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					        YOUTH LIVELIHOODS DEVELOPMENT
                PROGRAM GUIDE
Project Contacts:
                                                 June 2008
Barry Stern
Director, EQUIP3                                      Written By:
Education Development Center, Inc.               David James-Wilson
bstern@edc.org
Clare Ignatowski
EQUIP3 CTO
USAID/ EGAT/ Office of Education
cignatowski@usaid.gov
   Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                 | i
  TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                           ii

LIST OF ACRONYMS                                                                          iii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                         iv

INTRODUCTION                                                                              1

A. A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR YOUTH LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS                                        4

B. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR YOUTH LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS                                      6
   B.1 Most Youth Are Economically Active                                                  6
   B.2 Young People’s Economic Activities Are Linked To Household Livelihood Strategies    7
   B.3 Households Are Actively Engaged In Planning For Youth Livelihood Development        7
   B.4 Youth Must Often Balance Education With Work                                        8
   B.5 Livelihood Programming Should Reflect The Marketplace And Build From Existing      10
       Assets And Activities
   B.6 Livelihood Is The Core Driver Of Positive Youth Development Outcomes               11
   B.7 The Youth Cohort Is Diverse                                                        12
   B.8 Youth Livelihood Programs Should Be Cross-Sectoral And Track Both Livelihood-      12
       Specific And Cross-Cutting Outcomes And Impacts

C. DESIGNING EFFECTIVE YOUTH LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES                                        17
   C.1 Resources To Strengthen Youth Livelihood Capacities                                17
   C.2 Designing Strategies That Build Youth Livelihoods                                  18
         Strategies To Help Youth Develop Human Capital                                   18
         Strategies To Help Youth Develop Financial Capital                               19
         Strategies To Help Youth Develop Social Capital                                  22
         Strategies To Help Youth Acquire Physical Capital                                25
   C.3 Achieving Sector-Specific Program Goals Through Youth Livelihood                   26
       Capacity-Building Activities

D. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND RESOURCES                                                   28

CONCLUSION                                                                                29

REFERENCES                                                                                30

ABOUT EQUIP3                                                                              32




Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                     | i
       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

   This Guide has benefited enormously from            The author of this Guide would also like to
   the contributions of a number of reviewers          thank the many staff at EQUIP3 who have con-
   whose insights, poignant critiques, and practi-     tributed to improving the content, presentation
   cal examples have made this a much-improved         and overall readability of this Guide. They in-
   final product. Barry Stern and Paul Sully were      clude: Ann Hershkowitz, Melanie Beauvy, Nancy
   Education Development Center Directors of the       Devine, Caroline Fawcett, Paul Sully, Ron Israel,
   EQUIP3 project under which the Guide was pro-       Cornelia Janke, Nancy Meaker and Erin Murray.
   duced. Clare Ignatowski was the USAID Cogni-
   zant Technical Office for this work and provided    Finally, this author owes a debt of gratitude to
   overall guidance and detailed reviews of drafts.    Joan Hall and the team at Making Cents, Inc.
   Other reviewers from USAID were Amanda              for case examples drawn from the 2007 Youth
   Eichelkraut, Ishrat Husain, Anicca Jansen, Cheryl   Micro-enterprise Conference, and to Barry
   Kim, Mary Hughes Knox, Suezan Lee, Allyn            Stern for his steady hand as the ultimate editor
   Moushey, John Williamson, and Jason Wolfe.          of this document.

                                                                                       David James-Wilson




ii |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
  LIST OF ACRONYMS

                  ARC          American Refugee Committee
                AREU           Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit
                BCYF           Balkan Children and Youth Foundation
               CEDEA           Center for the Development of Alternative Education
                CGAP           The Consultative Group to Help the Poor
                DCOF           Displaced Children and Orphans Fund
                  EDC          Education Development Center
                   EFA         Education For All
                   ELA         Employment and Livelihoods for Adolescents
              EQUIP3           Education Quality Improvement Program 3
                   ILO         International Labor Organization
                  IPM          Integrated Pest Management
                   IRC         International Rescue Committee
                  IRIN         Integrated Regional Information Networks
                   IZA         Institute for the Study of Labor
                 LCEP          Literacy and Community Empowerment Program
                M&E            Monitoring and Evaluation
                  MFI          Microfinance Institution
                 NGO           Non-governmental Organization
                   OSI         Open Societies Institute
                 S&O           Strategic and Operational Plan
                     SC        Save the Children
                      SI       Search Institute
                    SKI        Street Kids International
                   TKL         The Kids League
             UN-DESA           United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
             UNESCO            United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
               USAID           United States Agency for International Development
                  USG          United States Government
                  YBA          Youth Business Albania
                   YBI         Youth Business International
                  YEN          Youth Employment Network
                  YSO          Youth-Serving Organization




Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                       | iii
       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

   Imagine a country where half of the youth is        something from very little—in some cases,
   neither in school nor employed in the formal        something from almost nothing. And they take
   economy, where private sector jobs leading to       whatever paths are available to them, pro-social
   careers are scarce, where youth unemployment        or otherwise. Acknowledging this reality, agen-
   rates in the formal economy exceed 50 percent,      cies are learning that successful strategies must
   where educational opportunities beyond the          help youth where they are until they can break
   fourth grade cannot be accessed by half the         into the formal economy and that interventions
   population, where there is a clear mismatch         should assist and accelerate this process while
   between the skills provided by schools and uni-     improving the short-term well-being of youth
   versities and the ones that employers want, and     and their households.
   where the growth of the country’s economy
   has trouble keeping up with the rapid growth        Donor agencies, non-governmental organiza-
   of its youth population. Such would describe        tions (NGOs), host country governments, and
   the plight of today’s youth in many developing      civil society are also coming to realize that
   countries, particularly those in countries emerg-   youth can and should be key actors in the
   ing from conflict.                                  strengthening, rebuilding, and transformation
                                                       of their nations. When appropriately engaged
   For several decades international agencies have     and adequately prepared for roles in the worlds
   been supporting education and training pro-         of work, family life, and civil society, youth can
   grams that prepare youth for the workforce and      be definite assets for community development.
   higher levels of education. Programs are based      However, when governments and communities
   on the assumption that the private sector is        disregard the huge numbers of youth with mini-
   growing and has jobs for qualified applicants.      mal attachment to the formal sector, youth can
   But suppose jobs are scarce and employers are       also become a profoundly de-stabilizing force.
   reluctant to invest where literacy rates are low?   Specifically, the absence of livelihood develop-
   What good are workforce development pro-            ment opportunities for youth can impede a
   grams when there are no jobs? And if workforce      nation’s development in the form of increased
   development can benefit only a small percent-       crime, violence, poor health, disease, extrem-
   age of youth because of dire economic realities,    ism, and both social and political instability.
   what can be done to improve the well-being of
   the rest and give them hope?                        Thus, the presence of livelihood development
                                                       (to complement workforce development) is a
   In response to this dilemma, USAID and other        strategic necessity for national development,
   donor agencies have become increasingly             especially when delivered in careful coordina-
   interested in supplementing workforce develop-      tion with traditional investments in health,
   ment strategies with what is called “livelihood     education, democracy and governance, and
   development,” especially for young people aged      economic growth activities.
   15–24 from marginalized backgrounds. Donor
   agencies increasingly recognize that millions of    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
   young people working in the informal sector         Successful livelihood development programs
   are finding ways to eke out a living and make       reflect actual youth realities and respond to


iv |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
the existing goals, plans and strategies of young   sent a balance between meeting immediate
people themselves and their community sup-          household needs and accumulating sustain-
porters (especially at the household and ex-        able livelihood capital and capabilities over the
tended family levels). Perhaps the greatest mis-    longer term. Most youth and their families do
conception is that poor youth without jobs are      not choose between school and work; instead,
idle and economically inactive. Still, research     they endeavor to blend and balance continuing
carried out by EQUIP3 with young people in          education with short-term income generation
countries as diverse as Uganda, Morocco, the        and ongoing livelihood development demands.
Philippines, Haiti and the West Bank suggest
that most contribute to household income            While one can talk in purely demographic terms
through work in the informal sector, in house-      about a single “youth cohort” (or in some coun-
hold-based enterprises, or in family-based farm-    tries a “youth bulge”), any meaningful appraisal
ing, fishing and petty trading activities (USAID    of needs, aspirations, assets, and obstacles
2005, USAID 2006, EQUIP3 2005). This mirrors        must disaggregate youth data. Gender, for
the research of other youth development actors      instance, still plays a major role in how young
that indicate that youth frequently use their       people are socialized, and it can provide unique
work in the informal sector as a means of pay-      barriers and/or novel entry points into youth
ing for continuing education and building infor-    livelihood development. Data should be broken
mal peer networks linked to accessing start-up      down by age, gender, ethnicity, rural vs. urban,
capital or introductions to employers (ILO 2004,    household income, marital status, in- vs. out-of-
ILO 2005, Population Council 2004, World Bank       school status, and developmental stage.
2007, USAID 2005, USAID 2006, UNESCO 2001).
                                                    Evidence also suggests that livelihood develop-
Another misconception is that poor people           ment is the core driver of positive youth out-
are unable to coach their young people to           comes in other areas, such as health (e.g., HIV/
make rational economic decisions. Research by       AIDS prevention), education, public safety, and
EQUIP3 and others has shown that youth from         democracy and governance (Population Coun-
marginalized backgrounds and their families are     cil 2004, IRIN 2007, UN-DESA 2005, UNESCO
able to understand trade-offs and opportunity       2001). These linkages, however, must be de-
costs associated with participation in various      signed with specific sector outcomes in mind,
interventions (EQUIP3 2005, EQUIP3 2007,            along with carefully-planned and well-executed
USAID 2005, USAID 2006, SC 2006, UNESCO             monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems.
2001). Indeed, households are actively engaged
in helping youth plan their futures and make        DESIGNING EFFECTIVE YOUTH
practical decisions about continuing education,     LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES
vocational training and the use of microfinance     Livelihood development ought to incorporate
services and products. They deserve the con-        the ideas and insights of a wide range of stake-
sideration of those who design and implement        holders. The design package would contain ways
programs intended to improve their livelihoods.     to acquire human, social, financial, and physical
                                                    capital, to integrate youth livelihood develop-
Other research suggests that many poor fami-        ment with programs in other sectors, and to
lies do learn to save and build assets, and that    build the capacity of local service providers.
effective livelihood interventions reflect mar-
ketplace opportunities, constraints, and barriers   Building Human Capital
(Population Council 2004, Akkord 2006, ADB          This is best achieved by a combination of skills
2004, ILO 2005). The best interventions are         training (usually nonformal education), men-
“learning while earning” programs that repre-       toring, and guidance, combined with helping


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                             | v
   credit-ready young entrepreneurs gain access to            self confidence or courage as being far more
   financial capital. Skills training programs should:        important to livelihood success than access
                                                              to financial capital or skills training. For ex-
       ƒ Provide youth with opportunities to                  ample, youth consistently rank mentoring and
         master core literacy and numeracy skills,            constructive advice as important to starting,
         basic employability and life skills, and             improving, and growing a small business or in-
         vocational skills. They can be designed as           formal service sector activity. The key, though,
         a second chance pathway to a primary or              is that there be a fit between the knowledge
         secondary school degree, an opportunity              base of the mentor and the needs of the young
         to gain the skills needed to return to formal        person. Despite their good intentions, busi-
         education, or a vehicle to acquire the skills        nessmen and women in the formal sector may
         needed to get a job or start a business.             have little practical advice to offer a young
       ƒ Build upon the existing knowledge                    person operating in the informal sector.
         and experience of participating youth
         and relate these to the predominant                  Context is also important when building social
         household livelihood strategies.                     capital through peer networks. Encouraging
       ƒ Allow participants to make educational               young people to join groups of only extremely
         gains or earn achievement certifications in          poor or unskilled individuals is not nearly as
         manageable blocks, offering flexibility (e.g.,       effective as joining groups with members from
         in pacing classes and allowing students to           diverse backgrounds.
         easily enter and leave programs) to youth
         and their families who must often defer or           One promising vehicle for social capital de-
         interrupt educational pursuits to address            velopment is service learning, whereby youth
         day-to-day survival needs.                           combine community service work with a form
       ƒ Have schedules and locations that are                of human capital development (literacy, life,
         compatible with the participants’ livelihood         or work skills development). Service learning
         and family demands and security concerns.            engages and retains youth not by emphasizing
       ƒ Enable even the most marginalized                    their deficits, but by inviting them to make a
         (illiterate or semi-literate) groups                 positive contribution to their communities.
         to participate.
       ƒ Recover some costs, if feasible, via user            Another promising catalyst for the develop-
         fees, which encourage program staff and              ment of social capital is the use of sports-based
         their sponsors to continually maintain and           interventions. The convening and mobilizing
         improve program quality, while reminding             power of sports is well known. Some pilot
         participants and their households that they          projects have linked sports with health and
         should invest their scarce resources only in         education outcomes; others have begun to
         programs that are beneficial.                        make the connections between sports and live-
   Further guidance on how to design nonformal                lihood preparation. One powerful advantage
   basic education programs for out-of-school                 of sports-for-development programming is its
   youth is provided by a companion document,                 ability to attract private-sector funding.
   the Guide to Developing Literacy Programs for
   Out-of-School-Youth.1                                      Building Financial Capital
                                                              Perhaps 15–20 percent of the existing client
   Building Social Capital                                    base for microfinance is already young people
   Young people frequently rank access to men-                aged 18–24. Efforts to expand youth participa-
   tors, peer support, new ideas, and a sense of              tion have achieved mixed results and yielded
                                                              some important lessons.
   1
       Document soon to be published by the EQUIP3 Project.

