Plagiarism

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					                                     Plagiarism
Pecorari, D. (2003). Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic
    second-language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(4), 311-424.


Excerpt taken from Pecorari, 2003, p. 317):
Teachers of academic writing are well aware not only that plagiarism can appear in
their students’ work but that it can appear in unexpected forms. Matalene (1985) used
an episode of plagiarism to illustrate a call for a contrastive rhetorical approach to
teaching writing. Her Chinese students produced a writing assignment that followed
its source too closely and then were surprised by her subsequent objections to what
they saw as a valid writing strategy. Later, one of her students found this eloquent
way of summing up the ensuing class discussion:
   After our teacher’s explanation, we understand that in her country or some
   others plagiarism is forbidden …. However in our country, things are [a] little
   different. We may perhaps call what our teacher calls ‘plagiarism’ as
   ‘imitation,’ which is sometimes encouraged, especially for a beginner
   (Matalene, 1985, p. 803).
Alastair Pennycook (1996) had a similar experience, again in China. He assigned his
students to write a biographical sketch, and one produced a text on Abraham Lincoln
which seemed unusually fluent. When Pennycook asked the student about it, the
student reported ‘feeling rather fortunate that I had asked them to write something
which he already knew. Sitting in his head was a brief biography of Abraham
Lincoln, and he was quite happy to produce it on demand’ (Pennycook, 1996, p. 202).
Although both cases involved what can be termed textual plagiarism — that is,
language and ideas repeated from a source without (sufficient) attribution — they
lacked a standard feature of prototypical cases of plagiarism: the intention to deceive.
In both cases the students agreed that they had copied from their sources but believed
that copying was appropriate. They did not intend to violate academic standards nor
to pretend that they had not copied. Anecdotal accounts of such unintentional, non-
prototypical plagiarism abound (Barker, 1997; Braine, 1995; Connor & Kramer,
1995; Crocker & Shaw, 2002; Dong, 1998; Leki, 1992; Pennycook, 1996; St. John,
1987; Shaw, 1991; Sherman, 1992; Spack, 1997).
You are writing an assignment. You have read the article by Pecorari (2003) and you want to cite it
in your assignment. Read the original paragraph in the box below and then read the 5 examples. Do
you think any of these 5 could be called plagiarism? If so, why?

(Pecorari, 2003, p. 318)
Although both cases involved what can be termed textual plagiarism — that is, language and ideas
repeated from a source without (sufficient) attribution — they lacked a standard feature of
prototypical cases of plagiarism: the intention to deceive. In both cases the students agreed that they
had copied from their sources but believed that copying was appropriate. They did not intend to
violate academic standards nor to pretend that they had not copied. Anecdotal accounts of such
unintentional, non-prototypical plagiarism abound (Barker, 1997; Braine, 1995; Connor & Kramer,
1995; Crocker & Shaw, 2002; Dong, 1998; Leki, 1992; Pennycook, 1996; St. John, 1987; Shaw,
1991; Sherman, 1992; Spack, 1997).


Example 1
Pecorari identifies two different forms of plagiarism. The first is prototypical plagiarism where the
intention is to deceive. The second is textual plagiarism where language and ideas are repeated from
a source without sufficient attribution, but it is not deliberate, and plagiarism is unintentional..
Anecdotal evidence abounds in the literature to support Pecorari’s argument that most plagiarism is       Comment [FoE1]: This is an
unintentional and non-prototypical.                                                                       example of plagiarism because the
                                                                                                          writer does not acknowledge
                                                                                                          which work of Pecorari’s he/she is
Example 2                                                                                                 referring to (by giving the
                                                                                                          publishing date) nor does he/she
Pecorari (2003, p. 318) identifies two different forms of plagiarism. The first is textual plagiarism     provide a page number when exact
where “language and ideas are repeated from a source without (sufficient) attribution.” The second        words are borrowed directly from
                                                                                                          Pecorari’s article.
type is prototypical plagiarism where “the intention is to deceive.” There are many anecdotal
                                                                                                          Comment [FoE2]: This is also
accounts in the literature supporting the existence of the first type of unintentional plagiarism.        plagiarism so the following
                                                                                                          changes must be made.
Example 3                                                                                                 Deleted: (Pecorari, 2003, p 318)
Pecorari (2003, p. 318) differentiates “textual” plagiarism from “prototypical” plagiarism. In the
first type of plagiarism, Pecorari argues that the writer repeats “from a source without (sufficient)
attribution” (p 318), but does not set out deliberately “to deceive” (p 318) the reader. However, in
the second type, “the intention [is deliberately] to deceive” (p. 318). The literature supports
Pecorari’s view that most plagiarism is unintentional and non-prototypical (Barker, 1997; Braine,
1995; Connor & Kramer, 1995; Crocker & Shaw, 2002; Dong, 1998; Leki, 1992; Pennycook, 1996;               Comment [FoE3]: While the
St. John, 1987; Shaw, 1991; Sherman, 1992; Spack, 1997).                                                  section above is well cited, this last
                                                                                                          sentences suggests that the writer
                                                                                                          has read all of these articles/books.
Example 4                                                                                                 If they haven’t read this but are
                                                                                                          only getting these references from
Pecorari (2003, p. 318) distinguishes “textual” plagiarism from “prototypical” plagiarism. The            Pecorari, they need to be clear that
former is unintentional, and involves copying from an original source without proper                      these were studies that were cited
                                                                                                          by Pecorari and not by the writer.
acknowledgement. The latter is deliberate, and involves “the intention to deceive” (p. 318). There is
a considerable literature supporting the existence of “textual” plagiarism (see for example Barker,       Comment [FoE4]: See
1997, Crocker & Shaw, 2002, Dong, 1998, Leki, 1992, Pennycook, 1996, and Spack, 1997).                    previous comment.


Example 5                                                                                                 Comment [FoE5]: This is the
                                                                                                          best example of the writer citing
Pecorari (2003, p. 318) distinguishes ‘textual’ plagiarism from ‘prototypical’ plagiarism. The            and paraphrasing the author
former is not planned, while the latter is deliberate. Pecorari cites a large literature supporting her   correctly.

claim that unplanned plagiarism occurs frequently in the writing of second language students (for
example Barker, 1997, Crocker & Shaw, 2002, Dong, 1998, Leki, 1992, Pennycook, 1996, and
Spack, 1997)

				
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