak was reached in 1971 with 403,
87 harvested hares; bag numbers decreased to a low of 144, 62 in 1991. The goal of the study is to
evaluate the impact of different variables on brown hare population changes from 1950 to 1995.
The statistical method applied is multiple regression analysis. Different geographic levels (provincial
and regional) are considered. The impacts of 9 different agricultural va-riables, 1 predation variable,
and 24 climatic variables are compared. Bag statistics of the brown hare from 1950 to 1995 are used
as a reference of hare population sizes. Agricultural variables used are area under cultivation of
different crops (cereals, corn, root crop, oil-seed rape, clover, and pasture, vineyards); acreage area in
general; changes in agricultural structure (i.e., field size); the use of agricultural machines; and
recorded numbers of road-killed hares. Climatic variables evaluated were the monthly average
169                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



precipitation and temperature. For measuring the impact of predation, bag numbers of red fox (Vulpes
vulpes) are used. Rabies vaccinations, targeted at red fox populations, were carried out in Austria
beginning in 1986. According to bag statistics, this caused a strong increase in fox population sizes.
Preliminary results suggest that the brown hare’s increase until the 1970s and the following decrease
until the 1990s were mainly caused by agricultural variables. Climatic variables tested have no
significant impact on hare population sizes. But due to increasing predator population sizes, a strong
impact on an already declining hare population is suspected. The possibility of a predation pit is
discussed.
       ZEILER, HUBERT P., and HARTMUT G. GOSSOW. Case examples and consequences for
a forestry-integrated capercaillie habitat management in Central Europe. Universitaet fuer
Bodenkultur Wien, Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, Peter Jordanstrasse 76/9,
A-1190 Vienna, AUSTRIA.
       Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) numbers appear mostly to decrease, in Central as well as in
Eastern and Northern Europe (although the mostly bag-based population data are not the safest source
of information). An increasing number of habitat assessment studies have found that coniferous
forests of the taiga type, Scots pine more than Norway spruce or white fir, but especially light and
open forest structures are important prerequisites for habitat suitability. In former times, forest
pasturing and other woodland use practices of a somewhat destructive character have made many
montane and subalpine forests capercaillie-suited by producing more or less poor site conditions.
With decreased use of these practices, site conditions became improved again, and preferences for
spruce in combination with only small clear-cut sizes and increasing forest tending and thinning
backlogs are producing forests now that are too dense and monotonous, and therefore poorly suited
for capercaillie and hazel grouse (Tet-rastes bonasia). But in Austria’s alpine ranges, the decrease of
its capercaillie stocks seems not as pronounced as in many other European countries—and that despite
an exorbitant percentage of spruce-dominated age-class forests with high canopy closures and poor
thinning and tending efforts, respectively. Some explanatory evidence is coming from several forest
estates with more capercaillie-oriented forestry adaptations (felling system changes, other tending
efforts, specific habitat improvement efforts), becoming experimental forests for such questions. Ad-
ditional problems, caused by more recent developments in timber industries, and effects of forest
management on habitat management are discussed.
       ZHELEZNOV, NIKOLAI K. The XXI Century protection strategy of the Pacific region
environment and of its biocomponents as a global ecosystem or Arctic ecosystems protection strategy
under industrial exploration of the north. Department of Nature of North East Pacific Geography
Institute, Far-East Branch of the Russian Sciences Academy, 686710, Chukotka, Anadyr, P.O. Box
16, RUSSIA.
       The Northern Pacific is a unique ecosystem; the Ohotsk and Bering seas have an extraordinarily
large biological diversity, from large sea mammals to many different kinds of crabs and molluscs.
Population density of many sea animal species becomes higher, and yet, as for terrestrial vertebrates
inhabiting the coasts, their area, number, and population density decreases. Today, all of the nations,
including Russia, which use biological resources of the northern Pacific, are on the threshold of the
XXI Century, and the problem of biological resources utilization becomes more and more serious, and
it also concerns their distribution and protection. Chukotka and Alaska, Kam-chatka and California,
cannot be isolated in terms of strategic development from the largest countries—nature users of the
Pacific region—Mexico, Korea, Japan, China, and even Australia, which have to manifest
a coordinated initiative before the end of the XX Century, to work out a common and united strategy
and tactics of exploration, rational use, and protection of biological resources. Possible approaches in
development of the environment protection strategy and of biological components of the Pacific
region should be tied in with the context of modern evolution of the common geopolitical system and
as a global ecosystem of the Pacific megapolis. I will speak of long-term strategies that must be
worked out to protect the North Pacific region. These ideas can be only realized by countries through
170                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



creation of an International Committee on sustainable use and protection of the Pacific biological
resources.

