Canadian Journal of
COMPARATIVE MEDICINE AND
Published Monthly at GARDENVALE, P.Q., by
NATIONAL BUSINESS PUBLICATIONS TIMITTF
A. S. Christie, Founder and President - 1929-1946
CHAS. A. MITCHELL,B.V.Sc.; D.V.M.; H.A.R.C.V.S.; F.R.S.C.
Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, P.Q.
T. W. M. CAMERON, T.D.; M.A.; B.Sc.; (Vet. Sci.) Ph.D.; D.Sc.; M.R.C.V.S.; F.R.S.C.
L. P. E. CHOQUETTE, B.A.; D.V.M.; M.Sc.; Ph.D.
Ecole de Medecine Veterinaire de St. Hyacinthe, P.Q.
C. A. V. BARKER, D.V.M.; M.Sc.; D.V.Sc.; F.Am.S.S.S.
Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario.
J. MALCOLM BAKER, D.V.M.; M.S.
8310 Mayrand Street, Montreal, P.Q.
Appointed by and Representing the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association for 1937
GEORGE C. FISHER, D.V.M.
W. R. MITCHELL, D.V.M., D.V.P.H.
Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ont.
J. SAINT-GEORGES, D.M.V.
Ecole de Medecine Veterinaire de St. Hyacinthe, P.Q.
R. V. L. WALKER, D.V.M.
Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, P.Q.
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Confirmed Cases by Species (Apr. 1, 1956 to Jan. 15, 1957)
Dog Cat Horse Bovine Sheep Fox Squirrel Total
Sudbury ..1 10 11
Nipissing 1......... I 1 1 30 33
Timiskaming 1 6 9
Manitoulin ... 1 1
Parry Sound 1 3 4 8
Renfrew 1 1
Victoria 1 1
Hastings.. 1 1
Cochrane ......1 1
Total ............ 2 2 1 7 53 1 66
Abitibi 4 4 5 13
Temiscamingue. .. 1 1 9 15 26
Total ..... . 1 1 13 4 20 39
TOTAL ....... 2 3 2 20 4 73 1 105
The current outbreak of rabies is centered in central Canada, involv-
ing the northern districts of Ontario and the adjoining counties in the prov-
ince of Quebec. In addition, four cases have been confirmed in Alberta,
involving a coyote, a dog, and two bovine; one dog in Manitoba at Rivers;
and one dog in the Northwest Territories at Cambricge Bay.
The reservoi r of infection is the wild life, 70% of all confirmed cases
occurring in foxes.
Dog control measures, supplemented by mass vaccination clinics in
infected areas, have prevented the disease from becoming established in
the canine population.
Contributed by the Health of Animals Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
IO AUR 9
- --- --I - - - - 157
It is only by collecting data and using them that you can get sense - OSLER
EAST AFRICAN VETERINARY RESEARCH
Many countries of the world have been rather slow in making use of
the contributions which veterinary medicine can make to improving the
East African Veterinary Research Laboratories, Muguga, Kenya opened February
21, 1957 by His Excellency, The Honourable Sir Evelyn Baring, Chairman of the
East Africa High Commission.
arian is to carry out his duties unhampered by other considerations he
should be independent, both directly and indirectly, of anything that
may be associated with the track. Insofar as the public is concerned its in-
terest largely arises from the betting sytem. It requires no intuition to
discover that the majority of persons go to races because of legalized bet-
ting and that the animal competing is only of secondary interest. Persons
place wagers on animals which they believe have been passed by the of-
ficial veteriarian. If the veterinarian (who, incidentally, must be well
qualified in this type of work) decides that an animal should not be raced
on a particular day then his decision should be final. Steps are taken to
prevent the artificial stimulation of animals which results in abnormal
performance. Such practices carry severe penalties, hence the saliva test
and other steps to prevent these irregularities. It may be asked why it is an
offence to stimulate an animal to give a false performance of his capacity
and at the same time not take equal care to follow the veterinarian's opin-
ion in regard to other animals. It will be very hard for the person who
loses his wager because of either cause to distinguish between the two ir-
It would seem clear that the correction of the condition about which
Dr. Cairns complains is only possible by steps being taken to place the
veterinarian directly under some department of Government. That Gov-
ernments derive a considerable revenue from racing ventures surely re-
quires them to determine that the public should be protected against the
racing of animals which, in the opinion of the official veterinarian, should
not be raced. In a word, veterinarians holding these responsibilities should
be under the jurisdiction of a Government department and there should
be no appeal from their decision.
