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					  Civil Rights Movement
 African-Americans did not share
in the promise and prosperity that
 followed World War II, and most
white Americans seemed unaware
  of this! African-Americans will
 step up efforts to end the system
  of segregation that divided the
  United States into two separate
   and UNEQUAL societies, ONE
         Barriers to Civil Rights
   Segregation laws (Jim Crow)

   Racism

   Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

   Discrimination
The Path to Civil Rights
   Video clip:
       Brown v. Board of Education
   landmark decision of the United States
    Supreme Court, which overturned earlier
    rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in
    1896, by declaring that state laws that
    established separate public schools for
    black and white students denied black
    children equal educational opportunities.
    Handed down on (May 17, 1954,) the Warren
    Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that
    "separate educational facilities are
    inherently unequal."
   Video clip: Brown v.
    Board of Education
            Rosa Parks
 On December 1, 1955 in
 Montgomery, Alabama, Parks, age
 42, refused to obey a bus driver’s
 order that she give up her seat to
 make room for a white passenger.
 This was a policy in the South
 regarding bus transportation.
 Parks' action sparked the
 Montgomery Bus Boycott.
                  Bus Boycott
   The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political
    and social protest campaign started in 1955
    in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to
    oppose the city's policy of racial segregation
    on its public transit system.

   This caused deficits in public transit profits
    because a large percentage of people who
    used the public transportation were now
    boycotting it.

   The ensuing struggle lasted from December
    1, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and led to a
    United States Supreme Court decision that
    declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws
    requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
   Video clip: Bus
                  Little Rock Nine
   The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-
    American students who were enrolled in Little
    Rock Central High School in (1957).

   The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the
    students were initially prevented from entering the
    racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor
    Orval Faubus, (used Natl. Guard to keep them out).

    President Eisenhower intervened by sending in
    the 101st Airborne Division to escort the student
    into school, this is considered to be one of the
    most important events in the African-American
    Civil Rights Movement.
   Video clip: Little Rock
             Lunch Counter Sit-in
   Sitting for Justice: Woolworth’s Lunch Counter

   On (February 1, 1960), four African American
    college students sat down at a lunch counter at
    Woolworth’s in Greensboro, North Carolina, and
    politely asked for service. Their request was
    refused. When asked to leave, they remained in
    their seats. Their passive resistance and peaceful
    sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led
    movement to challenge racial inequality
    throughout the South.
   Video clip: Lunch
              Freedom Riders - 1961
   Supreme Court had ruled that segregation in interstate
    transport was illegal
   The Civil Rights group CORE (Congress Of Racial Equality)
    organized “Freedom Rides” to test whether southern states
    were complying with the law.
   In May of 1961, 7 Blacks and 6 Whites boarded 2 busses in
    Wash. DC and headed south.
   A white mob attacked the Freedom Riders in Alabama – as the
    bus left town, it was firebombed, the passengers were beat as
    they fled the bus. Passengers on the other bus also beaten!
   The Freedom Riders abandoned this effort – taken over by the
    SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee “snick”)
    took over the cause.
             Fed. Gov. Steps in
 Attorney General Robert Kennedy sent federal
  marshals to Jackson, Mississippi. But Jackson
  officials arrested them anyway. They suffered
  physical abuse while in custody.
 Interstate Commerce Commission issued clear
  rules stating that busses and terminals involved
  in interstate travel must be integrated.
 CORE proclaimed these efforts as a victory for
  the Freedom Rides.
     Meredith Enrolls at Ole Miss
   James H. Meredith was the first African-
    American student at the University of
    Mississippi, (October 1, 1962) an event that was
    a flash point in the American civil rights
    movement. The state's governor viciously
    opposed his enrollment, and the violence and
    rioting surrounding the incident caused
    President Kennedy to send 5,000 federal troops
    to restore the peace. Meredith graduated from
    the University of Mississippi in 1963
   Video clip: James
               Birmingham Campaign
   Steel-mill town with a long history of bigotry!
   The SCLC decided to focus attention there in (1963)
   Segregation in nearly every aspect of public life!
   Between 1956-63 18 unsolved bombings in black
   King, SCLS forces, and local Birmingham activists
    conducted lunch-counter sit-ins and street
    demonstrations. / many were arrested including KING
   To step up action, youths joined in the demonstrations
   Police efforts to stop them included attack dogs and
    high pressure fire hoses.
                  Results of Birmingham
   Media captured the scenes of peaceful protestors
    being knocked down by the fire hoses – seen on tv
    and in the papers: Americans were SHOCKED not
    aware that the South would go to these extremes!
   The protests and the national attention marked a
    turning point:
       The city stepped back from the confrontation
       An accord was reached: public facilities were
       King: “The most magnificent victory for justice we’ve seen in
        the deep South”!
           March on Washington Aug. 1963
 Organized by the leaders of the country’s major
  civil rights organizations.
 On Aug. 28 more than 250,000 people marched
  in Washington: The largest political gathering
  ever held in the U.S.!!! [ this included 60,000
 Marchers included students, entertainers, and
  celebrities (Rosa Parks, Jackie Robinson);
 MLK gave his “I Have a Dream” speech.
 Lead to support for the passage of the Civil
  Rights Act of 1964
                  Freedom Summer
   Freedom Summer was a campaign in the United States
    launched in (June 1964) to attempt to register as many
    African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which
    up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters.
   Well over 1,000 out-of-state volunteers participated in
    Freedom Summer alongside thousands of black
    Mississippians. Most of the volunteers were young, most
    of them from the North, most of them were white and many
    were Jewish.
   Many of Mississippi's white residents deeply resented the
    outsiders and any attempt to change their society. State
    and local governments, police, the White Citizens' Council
    and the Ku Klux Klan used murder, arrests, beatings,
    arson, spying, firing, evictions, and other forms of
    intimidation and harassment to oppose the project and
    prevent blacks from registering to vote or achieving social
          Over the course of the ten-week
                Freedom Summer:
   Over the course of the ten-week project:

   four civil rights workers were killed

   four people were critically wounded

   eighty Freedom Summer workers were beaten

   one-thousand people were arrested (volunteers
    and locals)

   thirty seven churches were bombed or burned

   thirty Black homes or businesses are bombed
    or burned
        Results of the Summer:
   Though Freedom Summer failed to register
    many voters, it had a significant effect on the
    course of the Civil Rights Movement.

   Before Freedom Summer, the national news
    media had paid little attention to the
    persecution of black voters in the Deep
    South and the dangers endured by black civil
    rights workers, but when the lives of affluent
    northern white students were threatened the
    full attention of the media spotlight was
    turned on the state.
   Video clip: Freedom
              Civil Rights Act
   (July 2, 1964) was a landmark piece of
    legislation in the United States that outlawed
    racial segregation in schools, public places,
    and employment.
   Barred unequal application of voter
    registration requirements.
   Prevented discrimination by government
    agencies that receive federal funding.
   Outlawed discrimination in hotels, motels,
    restaurants, theaters, and all other public
    accommodations engaged in interstate
                        Malcolm X
   Was an African American Muslim minister, public speaker,
    and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a
    courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a
    man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for
    its crimes against black Americans. His detractors accused
    him of preaching racism and violence. He has been
    described as one of the greatest and most influential
    African Americans in history.
   Made a rude comment concerning Kennedy and was
    censured by the Nation of Islam causing tension and he
    overshadowed the leaders of the Nation of Islam
   After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X spoke before a
    wide variety of audiences in the United States.
   Tensions increased between Malcolm X and the Nation of
    Islam after he left.

   The Nation of Islam and its leaders began making threats
    against Malcolm X both in private and in public.
   On February 21, 1965, in Manhattan

    a man rushed forward and shot him in the
    chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two other
    men charged the stage and fired handguns,
    hitting him 16 times.

   Those charged and convicted were members
    of the Nation of Islam
                         Selma March
   The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in
    1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the
    American civil rights movement.

   The first march took place on March 7, 1965 — "Bloody
    Sunday" — when 600 civil rights marchers were attacked
    by state and local police with billy clubs and tear gas.

   Only the third march, which began on March 21 and lasted
    five days, made it to Montgomery, 54 miles away.

   The route is memorialized as the Selma To Montgomery
    Voting Rights Trail.

   The March to Montgomery had a significant impact on public opinion.
    Within five months of the third march, President Lyndon Johnson
    signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965
   Video clip: Selma
            Voting Rights Act passed
   outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had
    been responsible for the widespread
    disenfranchisement of African Americans in the
    United States.
   the Act prohibited states from imposing any
    "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or
    standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or
    abridge the right of any citizen of the United States
    to vote on account of race.
   Congress intended the Act to outlaw the practice
    of requiring qualified voters to pass literacy tests
    in order to register to vote, a principal means by
    which southern states had prevented African-
    Americans from exercising the franchise.
               Black Panther Party
   Was an African-American organization established
    to promote Black Power and self-defense through
    acts of social agitation.

   The group's political goals were often
    overshadowed by their confrontational and
    militant tactics, and by their suspicions of law
    enforcement agents. The Black Panthers
    considered them as oppressors to be overcome
    by a willingness to take up armed self-defense

   From the beginning the Black Panther Party's
    focus on militancy came with a reputation for
           Martin Luther King Jr. Dead
   At 6:01 p.m. on April 4, 1968, a shot rang out. Dr. Martin
    Luther King, Jr., who had been standing on the balcony
    of his room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, TN.

   Violence and controversy followed. In outrage of the
    murder, many blacks took to the streets across the
    country in a massive wave of riots. The FBI investigated
    the crime, but many believed them partially of fully
    responsible for the assassination.

   King's main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights
    in the United States, which has enabled more Americans
    to reach their potential. He is frequently referenced as a
    human rights icon today.
   Video clip: MLK Jr.

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