Addendum
      ÁKOSHEGYI, IMRE. Experiences with red deer immobilization in Hungary. Department of
Wildlife Biology and Management, H-2103 Gödöllö, Hungary
      Capture of red deer (Cervus elaphus), individually or in groups, is frequently needed in wildlife
research and game management practice. Manipulation (e.g., tagging, treatment) or transportation of
captured animals is only possible by immobilization. Thus, chemical immobilization has become
a common practice in Hungary. This poster summarizes the author experiences with various methods
applied to red deer.
      In case of individual capture, the immobilization agent is darted into the animal by a flying
syringe. With capture in groups, animals, driven into the capturing place, may be immobilized by
means of flying syringes or intramuscular injection in case of drop-netting. Type and dose of the
immobilization agent varied according to the way of capture and additional manipulation of animals.
On the basis of many-hundred captures the last 14 years, several immobilization mixtures and specific
dosing were tested. Of these, two combinations have been applied successfully:
      1) A combination of Xylazine and Ketamine that has made an international career as the
         Hellabrun mixture. To reduce the dose of Xylazine due to its high price, the Gödöllö-2
         mixture has been developed that contains only 0.83-1.50 mg/kg of Xylazine, compared to
         the recommended dose of 1.25-1.78 mg/kg. Xylazine may be applied even at a lower dose
         using the Gödöllö-1 mixture, in case of drop-netted red deer.
      2) Gim FA and GIM-1 contain Phentanyl, Azaperone and Promethazine in combination. These
         mixtures are effective independent upon of the environmental conditions, i.e., when rest is
         impossible to ensue till the onset of stupefaction. Composition and doses of the above
         products have been selected according to applicability and easy dosing in practice. During
         field and game garden works, inaccurate dosing may occur with all these mixtures, but at
         a tolerable level and without any risk.

Conservation History of Hungary
       The Carpathian Basin was conquered by Hungarians in 896 AD and the first Hungarian king
was crowned in 1000 AD. According to medieval chronicles, the country was selected for settlement
because of rich lands, forests, and abundance of game. Hungary has been well known for its
abundance of wildlife since that time, and active game management can be traced back to the first
kings.
      As a part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, forestry and game management, as well as
shooting practices, developed under strong German influence. The first modern hunting law was
introduced in 1883, and other laws for forestry and nature conservation were initiated at the same
time. Since the beginning of the 20th century, game management has been valued as a source of
income and hunting tourism has been a well respected enterprise.
        In 1945 after World War II, game became state property and hunting rights were separated
from landed property. The new system opened new perspectives on game management and also
initiated the recognition of the importance of scientific knowledge and sustainable management.
These efforts were supported by various levels of professional education and research at agricultural
and forestry universities.
       During the last decades, serious resource conflicts have become evident, especially among
wildlife management, nature conservation, and forest management interests. The collapse of the
communist block led by the Soviet Union also brought tremendous political and economic changes
that are having a strong influence on natural resource management and conservation. One of the most
171                   Program and Abstracts - 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress



important of these is the privatization of large blocks of land, often into small parcels. Wildlife
management and hunting are in a process of transition with the framework for future management set
by a new law on game conservation, management, and hunting passed in 1996. Other countries of the
former communist block share similar challenges and opportunities.

Gödöllö University of Agricultural Sciences
       The Gödöllö University of Agricultural Sciences was established in 1950 as the successor of
the first independent Hungarian University of Agricultural Sciences established in 1945. Three
university faculties in Agricultural Sciences, Agri-cultural Engineering, and Agricultural Economics,
and an interfaculty Institute for Environment and Landscape Management, are housed in Gödöllö. The
University is a key institution in Hungarian agriculture and in the sustainable development of the
Hungarian countryside. There are 11, 00 students affiliated with the University of which 3, 00 are
studying in Gödöllö.
      Teaching and research of wildlife biology and management have a several decades tradition at
the University of Agricultural Sciences. In 1976, the Game Biology Research Station was joined to
the University and became a leader in research and teaching of wildlife ecology and management in
the country. In 1994, the University converted the research station into the Department of Wildlife
Biology and Management. The Department provides a wide spectrum of graduate level wildlife
courses, a special post-graduate course for a secondary diploma in wildlife management, and Ph.D.
studies in wildlife sciences. Through a strong program of contracts and grants, the Department also
has an active research program and now holds a leading position in wildlife science in Hungary. For
more information, please visit:
                              University of Agricultural Sciences, Gödöllö (GAU): http://www.gau.hu
                                        Department of Wildlife Biology, GAU: http://www.vvt.gau.hu

