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					Hatred
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 (Redirected from Hate)
"Hate" redirects here. For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation).
"Hates" redirects here. For the German singer, see Adrian Hates.




Postcard of the Duluth lynchings of black men on June 15, 1920

Hatred (or hate) is a deep and emotional extreme dislike, directed against a certain object or
class of objects. The objects of such hatred can vary widely, from inanimate objects to animals,
oneself or other people, entire groups of people, people in general, existence, or the whole world.
Though not necessarily, hatred is often associated with feelings of anger and disposition towards
hostility against the objects of hatred. Hatred can become very driven. Actions after a lingering
thought are not uncommon upon people or oneself. Hatred can result in extreme behavior such as
violence, murder and war.

Contents
[hide]

        1 Philosophical views
        2 Psychoanalytic views
        3 Neurological research
        4 Legal issues
        5 See also
        6 References
        7 Further reading



[edit] Philosophical views
Philosophers have offered many influential definitions of hatred. René Descartes viewed hate as
an awareness that something is bad combined with an urge to withdraw from it. Baruch Spinoza
defined hate as a type of pain that is due to an external cause. Aristotle viewed hate as a desire
for the annihilation of an object that is incurable by time. David Hume believed that hate is an
irreducible feeling that is not definable at all.[1]

[edit] Psychoanalytic views
In psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source
of its unhappiness.[2] More recently, the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology defines hate as a
"deep, enduring, intense emotion expressing animosity, anger, and hostility towards a person,
group, or object."[3] Because hatred is believed to be long-lasting, many psychologists consider it
to be more of an attitude or disposition than a temporary emotional state.

[edit] Neurological research
The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment,
people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed
increased activity in the middle frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex,
in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insular cortex of the human brain. The
researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are
experiencing hatred.[4]

[edit] Legal issues
A hate crime (also known as a "bias-motivated crime") generally refers to criminal acts which
are seen to have been motivated by hate. Those who commit hate crimes target victims because
of their perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by race, gender, religion,
sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender identity, or political
affiliation.[5] Incidents may involve physical assault, destruction of property, bullying,
harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[6]

Hate speech is speech perceived to disparage a person or group of people based on their social or
ethnic group,[7] such as race, sex, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender
identity, disability, language ability, ideology, social class, occupation, appearance (height,
weight, skin color, etc.), mental capacity, and any other distinction that might be considered by
some as a liability. The term covers written as well as oral communication and some forms of
behaviors in a public setting. It is also sometimes called antilocution and is the first point on
Allport's scale which measures prejudice in a society. In many countries, deliberate use of hate
speech is a criminal offence prohibited under incitement to hatred legislation. It is often alleged
that the criminalization of hate speech is sometimes used to discourage legitimate discussion of
negative aspects of voluntary behavior (such as political persuasion, religious adherence and
philosophical allegiance).

Both of these classifications have sparked debate, with counter-arguments such as, but not
limited to, a difficulty in distinguishing motive and intent for crimes, as well as philosophical
debate on the validity of valuing targeted hatred as a greater crime than general misanthropy and
contempt for humanity being a potentially equal crime in and of itself.

				
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