vi |                                                                          Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
One lesson is that failures are most often due       Building Physical Capital
to inexperienced youth development orga-             Outright grants to help youth sustain their
nizations that lack the technical capacity to        livelihood activities are sometimes necessary.
manage microfinance products. Better results         For example, USAID and other donor agen-
occur when youth development providers build         cies frequently help youth in rural areas or in
alliances with community microfinance provid-        fishing communities get back on their feet by
ers. In these alliances each group plays a more      providing them with equipment or supplies
specialized role, and both respect the essential     after an armed conflict or natural disaster. It is
technical skills of the other. Such efforts do not   important to not overlook women’s potential
have to be large to be effective. Adding a sav-      to use infusions of physical capital, and not
ings and financial literacy component to a short-    exclusively support the bigger, commercial
term youth employment scheme, like those             activities of the men.
often found in post-conflict or post-natural di-
saster countries, can open new doors to project      Sometimes helping youth acquire physical
completers and can serve to build in a measure       capital is a good strategy to reward positive be-
of sustainability to project outcomes.               havior. For example, vocational training schools
                                                     sometimes reward new graduates with a set
Another lesson is to substantially invest in         of tools or special work clothing. Sometimes
market research and development. Best prac-          it is a good strategy to reward positive group
tices in adult microfinance do not necessarily       behavior, for example, providing farming or
work with youth. One outcome of research is          sewing cooperatives with laptops and access to
that youth, perhaps more than adults, need           the Internet after they achieve a certain level of
to be part of a solidarity group that enforces       group savings. Such tools could help them get
discipline in using loans wisely and in repaying     weather reports, technical assistance to help
them. Recent microfinance research also shows        increase production efficiency, literacy lessons,
that savings products may be more appropri-          etc.
ate for youth than loans in many contexts.
Savings is a precursor to a loan, and teaches        Building Cross-Cutting Positive Youth
youth about financial management without             Development Assets And Programs
becoming indebted. Savings can be used for           The “40 positive assets” for youth development
business purposes, or more broadly, for school       elaborated by the Minneapolis-based Search In-
or consumption, which are also important             stitute (SI) should be built into youth livelihood
to young people. Savings (from family mem-           programs (SI 2006). A research base of now
bers or friends) are often utilized for start-up     over 3 million youth has shown that regard-
businesses more so than grants or loans.             less of race, gender, ethnic heritage, economic
                                                     status, or geographic location, these assets
Finally, research is showing that youth livelihood   promote four positive behaviors—leadership,
programs should not expect youth to become           good health, valuing diversity, and success in
fully independent breadwinners. In fact, rela-       school—and protect youth from four high-risk
tively small changes in income can lead youth        behaviors—alcohol abuse, violence, drug abuse
to build or strengthen ties to their extended        and premature sexual activity. Examples of
families, thus limiting the need to create their     the 40 assets include achievement motivation,
own households. One recent project found that        reading for pleasure, adult support, establishing
street children would often return to extended       boundaries and expectations, constructive use
family households if they could develop rela-        of time, commitment to learning, and positive
tively stable incomes through street vending or      identity. Acquiring these assets helps youth
other low-barrier-to-entry livelihood pursuits.      thrive and serves as the foundation for their


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                           | vii
   eventual contribution to family and community          CONCLUSION
   life as prepared and engaged adults.                   Youth livelihood programs must engage and
                                                          support youth, most of whom are already
   Research is also beginning to show that blend-         economically active and focused on the im-
   ing livelihood development with sector-specific        mediate needs of their households, and who
   programs in basic education, economic growth           desire more sustainable and socially construc-
   and workforce development, agriculture, public         tive livelihood pathways. The challenge is to
   health, humanitarian assistance, or social stabil-     determine how to encourage these youth
   ity in post-conflict settings is more cost-effective   and help them acquire the relevant compe-
   than investments in stand alone prevention or          tencies and resources necessary to enhance
   mitigation efforts.                                    their livelihoods, and ultimately the liveli-
                                                          hoods of others within their communities.
   Building Capacity Of Local Service Providers
   Youth development practitioners and their or-
   ganizations should have opportunities to learn
   how to:

     ƒ Use market research-type appraisal
       and assessment tools.
     ƒ Develop cross-sectoral programs that equip
       youth with multiple types of capital.
     ƒ Collaborate with traditionally adult-serving
       micro-enterprise/microfinance providers
       and build on current programs.
     ƒ Ensure youth livelihood programs
       complement and do not supplant
       family livelihood strategies.
     ƒ Develop youth development assets as part
       of livelihood development programs.
     ƒ Understand the legal framework that
       governs livelihood activities (e.g.,
       licenses, control of savings, use of public
       spaces) and advocate for pro-social
       changes and resources to serve youth
       in the informal sector.
     ƒ Develop a program budget and revenue
       plan along the full continuum of livelihood
       investments—from governmental
       assistance to commercially-viable products
       and services (such as microfinance
       products and services and skills training)
       where households and youth co-invest
       by paying user fees or interest.
     ƒ Develop and use M&E tools that capture
       sector-specific and cross-sectoral outcomes
       at the individual and cohort levels.



viii |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
  INTRODUCTION

Imagine a country where half of the youth—           based on the assumption that the private sector
older adolescents and young adults—is neither        is growing and has jobs for qualified applicants.
in school nor employed in the formal economy,        But suppose jobs are scarce and employers
where private sector jobs leading to careers are     are reluctant to invest where literacy rates are
scarce, where youth unemployment rates in            low? What good are workforce development
the formal economy exceed 50 percent, where          programs when there are no jobs? And if
educational opportunities beyond the fourth          workforce development can benefit only a small
grade cannot be accessed by half the popula-         percentage of youth because of dire economic
tion, where there is a clear mismatch between        realities, what can be done to improve the well-
the skills that schools and universities teach and   being of the rest and give them hope?
the ones that employers want, where the well-
off attend universities and the poor are left with   In response to this dilemma, USAID and other
out-of-date vocational programs with obsolete        donor agencies have become increasingly
equipment and under-prepared instructors, and        interested in supplementing workforce develop-
where the growth of the country’s economy            ment strategies with what is called “livelihood
has trouble keeping up with the rapid growth         development,” especially for young people
of its youth population. Such would describe         aged 15-24 from marginalized backgrounds.
the plight of today’s youth in many developing       Donor agencies increasingly recognize that
countries, particularly those in countries emerg-    millions of young people working in the in-
ing from conflict (IRIN 2007, World Bank 2007).      formal sector are finding ways to eke out a
                                                     living and make something from very little or,
 FOCUS: INFORMAL AND                                 in some cases, something from almost noth-
 HOUSEHOLD-BASED SECTORS                             ing (ILO 2005, UNESCO 2001, UN-DESA 2005,
 Most youth in developing countries, especially      World Bank 2007). They take whatever paths
 those from more marginalized backgrounds,           are available to them, pro-social or other-
 find livelihood opportunities in the informal       wise. Acknowledging this reality, agencies are
 and household-based sectors (UNESCO                 learning that successful strategies must build
 2001). Thus, this Guide focuses on improving        on where the youth are until they can break
 opportunities in these domains. Compared            into the formal economy, and that interven-
 to formal employment, the informal sector           tions should assist and accelerate this process
 is generally an underserved segment of the          while improving the short-term well-being of
 youth economic opportunity continuum.               youth and their households (see Figure 1).
 Readers are encouraged to see
 ILO.org/YEN for technical guidelines that           Donor agencies, non-governmental organi-
 focus on employability and employment               zations (NGOs), host country governments,
 creation in the formal sector.                      and civil society are also coming to realize
                                                     that youth can and should be key actors in
Over several decades international agencies          the strengthening, rebuilding and transfor-
have been supporting education and training          mation of their nations. When appropriately
programs that prepare youth for the workforce        engaged and adequately prepared for roles
and higher levels of education. Programs are         in the worlds of work, family life, and civil

Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                          | 1
  society, youth can be definite assets for com-      Thus, the presence of livelihood development
  munity development. However, when govern-           (to complement workforce development) is a
  ments and communities disregard the huge            strategic necessity for national development,
  numbers of youth with minimal attachment            especially when delivered in careful coordina-
  to the formal sector, youth can also become         tion with traditional investments in youth-spe-
  a profoundly de-stabilizing force. Specifically,    cific health, education, democracy and gover-
  the absence of livelihood development op-           nance, and economic growth activities.
  portunities for youth can impede a nation’s
  development in the form of increased crime,         This Guide responds to the interest on the
  violence, poor health, disease, extremism, and      part of USAID and development practitioners
  both social and political instability (IRIN 2007,   worldwide for a common language to describe
  NRC 2005, UN-DESA 2005, World Bank 2007).           youth livelihood programs, and a practical
                                                      set of suggestions and reference materials
  Figure 1: Graduating from Livelihood                to improve youth livelihood development
  Development to Workforce Development                practices and to expand programming in this


       CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRANSITION
       FROM THE INFORMAL ECONOMY TO THE FORMAL ECONOMY



                   INFORMAL ECONOMY                            FORMAL ECONOMY
            Livelihood Development Programs              Workforce Development Programs
                    Meet Needs of Youth                       Meet Employer Needs

             ƒ Undocumented youth and                     ƒ Youth counted in employment
               little statistical information               surveys and statistics
             ƒ Little or no schooling—                    ƒ Progress from:
               most youth not ready                         1. Fundamental learning skills to
               for career training                          2. Generic work skills to
             ƒ Limited number of private                    3. Labor exchange system
               employers & formal sector jobs                  that matches employers
             ƒ Youth generally involved in                     and workers to
               household livelihood activities              4. Industry-specific skills
             ƒ Flexible, nonformal basic                  ƒ Career guidance available
               education offerings that do                ƒ Industry skill standards and
               not interfere with existing                  assessments drive curricula
               livelihood activities                      ƒ Applied academics to solve
             ƒ Peer support groups,                         workplace problems
               access to adult livelihood                 ƒ Training provided by formal
               coaches, service learning,                   schools, employers, unions,
               or sports activities                         community organizations,
             ƒ Access to microfinance                       and nonprofits




2 |                                                                   Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
increasingly important area. The document has        are involved in the design and planning of the
four sections:                                       program. Another would be the importance of
                                                     establishing a supportive policy framework with
ƒ Section A: A Common Language for Youth             respect to youth in the informal sector that is
  Livelihood Programs: This section orients          respectful, responsive, relevant, legally support-
  users to common terms and concepts that            ive, and sufficiently resourced to be sustainable.
  describe youth livelihood programming.

ƒ Section B: Conceptual Framework for Youth
  Livelihood Programs: This section provides
  a frame of reference for effective youth
  livelihood interventions by presenting nine
  key areas of learning synthesized from current
  programming and research.

ƒ Section C: Designing Effective Youth
  Livelihood Strategies: This section of the
  Guide identifies the resources (i.e., the
  abilities, social networks, and financial and
  physical assets) that help young people
  develop successful livelihoods; the program
  strategies that help youth acquire these
  resources; and the types of youth livelihood
  capacity-building activities that can help
  achieve sector-specific program goals.

ƒ Section D: Additional Information and
  Resources: This section offers readers a
  wide range of supplementary print and web
  resources they might turn to for further
  information or programming examples.