The Wildlife Society
       The Wildlife Society (TWS) is an international association of wildlife professionals dedicated
to excellence in wildlife stewardship through science and education. Its mission is to enhance the
ability of wildlife professionals to conserve diversity, sustain productivity, and ensure responsible use
of wildlife resources for the benefit of society. TWS publishes The Journal of Wildlife Management,
Wildlife Monographs, Wildlife Society Bulletin, and occasional books. The Wildlife Society holds an
annual conference to provide continuing education opportunities and offers a certification program for
                                                                  st
wildlife biologists. The Wildlife Society co-hosted the 1 International Wildlife Management
Congress held in Costa Rica in 1993. TWS is actively involved in wildlife policy issues in the United
States, and annually awards the Aldo Leopold Award to a distinguished wildlife professional. TWS
was founded in the U.S. in 1937 and has a current membership of 9, 00 wildlife professionals and
students from more than 60 countries. For information on TWS membership, please contact:
The Wildlife Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 USA; tel: (301) 897-9770;
fax: (301) 530-2471; email: tws@wildlife.org; http://www.wildlife.org.
172                  Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                                Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
Ecosystems of the Black Sea
                                                                                      N. Shalovenkov
               Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, 2 Nakhimov av. 335011 Sevastopol, Ukraine
       Satellite observations of the Black Sea reveal a complex, nearly chaotic flow field in coastal
waters while along the Crimea coast a major upwelling prevails in summer. Ship-born data suggest
downwelling occasionally occurs, advecting polluted riverine sediment to the center of the Black Sea.
The marine ecosystems of the Black Sea have been subjected to strong anthropogenous pressure the
last 50 years. The resulting environmental degradation is so severe that it affects economic and social
developments as well as human health and a decrease in biodiversity and productivity. While the
whole Black Sea is increasingly eutrophicated, one-third of the area is subject to increased
sedimentation. Locally this decrease is often associated with an increase in heavy metal pollution
though in open areas storm waves help alleviate the pollution. Visualization of the data helps to
quantify the spatial scales of ecological processes and anthropogeneous loadings and demonstrates
that the anthropogeneous loadings degrade the coastal ecosystems of the Black Sea at both the large
(regional) and local scales.

Keywords:

Regional effects

River plumes
      Four large rivers of Europe, namely the Danube, Dnieper, Dniester and Bug rivers, discharge
fresh water and effluent into the Black Sea [Figure 1(a, )]. These freshwater river plumes float over
the denser, saline Black Sea water, and can extend far from the river mouths under the influence of
the prevailing circulation in the Black Sea. The surface circulation is highly complex and is
characterized by a set of energetic eddies that come and go and strongly modulate a weak mean flow.
The situation appears nearly chaotic. This is illustrated in Animation 1, which displays sea surface
temperature data. This complex flow field helps disperse river plumes over a wide area of the shelf.
       The river plumes are turbid and carry a high load of suspended particles. Field studies reveal
that at least one-third of the Black Sea is directly affected by sediment from river plumes (Figure 2).
The large particles settle on the sea-floor close to the mouth of rivers. However smaller suspended
particles are car-ried offshore by river plumes, and instead of settling directly to the bottom they
appear to be carried towards the central part of the Black Sea by a mid-water current (Figure 3 and
Animation 2). Details of the mechanism responsible for this baroclinic circulation remain unknown.
      By this mechanism the polluted river waters of the large rivers can be transferred to marine
areas of Crimea, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey where they damage the ecosystem and degrade the
recreational resources.

Organic pollution
       The suspended sediment is colloidal on its surface pollutants are absorbed. These pollutants
such as pesticides, hydrocarbon, heavy metals, organic matters and radioactive isotopes. These
pollutants accumulate in bottom sediment due to settling and then can be resuspended in storms and
become the source of secondary pollution.
       A dominant pollutant in the Black Sea is organic matter, which results in eutrophication on the
north-west shelf in summer and autumn. This eutrophication generates major changes in plankton and
benthos. Further near the bottom the decay of the organic matter generates an oxygen stress which
leads to anoxic condition and high concentration of H2S in bottom sediment (Chichkin & Medinez,
1994). Such conditions all but destroy bottom organisms. This process is repeated annually, though
173                  Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                                Ecosystems of the Black Sea


the location of sulphur-reduction areas varies from year to year (Figure 4) apparently as a result of the
annual river flow of the four major rivers and the quantity of organic material they carry to the Black
Sea.
       In the early 1900s, Phyllophora red alga was the dominant natural alga in the Black Sea
(Zernov, 1909). Located principally on the northwest shelf the Zernov Phyllophora field covered
10 000 km2 [Figure 5(a)] and its biomass in 1940 was estimated to be 10 million tons (Morozova-
Vodajnitzkaj, 1948). The eutrophication of the Black Sea from river runoff is believed to be a major
reason for the significant reduction of the area of distribution of Zernov Phyllophora Field [Figure
5(b)] in the last decades (Kalugina-Gutnik, 1975). The total Phyllofora bio-mass has decreased to
4 million tons by 1968.

