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					                                                                                                   The Agony and Ecstasy of MDMA

                                                                                           The use of the popular “club drug” ecstasy is on the rise in the
                                                                                                                                                                                           Prescription Drugs on the Web                                                                                                                        Spotlight on . . .
                               burnstyn # 411
                                                                                           United States. This presents a national health risk, as Dr. Alan I.
                                                                                           Leshner, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA),
                                                                                           explains: “There is no safe way to use [MDMA]...even experi-
                                                                                           menting with [MDMA] is an unpredictable and dangerous thing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Prescription Drugs
                                                                                           to do.” Chronic use of MDMA may cause long-term problems              The National Institute on Drug Abuse provides research reports and prescription drug-related information on
                                                                                           with emotion, memory, sleep and pain.                                 its website.                                                                                                                                                                      A NEWSBRIEF OF THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRIES COUNCIL, INC.                                                              NO. 9
                                                                                           Ecstasy has the potential for dangerous side effects like increased                                                                                                                                        IN THIS ISSUE
                                                                                           heart rate and blood pressure, possible long-term damage to                                                                                                                                                Take as Directed .............. 1        Prescription Drugs:
                                                                                           those parts of the brain critical to thought and memory, and          This World Wide Web-based organization focuses on education, hope, and recovery for prescription drug abuse
                                                                                           birth defects (if ingested during pregnancy). Because of these
                                                                                           dangers, ecstasy is now illegal and in 1985 became a “Schedule
                                                                                                                                                                 and addiction.                                                                                                                       Older Adults:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Forgotten Risk ........... 1                                Take as Directed
                                                                                           I” drug, meaning it has no medical value whatsoever.                                                                                                     Teens and Young Adults:                  As major advances are made
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ritalin—Not Just for Kids                                                                                                 “When the writers told
                                                                                           Some of the additional risk involved in the use of ecstasy is         This site contains information on prescription drug abuse in the workplace.                                                                                                   in the medical field, we are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Anymore? ......................... 2                                                                                      me, ‘We’re going to
                                                                                           related to its illegal sale. Due to an increased demand for                                                                                                                                                                                         lucky enough to have more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                stab you in the back
                                                                                           ecstasy, drug traffickers are manufacturing more and cheaper                                                                        Women: Mother’s                          drugs than ever to heal our
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                by a psychotic patient,
                                                                                           pills. Dangerous chemical additives or adulterants are frequently                                                                                                                                          Little Helper ...................... 2   aches, pains and even our
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and you’re going to
                                                                                           mixed with — or substituted for — MDMA during production.             The National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information provides access to publications and reports on                                                                    sorrows and fears. Now that
                                              Requiem for a Dream                          One of the most common is DXM (dextromethorphan), a legal                                                                                                                                                  Uppers and Downers                                                                                                        develop a subsequent
                                                                                                                                                                 prescription drug addiction.                                                                                                                                                  drug companies are adver-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of Addiction ...................... 2                                                                                     drug addiction,’ I was
                                                                                           cough suppressant that, when taken in high doses, can inhibit                                                                                                                                                                                       tising on television and other
                        The 2000 feature film Requiem for a Dream shockingly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    amazed. I didn’t think
                                                                                           one’s ability to regulate body temperature. DXM and the similar                                                                                           Medical Marijuana ............ 3         media outlets, sometimes it
                        shows how the lives of four characters are torn apart by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                John Carter was
                                                                                           PMA (paramethoxyam-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 seems like there’s a drug for
                        their addictions to various drugs. Among these charac-                                                                                   The Psychiatric Times’ online edition features an in-depth article citing research on prescription drug abuse.                       Commonly Prescribed                                                                                                       necessarily the face
                                                                                           phetamine) have been                                                                                                                                                                                                                                everything. Medical and
                        ters is a single mother who becomes addicted to pre-                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Medications ..................... 4                                         of drug addiction. But upon reflection, I realize there probably
                                                                                           known to cause severe          Adulterants found in                                                                                                                                                                                                 pharmaceutical companies,
                        scription diet pills. Ellen Burstyn’s (photo above) brave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 isn’t one face of drug addiction.”
