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Mike Boyes_ Driver Performance Group March 21_ 2011 www

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									Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                   March 21, 2011




              Beyond Distracted Driver Legislation
                   Driver Attention and Driver Performance
                   .



                 2011 ENFORM Petroleum Safety Conference
                             Mike Boyes, Ph.D.
                             University of Calgary
                          Driver Performance Group
                                   403 560 9171
                       Mike-Boyes@DriverPerformanceGroup.com
                          www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com



                                                               1




           Vehicle Collision Stats 2009

           Fatalities (14% decrease)
             1 in 50

           Injuries (13% decrease)
             1 in 11

           Collisions (.5% decrease)
             1 in 16

           Risk (?)
             7 incidents/P
             1 close call/P
                 X 2 to 5                                          2




           Costs (de Levr, Thue and Ladd, 2010)

           Direct Costs
             Fatal Collision            $178,500
             Major Injury               $113,600
             Minor Injury               $30,600
             Property Only              $11,400
           Human Capital Costs
             Fatal Collision            $1,641,300
             Major Injury               $248,100
             Minor Injury               $16,700
             Property Only              $0
                                                                   3




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                     1
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                    March 21, 2011




           Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention


           Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving
           performance is determined by:
             Their skill/experience level and their automatic
             behaviour or driving habits
            And
             How much of their attention they have
             committed to the driving task


                                                                    4




           Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention


           Risk Management Opportunities
              Basic Training (New and Re-Noviced Fleet Drivers)
              GDE – Graduated Driver Experience
              Management of Automated or Habitual
              Driving Behaviour (self and coached)
              Attention Capacity and Attention Management
                AM Strategies and Situation Awareness
                Driver Distraction = not enough attention to core
                driving task
                                                                    5




           Industry Collision Data Troy Infometrics




                                                                    6




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                      2
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                              March 21, 2011




           Industry Collision Data Troy Infometrics




                                                              7




           How Big a Deal is Driver Distraction?

           25% of fatal collisions involve some level
           of driver distraction but this fails to consider
           “internal” distracters
           Distraction may be a factor in as many as
           80% of collisions
           Distraction is largely under driver control
           If Distraction is the negative then Attention
           is the positive --- Attention is central to safe
           driving                                            8




           What is Driver Distraction?

           Not looking (when you need to be looking)
             Knowing the difference?
           Looking but not seeing (Not Attending)
             Keeping your head in the game
           It is not just cell phones – not by a very long
           shot!


                                                              9




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                3
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                                  March 21, 2011




           Driving and Distraction: Research

           The 100 Vehicle Study:
              2,000,000 vehicle miles 12 to 13 months of data
              69 Crashes, 761 near crashes and 8,295 incidents
              Crash-Risk Estimates: Trucks
                 Dialling a cell phone increased crash risk 5.9 X
                 Talking or listening to a cell phone 1 X risk
                 Reaching for stationary object 6.7 X risk
                 Reaching for a moving object 9 X risk
                 Reading 3.4 X
                 Text Messaging 23.2 X risk
                                                                                 10




           Alberta’s New Distracted Driving Law:
           Bill 16

           Most provinces and states now have
           distracted driving laws (more for texting)




           Alberta’s new law is among the most
           comprehensive
                                                                                 11




           Do Distracted Driving Laws Work?
           The problem: it is not just cell phones!
              There is a LOT of distracted driving out there!
           The law
              What can we see or prove that people are doing?
              Raise awareness
           Enforcement
              Tough but doable for hand held cell use, the rest??
           Unintended consequences
              Actions intended to avoid detection when things like texting are
              viewed as primary tasks


                                                                                 12




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                                    4
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                 March 21, 2011




           Collision Rates After DD Laws

           4 States: Before and After DD law
           comparisons
           Before and After Cell Phone Law
             Rate reduced in 1 state and stayed the same in 3
             others
           Before and After Texting Law
             Rate stayed the same in 1 state
             and increased in 3 states
                                                                13




           So What About Distraction Laws?