Radioactive pollution
      As a result of the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, radioactive pollution extends over most of
the Black Sea (Figure 6). From April to June 1986 radionuclides were deposited by atmospheric
precipitation. The pollution was severe locally. So in surface waters in Southern Crimea the
concentration of Cs-137 exceeded 600 Bq m3 in June 1986 (Buesseler, 1987). The atmospheric fallout
of anthropogenous radioisotopes practically stopped a few months after the accident. As a result of
radioactive disintegration and runoff input, as well as mixing and settling of suspended particulate
matter in the Black Sea, a significant reduction of radionuclides concentration was recorded later.
       In the 10 years following the accident the isotopic composition of the deposited Chernobyl
radionuclides has been changed from those of a short half-life to those with a long half-life such as Sr-
90 and Cs-137 and transuranic elements. These radioisotopes con-tinue to have negative influence on
sea organisms and ecosystems in the Black Sea, due to the high percent-age of isotopes with a long
half-life in the drainage area covered by the Chernobyl fallout . These isotopes are periodically
released from their site of deposition on land and drained by the rivers to the Black Sea. Sediments
and biota in the rivers, estuaries and on the sea-shelf accumulate these radionuclides. The long-term
consequences for the Black Sea of this large-scale radioactive pollution remain unknown.

Local effects
       Local anthropogenous loads (i.e. point sources of pollution) are many and varied. Their effects
are usually localized though exceptions do occur in the Black Sea. A dramatic source is oil pollution
from accidents on ships and oil platforms in the sea. At the local scale, wastewater discharges
(industrial, domestic and agricultural) exercise a major influence on biodiversity. Coastal structures
and ports also cause environmental degradation. Some examples are given below for the Crimea
coast, Jalta Cargo Port, the Alupka Palace-Park Reserve, the Donuzlav Lake and the Sevastopol Bay
Estuary.
       Deep-wastewater outfalls are now used along the coast of Crimea to dilute better the pollutants.
How-ever upwelling events occur along the southern Coast Crimea under certain meteorological
conditions in summer, which raises water from depths of 40-70 m to the sea surface (Gawarkicwecz et
al., 1999). Satellite data help to quantify the spatial and temporal features of this upwelling
(Animation 3). This phenomenon is not only a major inconvenience for the tourism industry by
significantly lowering the water temperature; it also brings pollutants discharge by the submarine
outfalls directly to the surface, presenting a serious health hazard.
       Jalta cargo port [see a location map in Figure 1(b)] was constructed in the early 1990s.
An attempt was made to restore the benthos in the port area. However the engineering structures of
the port have increased sedimentation and the accumulation of organic matter on the sea-floor, which
has affected the benthos. Indeed a significant inverse correlation exists between the summer benthic
biomass and the concentration of organic matter in bottom sediments (Figure 7). A sulphur-reduction
area in bottom sediments exists in the least flushed area of the port and has caused mass death of
bottom animals (Shalovenkov, 1997a).
174                 Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                               Ecosystems of the Black Sea