                                                                                           dehydration and heat-          “ecstasy” can range from                                                                                                                                                    Agony and Ecstasy                        however, have clear guide-
                        performance accurately depicts the horrors that can come
                                                                                                                                                                                              Encouraging the Art
                                                                                           stroke in users. Adulter-      aspirin or caffeine to “speed”                                                                                                                                              of MDMA .......................... 5     lines for developing, market-              Noah Wyle, ER, recipient at the 5th Annual PRISM Awards,
                        from being addicted to even the most innocuous-seem-               ants can also cause over-      or “Special K” (ketamine),                                                                                                                                                                                           ing and prescribing these                       on his character’s addiction to prescription pain killers.
                        ing drugs, including prescribed diet pills and mass quan-          dose in users who think        an animal tranquilizer. Some                                                                                                                                                Editor-in-Chief                          medications. Often drugs
                        tities of caffeine.                                                they’ve taken “weak            ecstasy pills even show                                                                                                                                                     Brian Dyak                               that help one person achieve perfect health Although prescription drug abuse is similar to any
                        Requiem for a Dream earned a PRISM Commendation
                        for its accurate depiction of drug abuse and addiction.
                                                                                           ecstasy” and take more
                                                                                           pills resulting in a lethal
                                                                                           dose of the adulterant.
                                                                                                                          traces of arsenic, heroin,
                                                                                                                          and other deadly toxins.                                           of Making a Difference                                                                                   Editors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Marie Gallo Dyak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               may cause serious or fatal side effects in kind of substance abuse, prescription drugs are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               another. One pill may make you feel better, legal medications, often prescribed by a trusted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               but two could make you feel a lot worse. physician. In this way, addiction can sometimes
                        This film is a highly recommended, brilliant example of                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Larry Deutchman
                        how a good script, excellent direction and acting, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 For these reasons it is important to take develop in populations not commonly thought of
                                                                                           Possible medical uses for
                        accuracy of depiction can attain critical success while                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                medications as directed.                            as “typical drug users.” Thus, when looking at char-
                                                                                           MDMA are currently being studied in Switzerland, Israel and Spain,                                                                                                                                         Spotlight on...
                        maintaining high standards of filmmaking.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  acters in relation to prescription drug abuse and
                                                                                           as well as in the United States. Both studies examine MDMA’s                                                                                                                                               Prescription Drugs                       Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D., Director of the National addiction, it is valuable to understand who is at risk.
                                                                                           effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study exam-                                                                                                                                            is a publication of the                  Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), announced
                                                                                           ining MDMA dose response safety in cancer patients is currently                                                                                                     TM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Entertainment Industries                 new efforts to address a “dangerous new
                                                                                           being conducted at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Torrance,                                                                                                                                                 Council, Inc. in partnership             drug abuse trend” — the abuse of prescrip- Approximately 4 Million Americans Used Prescription
                                                                                           California. Due to the recent increase in abuse and trafficking                                                                                                                                            with the National Institute on           tion drugs. Several indicators suggest that                 Drugs for Nonmedical Purposes in 1999
                                                                                           however, it is difficult for researchers to obtain the drug for                                                                                                                                            Drug Abuse.                              prescription drug abuse is on the rise.
                        Many Physicians Have Difficulty Discussing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 3.0
                                                                                           scientific study.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   According to a 1999 study, more than a quar-
                             Substance Abuse with Patients                                                                                                                                         ENHANCED CREATIVE VISION                                                                                  ter of the nine million people who used pre-                        2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               scriptions for non-medical purposes during

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Millions of Americans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  “First Draft” provides members of the entertainment                                                                                                                              2.0
                         40%                                                                                                                                                         EIC West                                                                                                                                                  that year were abusing for the first time.