COMING MEETINGS OF VETERINARY MEDICAL
Association Place Dates
Veterinary Association of Winnipeg, Man. March 4-5,
Central Canada Veterinary Brockville, Ont. March 15-16,
Canadian Veterinary Medical Vancouver, B.C. July 22-23-24,
Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Section
WESTERN ONTARIO VETERINARY MEDICAL
The nineteenth annual meeting of the Western Ontario Veterinary Med-
ical Association was held on January 9, 1957 at the Seven Dwarf's Inn at
Lambeth, Ontario, under the chairmanship of the President, Dr. G. F. Robson.
A large attendance was on hand to hear the following programme; "Diseases of
Sucking Pigs" by C. K. Roe, O.V.C., Guelph; "Stilboestral In Beef Cattle
Feeding" by H. D. Branion, O.A.C., Guelph; "Public Relations - A Chal-
lenge to the Veterinarian" by Dr. W. R. Mitchell, O.V.C., Guelph, Ont.; "Dis-
temper in cats" by Dr. James Archibald, O.V.C., Guelph, Ont. In
addition, Dr. H. Worton, Provincial Veterinarian, described the Ontario
Brucellosis Act of 1956, after which a spirited discussion was conducted by
many members. Refreshments were later served.
Dr. J. Bovaird, Secretary-Treasurer.
01TANVA SOCIETY OF COMPARATIVE MEDICINE
A regular meeting of the Ottawa Society of Comparative Medicine was
held in the auditorium of the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, P. Q.,
on January 11, 1957, under the chairmanship of Dr. R. V. L. Walker. Ap-
proximately sixty members were in attendance to hear and discuss two sub-
jects of great importance to veterinarians today. A panel of Dr. W. A. Moyni-
han, Dr. P. J. G. Plummer and Dr. R. V. L. Walker covered the subject of
"Rabies" after which a second panel of Dr. R. J. McClenaghan, Dr. H. Konst
and Dr. Christine Rice presented all the relevant data on "Johne's Disease".
Following the presentation of each symposium, spirited discussion was car-
ried out by many of the members present.
The ladies held a separate meeting to conduct their annual election of of-
ficers and participate in a bingo game, provided by the outgoing Social Com-
mittee of Mrs. K. L. Douglas, Mrs. R. V. L. Walker and Mrs. J. N. Perry.
The Committee for the ensuing year is composed of Mrs. H. Konst, Mrs. I. W.
Moynihan and Mrs. P. J. G. Plummer. Later the ladies were joined by the
veterinarians in a social hour during which refreshments were served.
'r5gi Canadian Journal of C.V.M.A. Section February, 1957
XLJ56 Comparative Medicine Vol. XXI, No. 2
TORONTO ACADEMY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
The Toronto Academy of Veterinary Medicine in an outgrowth of the
Toronto Veterinary Surgeons Club which was formed in 1933. Dr. J. E.
Mumford and the late Drs. J. A. Campbell and George Clarke were originally
:responsible for the formation of the club. The club had a rotating chairman
with each member serving a term and Dr. H. S. MacDonald was the secretary-
-treasurer. This club served a useful purpose in maintaining a close contact of
local veterinarians both professionally and socially.
The Toronto Academy of Veterinary Medicine was formed in 195 1.
The first president was Dr. G. Mackay an succeeding presidents have been
Dr. L. W. H. Vercoe in 1952, Dr. C. L. McGilvray in 1953, Dr. H. J. Cassi-
.dy in 1954, Dr. J. E. B. Graham in 1955 and Dr. A. C. Secord in 1956.