      In the open sea, stronger currents and storm waves in autumn and winter inhibit sedimentation
and accumulation of organic substances and others pollut-ants. Pollutants however can still
accumulate in small quantities in bottom deposits. The coast of the Alupka Palace-Park Reserve is
such a case. Benthos species comprise mainly juvenile animals recruited in summer (Shalovenkov,
1997a) and often decimated by autumn and winter storms. Pb contaminates the area. The pollution
source can be traced back, from the concentration gradient, to storm waters and waste from tourist
boats docks in the western side of the area. The distribution of benthic biomass does not correlate
uniquely with the concentration of Pb in bottom sediments (Figure 8) but appears also strongly
controlled by seasonal storm waves.
       Dredged navigation channels in bays and coastal seas have become accumulation zones of
pollutants. An example is Donuzlav Lake which is connected to the Black Sea by a channel.
The benthos was made of species recruited from the Black Sea and its maximum biomass occurred at
depths of 7-12 meters (Figure 9). The navigation channel behaves as a natural trap for Zn (and for
other heavy metals) and organic substances in bottom sediments. In turn the latter cause bottom
sulfur-reduction conditions in summer, leading to mass death of the bottom animals. The pollutant
concentration in bottom sediments in-creased from the coast to the navigation channel.
       Even when no new pollutants are introduced, heavy metals accumulated in bottom sediments in
estuaries of the Black Sea can affect benthic communities. This is the case in the estuary of
Sevastopol Bay at the mouth of the Black River (Shalovenkov, 1997b). Pollutants accumulated in
bottom sediments include oil, polychlorbifenils, pesticides and heavy metals (Shalovenkov, 1998).
The maximum values of biomass of the bottom animals were recorded at the sites where the
concentrations of Zn in bottom sediments was small (Figure 10). In this case the contour lines of Zn
concentration suggest to two historical sources of pol-lution, namely the ship yards and industrial
drain waters. Zernov (1913) mapped the distribution of benthos communities in of Sevastopol Bay at
the beginning of century. At that time Zostera covered all estuarine area of Sevastopol Bay to a depth
of 7 m. It was replaced by Potamogeton at the mouth of the Black River. Nephtys hombergii, Glycera
tridactyla, Nereis succinea and Cerastoderma glaucum were the prevailing species of zoobenthos.
Water quality was then high enough to sustain the commercial cultivation of oysters in the beginning
of century. More recently this area of Sevastopol Bay was polluted and the bottom dredged for
navigation. Much of the coast was ‘ improved ’ by concrete. As a result the structure of benthos has
radically changed. The mollusk Ostrea edulis has com-pletely disappeared in not only in the estuary
but also the entire Sevastopol Bay, while Mytilus galloprovincialis has become a prevailing species in
spite of anthropo-genic load. The mussels have vanished from this area. The area of macrophytes has
markedly decreased. Further a decrease in rainfall and river discharge in the last decade has resulted
in the reduction of the range of changes of salinity in the bay and, as a consequence, the marine
species settled in the estuary.

Conclusions
       The anthropogenous loading on ecosystems in the Black Sea is severe. Their effects on the
ecology of the Black Sea vary spatially. The circulation on the north-west shelf of the Black Sea
appears dominated by a series of eddies which mix and advect river plumes and the contaminants they
carry far away from the river mouths, to at least one third of the Black Sea.
       Baroclinic effects including upwelling and down-welling also appear important in the
dispersion of particulate matter and in the fate of waste discharged through submarine outfalls. Metal
pollution of bottom sediments is also important at the local scale in harbours and estuaries where
dredged channels trap the particulate pollutants. The visualization and map-ping of results of
ecological researches enables one to quantify the scales of anthropogenous effects on the Black Sea
ecosystems. Degradation of the coastal ecosystems of the Black Sea is apparent at both the large
(regional) scale and the local scale.
175                    Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                                  Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Acknowledgements
      I wish to express my cordial thanks to Dr Eric Wolanski for help in improving this manuscript,
Sergey Stanichny (Department of Remote Sensing, Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Sevastopol) for
pro-viding satellite data, and Valentina Shalovenkova (Department Shelf Ecosystems, Institute of
Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol) for her help in map-ping and visualization of the ecological
data.