Percent of Physicians

                                                                                                                                                                            500 S. Buena Vista Street                             industry’s creative community — scribes, directors,                                                                                                                                                 1.5
                                                                                                                                                                            Burbank, CA 91521-7283                        development executives — science-based health information services
                                                                                                              The brain scans to the left illustrate the                        v. (818)955-6845                      for comedy, drama, talk-shows, reality-based programming, movies made for                                                Older Adults: The Forgotten Risk
                                                                                                              sharp difference in human brain function for                      f. (818)955-6870                                       television, feature films, and music videos.                                                                                                                                                   0.5
                         10%                                                                                  an individual who has never used drugs                                                                                                                                                            Due to compromised health caused by                                                     0
                                                                                                              and one who has used ecstasy many times,                                                                          For free consultation on scripts and projects, please call
                          0%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the natural effects of aging, older adults                                                   Stimulants   Sedatives and      Pain Relievers
                                 Depression       Alcohol Abuse   Presciptive Drug Abuse
                                                                                                              but had not used any drugs in the three                                                                                             800-783-3421                                                                                 use three times as many prescription drugs                                                                 Tranquilizers
                                                                                                                                                                                     EIC East
Over 40% of physicians report having difficulty                                                               weeks prior to the scan.                                                                                                                                                                                                         as other adults. While these medications               Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
                                                                                                                                                                         1760 Reston Parkway, Suite 415                                                                                                                                                                                               Administration. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.
discussing substance abuse, including abuse of                                                                                                                              Reston, VA 20190-3303                         Free briefings with scientific experts for your staff are also available.                                            are often necessary and beneficial to the
                                                                                                              Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
prescription drugs, with their patients. In contrast, less                                                    For more information call (888)NIH.NIDA                          v. (703)481-1414                           To schedule a briefing or order a free copy of Spotlight on Depiction,                                               patient, the amount of prescriptions this
than 20% have difficulty discussing depression.                                                                                                                                        a resource encyclopedia for the creative community, call 818-955-6845.                                                 population uses makes them particularly           take these medications according to directions.
                                                                                                                                                                                f. (703)481-1418
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               vulnerable to prescription drug abuse. To         Taking the above factors into account, it is not sur-
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University                                                                                            
(CASA). Missed Opportunity: National Survey of Primary Care Physicians                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         complicate matters further, older adults          prising that misuse of prescription drugs may
and Patients on Substance Abuse. New York: CASA, 2000.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         may be prescribed inappropriately high            be the most common form of drug abuse among
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               doses of medications and are less likely to       the elderly.
Teens and Young Adults -- Ritalin: not just for kids anymore?                                                                                                           CNS Depressants, continued from page 2.                                              Treatment: Breaking the Cycle                                                            Some Commonly Prescribed Medications: Use and Consequences
Drug use is a common problem among youth aged 12-25. When                                                                                                               Benzodiazepines for treatment of anxiety, acute stress, and panic                    Just like any other addiction, prescription drug addiction is a brain       OPIOIDS                                    CNS DEPRESSANTS                             STIMULANTS
thinking about drug abuse among youth, we tend to focus on                                                                Women — Mother’s Little Helper?               attacks and short term treatment of sleep disorders:                                 disease; and, like other diseases, this addiction can be treated.