USING THIS PROGRAM GUIDE
This Guide is set within the overall context of
youth development programming. While it
enunciates a fairly detailed set of principles for
designing youth livelihood development pro-
grams, it does not pretend to replicate all the
“how to” steps of such programming, such as
identifying goals and objectives or establishing
a strong M&E system to assess their attain-
ment. Similarly, the Guide assumes there are
programming elements that are essential for
any successful youth development initiative,
including youth livelihood development. One
such element, for example, would be to ensure
that youth and other in-country stakeholders


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                               | 3
       A. A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR YOUTH
                                   LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS

  This section includes several terms and concepts     Readiness-oriented youth livelihood programs
  that development professionals tend to use to        can include formal and nonformal basic educa-
  situate and describe the field of youth livelihood   tion, vocational and technical skills training,
  programming. These include the following:            and programs that focus on employability and
                                                       the development of key cross-cutting work and
       ƒ Readiness-oriented youth                      life skills.
         livelihood programming;
       ƒ Access-oriented youth                         ACCESS-ORIENTED YOUTH
         livelihood programming;                       LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMMING
       ƒ Interaction of readiness- and                 Livelihood development programming also
         access-oriented programs;                     refers to interventions that improve young
       ƒ Acquisition of human, physical,               people’s access to market-driven products and
         financial, and social capital;                services that can enhance their economic suc-
       ƒ Measuring outcomes and impacts; and           cess or that of their households. These can in-
       ƒ Cross-cutting contributions                   clude access to microfinance products (savings,
         to strategic planning.                        credit, micro-insurance), business development
                                                       services, technical skills training, linkages with
  READINESS-ORIENTED YOUTH                             mentors or business skills coaches, and sup-
  LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMMING                               port in improving the value-added proposition
  Livelihood development programming refers            of their livelihood activities (through improve-
  to interventions that enhance the readiness of       ments to quality, cost, or market access).
  young people to engage in sustainable liveli-
  hood activities such as: (1) employment in the       INTERACTION OF READINESS- AND
  formal and informal sector; (2) contributions        ACCESS-ORIENTED PROGRAMS
  (paid and unpaid) to household-based liveli-         Readiness- and access-oriented youth livelihood
  hood activities (in agriculture, fishing, or small   development interventions are interconnected.
  scale manufacturing); and, (3) self-employment       In order to benefit from access-oriented op-
  micro-enterprise activities in areas such as         portunities, many marginalized youth will need
  petty trading, the production of food or trade       youth livelihood readiness investments (from
  goods, and the delivery of informal services.        government, donor or household actors, in-
                                                       cluding youth themselves). Similarly, in order
                                                       to convert readiness-oriented investments
      TWO FACETS OF YOUTH LIVELIHOOD
                                                       into viable livelihood activities, youth should
      PROGRAMMING
                                                       have access-oriented interventions available to
      Readiness-oriented: Access-oriented:             them. The success or failure of these interven-
       ƒ Enhance readiness ƒ Improve access of         tions often depends on providing both kinds of
         of youth to engage      youth to market-      programs concurrently while building dynamic
         in sustainable          driven products       partnerships or alliances among mainstream
         livelihood activities   and services          adult microfinance institutions (MFIs), business
       ƒ Develop human         ƒ Develop financial     development service providers, and youth- or
         capital                 capital               family-oriented community-based organizations.

4 |                                                                     Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
ACQUISITION OF HUMAN, PHYSICAL,                    single sector. Thus, well-conceived cross-cutting
FINANCIAL, AND SOCIAL CAPITAL                      programs are more cost-effective than efforts to
Both readiness- and access-oriented programs       mount a program for every problem identified
can contribute to the on-going acquisition         in every sector.
and development of the broad types of capi-
tal youth can apply to any livelihood activity.
Section C.2 of this document provides descrip-
tions of the various types of livelihood capital
(human, social, financial, physical) and how to
augment them.

MEASURING OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS
Indicators of the impact of youth livelihood
programming include improved competencies
or skills, enhanced income, increased employ-
ment/self-employment, and improvements in
the sustainability of new or existing economic
activities. Increasingly, youth livelihood pro-
gramming is also shown to be a key driver of
outcomes in other development sectors such as
improved health (including decreases in sexual-
ly-transmitted infections and substance abuse),
enhanced civil society engagement (including
reduced crime and violence or a decrease in
extremism), improved social and economic op-
portunities for young women (which is linked to
later marriages and increased personal agency),
or increased investments in continuing educa-
tion by young people and their families. Change
in young people’s contributions to household
income has also been linked to changes in the
ways families prioritize spending on health and
education for younger family members, includ-
ing dependent children (AREU 2006).

CROSS-CUTTING CONTRIBUTIONS TO
STRATEGIC PLANNING
As USAID Missions look to develop their Strate-
gic and Operational (S&O) Plans, investments in
youth livelihood programs represent a power-
ful cross-cutting contribution to key strategic
priorities in education, health, economic op-
portunities, humanitarian relief, and democracy
and governance. USAID is favorably disposed to
such programmatic interventions because they
tend to be more cost-effective than programs
that address only a single issue at a time in a


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                        | 5
      B. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR YOUTH
                                   LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS

  Too many programs that endeavor to improve          A FOCUS ON “INTERVENTIONS”
  the economic situation of marginalized youth
                                                      “Interventions” are investments made by
  fail because of insufficient attention to articu-
                                                      donors, governments and others in youth
  lating and then examining the assumptions           livelihood development. These investments
  that under gird these programs. Effective youth     take place within an existing marketplace
  livelihood interventions must build upon a          of economic opportunities, constraints and
  clear conceptual and programmatic framework,        barriers that youth and their households
  which, in turn, must be driven by a number of       are already attempting to navigate. Program
  emerging understandings derived from re-            developers should take this marketplace
  search and best practices, namely that:             into consideration at every stage of the
                                                      appraisal, design, and implementation of
      ƒ Most youth are already economically active    projects they support. They should also
      ƒ Young people’s economic activities are        fully engage youth and their households
        linked to household livelihood strategies     in program design and implementation.
      ƒ Households are actively engaged in
        planning for youth livelihood development     B.1 MOST YOUTH ARE ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE
      ƒ Youth must often balance                      One of the greatest misconceptions about young
        education with work                           people is that since a high percentage is deemed
      ƒ Livelihood programming should                 by traditional macro-economic surveys to be
        reflect marketplace realities and build       “unemployed” (i.e., lacking stable formal sector
        from existing assets and activities           employment), they are necessarily economically
      ƒ Livelihood is the key driver of positive      inactive. This view of young people leads to calls
        youth development outcomes                    for quick-fix youth employment schemes, or
      ƒ The youth cohort is diverse                   short-term grant and credit mechanism, both of
      ƒ Youth livelihood programs should be cross-    which are ostensibly designed to help youth to
        sectoral and track both livelihood-specific   start a new work activity (presumably their first).
        and cross-cutting outcomes and impacts        Alternatively, it leads to the general conclu-
                                                      sion that youth invariably need more technical
  Concluding that the eight propositions above        training or vocational skills preparation in order
  constitute a fully formed consensus among           at some point in the future to become economi-
  funders and practitioners may well be prema-        cally productive members of society.
  ture, as much research and field-based learning
  still needs to take place in this nascent field     Research carried out by a wide range of devel-
  (ILO 2004, ILO 2005, IRIN 2007, Making Cents        opment practitioners raises questions regarding
  2008, NRC 2005, Population Council 2004,            the accuracy of this assumption (ADB 2004, ILO
  World Bank 2007, USAID 2005, UNESCO 2001,           2004, ILO 2005, Myers 1998, Population Council
  USAID 2006, YEN 2007). Nevertheless, each           2004, EQUIP3 2005, EQUIP3 2007, USAID 2005,
  area signals an important dimension of youth        USAID 2006). This research indicated that most
  livelihood development programming that             young people ages 14-25 years in develop-
  ought to be considered by funders and practi-       ing countries are already economically active,
  tioners alike.                                      contributing to household income through

6 |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
work in the informal sector, in household-based      should focus on stand-alone employment or
enterprises, or in family-based farming, fishing,    self-employment schemes, or the technical-
and petty trading activities. This correlates with   vocational preparation required for an indepen-
the findings of other major studies (IRIN 2007,      dent career or formal employment pathway.
World Bank 2007, NRC 2005, UNESCO 2001)              EQUIP3’s field research with youth consistently
and reflects a growing awareness of the diver-       reveals that the primary focus of 15-24 year-
sity and complexity of youth economic partici-       olds is, in reality, to contribute to family or
pation and preparation at the household and          household-level economic survival strategies, as
community level.                                     opposed to economic independence (as might
                                                     be the case in industrialized western nations)
 For more information on the “Youth,                 (EQUIP3 2005, EQUIP3 2007, Population Council
 Microfinance and Conflict” case studies see         2004, SC 2006). Young people understand how
 www.microlinks.org or go to the EQUIP3              family support to help them acquire additional
 portion of the www.EQUIP123.net site.               livelihood assets (through access to education,
                                                     technical training, or mentorship opportunities)
Youth use this work (paid or unpaid) to de-          will enhance their ability to contribute to imme-
velop key livelihood capabilities and to begin to    diate household needs. Young people also see
acquire core livelihood capital (human, social,      the link between their ability to generate income
financial, and physical). In many world regions,     and the family’s ability to send younger siblings
work in the informal sector generates the            to school (UNESCO 2001).
majority of all employment and self employ-
ment opportunities for youth and adults alike.       YOUTH CONTRIBUTIONS TO HOUSEHOLD
Far from being marginal, such work represents        SURVIVAL
the employment mainstream in many countries          It is not unusual for youth to wish to
and the first step on a wide range of livelihood     contribute to the welfare of their household-
development pathways (ILO 2004, ILO 2005, IZA        or extended family as well as to their own
2007). Many youth also report that these kinds       economic welfare. In fact, most youth
of early livelihood pursuits form the first steps    live within households, and most of their
to wider livelihood options, including oppor-        economic activity is linked to those of other
tunities in formal sector employment or small        family members.
enterprise development. Thus, these pursuits
are not the dead-end survivalist activities long     In the West Bank, for example, over 80
assumed by mainstream researchers. Youth             percent of all employment is via household-
frequently use their work in the informal sector     based activities (in agriculture, petty trading,
as a means of paying for continuing education        and light manufacturing) (World Bank
and building informal peer networks linked to        2002). Moreover, extended families play an
accessing start-up capital or introductions to       important role in enhancing the readiness of
employers (ILO 2005, SC 2006, UNESCO 2001,           youth to take on new livelihood development
USAID 2005, USAID 2006).                             activities, and families commonly facilitate the
                                                     access of youth to financial and non financial
B.2 YOUNG PEOPLE’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES               supports in the community.
    ARE LINKED TO HOUSEHOLD
    LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES                            B.3 HOUSEHOLDS ARE ACTIVELY
Another common misunderstanding is that                  ENGAGED IN PLANNING FOR YOUTH
young people uniformly seek to gain economic             LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT
independence or self-sufficiency. This, again,       Households and extended families help youth
leads to the assumption that all interventions       prepare for earning their livelihood in sev-

Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                             | 7
  eral ways. More often than not in developing           irregular attendance in training programs due
  countries, programs offered by schools and             to competing family economic activities. For
  community-based organizations complement               example, a USAID-supported project working
  these family strategies. Field research in Bolivia,    with former child soldiers in Sierra Leone en-
  the Philippines, Uganda, Indonesia, and the            countered significant setbacks when it did not
  West Bank has shown how families seek out              initially consult with parents and other house-
  technical training and/or vocational immersion         hold members about the skills young people
  experiences for their youth with members of            should be learning (Making Cents 2008).
  their immediate and extended families, or from
  neighbors and other community members (SC              B.4 YOUTH MUST OFTEN BALANCE
  2006, USAID 2005, USAID 2006, World Bank                   EDUCATION WITH WORK
  2007). Families tend to involve their youth in         Three important policy issues are emerging as
  multiple economic activities as a way of both          funders and practitioners focus on the extent to
  earning income, but also of developing a wide          which education and training should be part of
  base of livelihood experience to be drawn upon         youth livelihood development programs.
  in the future.
                                                         1. Does support for youth livelihood initiatives
                                                            (especially those serving 15-18-year-olds) in-
      A BROAD UNDERSTANDING OF HOUSEHOLDS
                                                            advertently promote school abandonment?
      Many young people live within households           2. What extent of training should be for-
      made up of extended family members                    mal training versus livelihood coach-
      and find themselves in non-traditional                ing and accompaniment?
      living arrangements. In HIV/AIDS-affected          3. Is attempting to recover the cost
      communities, for example, youth may take              of training from the participants
      on the role of primary caregiver for both             themselves a viable strategy?
      younger siblings and older relatives (especially
      those who are ill). Young men and women            Balancing education with work
      may also take on head of household roles           The fear is that once exposed to employment or
      within communities impacted by high levels         self-employment opportunities, young people
      of migratory work, or they may set up their        will be tempted to end their studies premature-
      own households or other informal living            ly. The debate raises questions about how to
      arrangements if they themselves are involved       provide flexible continuing education opportu-
      in migratory or street-based work. Successful      nities to older children and youth whose family
      development of youth livelihood interventions      circumstances require them to start working
      requires understanding of these different          before completing their education. A positive
      “household” configurations and continual           aspect of the debate is that development plan-
      assessment of their impact on existing             ners are beginning to recognize that simplistic
      livelihood practices.                              efforts to convince or mobilize poor parents to
                                                         understand the importance of education belies
  Households also help their youth make deci-            the reality that they cannot always afford it and
  sions about continuing education, vocational           must make difficult, direct and opportunity cost-
  training, and the use of microfinance services         related decisions on a daily basis (Myers 1998).
  and products. Leaving families out of assess-
  ment and planning exercises generally has a            Emerging research from multiple world regions
  negative impact on livelihood-oriented pro-            shows that instead of making poor youth and
  grams. Problems can arise with, for example,           their families choose definitively between con-
  the diversion of loan capital by families or           tinuing education and earning income, such