References
Black Sea Geographic Information System 1997 Programme for Environmental Management and Protection of
the Black Sea (Mamaev, V. & Musin, O. eds) Version 2.0, Moscow.
Buesseler, K. O. 1987 Chernobyl: Oceanographic studies in the Black Sea. Oceanus 30, 23-30.
Chichkin, V. N. & Medinez, V. I. 1994 Results of researches of the macrozoobenthos in the Black Sea in 1991-
1993. Research of Ecosystem of the Black Sea. The book of scientific transactions. No. 1, Odessa, pp. 128-133.
Gawarkicwecz, G., Korotaev, G., Stanichny, S., Repetin, L. & Soloviev, D. 1999 Synoptic upwelling and cross-
shelf transport process along the Crimean coast of the Black Sea. Continental Shelf Research 19, 977-1005.
Kalugina-Gutnik, A. A. 1975 Phytobenthos of the Black Sea. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp. 1-247.
Morozova-Vodajnitzkaj, N. V. 1948 ‘‘Zernov Phyllophora Field’’ and the reasons of its occurrence. In Memoirs
of Academic Zernov. Nauka, Moscow, pp. 216-226.
Shalovenkov, N. N. 1997a Small scales in research of biological and pollution of fields on the marine coast.
Managing sustainability-the European Perspective and Experiences. Conference of University of Rostock.
Germany, 15-17 July 1999, pp. 221-226.
Shalovenkov, N. N. 1997b Peculiarity of spatial distribution of the benthos communities on mud in an estuarine
area of Sevastopol Bay (Black Sea). Muddy Coasts ’97. International Conference on hydrology, sedimentology,
geochemistry, and ecology of muddy coasts. Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 1-5 September 1997, pp. 102.
Shalovenkov, N. N. 1998 Changing of the Benthic Communities in the Sevastopol Bay Estuary During the Last
Eighty Years. NATO TU-Black Sea Project Ecosystem Modeling as a Management Tool for the Black Sea. Vol.
1, pp. 301-310.
Zernov, S. A. 1909 Fazij of Phyllophora (Algae-Rhodophyceae) of Phyllophora Field in the North-west Part of
the Black Sea. Year-book zoological museum of Academy of Sciences. Vol. 13, pp. 3-4.
Zernov, S. A. 1913 To question about study of life of the Black Sea. Proceedings of Academy of Sciences,
Series 8, 32, N 1, pp. 1-299.
176               Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                             Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Figure 1. - (a) Drainage basin border of the Black Sea (green lines); red lines-river
basin borders (after Black Sea GIS, 1997). (b) Bathymetric map (depth in m) and
location maps of box A (area of satellite observation shown in Animation 1), box B
(area of satellite observation in Animation 3), box C [area of the Jalta cargo port in
Figures 7(a-c)], box D [area of the Alupka palace-park reservation in Figures 8(a-c)],
box E [area of the Donuzlav Lake in Figures 9(a-c)], box F [area of the Sevastopol Bay
estuary in Figures 10(a-c)], and transect T (cross-shore sedimentation transect in
Animation 2 and Figure 3).




                    (a)                                          (b)


Animation 1. - NOAA-AVHRR satellite images of sea surface temperature from
13 July 1998 at 15.00 h to 16 July 1998 at 03.00 h. White=high temperature (c. 23 °C);
black=low temperature (c. 12 °C). The display area is box A in Figure 1(b).




Figure 2. - Satellite observation (NOAA-AVHRR) showing water turbidity indicating the
extent of river plumes (red=high concentrations; blue and purple=low concen-
trations) in the Black Sea. (a) 1: Dnieper and Bug River plume; 2: Dniester River
plume; 3: Danube River plume (regional scale); (b) Dnieper and Bug river plume (local
scale).
177               Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                             Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Figure 3. - Concentration of suspended particles (particles l-1) from river water along
transect T [see a location map in Figure 1(b)] on the north west shelf of the Black Sea
on 19 August 1990.




Animation 2. - Cross-sectional distribution along transect T [see a location in Figure
1(b)] of suspended particle con-centration (particles l-1) in the period 19 to 21 August
1990. Concentration is colour-coded following the scale shown in Figure 3.




Figure 4. - Change of sulphur-reduction areas in bottom sediments of the north-west
shelf of the Black Sea within four years 1990-1993 (adapted from Chichkin & Medinez,
1994). The black areas show where mass death of benthic animals have occurred in
a given year.
178               Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                             Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Figure 5. - Decrease of the distribution area of Phyllofora alga field on the north-west
shelf of the Black Sea (after Morozova-Vodajnitzkaj, 1948; Kalugina-Gutnik, 1975).
Solid green colour: area of high biomass of macrophytes; thin green line: area of low
biomass of macrophytes.




Figure 6. - Distribution of Cs-137 (Bq m-3) in surface water of the Black Sea in June
1986 (adapted from Buesseker, 1987).




Animation 3. - NOAA-AVHRR satellite images in coastal waters of Crimea of sea
surface temperature from 29 July 1993 to 6 August 1993. White: high temperature (c.
23 °C); black: low temperature (c. 14 °C). For a location map, see box B in Figure 1(b).
179               Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                             Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Figure 7. - Spatial distribution of (a) the benthos biomass (mg m-2), (b) concentration
of organic substances in bot-tom sediments (mg g-1) and (c) bottom relief rendered in
3-D of Jalta cargo port area. The location of the area is box C in Figure 1(b). Adapted
from Shalovenkov (1997a).




Figure 8. - Spatial distribution of (a) the benthos biomass (mg m-2), (b) Pb
concentration in bottom sediments (mg kg-1) and (c) bottom relief rendered in 3-D and
areas most influenced by storm waves near the coast of Alupka Palace-Park Reserve
area. The location of the area is box D in Figure 1(b). Adapted from Shalovenkov
(1997a).
180              Scales of Ecological Processes and Anthropogenous Loads on the Coastal
                                                            Ecosystems of the Black Sea


Figure 9. - Spatial distribution of (a) the benthos biomass (mg m-2), (b) Zn
concentration in bottom sediments(mg kg-1) and (c) bottom relief rendered in 3-D in
Donu-zlav Lake area. For a location map, see box E in Figure 1(b). Adapted from
Shalovenkov (1997a).