illicit “street” drugs. However, research shows that dramatic                                                                                                                                                                                                But the natural diversity of individual behavioral patterns, as well        Oxycodone (OxyContin)                      Mephobarbital (Mebaral)                     Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)
increases in numbers of new abusers of prescription drugs are                                                                                                             Diazepam (Valium)              Alprazolam (Xanax)                                  as the many different drugs that can result in addiction, make              Propoxyphene (Darvon)                      Pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal)             Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
found within this age group. Further, psychotherapeutic drugs —                                      While the numbers of men and women who abuse prescription            Triazolam (Halcion)            Estazolam (ProSom)                                  each individual a special case. This may be taken into consider-            Hydrocodone (Vicodin)                      Diazepam (Valium)                           Sibutramine hydrochloride
including painkillers and stimulants — are among the drugs most                                      drugs are basically the same, there are some increased risks for     Chlordiazepoxide HCL (Librium)                                                     ation when incorporating drug treatment into storylines and char-           Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)                   Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride               monohydrate (Meridia)
commonly abused by teens aged 12-14.                                                                 women. Women are more likely than men to be prescribed an                                                                                               acters, as it is easy to fall back on stereotypes of the “typical”          Meperidine (Demerol)                        (Librium)
                                                                                                     addictive prescription drug, particularly narcotics and anti-      When first taking a depressant, the user usually feels sleepy and                    addicted person.                                                            Diphenoxylate (Lomotil)                    Alprazolam (Xanax)
                                                                                                     anxiety drugs — in some cases 48 percent more likely. This         uncoordinated. After a few days, his or her body becomes accus-                                                                                                                                             Triazolam (Halcion)
                                     Illicit Drug Use Among Youths Age 12 to 14                      increases the possibility of abuse and subsequent addiction                                                                                             Treating any kind of drug addiction usually means treating two
                                                                                                                                                                        tomed to these side effects. If one uses these drugs long term,                                                                                                                                             Estazsolam (ProSom)
                                                                                                     to these prescriptions. In addition, prescription drug abuse is                                                                                         separate aspects that contribute equally to drug addiction: be-
                                6%                                                                                                                                      the body will develop tolerance for the drugs, and larger doses
  Percent Using in Past Month

                                              Psychotherapeutics                                     more likely among adolescent girls aged 12-17 than boys the                                                                                             havioral aspects and physical components. The behavioral side
                                5%                                                                                                                                      will be needed to achieve the same initial effects. Continued use                                                                                                GENERALLY PRESCRIBED FOR                   GENERALLY PRESCRIBED FOR                    GENERALLY PRESCRIBED FOR
                                                                                                     same age. Among women and men who use either a sedative,                                                                                                of addiction can be treated through counseling including indi-
                                              Hallucinogens                                                                                                             can possibly lead to physical dependence and — when use is
                                4%                                                                   anti-anxiety drug, or hypnotic, women are almost two times as                                                                                           vidual, group or family therapy, contingency management and
                                                                                                                                                                        reduced or stopped — withdrawal.                                                                                                                                 Post-surgical pain relief                  Anxiety                                     Narcolepsy
                                3%                                                                   likely to become addicted.                                                                                                                                        therapies.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cognitive therapies.
                                                                                                                                                                        With CNS depressants, it’s the withdrawal that can be problem-                                                                                                   Management of acute or chronic             Tension                                     Attention-deficit hyperactivity
                                2%                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The addiction must                                                           pain                                      Panic attacks                               disorder (ADHD)
                                                                                                                                                                        atic. Because these medications are designed to slow brain activ-
                                1%                                                                                                                                                                                                                           often be remedied      Contingency Management: Offers                       Relief of coughs or diarrhea               Acute stress reactions                      Depression
                                                                                                                                                                        ity, withdrawal from long-term abuse can cause brain activity to
                                0%                                                                                                                                                                                                                           by addressing the      “vouchers” as a reward for staying                                                              Sleep disorders                             Short-term treatment of obesity
                                                                                                                   Morphine has been termed a “Schedule II”             increase at a rapid rate, possibly causing seizures and other harm-
                                          Age 12                   Age 13         Age 14                                                                                                                                                                     body’s physical        drug-free (based on a negative drug                                                             Anesthesia (at high doses)                  Asthma
                                                                                                                   drug by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)            ful consequences. Thus, if an addict wants to discontinue use of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             dependence on the      test) that can be used to obtain items
  Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
                                                                                                                   which means that:                                    these drugs, it is recommended that he or she seek treatment
  National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999.                                                                                                                                                                                                             drug. This some-       that promote healthy living,                         EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE                  EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE                   EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE
                                                                                                                                                                        under a doctor’s supervision.