8 |                                                                       Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
 For more on the links between livelihood             Figure 3: School AND Work Paradigm
 and education see the publications: Realizing
 the Potential of Tajik Youth from Street
 Kids International (2006), and Child Labor:
 Promoting the Best Interests of Working
 Children (1998) from Save The Children UK.                S    Continuing       Ongoing Economic
                                                           C     Education:      Activities:           W
youth are often best served with flexible, modu-
                                                           H        Formal/      Formal/               O
                                                           O    Nonformal/       Informal,Paid/        R
lar programming that allows them to complete               O      Informal/      Unpaid, Individual/   K
secondary school (or some kind of equivalency              L    Work-Based       Household
certificate), develop specific technical skills and
cultivate cross-cutting work readiness skills,
all while continuing to work at least part time
(SC 2006, UNESCO 2001). Such “learning while            ƒ Transition is seen as an interwoven process
earning” programs are pro-poor and youth                  that takes place over a long period of time
friendly, and represent an excellent balance            ƒ Metaphor is one of a balancing act or a
between meeting immediate household needs                 dynamic exchange between education
and the longer term accumulation of sustain-              and economic activities—with a hope for
able livelihood capital and capabilities by young         virtuous cycles of opportunity and growth
men and young women. Figures 2 and 3 capture            ƒ Flow of activity is seen to be a parallel
the shifting view of some education and liveli-           process marked by the spiraling acquisi-
hood planners from a school-to-work paradigm              tion, application and continuous develop-
to a school-and-work paradigm.                            ment of knowledge/skills/ capabilities in
                                                          and for work (including lifelong learning)
Figure 2: School TO Work Paradigm                       ƒ Focus is on matching demand for learning
                                                          outcomes with the development of
                                                          options that understand the importance
                                                          of relevance and accessibility in the
      FORMAL
     SCHOOLING                 [              WORK        (1) location, (2) timing, and (3) content
                                                          of offerings

    ƒ Transition is seen as an “event” or a           Training versus livelihood coaching
      “point in time”                                 and accompaniment
    ƒ Metaphor for intervention is one of             One of the biggest shortcomings of traditional
      building a bridge from school to work—          NGO-based youth livelihood development pro-
      with an emphasis on making a seamless           grams is their sole reliance on training. Typically,
      transition, and escaping the vicious            these youth entrepreneurship or youth self-
      cycle of poverty                                employment projects are premised on the belief
    ƒ Flow of activity is seen to be generally        that young people are inherently inexperienced
      from a focus on the preparation of              and lack business skills such as planning, bud-
      knowledge/skills to the application of          geting, marketing, and decision making. Never-
      these to the world of work                      theless, a recent multi-country study of youth
    ƒ Focus is on “dropout prevention” and            self-employment strategies found that whereas
      successful transition                           youth development workers consistently ranked
    ƒ Focus is on improving the supply and            “training” as a critical factor in helping entre-
      quality of learning inputs                      preneurs succeed, the young people themselves
                                                      consistently ranked it as one of the least im-

Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                                | 9
  portant factors (after factors such as “guidance       in Guinea, the goal of the project was conflict
  and wisdom,” “having good ideas,” “a bold              mitigation, and the beneficiaries were relatively
  heart/courage,” “access to capital,” “supportive       volatile clientele, that is, ex-combatants and
  friends”) (USAID 2005, USAID 2006). Although           youth at risk of criminal behavior. ARC found
  the study did not examine the reasons for these        that cost recovery was not appropriate in this
  divergent responses, investigators hypothesized        setting, and felt that adding a fee for service
  that the youth development workers did not             would be a disincentive to participate, thus de-
  appreciate the fact that many young people             feating project goals (Making Cents 2008).
  have been economically active for years before
  connecting with youth-serving organizations            B.5 LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMMING SHOULD
  (YSOs), either in their own small businesses or             REFLECT THE MARKETPLACE AND BUILD
  as part of household enterprises (USAID 2006).              FROM EXISTING ASSETS AND ACTIVITIES
  This is not to say that training is unimportant or     For youth livelihood programs to be both scal-
  that young people are aware of all of the skill-       able and sustainable, they must build from
  sets they will need to become successful. But          existing youth and family-driven livelihood
  it is important to acknowledge their economic          strategies and be driven by the wants and needs
  experience and to build from where they are            of the customer (in this case, young people
  and not necessarily at the beginning.                  and their families) in relation to the realities of
                                                         the marketplace. Thus, service providers must
  Is cost recovery for training feasible?                engage clients in the development of programs,
  There is livelihood-related training in both the       instead of relying only on assumptions and
  formal and informal sectors. In the formal sec-        pre-dispositions of YSOs, government actors,
  tor, many groups have begun to experiment              or mainstream microfinance providers. Client
  with fee-for-service skills training. In some          involvement in the planning process becomes
  cases, these mimic the kind of services families       particularly important when beneficiaries and
  (and youth themselves) already provide to one          their families are expected to increasingly co-
  another in the informal sector. Even where some        invest their time and resources. Thus, develop-
  degree of subsidy is warranted in order to reach       ers of youth livelihood interventions must: (1)
  especially vulnerable groups, the market disci-        understand what young people’s current liveli-
  pline fostered by recovering some costs via user       hood activities are; (2) appreciate their existing
  fees is often a strong driver of the development       repertoire of livelihood assets and capabilities;
  of sustainable, demand-driven offerings that are       and (3) co-design programmatic interventions
  seen to be of genuine relevance and measurable         that assist youth and their families in addressing
  value to potential participants and thus some-         chronic barriers or in seizing key opportunities.
  thing they and their households will co-invest in.
                                                         Connecting youth’s survivalist pursuits with
  While there is not yet extensive research on           interventions that will increase their livelihood
  cost recovery for youth livelihood training, it        capital—educational, financial, social, physical—
  is most likely to succeed in relatively benign         and someday their standard of living is impor-
  environments such as those where households            tant. Such interventions would, for example:
  are already investing in their children’s educa-
  tion. Cost recovery is more of a challenge in           ƒ Provide flexible nonformal basic
  post-conflict settings. Both the American Refu-           education offerings that build assets
  gee Committee (ARC) and International Rescue              of literacy, numeracy and livelihood
  Committee (IRC) have begun youth livelihood               skills while not interfering unduly
  programs with cost recovery components in Af-             with existing livelihood activities.
  rica, but final results are not in. In ARC’s project    ƒ Enhance the readiness of youth to access


10 |                                                                      Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
    mainstream microfinance offerings and            and nonformal/household sectors is now appar-
    therein build up their financial assets (e.g.,   ent. This is particularly true of livelihood readi-
    financial literacy programming works best        ness investments connected to vocational
    when combined with savings schemes
    rather than access to credit products alone).    ADAPTING TRAINING TO MARKETPLACES
  ƒ Address key gaps in social assets through        The field of microfinance must adapt
    peer support groups (including savings           training programs to marketplace realities.
    clubs), access to positive adult livelihood      Currently, microfinance institutions in
    coaches, or connection with service learning     several countries are adapting adult-
    or sports activities.                            oriented financial literacy tools to a diverse
                                                     range of youth populations in a wide range
Research is also beginning to show that youth        of market settings. For more information,
and their families are prepared to cover some        see www.microfinanceopportunities.org.
or all of the cost of these services and that
youth livelihood interventions should consist of     training, which are often mismatched with mar-
a full range of offerings (SC 2006). These com-      ket demand. Access-oriented investments also
prise a continuum that begins with traditional,      need to take careful note of marketplace reali-
government-funded supports (i.e., basic educa-       ties, and much work has been done in recent
tion, skills development); continues through         years to adapt adult-focused market research
co-investments (by governments, NGOs, youth,         tools and protocols to youth-oriented microfi-
and their households) in technical training,         nance programming. Private employers can be
vocational readiness, financial literacy, or non-    an important source of information on skill re-
commercial savings and credit products; and          quirements, and they should be involved in the
arrives at commercially-viable and financially-      planning of skills training interventions. Howev-
sustainable microfinance services and products       er, realities of local economic development will
that leverage or add value to new or existing        determine if the best private sector sources will
livelihood activities and are paid for by interest   come from large enterprises or from the small-
rates or fees (Hatch 2002, CGAP 2006).               and medium-enterprise sector.

Ultimately, the assessment, design and imple-        B.6 LIVELIHOOD IS THE CORE
mentation of youth livelihood development                  DRIVER OF POSITIVE YOUTH
must be driven more by youth and their house-              DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES
holds than by funders or service providers.          It has become increasingly clear that older
Engaging youth and their households in each          teenagers and young adults need livelihood
stage of programming is a development neces-         development (i.e., connections to work and the
sity, not a mere courtesy. Youth from marginal-      economy) in order to thrive (NRC 2005,
ized backgrounds and their families are quite        UN-DESA 2003, UN-DESA 2005). For example,
able to understand trade-offs and both direct        HIV/AIDS prevention programs with marginal-
and opportunity costs associated with participa-     ized populations of adolescent girls are provid-
tion in the interventions being considered. They     ing evidence that livelihood development is the
deserve the respect and appreciation of those        principal driver of program success. Efforts that
who design and implement programs that will          focus exclusively on information dissemination,
improve their livelihoods.                           skills development, or the provision of youth-
                                                     friendly reproductive health services are not
At the same time, the importance of linking          as successful as those that include strategies
youth livelihood development investments with        to assist livelihood development (Population
marketplace opportunities in both the formal         Council 2004). For it is young women’s lack of


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                           | 11
  economic security and livelihood opportunities       development of young people in those societ-
  in many cultures that underpins risky behavior,      ies. The publication emphasizes the importance
  despite their exposure to mainstream preven-         of seeing youth as a heterogeneous cohort and
  tion programming. The lack of holistic livelihood    not a monolithic one—whether at a global,
  development opportunities, therefore, contrib-       regional, national or even local level. While
  utes in no small way to girls 14-24 continuing to    one can talk in purely demographic terms about
  have the highest prevalence of new incidences        a single “youth cohort” (or in some countries
  of HIV/AIDS among any cohort (UNAIDS 2006).          a “youth bulge”), any meaningful appraisal
                                                       of needs, aspirations, assets, and obstacles
  In the case of conflict prevention, or post-con-     must disaggregate youth data in a number of
  flict re-integration of youth, the key driver of     ways (by age, gender, ethnicity, rural vs. urban,
  sustainable peace and community engagement           household income, marital status, in- vs. out-of-
  is increasingly understood to be youth livelihood    school status, and developmental stage). Gen-
  development. When young people acquire tools         der, for instance, still plays a major role in how
  and opportunities to enhance their livelihood        young people are socialized, and it can provide
  and that of their families, they become more ac-     unique barriers and/or novel entry points into
  tive and effective participants in helping society   youth livelihood development.
  relieve community trauma and assist with de-
  mobilization, conflict mediation, and community      B.8 YOUTH LIVELIHOOD PROGRAMS SHOULD
  peace building (USAID-CMM 2004).                          BE CROSS-SECTORAL AND TRACK BOTH
                                                            LIVELIHOOD-SPECIFIC AND CROSS-
  B.7 THE YOUTH COHORT IS DIVERSE                           CUTTING OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS
  Growing Up Global (NRC 2005), perhaps the            For all of the reasons enumerated in this con-
  most important recent international study on         ceptual framework, USAID and other agencies
  changing transitions to adulthood in developing      concerned with youth development should
  countries, recognizes that globalization is hav-     consider that investments in youth livelihood
  ing a profound impact on local cultures and the      could well be the most effective or efficient way
                                                       to achieve desired sectoral outcomes in democ-
   PAYING ATTENTION TO GENDER AND                      racy and governance, health, education, or eco-
   HOUSEHOLD ROLES                                     nomic growth. By helping youth with what they
   There are profound differences in programs          value most—succeeding in the adult role of sus-
   that serve 18-year-old unmarried girls with         taining themselves and their households—they
   no children who work in a factory and               would become more enthusiastic, persistent
   programs that serve married 18-year-old             participants in other sectoral efforts. Of course,
   girls who stay at home and care for children        it would be naive to infer that such investments
   (Population Council 2004). By the same token,       would automatically drive broader positive
   at increasingly younger ages many youth             youth development outcomes or contribute to
   in AIDS-affected countries, such as Zambia,         country-level development goals. The pre-con-
   or in migration-impacted countries, such as         ditions for success in youth livelihood programs
   the Philippines, are forced to take care of         are the same as those for any other USAID
   younger siblings or older relatives with health     program—they must be effectively designed,
   problems (IRIN 2007). In both cases the             led, administered, monitored, and evaluated.
   livelihood development needs of these young
   women and men are driven less by age or             Research by groups such as the Search Institute
   traditional practices and more by accelerated       suggests that youth livelihood programming
   life-cycle stages, social forces, and changing      can improve outcomes in other sectoral areas.
   household dynamics (UNESCO 2001).                   Specifically, their research has shown that the ac-


