Inclusive Education and Disability

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					Inclusive Education and Disability

   A View from the ENGAGE Project
   Jerry Mindes, Project Director
Outline
   A Profile of Children with Disabilities
   A definition of Inclusive Development
   Education and Rights and Disability
   A definition of Inclusive Education
   The ENGAGE Project
       Purpose and its relationship to Inclusive
        Education
       ENGAGE in Pakistan
       ENGAGE in Zambia
Children with Disabilities in Developing
Nations: A Profile
   2.5 percent of children aged 0-14 have self-
    evident moderate to severe levels of sensory,
    physical, and intellectual impairments
   An additional 8 percent have learning or
    behavioral difficulties (Unicef, October 2007)
   Survival rates are low. In some countries, less
    than 90 percent don’t live to be 20; 90 percent of
    children with intellectual disabilities don’t live past
    age 5 (Unicef, April 2007)
   “I’ve never seen an adult with Down’s Syndrome.”
    Zambian disability leader
Children with Disabilities and
Education: A Profile

   At home, with no formal education, but
    possible access to private group care
    settings
   At home, with public teacher tutoring
    (Ukraine)
   In segregated settings (boarding schools)
   In “units” placed within “regular” schools
   In inclusive settings
Inclusive Development: A definition

   “If development is about bringing
    excluded people into society, then
    disabled people belong in schools,
    legislatures, at work, on buses, at
    the theatre and everywhere else
    that those who are not disabled
    take for granted….
   …Unless disabled people are brought into
    the development mainstream, it will be
    impossible to…give every boy and girl the
    chance to achieve a primary education by
    the same date-goals agreed by more than
    180 world leaders at the United Nations
    Millennium Summit in September 2000.
                James Wolfensohn
To Advance Inclusive Education
-   Acknowledge that all means all and that
    EFA goals cannot be achieved without
    children with disabilities
-   Recognize that International Conventions
    enshrine these rights, and have raised
    expectation and dialogue
-   Understand the social model of disability:
    that the environment – and not the
    disability – is the obstacle to participation
Inclusive Education Means:

   Attending the age-appropriate class
    of the child’s local school, with
    individually tailored support

   Schools must change to
    accommodate a wider range of
    children
Inclusive Schools
   Pay attention to developing
    appropriate methods of assessment
    for all learners
   Avoid unnecessary segregation
    within the ordinary classroom
   Prepare teachers with pedagogic
    skills, curriculum, and training
   Involve parents
   Have leaders that embrace inclusion
The ENGAGE Project
   Demonstrate inclusive development
    practices in three countries, focusing on
    education, HIV/AIDS, and governance
    sectors
   Provide training and information to USAID
    staff and their implementing partners
   Position disabled persons organizations as
    stakeholders of development
ENGAGE in Pakistan
   AIR’s Rise Program is training teachers in
    the earthquake affected areas
   With support from ENGAGE, AIR is this
    week developing teacher training modules
    in inclusive education
   Next Steps: Take this to the school and
    community level with tools to understand
    prevalence, to enhance child assessment
    skills, to support parents, and to target
    teacher training to improve learning
    outcomes
ENGAGE in ZAMBIA:
   Special Needs Education in Zambia is an
    inch deep and a mile wide:
       A fragile bureaucratic infrastructure that is
        growing: from 5 to 56 positions since 2004
       Curriculum for diploma-certified special
        educators: 150 per year
       In-service training modules exist but don’t flow
        down
       Provincial coordinators with limited support
       Nascent Parent advocacy organizations
       University programs at undergraduate,
        masters, and Ph.D. levels
What Zambia does not have:

   A national action plan and strategy
    for special needs education
   A donor that works with the Ministry
    to advance special needs education
       Finland left in 2006
   Resources to add substance to its
    skeletal infrastructure
   Political will?
What could a donor support?
   Strategic support and action that invests in home-
    grown ideas, that include:
       An action plan for inclusive education that involves
        the Ministry, Parents, Teachers, and Experts, all of
        which exist in country
       Awareness raising to bring children out of the
        shadows
       Household surveys to understand prevalence
       Master special education teachers at the sub-
        regional level to reinforce training and curriculum,
        and engage the community
       A Special Educators Division of the Teachers Union
       Braille machines and paper
       Trained sign language interpreters
       Parent advocacy and parent involvement
A Strategic Dialogue toward Action
   Recognize that disability is a rights issue,
    and that disability and difference exist in
    every classroom
   Engage in discussions with Ministries
   Talk to disability leaders and experts
   Incorporate inclusive education into
    development work, i.e., when we do:
       Teacher training
       Curriculum development
       Gender and community participation