The charter for the Academy was formulated by its original members
and submitted by its attorney to the Provincial Government. The main aims
considered in drawing up the charter was the formation of an organization-that
would help (a) to foster better relations among the veterinary practitioners in
the city, (b) keep its members abreast of current activities in the profession and
(c) to form a strong local group of practitioners who could voice opinions
and take an active part in the parent organization-the Ontario Veterinary
The Academy is governed by a president, vice-president, secretary-treas-
-urer, past president and a board of five directors. Elections for officers are held
each January at the annual meeting. The elected vice-president automatically
becomes the next president. Each director is given the chairmanship of one of
-the standing committees, which are a telephone committee, an entertainment
-and education committee, an attendance committee, a dog show committee and
an ethics and publicity committee.
Meetings are held on the third Tuesday of each month except for July
and August. As far as possible each meeting is confined to a short business
-meeting followed by a speaker. Most business of the Academy is conducted by
-the executive committee.
The majority of the members of the Academy are practicing veterinarians
-in the metropolitan Toronto area.
The by-laws of the Academy provide that any member of the O.V.A.
or C.V.M.A. may appy for associate membership. The rules of the membership
include (a) all members of the Academy shall conduct their practice to the best
*of their ability and shall at all times uphold the dignity of the Academy and
of the veterinary profession; (b) No member of the Academy shall indulge in
any form of personal advertisement for the purpose of personal gain except
in accordance with the by-laws of the Academy; (c) no member shall belittle
or disparage anotber member, or his diagnosis, treatment or his conduct of a
Canadian Journal of
Comparative MedicineVo.XIN.2 C.V.M.A. Section Vol. XXa, No. 2 [571
case; (d) Each and every member shall give of his time and services in fair
amount one with another, toward the activities and undertakings of the Aca-
demy; (e) members shall be listed in the telephone directory in accordance-
with the rules and regulations formulated by the committee set up for that
purpose; (f) members shall at all times render to other members such courtesies.
and assistance as may be required; (g) all members shall serve on one of the
standing committees; (h) no member shall make use of the word "Academy"'
in any way without the permission of the Academy.
To date the Academy has accomplished much of interest and value. A few
accomplishments include enhancement of professional relations, rotation of
clinic facilities to provide after-hour service to pet owners for emergency cases,
a standard minimum fee being established and adhered to by the members and
the presentation of three annual one-day symposiums bringing leading speakers
on important subjects to the membership, and the publication of a standard
booklet for distribution to the clients, discussing the various aspects of pet
(Dr. J. E. B. Graham and Dr. R. Cormack, co-chairman of the Ethics
and Publicity Committee of the Toronto Academy of Veterinary Medicine).
Dr. J. D. McGregor (Ont. 1889) of Butte, Montana, U.S.A., died at his.
home on Aug. 30, 1956. He had been a resident of Butte for 67 years and
was well known for his keen interest in civic affairs.
Dr. John Rowe Fisher (Ont. 1919) of 439 Princess St., Brandon, Manitoba,.
died Dec. 29, 1956.
Dr. W. R. Giesbrecht (Ont. 1939) of 399 Sherbrooke St., Winnipeg, Mani-
toba, was killed in an auto accident near Lorette, Man., on Jan. 1, 1957.
His wife, Elizabeth, and two sons, James and Richard were injured in the-
same accident, but at this date are reported to be in fair condition in St. Anne's.
Hospital, Lorette. Dr. Giesbrecht was born in Steinbach, Man. in 1916 and
atter graduation returned to Winnipeg to become first a member of the staff
of the old Winnipeg Animal Clinic, which, in 1951, he became the proprietor-
and renamed it the Sherbrook Animal Hospital. He was a member of the Fellow-
ship Chapel and was on the executive of the Christian Business Men's Com-
Dr. Wayne Clifton Batty (Ont. 1956) aged 25 years, died at Edmonton,
Alta., on Nov. 3, 1956, after a long illness.