           Enforcement will be an issue
             Police discretion will also be an issue
           Commercial/Fleet response will be an issue
           Awareness campaign and public response
           will be a very important issue
             Public awareness and image (Opra and Cell
             phone cameras)
             The new MADD
                                                                14




           Beyond Legislated Solutions
           What does this mean for you??
             Focus on Driver/Operator Attention
             Focus on Driver/Operator Performance




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www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                   5
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                        March 21, 2011




           Driver Attention and Driver Performance

           Driver Attention plays a number of
           essential roles in Driver Performance
            1. Human Information Processing
            2. Novice to Expert Status
                  New to driving or new to vehicle or task
            3. Habits and Automaticity
            4. Attention Management/Situation Awareness
          Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention

                                                                       16




           1. Human Information Processing

           We are limited in how we process information
             We can only pay full attention to one thing at a time
             (multi-tasking?)
                We need to pay attention to something to make
                sense out of it and to decide what to do
             We deal with this limitation by switching our attention
             from thing to thing
             This is often a good thing (over-focus is maladaptive)
             BUT it also means we can be (and will be) distracted
             Managing attention is a core part of the
             driving task!
                                                                       17




           2. Novice to Expert Status
                                       (Troy Infometrics)




                                                                       18




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                          6
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                   March 21, 2011




           2. Novice to Expert Status

           What do novice drivers lack?
             Knowledge
             Experience (what matters, when where and how
             much?)
             Automaticity – Habit Formation
           What about novice fleet or re-noviced drivers?
             Specific or new knowledge (of routes and vehicles)
             Reflection on habits acquired through experience
             Experience/automaticity with new events

                                                                  19




           2. Novice to Expert Status

           Expertise requires experience
           Everything is new and everything requires
           attention
             Operational requirements (vehicle controls)
             Hazard detection/anticipation (what to look for?)
             Manoeuvring (turning, stopping etc)
             Attention Management
             Automaticity or Habits
           GDL restrictions: Expertise (Master Driver
           Performance) emerges over time                         20




           3. Habits and Automaticity

           Experience             Automatic Behaviours
           Experience             Habits
           Learning to Driving and driving in general are
           activities perfectly designed for creating bad
           habits.
             Many repetitions without negative
             consequences.
             Gaps open between optimal behaviour and
             actual behaviour – these are bad habits
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www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                     7
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                               March 21, 2011




           3.Habits and Automaticity
           Knowing what you should do and habitually
           or consistently doing it are different things
           When do drivers bring their “A-Game”?
             When they are challenged (old school)
             When they are motivated (after a close call)
             When they are being assessed
             Why not ALL THE TIME?
           How good is your habitual day-to-day
           driving performance?                               22




           4. Attention Management
           Self-Management and Situation Awareness
           Knowing when and how to bring your A-
           Game
           Situation Awareness =
             The degree to which your current perception of
             your environment reflects reality



                                                              23




           4. Situation Awareness
           Charley Shimanski -- Mountain Rescue Association


           What Reduces Situation Awareness?
             Poor information or communication
             Fatigue or Stress
             Distraction
             Inappropriate Habits
             Task Overload
             Task Underload
             “Press On Regardless” mentality
             Degrading Operating Conditions
             Overconfidence Based on Experience
                                                              24




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                 8
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                                     March 21, 2011




           Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention


           Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving
           performance is determined by:
             Their skill/experience level and their automatic
             behaviour or driving habits
            And
             How much of their attention they have
             committed to the driving task


                                                                                    25




           Driver Attention and Driver Performance Study



           300 fleet drivers
           Range of Vehicles
              Cars, trucks, vans
              Typical preventable rate
           constructed a driver profile for each driver
           conducted a 2 phase on-road driver
           performance assessment

                                                                                    26




                                  Driver Profiles


           Attention Capacity and Management (RT and
           Blinks)
           Driver Psychology/Attitudes
              Aggressiveness, Driver Risk (social focus), Stress, Self Confidence
           Knowledge
           Hazard Detection (video based)
              Search, Identify, Predict, Decide, Execute
           Driver History


                                                                                    27




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                                       9
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                                      March 21, 2011