12 |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
quisition of livelihood-specific competencies or      financial and non-financial outcomes for their
assets is strongly correlated with the promotion      largely adult clients which can be adapted for
of positive behaviors and attitudes in the areas      use with younger populations. Cross-cutting
of leadership, health promotion, valuing of di-       outcomes in health, or democracy and gover-
versity, and success in school. Acquisition of such   nance, can similarly be tracked by developing
competencies also correlates closely with a dimi-     M&E protocols that correlate impacts in liveli-
nution of high risk behaviors, such as substance      hood development with outcomes in health or
abuse, violence, or premature sexual activity.        civic participation (see Figure 3). Groups such
                                                      as the Population Council have been examin-
 THE SEARCH INSTITUTE                                 ing the linkages between risk and protective
 Extensive research available at                      factors in reproductive health and the pres-
 www.search-institute.org demonstrates the            ence/absence of livelihood assets (Population
 strong correlation between the acquisition of        Council 2004). Their pioneering work, along
 developmental assets and both the promotion          with that of the Search Institute, can serve as
 of thriving behaviors and protection from high       models for broader efforts that link livelihood
 risk behaviors (SI 2006).                            development with a range of thriving and resil-
                                                      ience indicators.
With a research base now over 2 million youth,
these ongoing studies are having a powerful           The Cross-Sectoral Youth Working Group
influence on youth development programming            within USAID Washington is developing
in all areas, including: education, health, sports,   common indicators for youth development
juvenile justice, AIDS prevention, after-school       that blend existing sector-specific
programs, service learning, and community             indicators with newer cross-cutting ones.
centers. Regardless of race, gender, ethnic           Many of these new measures developed
heritage, economic status or geographic loca-         by groups like the Search Institute (SI
tion, the Search Institute’s research has shown       2006) are increasingly used by both U.S.
that the acquisition of assets such as adult sup-     domestic and international agencies that
port, establishing boundaries and expectations,       are active in the field of youth work.
commitment to learning, and positive identity
are essential for youth to thrive. Furthermore,       Indicators for an M&E framework might well be
they serve as the foundation for young people’s       organized into the same four personal capital
eventual contribution to family and community         categories that are described in detail in Sec-
life as prepared and engaged adults (SI 2006).        tion C of this Guide. These four categories are
Indeed, in many cases investing in livelihood         human, financial, social, and physical capital.
development may produce broader and deeper            Illustrative M&E indicators that fit within these
results in public health or social stability than     categories appear below in Figure 4. Of course,
spending increased resources on stand-alone           the establishment of M&E indicators normally
prevention or mitigation efforts (Population          follows program design. The ones in Figure 4
Council 2004, UNESCO 2001).                           assume that more positive activity is better,
                                                      whether in education, household livelihood
Such research notwithstanding, it is still impor-     development, social activity, or accumulation
tant to gather data to determine how well a           of assets. The indicators track how much of this
particular program is performing. Fortunately,        positive activity is occurring and assume the sum
M&E systems for youth livelihood programs             of such positive individual behaviors eventually
can draw on best practices from a number of           will translate into improved sector outcomes in
sectors. The microfinance sector, for example,        economic development, education, democracy
has developed well-regarded tools for tracking        and governance, health, and conflict mitigation.


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                          | 13
  Figure 4: Illustrative Monitoring and
  Evaluation Indicators for Livelihood
  Development Programs
   INDICATOR                                                          COMMENTS
   Number of youth participants (15-24 years old) in different        Periodically counting the
   activities after becoming participants in program                  number of participants helps
                                                                      determine the program’s
                                                                      growth and youth penetration
                                                                      rate in different domains.
   Human Capital:
   ƒ # and % enrolled in formal education
     • Academic subjects
     • Vocational subjects
   ƒ # and % enrolled in nonformal education activity                 Data analysis should also
     • Literacy and numeracy                                          determine the number of
     • Financial literacy and/or business skill training              youth who are involved
     • Vocational skill training                                      simultaneously in several
     • Entrepreneurial training                                       livelihood development activities.
   ƒ # and % moving from out-of-school or nonformal education
     status to formal education
   ƒ # and % receiving an educational credential, (e.g.
     completing grade in school or vocational program,                Ideally, participants’ literacy
     primary school diploma, occupational skill credential)           levels would be assessed before
   ƒ Learning units achieved per 100 hours of instruction if tested   participating and upon exiting a
     for literacy/numeracy before and upon exiting a program          particular education program.

   Financial Capital:
   ƒ Savings mobilization
     • # of individual savings accounts
     • # in group savings programs
   ƒ Student financial aid
     • # receiving student loans
     • # receiving scholarships or stipends to
       cover education expenses
   ƒ Self-employment loans
     • # of self-employment loans for young adults
     • # who progressed from small test loans to larger loans
     • Average size and monetary range of loans

   ƒ Movement to formal economy
     • # and % moving from unemployment or informal
       employment to employment in formal sector
     • # obtaining internships or unpaid work experience              Movement from informal to formal
       with entrepreneurs or employers.                               sector is important to measure.



14 |                                                                      Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
 INDICATOR                                                          COMMENTS
 Social Capital:
 ƒ Livelihood coaching
   • # and % with livelihood planning coaches or mentors
   • # of coaches or mentors helping youth in project
 ƒ Community service and humanitarian assistance
   • # and % joining groups with community
     improvement or humanitarian assistance goals
   • # and % contributing voluntary services
     to disease prevention, health promotion,
     environmental and other civic projects
 ƒ Civic engagement
   • # and % voting in elections
   • # and % active in political campaigns or social causes
   • # and % joining sports teams or recreational leagues
 ƒ Positive behaviors                                               For complete list of 40
   • # of hours per participant reading for pleasure                positive behaviors see
   • # of hours per participant spent learning new skills           www.search-institute.org.

 Physical Capital/Assets:
 ƒ # of electronic communication devices acquired by
   household members during course of program, such as
   cell phone, TV, radio, computer, etc.
 ƒ # households with member(s) participating in program that
   acquire work tools or clothing during course of program
 ƒ # of household appliances acquired during program, such as
   refrigerators, stoves, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, etc.
 ƒ # of furniture pieces added to household during program,
   such as beds, bureaus, sofas, tables, chairs, etc.
 ƒ # of rooms added to residences/households of participants        A menu of indicators by program
 ƒ # and % of households of participants that                       sector is available through
   gain legal property status                                       EQUIP3’s Guide to Conducting
 ƒ # of participants who establish independent households           Cross-Sectoral Youth Assessments




Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                            | 15
 Figure 5: Connecting Youth Livelihood Development to Community Change




                                                                                                                                                                   Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
1 COALITIONS OF          2 WORK OF NGOS, GOVERNMENTAL                    3 SYSTEM CHANGE                 COMMUNITY CHANGE                 6 Community change
  ORGANIZATIONS            AGENCIES, AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE                    There is a well-             Improving young people’s            translates into
  TO IMPROVE               PARTNERSHIPS                                    coordinated and              livelihoods by increasing           improved scores on
  YOUTH                     Improve          ƒ Increase basic              well-funded system           their human, financial, social,     sector indicators
  LIVELIHOODS               human capital      literacy and work           of high-quality youth        and physical capital will           in economic
  Create and/or             – formal and       application skills          development services         impact the community in the         growth, education,
  maintain coalition        nonformal        ƒ Encourage further           in place, so that            following ways:                     democracy and
  with the following        education          education and work          everyone in need of          ƒ A literate, skilled work-         governance, health,
  resources and                                goals                       such services will have         force creates a stronger         conflict mitigation,
  ingredients:                               ƒ Improve instruction,        ready access to them.           economy by attracting            and humanitarian
  ƒ Vision, Mission,                           program design,                                             more private employers           assistance.
    Goals, Objec-                              management, evalu-                   4                      with jobs paying higher
    tives, Action Plan                         ation                       INDIVIDUAL CHANGE          5    wages, which in turn cre-
  ƒ Funding                 Improve          ƒ   Savings mobilization      Young people in the             ates higher productivity
  ƒ Personnel               financial        ƒ   Student financial aid     community can reach             and a community with less
  ƒ Time                    capital –        ƒ   Self-employment           their potential in their        poverty and crime.
  ƒ Space                   financial            loans                     roles as workers, family     ƒ Stronger families and
  ƒ Materials               institutions     ƒ   Job placement –           members and citizens            households support
  ƒ Technology              work with            youth move from           through increased               education and improve the
  ƒ Partners                youth-serving        informal to formal        skills, assets and              economy with better finan-
  ƒ Evaluation              organizations        economy                   healthy behaviors to            cial practices that reduce
                                                                           enable them to:                 debt and increase savings,        The logic model
                            Improve          ƒ   Savings mobilization                                                                        represented by
                                                                           ƒ Gain access to                and ensure the well-being
                            social capital   ƒ   Student financial aid
                            – connect        ƒ   Self-employment             information and               of all family members.            Figure 5 shows
                                                                             resources                  ƒ Greater civic participa-           how livelihood
                            young people         loans
                                                                           ƒ Have a voice to               tion moves communi-
                            to each          ƒ   Job placement –                                           ties toward justice and
                                                                                                                                             development
                                                                             express ideas and
                            other, their         youth move from
                                                                             opinions with confi-          equality for all, generates       activities impact
                            communities          informal to formal                                                                          individuals, and
                                                                             dence                         volunteerism and chari-
                            and adult role       economy
                            models                                         ƒ Take action to solve          table work, energizes an          eventually their
                                                                             problems and make             informed electorate, and          communities, if
                            Increase        ƒ Through all of                 decisions without             creates a cleaner, safer
                            physical assets   above, accumulate                                            environment.
                                                                                                                                             these activities
                                                                             having to rely on
                            – wealth          property that can              others                     ƒ A healthier population             are brought to
                            accumulation      provide collateral           ƒ Learn to learn in             raises the quality of life,       scale and reach
                                              for investment in              order to keep up              reduces morbidity, and            a critical mass
                                              future livelihood                                            improves the management
                                                                             with the world as it                                            of youth in the
                                              activity                       changes                       of major chronic disease.
                                                                                                                                             community.




                                                                                                                                                                   16 |
 Adapted from Literacy USA by Barry Stern
  C. DESIGNING EFFECTIVE YOUTH
                          LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES

Youth livelihoods are the work and service relat-   property or assets they can readily convert
ed activities that young people pursue as they      into cash money; their access to credit and/
transition to adulthood, from being mainly a        or savings; and, their overall level of financial
dependent of a family and community to being        literacy. Many youth begin to manage finan-
a householder and/or a full-fledged community       cial capital from an early age—converting
member. Youth livelihoods can take many dif-        income from wage labor or simple services
ferent forms, from contributing to a family-run     such as brick-making or water selling, into
rural farm to small-scale urban street-based        capital that can be used to accumulate sav-
enterprises to assisting others in child care.      ings, cover education expenses, or be used
                                                    to invest in a new livelihood activity.
This section identifies the resources—the abili-
ties, social networks, and financial and physi-     Cluster 3: Social Capital
cal assets—that help young people develop           This area includes an individual’s social ties,
successful livelihoods, the program strategies      support networks, trusting relationships, and
that help youth acquire these resources, and        ability to draw on the knowledge, skills, and re-
the types of youth livelihood capacity-building     sources of others in their households, extended
activities that can help achieve sector-specific    families and communities. Social capital is the
program goals.                                      broad foundation of support for most livelihood
                                                    activities, where personal ties and the ability
C.1 RESOURCES TO STRENGTHEN YOUTH                   to navigate both formal and informal economic
    LIVELIHOOD CAPACITIES                           environments depend as much on whom you
Youth livelihood resources tend to fall into one    know as what you know. Social capital is also
or more of the following four clusters:             closely linked to “how you know what you
                                                    know,” based on your interactions and social
Cluster 1: Human Capital                            networks, along with the formal and informal
This area includes one’s cognitive, emotional,      knowledge sharing and capacity building spaces
intellectual, and spiritual abilities. It encom-    you have access to.
passes the formal, informal, and cross-cutting
learning-to-learn life skills that youth acquire    Cluster 4: Physical Assets
from the family, peers, and community, as well      These include fixed capital goods that are
as from formal and nonformal education and          necessary for a business or the participation
practical work experiences. It specifically in-     in a particular form of productive employ-
cludes their level of literacy and numeracy, the    ment. These assets can range from proper
practical things they know how to do or make,       working clothes, tools, and equipment to
the technical knowledge and skills they have        the physical space for work. These assets
developed, along with some specific vocational      also include ownership of, or regular ac-
skills and broader life and employability skills    cess to, productive farmland, along with
that they have acquired.                            access to on- and off-shore fisheries.