4I8-8nadian Journal of
Comparative Medicine C.V.M.A. Section Februiary, 1957
Vol. xxi, No.-nn
Dr. I. R. Reid (Ont. 1956) a new member on the B.C. Register, is associated
in practice with Dr. L. Clarkson (Ont. 1945) at Abbotsford.
Dr. J. P. Perry (Ont. 1956) a new member on the Register, has now opened
a small animal hospital in North Vancouver, after spending some time in
practice with Dr. G. Pinder (Ont. 1934) in Vancouver.
Dr. MvI. F. Rendall (Ont. 1956) another new member on the Register, who
was assistant to Dr. J. Dunn (Ont. 1915) of Kamloops, has now taken over
the practice of Dr. A. York, (Ont. 1949) who has moved to California.
Dr. D. Gaunt (Ont. 1950) recently added to the Register, has taken over the
practice of Dr. W. Newby (Ont. 1943) of Victoria.
Dr. D. L. Courtice (Ont. 1956), a new member on the Register, is in practice
with Dr. D. Perry in South Barnaby.
Dr. W. Forrest (Ont. 1956) is associated in practice with Dr. R. Cuthbert
(Ont. 1923) in Vancouver.
Dr. E. W. Gilchrist (Dublin 1953) is now on extended convalescence in Van-
couver after a siege of illness.
Dr. R. E. Clark (Ont. 1954) has moved from Mission City and is now asso-
ciated in practice at the Kerrisdale Veterinary Hospital, Vancouver.
Dr. G. M. Clark has resigned from the Provincial Government service to enter
private practice in Kamloops.
Dr. K. H. Thompson (Ont. 1931) of the Provincial Veterinary Service has
been transferred from Prince George to Kamloops.
Dr. W. L. Gerrie (Ont. 1956) has left Edmonton and is now in practice with
Dr. T. H. Boyd (Ont. 1905) at Windsor, Ont.
Dr. W. B. Davidson (Ont. 1918) and his wife have returned to their home in
Calgary;after a trip through California and Mexico.
Dr. George Bosnyak (Alfort 1947) and his wife recently entertained the mem-
bers of the East Central Veterinarians Club at their home in St. Paul.
Dr. B. W. Tonkin (Ont. 1954) of Vulcan, and Dr. G. A. Symington (Ont.
1950) of Provost, were exposed to personal inoculation by accident with the
Br. abortus (Strain 19) vaccine were incapacitated by severe reactions.
Canadian Journal of C.V.M.A. Section February, 1957 ROl
Comparative Medicine Vol. XXI, No. 2
Dr. V. B. Kiernisted who has been engaged in practice at Melita has accepted
a position with the Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, Winnipeg.
Dr. E. Clar-k (Ont. 1951 ) of Morden has reported on the death of twelve cows
within a few hours after drinking rain water and other refuse pumped out of
a commercial potato cellar that contained arsenic and D.D.T. solution.
Dr. J. M. Isa (Ont. 1938) in charge of the Provincial Veterinary Laboratory
reported that during the month of November specimens were presented for
diagnosis from 204 chickens, 9 turkeys, 6 pigs, 3 cattle as well as 4 skin
scrapings apd 641 blood samples for Bang's disease. For mastitis 629 milk
samples were tested, while the Ring Test was conducted on 169 milk samples
for brucellosis. Blood speqimens were also taken from 21 birds for the rapid
pullorum test, and 19,187 samples of turkey blood were submit.ed for the
tube test for pullorum disease. Dr. N. E. Stanger (Ont. 1955) as an observe:-
for the Laboratory accompanied veterinarians from the Health of Animals
Division to Clear Lake where 20 buffalo and 10 elk were disposed of. A zom-
plete ispection was carri4 ot on each carcass and a thorough examination
for mrasit wae made. All Animals were found to be healthy and free of para-
sitism. 1oo0i samples taken from each animal destroyed were submitted for
the routiw brjcell6sis test and evidence of infection was found in three female
A SEROLOGICAL STUDY OF PASTEURELLA
It has been shown by G. R. Carter (Can. J. Microbiol. 2: 483, 1956)
that strains of Pasteurella haemotytica possess a soluble capsular substance
which is a polysaccbaride. A haemagglutination test is described in which the
soluble polysaccharide was adsorbed to type 0 human red cells. These treated
red cells were agglutinated in the presence of appropriate dilutions of specific
irnie sera. Fifty-one strains of P. haemolytica isolated from cases of ship-
piuig fever in Canada were found to be serologically homogeneous by means
of the h;emagglutination test. Strains of P. haemo(ytica from the U.S.A.