               On-Road Assessment of Driver Performance


               2-Phase Assessment
                 Phase 1 = standard assessment (parking lot,
                 light residential, truck road, down town)
                 Phase 2 = Attention Load Assessment
                    Repeats Phase 1 but with light to moderate in
                    vehicle attention loads added
                 Both Drives scored and scaled



                                                                                     28




                                                                                     29




               Drop in Performance from D1 to D2
                            % Drop in Driving Performance D1 to D2
          40


          35


          30

          25

          20

          15

          10

          5


          0
                0      5       10          15             20          25   30   35
                                     Percentage Drop in Performance




                                                                                     30




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                                       10
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                          March 21, 2011




                   Effects of Experience




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           Key Results
           Average drop in performance when
           attention loaded was 15%
           80 to 90% of fleet drivers look fine on a
           standard assessment
           50% of experienced fleet drivers and 75%
           of inexperienced fleet drivers do NOT
           perform at a satisfactory level when
           attentionally loaded
                                                         32




           Key Results
           15% of fleet drivers are “Master Drivers”
           whose performance does not drop or
           remains satisfactory under attention load
           Driver Habits = behaviour drivers fall back
           on when slightly distracted that determines
           their level of risk



                                                         33




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                           11
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                          March 21, 2011




            Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention


            Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving
            performance is determined by:
              Their skill/experience level and their automatic
              behaviour or driving habits
             And
              How much of their attention they have
              committed to the driving task


                                                                         34




            Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          1. Train all novice drivers (young or re-tasked)
              Basic Training – individual driver profiles
                 Not just abstracts but attitude and behavior profiles
                 that form the basis of training, mentoring, self-
                 management and performance review.
              GDE (Graduated Driver Experience)
                 Its not just for teenagers!
              Ongoing behavioral driver self-focus
                 Self reflection on driving performance should be
                 built in from the start and be part of basic
                 climate/practice                                        35




            Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          2. Help drivers identify and correct their own
             problematic driving habits

                What driving behaviors (habits) do they fall back on
                when they are distracted/attentionally loaded
                   Guided first then self-directed
                2-phase assessments and/or self assessments (over
                time and ongoing)



                                                                         36




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                           12
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                            March 21, 2011




            Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          3. Train/Coach Drivers to be aware of and to
             manage their attention resources
              Operational Issues
                 Dispatch issues, attentional load awareness, in-vehicle
                 demands, self-reflection
              Strategic Issues
                 Train and support attention management, route
                 planning/adjustment, hazard anticipation
              Tactical issues
                 Ongoing review of attention related decision making
              Mindfulness
                                                                           37




             Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          4. Re-think assessment strategies


               Standard versus Attention Management
               Approaches (coaching)

               Coaching not catching




                                                                           38




             Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          5. Steer or Target your training resources
             (hiring and training)

               Drivers get only what they need (and come to know
               what they need)– supports safety climate/culture




                                                                           39




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                             13
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                  March 21, 2011




             Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          6. Increase driver involvement and performance
             levels (Behaviour-Based Risk Reduction)

               Reduce bad performance habits by BOTH
                 increasing driver/operator competence
               AND
                 training driver/operator attention management




                                                                 40




            Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          7. Train Supervisors' as Coaches Not
             Assessors
              Coaching modules to support peer-to-peer
              approach
          8. Involve Master Drivers (top 15% of your
             Drivers) in this process (Behavioral
             Performance Training -- Peer-to-Peer
             Approach

                                                                 41




             Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances

          9. Add attention modules to all driving courses
          10. Provide a Driver Attention and Driver
            Performance Course
          11. Personalize courses and draw them out over
            the Graduated Driver Experience




                                                                 42




www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com                                                   14
Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group                                     March 21, 2011




                                Bottom Line
            A simple formula

          Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention

          Holds the keys to significantly reducing fleet risk and
            costs by:
                optimizing driver/operator performance
                and driver/operator attention management

                                                                    43




             Thank You
          Please contact me if I and DPG can be of
            assistance to you in your Driver
            Performance and Driver Risk Management
            efforts.
          Mike Boyes, PhD.
          403 560 9171, Mike.Boyes@DriverPerformanceGroup.com




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