                                                                                                                     1. The drug or other substance has a                                                                                                    times means pre-
                                                                                                                        high potential for abuse.                                                                                                            scribing medica-       Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT):                  Blocked pain messages                      A “sleepy” and uncoordinated                Elevated blood pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tions to regulate      Combines cognitive and behavioral                    Drowsiness                                 feeling during the first few days, as       Increased heart rate
                                                                                                                     2. The drug or other substance has a                                                                                                    and relieve with-      therapies to address the self-defeating                                                                                                     Increased respiration
                                                                                                                                                                        Stimulants (“Uppers”) enhance brain activity, causing an increase                                                                                                Constipation                               the body becomes accustomed --
                                                                                                                        currently accepted medical use in                                                                                                    drawal symptoms,       behaviors that contribute to addiction                                                                                                      Suppressed appetite
                                                                                                                                                                        in alertness, attention and energy as well as increased blood pres-                                                                                              Depressed respiration                      tolerant -- to the effects, these
                                     The Uppers and Downers of Addiction                                                treatment [of illness] in the United
                                                                                                                                                                        sure, heart rate and respiration. These medications trigger the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             drug cravings, or to   as well as how thinking patterns (how                                                           feelings diminish                           Sleep deprivation
                                                                                                                        States or a currently accepted medi-                                                                                                 treat overdose.        you see yourself, your life) can trigger
                                           Abusers’ Drug of Choice                                                      cal use within severe restrictions.
                                                                                                                                                                        release of chemicals like dopamine in the brain and may cause a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Called pharmaco-       drug use.
                                                                                                                                                                        sense of euphoria, which may lead to stimulant abuse in order to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             therapy        this                                                         EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM USE                   EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM USE                    EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM USE
                                                                                                                     3. Abuse of the drug or other substance            achieve that feeling. Due to their potential for abuse, stimulants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             method is most
It may be safe to say that no one is strung out on her prescription                                                     may lead to severe psychological or             are prescribed by doctors for the treatment of only a few health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             often misconstrued as merely giving the person a new drug                   Potential for tolerance, physical          Potential for tolerance, physical           Potential for addiction
for Vaniqa, the new facial hair-removal medication. There are, how-                                                     physical dependence.                            conditions including narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (i.e., the debate over administering methadone to treat heroin              dependence, withdrawal, and/or             dependence, withdrawal, and/or
ever, certain kinds of drugs that affect the brain and the body in                                                                                                      disorder (ADHD) and as a last resort for the treatment of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             addiction). Use of these drugs must obviously be closely                    addiction                                  addiction
ways that elicit a feeling of being “high” or altered in a way that is                                                                                                  depression. In rare instances, stimulants are used for the tem-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             regulated when dealing with someone addicted to prescription
pleasurable to the patient. While prescription meds are designed to                                                                                                     porary treatment of morbid obesity and asthma that fails to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             drugs. The medications can also be extremely effective for a                POSSIBLE NEGATIVE EFFECTS                 POSSIBLE NEGATIVE EFFECTS                    POSSIBLE NEGATIVE EFFECTS
improve the health of a patient, using them to enhance mood is                                         possibly addiction. Once addicted, the body cannot function      respond to more common medications. Examples of prescrip-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             successful recovery.
actually misuse, or non-medical use.                                                                   properly without the drug. When an addicted person fails to      tion stimulants include dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Severe respiratory depression or          Seizures following a rebound in              Dangerously high body tempera-
                                                                                                       take the opioid, he or she may experience withdrawal symp-       methylphenidate (Ritalin).
Of all the drugs commonly prescribed by physicians, three classes                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Medical Marijuana Issue:                            death following a large single            brain activity after reducing or             tures or an irregular heartbeat
                                                                                                       toms such as restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia,                                                                                                                                                                                                                  discontinuing use                            after taking high doses, cardio-
appear to be the most commonly abused: opioids CNS depressants
                                           opioids,  depressants,                                                                                                       Some abuse of stimulants may be                                                                                                                                  dose
and stimulants Below are some examples of each of these drugs
                                                                                                       diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and invol-
                                                                                                                                                                        misguided attempts to stay awake in                                                                               Still Hazy                                                                                                                            vascular failure or lethal seizures,
                                                                                                       untary leg spasms. As bad as withdrawal symptoms may be,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 possible hostility or feelings of
for more specific depiction opportunities.                                                                                                                              order to complete work or school-                                                                      For years, there has been an ongoing debate
                                                                                                       they are sometimes better than possible alternatives: for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                paranoia
                                                                                                                                                                        related tasks, but for some stimu-                                                                     about the potential benefits and drawbacks of
                                                                                                       example, a large single dose of an opioid could cause severe
Opioids                                                                                                                                                                 lants high doses taken repeatedly                                                                      legalizing marijuana for medical application.