Cluster 2: Financial Capital
This area includes an individual’s savings; the

Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                             | 17
  C.2 DESIGNING STRATEGIES THAT BUILD                     development when these programs meet five
       YOUTH LIVELIHOODS                                  criteria (World Bank 2002).
  The following are programmatic strategies that
  can help youth acquire the resources to pursue          Five criteria for effective nonformal
  livelihood activities, including human, social,         education offerings
  financial, and physical capital.                          1. Are the offerings relevant to the day-to-
                                                            day lives of participating youth? Do they
  Strategies to Help Youth Develop                          build upon their existing knowledge and
  Human Capital                                             experience? Do they acknowledge value and
  Nonformal basic education programs provide                incorporate existing livelihood activities, and
  youth with access to relevant education and               anticipate ways these might be improved or
  training on a pace and schedule that fits the             transformed? For example, youth in a farm-
  time they have available to participate. These            ing community with knowledge of small-scale
  programs provide youth with opportunities to              agricultural production could be exposed to
  master core literacy and numeracy skills, basic           science instruction that introduces practical
  employability and life skills, and vocational skills.     skills in the area of experimentation, observa-
  They can be designed as a second chance path-             tion and analysis such as that found in the In-
  way to a primary or secondary school degree, an           tegrated Pest Management (IPM) curriculum.
  opportunity to gain the skills needed to return
  to formal education, or a vehicle to acquire the         2. Are the offerings relevant to the local
  skills needed to get a job or start a business.          economy? Do they reflect an understanding
                                                           of the predominant household and individual
  Current examples of nonformal basic educa-               sustainable livelihood strategies in the com-
  tion programs include USAID’s IDEJEN Project             munity/region where prospective students
  in Haiti, the nonformal learning component of            live, and do they intentionally relate to the
  the Philippines EQUALLS Project, the Literacy            skills, attitudes and behaviors required to
  and Community Empowerment Program (LCEP)                 succeed in these kinds of activities? For
  in Afghanistan, and the new World Bank-spon-             example, are youth in a fishing community
  sored second chance programs in the Do-                  learning how to improve seaweed produc-
  minican Republic. Further guidance on how to             tion by using fertilizers? Are they learning
  design nonformal basic education programs for            math linked to weights and measures rel-
  out-of-school youth is provided in a companion           evant to the buying and selling of products?
  document that will be published by the EQUIP3
  Project entitled Guide to Developing Literacy            3. Are the offerings progressive in design?
  Programs for Out-of-School-Youth.                        Do they allow a participant to measure
                                                           educational gains or earn achievement out-
  Of course, some educational programs are bet-            comes/certification in manageable blocks
  ter than others, and all are influenced mightily         versus one-time terminal outcomes? Do
  by a host of variables such as teacher quality,          they offer flexibility (e.g., pacing classes
  resources, accountability practices, discipline,         and allowing students to easily enter and
  parental involvement, and curriculum design.             leave programs) to youth and their families
  Nevertheless, even where optimal conditions              who must often defer or interrupt edu-
  do not prevail, many students still benefit.             cational pursuits to address day-to-day
  However, there is growing evidence that very             survival needs? For example, nonformal
  poor youth and their households are more                 education offerings can make use of stu-
  likely to spend their limited time or resources to       dent portfolios to track acquisition of key
  participate in educational and livelihood skills         competencies and thus reduce the need


18 |                                                                       Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
  for students to start over continually when         starting with credit may not be the best entry
  they re-enter an educational program.               point after all (CGAP 2006, Hatch 2004).

  4. Are the offerings user friendly in their         In recent years a range of alliances between
  design? Do hours of operation, day-to-day at-       YSOs and microfinance providers has begun to
  tendance expectations, and location of ser-         foster a pioneering round of youth-oriented
  vices complement or conflict with the child’s       microfinance initiatives. For example, the Gates
  or household’s livelihood demands? For ex-          Foundation recently funded the well-regarded
  ample, are students who work in early morn-         microfinance pioneer Pro Mujer and its local
  ing fishing work able to access later in the day    youth serving partners in three Latin Ameri-
  nonformal education classes? Or are youth           can countries to develop new youth livelihood
  living in more remote communities able to do        programs with microfinance elements (www.
  more home-based independent work in order           promujer.org). The Population Council has ex-
  to save on transportation costs/travel time?        perimented with a range of microfinance-linked
                                                      livelihood interventions for young women in
  5. Are the offerings low-barrier-to-entry?          Kenya via their widely publicized TRY project
  Does the program design ensure that the             with the MFI K-REP (Population Council 2005).
  most marginalized groups are not excluded           NIKE has become an active funder of livelihood
  from participation because of being illiterate      programs for young women and is interested in
  or semi-literate? For example, are there non-       the role that financial literacy and access to mi-
  formal education offerings that start with ba-      crofinance can play in holistic, positive develop-
  sic literacy classes or integrate literacy compo-   ment programming for girls in countries such as
  nents into hands-on livelihood skills training?     India and Malawi (Population Council 2004).

Strategies to Help Youth Develop                      Such innovations are giving rise to the concept
Financial Capital                                     of entry finance (Akkord 2006), which takes the
Perhaps the most promising tool to facilitate         best of adult-oriented microfinance and makes it
youth’s acquisition and development of financial      more accessible to youth clients. This approach
capital is microfinance. While microfinance ex-       provides a continuum of programming that
ists for adults, by and large microfinance pro-       begins with fully subsidized social investments
grams are not available to young people, espe-        such as basic education and technical skills
cially unmarried ones, perhaps because youth          training; then co-investments in such activities
are perceived as a risky group to serve. For          by institutions, youth and their households; and
example, microfinance institutions (MFIs) rarely      finally on to commercially-viable and financially-
offer credit to a person under the age of 18 with-    sustainable services and products that are paid
out an adult guarantor, since a loan contract of-     for entirely by interest rates and fees.
ten requires an adult signatory. Youth older than
18 must generally meet the requirements for           Thus, entry finance increases the readiness of
other adults seeking loans (e.g., have an existing    older children and youth to make use of microfi-
business). MFIs are usually reluctant to lend to      nance services (including both savings and credit
new businesses, irrespective of the age of the        products) and makes microfinance providers
owner. The orthodox response to financing a           more accessible to a younger clientele. Entry
new business would be to increase the interest        finance is not meant to be a segregated set of
rate and/or request more collateral to mitigate       services, rather it is designed to overlap and in-
the risk of failure of the new business. Some         tegrate within existing microfinance product and
groups have explored this option with higher risk     service delivery structures and to “graduate” as
youth, while others have begun to reason that         many young people as possible, as early as pos-


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                            | 19
  sible, into mainstream adult serving programs.       Open Societies Institute-funded project for the
                                                       children of migrant workers in Tajikistan illus-
  The goal of entry finance is to fully realize the    trates this four-step process. In the engagement
  potential of microfinance by helping to build        and investment phases SKI used its Street Busi-
  a more intentional bridge or ladder between          ness Toolkit (SKI 2001) to provide at-risk youth
  youth ages 15–24 and traditional microfinance        previously involved in a health education pro-
  providers and, in so doing, open up new down-        gram with small business training. In the mobili-
  market opportunities for microfinance provid-        zation phase, SKI provided successful graduates
  ers and new livelihood development pathways          with small start up grants if their business plan
  for youth and their households. Savings is key.      was approved by a panel of parents, community
  Savings products teach savings discipline to         leaders and youth workers. Grant recipients
  youth and provide MFIs with liquid collateral for    had regular access to a livelihood coach and
  a future loan in case a youth business fails. En-    met regularly within small support groups.
  try finance consists of a four-step process that     These successful young entrepreneurs were
  a young person (or cohort of peers) progresses       then introduced to microfinance providers in
  through according to his (or their) own unique       their community for either direct loans, or loans
  circumstances. This process can be supported         guaranteed by their parents or older relatives.
  by services from interested MFIs or YSOs.
                                                       A youth livelihood project in Bolivia run by the
  Four-step entry finance process                      Center for Alternative Education (CEDEA) in
  1. Engagement − outreach services, relation-         partnership with a number of local YSOs in El
  ship building and appreciative inquiry into exist-   Alto and La Paz, provides further insight into
  ing MFIs and services;                               both the “mobilization” and “graduation” steps
                                                       of work. CEDEA’s Pasana’ku toolset helps young
  2. Investment − capacity building, financial         entrepreneurs set up group savings and loan as-
  literacy work, enterprise practicum, apprentice-     sociations that fund each other’s business start-
  ships with entrepreneurs, livelihood guidance        ups or expansions. CEDEA also invites microfi-
  services, intensive coaching by peers and sup-       nance groups to meet with Pasana’ku members
  portive adults, and market research with youth       and to use their session to recruit potential new
  and their families to develop new microfinance       clients (CEDEA 2004).
  services and products;
                                                       Embedding microfinance components within
  3. Mobilization − linkages to commercially-vi-       other youth livelihood programs
  able or non-commercial entry finance products        Many multi-sectoral youth livelihood programs
  (e.g., savings, group credit) and services (e.g.,    have begun to explore the incorporation of
  business development, value chain analysis),         microfinance components to complement tech-
  the formation of peer support groups, and on-        nical skills training and basic education. These
  going work with a livelihood coach;                  have had mixed results. Failures most often are
                                                       due to inexperienced youth development orga-
  4. Graduation − linkages to traditional adult mi-    nizations that lack technical capacity to manage
  crofinance institutions and their commercially-      microfinance products.
  viable products and services, follow-up liveli-
  hood coaching, and an opportunity to serve           One apparently successful example of a youth
  as a livelihood mentor or coach for younger          service organization using microfinance comes
  members in the community.                            from Albania.1 Launched in May 2005, Youth

  Street Kids International’s (SKI) work on an         1
                                                        “Apparently successful” because no independent
                                                       evaluation was available.

20 |                                                                     Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
Business Albania (YBA) provides young entrepre-    Stick to organization’s specialized roles and
neurs with technical training and financial sup-   capabilities. Initial efforts by youth serving or-
port. By May 2006, more than 50 young people       ganizations to offer their own savings and credit
became employed as a result of 17 loans made       programs have proven to be generally unsuc-
to 20 young entrepreneurs (ages 21 to 29) to       cessful. YSOs tend to lack capacity in sustain-
begin small enterprises. The loan amounts were     able microfinance delivery, and they frequently
less than $4,000. YBA is a partnership between     confuse the role of youth worker as both a live-
the Balkan Children and Youth Foundation           lihood coach who counsels youth through their
(BCYF), Youth Business International (YBI), and    ups and downs and a loan officer who focuses
the MJAFT! Foundation (Making Cents 2008).         first and foremost on repayment rates.

Two other successful youth service organiza-       Better results should occur when youth devel-
tion projects with microfinance components         opment providers build alliances with com-
were in Peru and Ecuador. Both were supported      munity microfinance providers, but concrete
by Street Kids International. In Peru, the NGO     examples of these alliances are scarce. In
called MANTHOC provides credit to working          theory, YSOs should focus on readiness activi-
children and youth in the cities of Lima and       ties and MFIs should focus on (financial) access
Cajamarca. The small loans have been used          interventions. Thus, both organizations co-de-
by youth to start businesses or supplement         velop bridging activities that intentionally break
their savings in order to later start business.    down barriers between the two and promote
These individual loans have a 50–70 percent        clear alignment of their respective missions and
return rate (very low by microfinance stan-        purposes. In these alliances each group would
dards but conceivably adequate for youth           stick to its specialized role, and each would re-
micro-entrepreneurs in training). In Ecuador,      spect the essential technical skills of the other.
the Program for Working Children provided          Such efforts do not have to be large to be ef-
business start up training for unemployed          fective. Adding a savings and financial literacy
youth in the city of Quito. Youth who com-         component to a short-term youth employment
pleted the training and developed a business       scheme in a post-conflict or post-natural di-
plan were able to obtain a loan up to $1,000.      saster country can open new doors to project
Among the businesses established by these          completers and can serve to build in a measure
youth were a catering business and a docu-         of sustainability to project outcomes.
ment processing service (Making Cents 2008).
                                                   For example, the early stages of Kenya’s TRY
Lessons learned from partnerships                  project unintentionally pushed the loan officers
between youth service organizations                into mentoring roles. The social needs of the
and microfinance providers                         girls they were working with were overwhelm-
Experience with burgeoning microfinance pro-       ing, but these conflicted with their responsi-
grams in recent years has yielded four impor-      bilities to recover their loans. After the initial
tant lessons (Making Cents 2008):                  stages, the pilot project added mentoring staff
                                                   to relieve the loan officers of this role without
  ƒ MFIs and YSOs should stick to their            sacrificing the well being of the girls, which was
    respective roles and capabilities.             a much more effective strategy (Population
  ƒ Market research is essential for youth         Council 2005).
    microfinance.
  ƒ Use solidarity model for adolescent            Market research is essential for youth micro-
    participants.                                  finance. As with adults, youth microfinance
  ƒ Emphasize savings.                             requires substantial investments in market