Great Britain, and Europe were found to be serologically identical with the
C nadian strains by the baepiagglutination and conventional agglutination
SPEAKING AT THE
C. V. M. A. ANNUAL MEETING
DR. J. A. HENDERSON ing Board, Thames Ditton, Surrey,
to assist in the planning and admin-
istration of a similar program. After
returning to Canada in 1945, Dr.
Henderson resumed his connection
with the University of Illinois. In
1946 he joined the Department of
Medicine and Surgery, Ontario Vet-
erinary College and became Head of
the Department in 1950.
DR. F. FIELDER
Dr. James Arnold Henderson was
born in Cardale, Manitoba and
graduated from the Ontario Vete-
rinary College in 1936. After a short
period of general practice in Mich-
igan, he attended Cornell University
mnd received an M.S. degree in 1938,
and then took charge of the first
cooperative artificial insemination
association in the United States at
Flemington, New Jersey. In June
1939, he accepted a position in the
Department of Animal Pathology,
University of Illinois. In 1941 he Dr. F. Fielder of the Schering
obtained leave of absence to enter Corporation Veterinary Research
the R.C.A.F. and following the Staff will present papers on the sub-
completion of training, was com- jects of radiology and steroids at
missioned and sent to England in the coming meeting of the Canadian
1942. In 1943 he was assigned to Veterinary Medical Association. He
the School of Agriculture, Cam- first graduated in veterinary med-
bridge University, in an advisory icine in 1938 from Sydney Univer-
capacity in connection with their sity, Australia. From 1940-1942 he
artificial insemination program. In served as District Veterinary Offi-
1944 he went to the Milk Market- cer, New South Wales Department
Canadian Journal of C.V.M.A. Section February, 1951 [r11
Comparative Medicine Vol. XII, No. 2 Lv J
of Agriculture. For the following cation in the district schools. He at-
four years he was a Lieutenant in tended Ohio State University and
the Royal Australian Navy, after graduated with a D.V.M. in 1948.
which he accepted a position with After a few months in general prac-
the Veterinary Research Institute, tice in Concord, New Hampshire, he
Sydney, Australia, serving for three joined the staff of the University of
years. He migrated to America in Connecticut, assisting in the mainte-
1949 and took his D.V.M. at Colo- nance of the University Livestock
rado A and M College in 1950. For and lecturing in veterinary subjects.
two years he was an interne in the In 1951, he received an M.S. degree
Surgical Clinic of the Veterinary and as Assistant Professor continued
School, Cornell University, and for research studies with Dr. W. N.
the three following years he was As- Plastridge in the field of cattle ster-
sistant Professor of Surgery and Ra- ility and mastitis. In 1955, Dr.
diology, School of Veterinary Med- Easterbrooks joined the Clinical Re-
icine, University of Pennsylvania. search Section, American Cyanamid
In June, 1955 he joined the Sche- Company, where his major duties
ring Corporation Veterinary Re- consisted of field trialing of pro-
search Staff. With this extensive ducts for ruminant use and enzyme
training and experience, Dr. Fielder research. In January 1957 he join-
is exceptionally qualified and our ed the staff of the University of
Canadian members will have the Pennsylvania as Associate Professor
benefit of his information. of Medicine.