Figure 10. - Spatial distribution of (a) the benthos biomass (mg m-2), (b) Zn
concentration in bottom sediments (mg kg-1) and (c) bottom relief rendered in 3-D in
estuarine area of Sevastopol Bay. For a location map, see box F in Figure 1(b).
181               Visualization of the data and computer atlas of ecological condition in coastal
                                                                               sea ecosystems.


Visualization of the data and computer atlas of ecological condition in coastal
sea ecosystems.
                                                                                        N. Shalovenkov
                                            Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine.

Abstract
       Visualization of the data helps to quantify the spatial scales of ecological processes and
anthropogeneous loadings in coastal sea ecosystems. The computer maps of spatial distribution of
benthic biological parameters (as bioindicators of a condition of environment), pesticides, oil-fraction,
heavy metals and other pollutants are constructed on an example of six different areas of coast of the
Crimea (Black Sea). The comparison of computer maps of spatial distribution of biological resources
and accumulation of polluting substances in coastal ecosystems allows to analyse as influence of
pollutants on sea organisms and to reveal coastal sources of pollution. Such researches are especially
important for coastal sea areas where the human improvement, rest and tourism develops.
      The computer maps of distribution of biological resources and pollutants are created in the
special graphic programs. For use of computer maps the certain knowledge and skill is necessary to
use the graphic programs that at once limits a circle of the users of such computer maps. The atlases
of pollution of coastal sea ecosystems were created on an example of six different areas of coast of
Crimea with the purpose of expansion of an opportunity of use of computer maps and their
availability not only experts but also not owning by the graphic programs. The atlases of pollution are
created in program environment Delphi. These atlases can be used as compound blocks in systems of
Support and Acceptance of the Decisions on management of an environment.
182                        Spatial scales of ecological processes and spatial grid of samples for
                                   estimation of ecological condition in coastal sea ecosystems.


Spatial scales of ecological processes and spatial grid of samples for
estimation of ecological condition in coastal sea ecosystems.
                                                                                        N. Shalovenkov
                                            Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine

Abstract
       The sampling of the ecological information of sea coastal ecosystems is carried out (as a rule)
on two - three stations in local sites for the comparative analysis of different areas of coast of Crimea
(Black Sea). The researchers assume that distinctions in functioning and structure of coastal sea
ecosystems from different geographical areas are significant also it allows to be limited to small
number of stations for the comparative sampling of samples. Use of a uniform grid of stations for the
large region assumes performance only by one of stations in knot of a grid for a local site.
The situation when spatial variability of researched ecological parameters on local scale more than on
regional is possible and these methodological assumptions can create complexities in interpretation of
results of researches.
       Crimea. From nine up to twelve stations was carried out for the sampling of ecological
parameters of condition of coastal ecosystems for each investigated polygon of sea coast.
The variability of biological parameters (as bioindicators) and accumulation polluting (pesticides, oil-
fraction, heavy metals) substances in the investigated local polygons exceeded a variation of average
meanings of these parameters for different geographical areas of coast of Crimea. The choice of
plenty of ecological stations for small local polygon was based on existence of high gradients of
hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of condition of coastal sea ecosystems. Such
methodological approach in choice of spatial scales for researches allows to compare biological
parameters of condition of ecosystems and accumulation of pollution for an estimation of their level
of influence and also for revealing coastal sources of pollution.
183                                     Nature and human health, problem of rest at the sea coast




Nature and human health, problem of rest at the sea coast
                                                                              Dr. Nickolai Shalovenkov
                                            Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
       Coast of the Black Sea and especially Crimean Peninsula always were a favourite place of rest
of the citizens of former Soviet Union. Crimea is of the still important rest region not only for Ukraine
but also for the New Independent States. The region of Crimea supports a population of 2.5 million
people. An additional 7 million people visit the numerous resorts at the coastal of the Black Sea in the
Crimea each year. The climatic conditions Crimea favour for strengthening health of the people. Here
on the sea coast are much the health establishments for treatment of different diseases at the children
       The researchers traditionally pay attention to ecologically adverse regions or local sites of sea
coast. Certainly such areas are not attractive to improvement, active recreation, tourism and the nature
has here irreplaceable losses that is reflected in low parameters of a biodiversity of sea and terrestrial
ecosystems. Attract attention of the people ecologically favorable sea coast with unique natural
landscapes where the rest houses and sanatorium are constructed. However the ecological problems
connected with the relation between ecological capacity and recreational loading on natural
ecosystems can be shown and in natural "clean" areas. The attention to clearing of coastal rain drains
in the sea is a little given at development of an rest infrastructure at sea coast.
      The researches of ecological conditions and different diseases having a rest executed were
devoted to this problem at support of RSS fund (Bartolomejska 11, Prague, http//www.rss.org).
The results of researches have appeared a little bit unexpected we shall illustrate them on an example
of western coast of the Crimean Peninsula.
West Sea Coast of the Crimean Peninsula, Sudak Area