                                                                                                       respiratory depression.                                                                                                                                                                                                       Medical Marijuana, continued from page 3
                                                                                                                                                                        within a short period of time can cause                                                                Proponents of the legalization of marijuana for
Opioids, also referred to as narcotics, are frequently used to treat                                                                                                    hostility or paranoia. Stimulant abuse                                                                 medical purposes cite the drug’s potentially ben-
                                                                                                       CNS Depressants                                                                                                                                                                                                               excruciating side effects that may be caused by chronic illnesses such as cancer and HIV/AIDS, or drugs used for treating
pain. When used as prescribed, under a doctor’s supervision opioids                                                                                                     may also cause dangerously high body                                                                   eficial side-effects of appetite stimulation, pain    these conditions.
can effectively and efficiently suppress pain. In addition to relieving                                                                                                 temperatures, irregular heartbeat                                                                      relief and the suppression of nausea and vom-
                                                                                                       CNS Depressants (“Downers”) are drugs that slow normal brain
pain, these drugs can affect regions of the brain that involve plea-                                                                                                    and, in extreme cases, heart failure or                                                                iting, which could be helpful in alleviating the      While opponents of using marijuana for medical purposes do not deny some of the benefits listed above, they note that the effects
                                                                                                       function and reactions. When used properly, these medica-
sure and can result in feelings of euphoria. Common opioids                                                                                                             deadly seizures.                                                                                                                                             of marijuana are unreliable or the drug affects different people in different ways, and that other medications that yield the same
                                                                                                       tions can effectively treat anxiety and sleep disorders. CNS
include:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   continued on page 4       results are already commonly available to patients. In addition, smoking the drug is carcinogenic and any form of smoking may have
                                                                                                       depressants fall into two categories.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a negative effect on the patient’s immune system.
  Morphine                                                          Codeine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The debate over the medical use of marijuana continues, even as scientists attempt to manufacture a reliable medical-grade drug
                                                                                                       Barbiturates for treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders:
                                                                                                                                                                           Emerging Trends:

  Oxycodone (OxyContin)                                             Propoxyphene (Darvon/Darvocet)                                                                                                     There have been several reports of teenagers and       and $30 a pill. Viagra has also been associated with ecstasy           from chemical extracts of marijuana, as is now done with opium extracts. In the meantime, the use of marijuana for any purposes
  Meperidine (Demerol)                                              Hydrocodone (Vicodin)                                                                                                              college students abusing the drug Viagra, the popu-    use as a way to combat male erectile dysfunction often caused

                                                                                                         Mephobarbital (Meberal)                                                                                                                                                                                                     remains illegal in the United States.
  Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)                                                                                                                                                                             lar drug used to combat impotency. Most commonly,      by MDMA, the active ingredient in ecstasy. Reports as early
                                                                                                         Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Viagra is used at rave parties in conjunction with     as 1998 detail Viagra abuse in London nightclubs. Called “poke”        On March 28, 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative, a California organization that
Users of opioids can build up a tolerance for the drugs, which may                                                                                                                                     alcohol or other club drugs. The drug is also being    by British youngsters, Viagra was often abused as a substi-            wants to provide marijuana to chronically ill people. Justice Antonin Scalia stated that, while individual cases may be made for
                                                                                                                                               continued on page 3.
lead them to increased use in order to achieve the same initial                                                                                                                                        sold illegally on college campuses for between $25     tute for ecstasy or cocaine which were harder to obtain.               medical uses of the drug, no case can be made for “someone who opens up a business to provide illegal drugs.” The Oakland
effects. Thus, long-term use can lead to physical dependence and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cannabis Cooperative sought protection from this ruling on the grounds that marijuana is a “medical necessity” but on May 14, 2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the Supreme Court ruled that marijuana was not worthy of such an exemption.

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