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                         | 21
  research and development. Best practices in                   without becoming indebted. Savings can be
  adult microfinance do not necessarily work with               used for business purposes or, more broadly,
  youth. For example, when the Population Coun-                 for school or consumption, which are also im-
  cil teamed up with the development arm of the                 portant to young people. Savings (from family
  well-known Kenyan MFI, K-REP Bank, it became                  members or friends) are often utilized for start-
  apparent that the group micro-credit methodol-                up businesses more so than grants or loans
  ogy that K-REP used with adults was not appro-                (USAID 2005, USAID 2006). Nevertheless, MFIs
  priate for the girls and even had negative conse-             have not dedicated sufficient energy to rolling
  quences, as it increased the girls’ vulnerability             out savings products specifically designed for
  and damaged their fragile social networks. After              young people, and many MFIs do not mobi-
  a succession of setbacks, the Population Council              lize savings even from adults. For those that
  and K-REP revised the methodology to focus on                 do, more market research is needed to design
  savings, which is what the girls had indicated                youth-friendly savings products.3
  was important to them since the beginning of
  the project (Population Council 2005). One les-               Strategies to Help Youth Develop Social Capital
  son learned was that project staff need to learn              Many youth lack social capital, particularly
  from their beneficiaries, rather than imposing                those from more marginalized backgrounds or
  their own assumptions.2                                       those who have had their ties with mainstream
                                                                society ruptured by conflict, internal displace-
  Use solidarity model for adolescent partici-                  ment, family breakdown, disease, or forced mi-
  pants. A successful example of youth develop-                 gration. Social capital is one of the least under-
  ment with a financial services component is the               stood and researched of the livelihood capitals;
  Employment and Livelihood for Adolescents                     but it is essential to the accessing and sustained
  (ELA) program of BRAC Bangladesh. ELA pri-                    use of many livelihood development opportuni-
  marily focuses on the financial empowerment                   ties. As described earlier, research has found
  of adolescent girls who have graduated from                   that young people frequently rank access to
  BRAC’s education programs. ELA groups are                     mentors, peer support, new ideas and a sense
  comprised of 20–40 members who use loans                      of self confidence or courage as being far more
  to invest in poultry, livestock, nursery, fisheries,          important to livelihood success than access to
  and other small businesses. This model exem-                  financial capital or skills training (USAID 2006).
  plifies how young people’s lack of collateral can
  be overcome by application of the solidarity                  Among the strategies that help youth acquire
  model (Making Cents 2008).                                    social capital are:

  Emphasize savings. As suggested by some of                        ƒ Peer support groups;
  the lessons learned just cited, recent microfi-                   ƒ Service learning;
  nance research has shown that savings prod-                       ƒ Sports for development;
  ucts may be more appropriate for youth than                       ƒ Mentorship and business coaching; and
  loans in many contexts (ADB 2004, USAID 2005,                     ƒ Family reunification and
  CGAP 2006). Savings is a precursor to a loan                        community re-integration.
  and teaches youth about financial management
                                                                Peer support groups
  2
    Another example of insufficient market research is          A consistent research finding on microfinance
  when a microfinance institution in Mali, Kafo Jiginew,
  found that its usual practice of providing short-term loans
  and frequent payments to youth entrepreneurs they             3
                                                                  USAID is about to encourage the development of such
  had trained was not suitable for youth with entirely new      new youth-oriented savings products as part of its Youth
  businesses. This was due to the longer start-up period        and Microenterprise Development Project that will begin
  needed to launch new businesses (Making Cents 2008).          in mid-2008.

22 |                                                                               Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
for adult women is that besides changes in            tion in a given community, especially towards
household income related to increased access          marginalized populations. Moreover, forming
to financial capital, the most common impact          groups of only extremely poor individuals can
reported by women is an increase in their posi-       limit the development of new social capital that
tive peer network. Women involved in peer             might better be stimulated through serving
lending groups or group loan associations find        more diverse groups.
that they develop social skills, group problem
solving skills, and new levels of self-confidence     Service learning
that they can then apply to other areas of their      One promising vehicle for social capital devel-
lives, such as advocating for their children’s        opment is service learning. In these projects,
health and education needs, claiming property         youth, often from marginalized backgrounds,
or inheritance rights, or accessing public ser-       combine community service work with some
vices (CGAP 2006, Population Council 2004).           form of human capital development (literacy,
                                                      life, or work skills development). Pioneering
Youth livelihood programs can offer similar           work in this area by City Year in South Africa
benefits for participating youth, often introduc-     and the National Service Learning Coalition
ing them to new support networks and future-          (NSLC) across the U.S., along with a growing re-
oriented peer groups. When told about a new           search base on best practices in this arena, has
program, parents often ask “what will my child        led to an increasing awareness of this as a key
learn,” whereas youth often ask “who will be          livelihood readiness intervention.
there.” Adolescence and young adulthood are
critical periods of identity development and so-      In 2006, USAID invited City Year to explore
cialization, so livelihood programs that address      whether it could adapt its well-regarded U.S.-
these developmental needs are both more at-           based service learning program to South Af-
tractive and effective (NRC 2005).                    rica. Working under the auspices of EQUIP3’s
                                                      Education For All (EFA) Youth Challenge Grant
For young people with poor existing social            Program, City Year found that it could dupli-
networks or a lack of family support (i.e., those     cate three essential elements of its program
with very little social capital), the first step in   in the South African context. These elements
livelihood development may well need to be            included: (1) building dynamic partnerships
the development of social capital before they         with large private sector firms interested in
acquire additional skills or financial capital.       partnering with teams of youth; (2) provid-
Research from a girls’ microfinance project in        ing participating youth with the opportunity
Kenya (the TRY project) illustrates this need.        to upgrade their academic skills; and (3) con-
Specifically, an assessment of a pilot round of       necting youth with ongoing opportunities
activities showed that Kenyan girls with lim-         for learning and work within mainstream
ited social capital needed peer support before        education and employment settings.
becoming involved with microfinance, and then
greater accompaniment by their adult supervi-         Service learning lowers barriers to entry in hard-
sors throughout the life of the project in order      er-to-serve communities, and it engages and
to obtain the same levels of success as girls         retains youth not by emphasizing their deficits,
entering with more pre-existing social capital        but by inviting them to make a positive contri-
(Population Council 2005).                            bution to their communities (see www.cityyear.
                                                      org). Service learning projects, however, should
At the same time, fostering peer support groups       carefully consider the provision of some kind
can have the unintended effect of reinforcing         of stipend (or re-imbursement of out-of-pocket
existing prejudices and barriers to participa-        expenses) in order to serve the most marginal-


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                            | 23
  ized youth and households. Many of the most           same in South Africa ahead of the 2008 World
  marginalized can afford neither the direct costs      Cup, as they prepare youth from marginalized
  nor the opportunity costs accumulated by fore-        communities for employment in sports-related
  going household economic activities in order          settings. The goal of this program—supported
  to participate in a service learning experience.      in part by GTZ (German Agency for Technical
  Developers of service learning projects should        Cooperation)—is the use of sports to mobilize
  carefully assess marginalized youth and their         youth from disenfranchised communities and
  families to address the trade-offs they are will-     re-engage them in both continuing education
  ing to make in order to participate.                  and formal sector employment.

  Sports for development                                Mentorship and business coaching
  Another promising catalyst for the development        Youth often speak of the need for accom-
  of social capital is the use of sports-based inter-   paniment by caring adults when it comes to
  ventions. The convening and mobilizing power          succeeding in livelihood development. As
  of sports is well known. Less recognized and          opposed to training—which youth tend to
  researched is the impact of organized sports on       downplay—youth consistently rank mentoring
  young men’s (and increasingly young women’s)          and constructive advice as important to start-
  development, including their acquisition of           ing, improving, and growing a small business
  livelihood capital. The 2005 UN Year of Sport for     or informal service sector activity (USAID 2005,
  Development highlighted a number of inter-            USAID 2006). The key, though, is that there be
  national efforts to move sports into the main-        a fit between the knowledge base of the men-
  stream of development programming. Some               tor and the needs of the young person. Despite
  pilot projects have linked sports with health         their good intentions, businessmen and women
  and education outcomes; others have begun to          in the formal sector may have little practical
  make the connections between sports and live-         advice to offer a young person operating in the
  lihood preparation. One powerful advantage of         informal sector.
  sports for development programming is its abil-
  ity to attract private-sector funding, as youth       Bolivian microfinance provider Pro Mujer is ex-
  and sports make a strong combination to attract       ploring a number of mentorship models for its
  corporate social responsibility efforts versus the    younger microfinance clients (www.promujer.
  purely philanthropic side of corporate chari-         org). One promising approach involves paring
  table giving (UN 2003).                               older women from its established adult solidar-
                                                        ity loan groups with solidarity groups made up
  In Uganda, The Kids League (TKL), a local NGO,        of younger clients ages 18–24. This approach
  has pioneered the use of sports in combination        provides youth with insights and information
  with educational and livelihood programming to        about how to succeed in the informal sector,
  re-engage youth affected by conflict in commu-        and has proven more successful than matching
  nities in the North. Both young men and young         youth with formal sector mentors who often
  women find that participation in organized            have little practical awareness of how to oper-
  sports leagues builds their internal and external     ate in the rough and tumble world of street
  assets, including their sense of empowerment          level businesses.
  and acceptance, their willingness to take posi-
  tive risks, and their ability to set and achieve      Family reunification and
  personal goals.                                       community re-integration
                                                        Programs that augment the social capital of
  A consortium of private companies led by the          youth can help to re-unify families or reinte-
  German auto manufacturer BMW is doing the             grate displaced youth (i.e., youth living on the


24 |                                                                     Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
streets, former child soldiers, or other sepa-      Livelihood sustainability grants
rated youth) into communities. Such program-        Outright grants to help youth sustain their
ming is also important for youth aging out of       livelihood activities are sometimes necessary.
institutional care. Many of these youth face        For example, USAID and other donor agencies
tremendous barriers to livelihood development       frequently help youth in rural areas or in fishing
because of their longstanding disengagement         communities get back on their feet by provid-
from family, community and peer networks.           ing them with equipment or supplies after an
                                                    armed conflict or natural disaster (USAID-CMM
Too many project designers erroneously as-          2006). But such grants need to be carefully
sume that youth livelihood programs should          managed so as to avoid a series of common
expect youth to become fully independent            pitfalls including flooding a limited local mar-
breadwinners. Experience has shown that             ket with the same micro-enterprise start-ups
relatively small changes in income can in fact      (in carpentry or tailoring, for example), or not
lead youth to build or strengthen ties to their     understanding that capital goods can be re-sold
extended families, thus limiting the need to        and the cash diverted for other purposes (Mak-
create their own households. A project sup-         ing Cents 2008).
ported by the YMCA in the Dominican Republic
in the early 1990’s found that street children      GROOTS Kenya provides business training to
would often return to extended family house-        build the capacities of youth group members
holds if they could develop relatively stable       along with small grants and low interest loans
incomes through street vending or other             to assist youth in starting up small-scale (indi-
low-barrier-to-entry livelihood pursuits.           vidual or collective) enterprises in communities
                                                    (Making Cents 2008). GROOTS believes these
The Community Development Center Akkord             initiatives have helped reduce young caregivers’
and its local partners in Tajikistan experienced    burden of caring for household members infect-
similar results in a livelihood program targeting   ed with HIV/AIDS. Grants and subsidized loans
street active youth in Khodjent and Dushanbe.       (below market rates) are not, of course, strate-
Participating youth often used income from          gies for sustainable microfinance; thus, institu-
their small enterprises to negotiate entry into     tions providing this type of support will need
the households of relatives or former neigh-        ongoing funding from outside entities, or a
bors, many of whom could not afford to sup-         for-profit business arm that sells other services
port another houseguest, but most of whom           or products. Such programs might also attract
were willing to open their doors to a young         concern from nearby microfinance institutions,
person, even one with only a modest income to       which might worry that their own borrowers
contribute to household survival (Akkord 2006).     will expect grants and subsidized loans as well.
                                                    As long as the MFI carefully targets its grants
Strategies to Help Youth Acquire                    and subsidized loans, and MFI entry require-
Physical Capital                                    ments and messages to their borrowers about
There are several strategies to help youth          the need to repay loans are clear, this issue
and their households acquire physical as-           can be minimized, and participating youth can
sets (e.g., clothes, tools, equipment, land,        eventually be graduated to mainstream microfi-
and physical space for work) to assist their        nance (CGAP 2006).
livelihoods. These include livelihood sus-
tainability grants, special programs to pro-        Rewarding individual and
vide access to assets for young women,              group accomplishments
and land and housing access programs.               Another strategy to help youth acquire physical
                                                    capital is to reward specific accomplishments.