       The researches of ecological condition of coastal ecosystems and human diseases were carried
out in oastal area of the "Lvovski Zcheleznodorozchnic" Sanatorium (Sudak) during 1998 - 1999.
       Only 7 benthic species were registered in sea coast ecosystems of this area. The low parameter
of biodiversity of benthos specifies the oppressed condition of coastal sea ecosystems in the
investigated site.The expeditional work have coincided with rains in this area. High-power mud flow
of rain water seized all area with by maximum concentration of the small particles in that part of
polygon where the minimum significances of biomass of mollusc Mytilaster lineatus were recorded.
184                                      Nature and human health, problem of rest at the sea coast



Spatial distribution of biomass (g/m2) of Mytilaster lineatus in coastal area




      The contents of cadmium in bottom sediments of different sites of the investigated area
exceeded in two times of the contents of these pollutants for the conditional standard. The basic
source of pollution and accumulation of pollutants (oil-hydrocarbon, asphalt-resinous substances,
cadmium, chromium, lead) is of coastal rain drain in western part of beach of the «Lvovski
Zheleznodorozhnik» Sanatorium.
The basic source of pollution of beach

                      oil-hydrocarbon, asphalt-resinous substances, cadmium
                        chromium, lead, copper, mercury, polychlorbifenils

                         western rain drain




       The concentration of pollutants (pesticides, oil-fraction, heavy metals and other) did not exceed
practically concentration accepted for the conditional standard of bottom sediments in "clean"
ecosystems. The application biological indication of environment has helped to reveal what even in
significant concentration of different kinds of pollutants affect development, biodiversity and spatial
distribution of bottom animals in coastal ecosystems. Rain drains are the basic sources of pollution
and disease-producing microorganisms in ecologically successful coastal ecosystems. The rain drains
185                                     Nature and human health, problem of rest at the sea coast



are caused short-term changes of ecological conditions in coastal sea ecosystems, worsen sanitary
conditions of beach zones and can be sources of human diseases depending on volumes of rain fall,
area of a drainage and hydrological conditions in the sea.
      Maximum quantity were registered for rain precipitation (up to 85.9 mm) in Sudak area and
diseases (177) in «Lvovski Zheleznodorozhnik» Sanatorium for August 1999. The absence of rough
sea and winds provided conditions for stable position of muddy flow in beach zone within two-three
days because of a plenty of rain fall. Therefore maximum of diseases of mucous environment of
a nosopharynx was registered in this period. Though we constantly recorded (during expeditions) that
the guests with children actively visited sea beach polluted by muddy rain flows at once after a rain.
Children made about 80 % among the patients.
Temporary variability of rain fall (mm) and nosopharynx diseases (Scale of "X" axis
(1-15): 1=ten days).




               1.05 – 30.09. 1998                                  1.05 – 30.09. 1999


       Rain flows flow down in a beach zone of the «Lvovski Zcheleznodorozchnik» Sanatorium from
the large area (up to 20 km2) surface of mountain sites of coast. Such conditions of drainage and flow
of rain waters in coastal ecosystems have no in other investigated polygons. The pollution are
transferred by rain flows from territories of sanatoriums, highways, parks, of woods etc. Disease-
producing microorganisms together with pollutants are washed from a terrestrial surface by rain flows
and are transported on rain channels in beach zone of sea coast as of muddy flows. Muddy flows are
formed in freshwater «lenses» in a beach zone on sea surface (layer 20-40 sm) as them density smaller
density of sea water. The transformation of freshwater «lenses» up to sea salinity proceeds from
several hours up to two - three day depending on their volume, coastal currents and storm weather.
Muddy «lenses» become a source of infection and inflammations of a mucous environment
nosopharynx of guest which bathe in the sea at once after a rain. The preventive maintenance of such
diseases consists in restriction of visitings of beach within several hours after a rain. Though we
constantly recorded (during expeditions) that the guests with children actively visited sea beach
polluted by muddy rain flows at once after a rain.
      Thus the results of researches specify necessity of change of the attitudes to role of rain drains
and their influence on water ecosystems and human health.

				
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