DR. D. L. EASTERBROOKS DR. W. G. STEVENSON
Dr. Easterbrooks was born in Gordon Stevenson was born in
Dudley, Massachusetts, on October Cobden, Ontario, the son of a vete-
24, 1925 and received his early edu- rinarian conducting a general prac-
162] Canadian Journal of
LUJComparative Medicine C.V.M.A. Section Vol. XXI, No.
tice in the district. After receiving he became Director of the Veted
elementary education in the local nary Division of Ayerst, McKenn
schools, he entered the Ontario Vete- and Harrison, Ltd., Montreal, P.Q.
rinary College and graduated in where he remained until 1951. I
193 7. The following two years that year Dr. Stevenson founded an
were spent in the Laboratory Div- became President of Stevenson, Tur
ision, Ontario Department of ner and Boyce, Ltd., a compan
Health, Toronto, and during 1941 handling the distribution of phar.
he was a Lecturer at the Ontario
Veterinary College. Later in 1 941
maceuticals and biologics to
narians throughout Canada.
To Dr. H. N. Vance (Ont. 1949) and his wife, Lola, a daughter, Bar
bara Louise, at Edmonton, Alta., on Nov. 10, 1956.
To Dr. T. B. Sewell (Ont. 1951) and his wife, a son, John Nichols,
t Brooks, Alta., on Nov. 28, 1956.
VIRUS PNEUMONIA OF PIGS IN CANADA WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ROLE OF
Carter and Schroder (Cornell Vet. 46: 355, 1956) have described th
results of eight trials involving 38 pigs which were carried out with a vie
to producing virus pneumonia of swine.
Pneumonic tissues yielding PPLO when administered nasally to pigs pro
duced a pneumonia from which PPLO but no bacteria were recovered.
Cultures of the PPLO alone did not produce pneumonia in pigs when ad-
ministered by the nasal route. It was therefore concluded that the'role of PPLO
is probably secondary to a primary virus.
A pneumonia displaying the microscopical changes described for virus"
pneumonia by other workers was produced by the instillation of bacteria- and
PPLO-free pneumonic tissues.
A similar pneumonia was produced by the instillation of bacteria-free
filtrates of pneumonic tissue.
TURKEY ERYSIPELAS AND AN TIBIOTICS
T he efficacy of several antibiotics and other products against Erysipelo-
bhrix rhuiszopathiae was tested (1) in vitro, (2) in experimentally infected
day-old chicks and (3) in experimentally infected turkeys.
In vitro, penicillin, terramycin, aureomycin and furazolidone were high-
ly effective, while streptomycin and chloramphenicol were moderately effective
and sulfamezathine was completely ineffective.
In infected chicks and turkeys single doses of terramycin in oil and ben-
zathine penicillin were effective when given intramuscularly. Other forms of
these two antibiotics were also effective when administered in multiple dosage.
Streptomycin and chloramphenicol intramuscularly and chloramphenicol, ter-
ramycin, aureomycin and furazolidone given orally were of little value.
In infected turkeys, the effective dose of benzathine penicillin (16,000
units/kg) was much smaller than the effective dose in chicks (160,000 units/
kg). Treated turkeys were completely resistant to re-infection and no lesions
were found on autopsy.
(H. Williams Smith, in J. Comp. Path. and Therap. 66, No. 2, 151-158,
in large country Practice in North- ASSAY
Central Alberta. Cars and allequipment
provided. Apply stating full particulars Difco Media are available for the
to Box No. 3679, Canadian Journal of microbiological assay of antibiotics, vita-
Comparative Medicine, Gardenvale, Qua. mins and amino acids. Media for anti-
biotic assay are prepared according to
specifications of the Food and Drug
Media for the microbiologioal assay of vita-
mins and amino acids are free from the essen-
tial growth requirement factor for. which the
SUBSCRIPTIONS enedium is recommended. The addition of this
factor in specified increasing concentrations
$3 per year to qualified Vet- e!icits a growth response of the test organism
which may be measured acidimetrically or
turbidimetrically. Appropriate media for car-
erinarians, Libraries and Scien- rying cultures in stock, and preparation of
inocula for each test are available.
tific Institutions in Canada. $5 Complete details of media for Microbiological
Assay available upon request.
per year to all other countries. DIFCO LABORATORIES
DETROIT 1, MICHIGAN