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                         | 25
  For example, vocational training schools some-       the importance of giving small grants to girls
  times reward new graduates with a set of tools       involved in household-based income generat-
  or special work clothing. Sometimes it is a good     ing activities, such as food preparation, market
  strategy to reward positive group behavior—for       gardening, or livestock rearing.
  example, providing farming or sewing coopera-
  tives with laptops and access to the Internet        Housing as a key urban physical asset
  after they achieve a certain a certain level of      Since many economic activities are run out of
  group savings. Such tools could help them get        the home, access to housing (and/or legal ten-
  weather reports, technical assistance to help        ure to informal housing) can be a key physical
  increase production efficiency, literacy lessons,    asset for youth in urban and peri-urban areas.
  etc. Participants in any incentive system should     Young people’s legal capacity to own property is
  have opportunities to suggest the kinds of re-       even more important in HIV/AIDS-affected com-
  wards or incentives (including cash) that would      munities where the death of a parent can leave
  likely produce the greatest benefit to them-         younger youth ages 14–17 without the right
  selves and the group.                                to inherit property (often the only productive
                                                       asset available to them as they take on the role
  In its Guinea PATHWAYS program, ARC provided         of lead caregiver for younger siblings). Lack of
  grants of US$60 to youth who completed their         legal control over housing and farm land often
  training program and furnished a viable busi-        leaves youth-headed households vulnerable
  ness plan. The grants were used to start their       to sudden shocks if older relatives appropriate
  businesses. The more entrepreneurial youth           these productive assets for their own use. This
  were referred to local MFIs as well (Making          risk can often only be mitigated through advo-
  Cents 2008).                                         cacy efforts and legal reforms at the national
                                                       level (Dempsey 2003).
  Considering the physical asset needs
  of young women                                       C.3 ACHIEVING SECTOR-SPECIFIC PROGRAM
  Young women household members (with or                     GOALS THROUGH YOUTH LIVELIHOOD
  without children) often have a very important              CAPACITY-BUILDING ACTIVITIES
  role to play in household food security and          Efforts to improve youth livelihood skills and re-
  overall economic wellbeing. Often their small-       sources frequently are used to help achieve sec-
  scale but steady contributions to household          tor-specific development program goals, rather
  income enable the family to endure periods of        than exist as stand-alone programs. Some key
  economic hardship. Nevertheless, livelihood          types of development programs that build youth
  development programs all too often overlook          livelihood skills and concurrently contribute to
  women’s potential to use infusions of physical       achieving USAID sector program goals are:
  capital, preferring instead to support exclusively
  the bigger, commercial activities of the men.         ƒ Basic education
                                                        ƒ Economic growth and workforce
  Livelihood interventions with ex-combatants,            development
  for example, often overlook the need to sup-          ƒ Agriculture
  port the acquisition of physical capital by both      ƒ Health
  the demobilized soldiers and young people             ƒ Conflict and post-conflict country programs
  who might have lived in their base camps              ƒ Humanitarian assistance programs
  and formed part of their social unit. Similarly,
  post-Tsunami recovery projects often focus on        Basic education programs
  replacing large, usually male-owned capital as-      Given large out-of-school youth populations,
  sets, such as fishing boats, while failing to see    many countries are going to place increased


26 |                                                                    Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
emphasis on providing alternative nonformal         crease the productivity of the enterprise itself.
education pathways to help youth achieve            Such efforts can include the provision of basic
basic education competencies. Such pro-             education and targeted technical skill training,
grams, if they integrate literacy and numeracy      the provision of microfinance, and access to
with basic life and employability skills and        physical assets such as land, seeds, or animals.
vocational education, will help youth de-
velop the human capital needed to increase          Health programs
livelihood productivity. As their livelihoods       Health programs offer interested youth a signifi-
improve, youth and families become more             cant opportunity to develop livelihood skills and
able to invest more in formal education, thus       resources. Many health programs in developing
creating a “virtuous circle” (AREU 2006).           countries (e.g., HIV/AIDS, malaria, basic primary
                                                    health care) are both understaffed and in need
Economic growth and workforce                       of reaching large numbers of people. Engaging
development programs                                youth to serve as community health workers or
Traditionally, economic growth and workforce        peer educators also provides young people who
development programs have addressed the             participate with an opportunity to develop live-
issue of youth employment through the lens          lihood skills and grow their human and social
of the formal private sector by establishing        capital resources.
school-to-work transition, career counseling,
and labor market linkage mechanisms that            Conflict and post-conflict recovery
connect youth with formal sector employ-            Youth often are foot soldiers in the civil conflicts
ers. In many countries, however, the majority       that exist in many parts of the world. The de-
of economic activity takes place in the infor-      velopment of youth livelihoods and livelihood
mal sector. In these instances, investments in      skills should be a high priority of conflict and
youth livelihood skill development, through,        post-conflict country development programs.
for example, targeted technical training or the     Countries such as Liberia have very effectively
provision of microfinance, will help harness        used basic education and vocational training
the economic productivity of a vital segment        to re-integrate ex-combatants into civil society
of the population. The cultivation of liveli-       (Making Cents 2008). Well-designed conflict-
hood skills and resources of youth working in       resolution, peace education, and tolerance
the informal economy will help young people         training efforts can help raise awareness and
contribute to the economic well-being of their      promote behavior change among at-risk youth.
family or community, start their own busi-
ness, and eventually transition to the formal       Humanitarian assistance programs
economy (ILO 2004, ILO 2005, UNESCO 2001).          Youth can be valuable assets in mitigating the
                                                    impact of natural disasters, such as earth-
Agriculture programs                                quakes, tsunamis, and famines. Livelihood skill
Subsistence and small-scale farming is the pre-     training programs can help prepare youth to
dominant mode of economic activity in much          play important roles in providing humanitar-
of the developing world. In such environments,      ian assistance to their communities. The USAID
youth often play important roles, assisting their   Ruwwad Project in the West Bank uses a service
families in the planting and harvesting of crops,   learning model to train youth in how to assess
and the implementation of small-scale forestry      community needs and provide much-needed
and fishing activities. In such environments,       humanitarian relief services.
efforts to increase youth livelihood skills and
resources can strengthen the ability of youth to
contribute to their family’s enterprise, and in-


Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                             | 27
       D. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND RESOURCES

  There are currently a number of places where      www.microsave.org – for more on market-
  additional information and resources related       driven development of microfinance products
  to youth livelihood programming can be found.      and services
  Some useful places to start include the follow-
  ing web sites:                                    www.ICRW.org – for more on linking health and
                                                     livelihood interventions
  www.EQUIP123.net – for information on the
   EQUIP3 Project and a range of youth liveli-      www.USAID.gov (then go to the DCOF home
   hood resources                                    page)—for more on economic strengthening
                                                     with OVC’s
  www.ilo.org – for useful publications and tools
   related to youth employment                      www.search-institute.org – for more on Devel-
                                                     opmental Assets for youth
  www.popcouncil.org – for excellent informa-
   tion related to adolescent girls’ livelihoods    www.ymeconference.org – for presentations
                                                     from a multitude of organizations working on
  www.livelihoods.org – for resources related to     issues of youth microenterprise globally
   the Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA)

  www.microlinks.org – for more on youth and
   microfinance




28 |                                                               Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide
  CONCLUSION

Economic and youth development practitioners        One reviewer of this Guide made the follow-
should apply these youth livelihood program         ing observation, which serves as both a helpful
suggestions with a degree of humility, especially   last word in this publication, and a provocative
when these programs target marginalized youth.      challenge to USAID Missions and their imple-
The major challenge faced by USAID Missions         menting partners contemplating investments in
is not—as it is often assumed—the need to           youth livelihood development:
“do something” to give these youth a first step
into the labor force. Rather, the challenge is to      “The challenge for youth programs is
engage and support youth who are: 1) already           not for outsiders to determine the type
economically active and focused on the immedi-         of interventions that will engage and
ate need of household economic survival; and,          prepare youth for whatever the outsid-
2) who desire more sustainable and socially-con-       ers might see as socially constructive
structive livelihood pathways. To meet immedi-         and politically benign lifestyles. The chal-
ate needs, this population often turns to liveli-      lenge is to determine how to encourage
hood pathways that have a negative impact on           and induce youths to organize them-
society—pathways involving high risk activities        selves and build on what they have in
(including commercial sex work), environmental-        ways that enable outsiders to help them
ly-damaging pursuits (such as charcoal making),        acquire the relevant skills, competencies
black market activities, crime, or linkages with       and resources that can provide a foun-
extremist groups. Better livelihoods for these         dation for enhancing their livelihoods
youth could reduce or even eliminate their need        and ultimately the livelihoods of others
to undertake harmful livelihood activities.            within their communities.”




Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                           | 29
       REFERENCES

  Akkord Foundation. 2006. Realizing the          Integrated Regional Information Networks
  Potential of Tajik Youth: Accompanied Youth     (IRIN). 2007. Youth In Crisis: Coming of Age in
  Livelihood Development Among Children of        the 21st Century. New York: United Nations.
  Migrant Workers and other Marginalized Youth.
  Almaty: Akkord Foundation.                      International Labor Organization (ILO). 2005.
                                                  Being Real About Youth Entrepreneurship on
  Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit        Southern Africa (SEED Working Paper #72).
  (AREU). 2006. Looking Beyond the School         Geneva: International Labor Organization.
  Walls: Household Decision Making and School
  Enrollment in Afghanistan. Kabul: Afghan        International Labor Organization (ILO). 2004.
  Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU).            Youth Pathways to Decent Work. Geneva:
                                                  International Labor Organization.
  Asia Development Bank (ADB). 2004.
  “Microbanking With Adolescent Youth”.           Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2007. Is
  Finance for the Poor: Vol 5 # 4. Manila: ADB.   There an Informal Employment Wage Penalty:
  Center for the Development of Alternative       Evidence from South Africa (IZA Discussion
  Education (CEDEA). 2004. Pasana’ku: Street      Paper # 3151). Berlin: IZA.
  Banking Toolkit. La Paz: CEDEA.
                                                  Making Cents International. 2008. Youth
  The Consultative Group to Help the Poor         Microenterprise and Livelihoods: State of the
  (CGAP). 2006. Graduating the Poorest into       Field. Washington: Making Cents.
  Microfinance: Issue Note #34. Washington:
  CGAP.                                           Myers, William. 1998. Child Labour: Promoting
                                                  the Best Interests of Working Children. London:
  Dempsey, Jim. 2003. A Guide for Agencies        Save The Children.
  Planning and Developing Economic
  Strengthening Interventions for Households      National Research Council (NRC). 2005.
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  Children and Orphans Fund (DCOF).               Washington: National Research Council.

  EQUIP3. 2007. Morocco Cross Sectoral Youth      Population Council. 2005. Evaluation of
  Assessment. Washington: EDC.                    a Savings and Micro-Credit Program for
                                                  Vulnerable Young Women in Nairobi. New York:
  EQUIP3. 2005. Building a New Generation of      Population Council.
  Leaders in the West Bank and Gaza: Findings
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Search Institute (SI). 2006. The Asset Approach:   USAID. 2006. Job Creation in Post Conflict
40 Elements of Healthy Relationships.              Societies. Washington: USAID.
Minneapolis: Search Institute.
                                                   USAID. 2006. Youth Microfinance and Conflict
Save the Children (SC). 2006. How Low-Income       Case Study: West Bank Case Study. Washington:
Households Make Decisions About Investing          USAID.
In Post-Primary Education: Pilot Research with
Youth-Driven Focus Group Tools and Approaches      USAID. 2005. Youth Microfinance and Conflict:
in South Sulawesi. Washington: Save the            Uganda Study. Washington: USAID
Children.
                                                   USAID-CMM. 2005. Livelihoods and Conflict: A
Sommers, Marc. 2003. Urbanization, War and         Toolkit for Intervention. Washington: USAID.
Africa’s Youth At Risk. Atlanta: CARE.
                                                   USAID-CMM. 2004. Youth and Conflict: A Toolkit
Street Kids International (SKI). 2001. The         for Intervention. Washington: USAID.
Street Business Toolkit. Toronto: Street Kids
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Implementation of the World Programme of
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Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide                                                        | 31
       ABOUT EQUIP3

  The Educational Quality Improvement Program                      EQUIP3 is a consortium of 12 organizations with
  3 (EQUIP3) is designed to improve earning,                       diverse areas of expertise. Together, these orga-
  learning, and skill development opportunities                    nizations work with out-of-school youth in more
  for out-of-school youth in developing countries.                 than 100 countries.
  We work to help countries meet the needs and
  draw on the assets of young women and men                        To learn more about EQUIP3 please see the
  by improving policies and programs that affect                   website at www.equip123.net/equip3/index_
  them across a variety of sectors. We also pro-                   new.html.
  vide technical assistance to USAID and other
  organizations in order to build the capacity of
  youth and youth-serving organizations.




  EQUIP3 Consortium: Education Development Center, Inc. n Academy for Educational Development n Catholic Relief Services
  n International Council on National Youth Policy n International Youth Foundation n National Youth Employment Coalition n

  National Youth Leadership Council n Opportunities Industrialization Centers International n Partners of the Americas n Plan
  International Childreach n Sesame Workshop n Street Kids International n World Learning




32 |                                                                                   Youth Livelihoods Development Program Guide