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Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Beyond Distracted Driver Legislation Driver Attention and Driver Performance . 2011 ENFORM Petroleum Safety Conference Mike Boyes, Ph.D. University of Calgary Driver Performance Group 403 560 9171 Mike-Boyes@DriverPerformanceGroup.com www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 1 Vehicle Collision Stats 2009 Fatalities (14% decrease) 1 in 50 Injuries (13% decrease) 1 in 11 Collisions (.5% decrease) 1 in 16 Risk (?) 7 incidents/P 1 close call/P X 2 to 5 2 Costs (de Levr, Thue and Ladd, 2010) Direct Costs Fatal Collision $178,500 Major Injury $113,600 Minor Injury $30,600 Property Only $11,400 Human Capital Costs Fatal Collision $1,641,300 Major Injury $248,100 Minor Injury $16,700 Property Only $0 3 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 1 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving performance is determined by: Their skill/experience level and their automatic behaviour or driving habits And How much of their attention they have committed to the driving task 4 Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention Risk Management Opportunities Basic Training (New and Re-Noviced Fleet Drivers) GDE – Graduated Driver Experience Management of Automated or Habitual Driving Behaviour (self and coached) Attention Capacity and Attention Management AM Strategies and Situation Awareness Driver Distraction = not enough attention to core driving task 5 Industry Collision Data Troy Infometrics 6 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 2 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Industry Collision Data Troy Infometrics 7 How Big a Deal is Driver Distraction? 25% of fatal collisions involve some level of driver distraction but this fails to consider “internal” distracters Distraction may be a factor in as many as 80% of collisions Distraction is largely under driver control If Distraction is the negative then Attention is the positive --- Attention is central to safe driving 8 What is Driver Distraction? Not looking (when you need to be looking) Knowing the difference? Looking but not seeing (Not Attending) Keeping your head in the game It is not just cell phones – not by a very long shot! 9 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 3 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Driving and Distraction: Research The 100 Vehicle Study: 2,000,000 vehicle miles 12 to 13 months of data 69 Crashes, 761 near crashes and 8,295 incidents Crash-Risk Estimates: Trucks Dialling a cell phone increased crash risk 5.9 X Talking or listening to a cell phone 1 X risk Reaching for stationary object 6.7 X risk Reaching for a moving object 9 X risk Reading 3.4 X Text Messaging 23.2 X risk 10 Alberta’s New Distracted Driving Law: Bill 16 Most provinces and states now have distracted driving laws (more for texting) Alberta’s new law is among the most comprehensive 11 Do Distracted Driving Laws Work? The problem: it is not just cell phones! There is a LOT of distracted driving out there! The law What can we see or prove that people are doing? Raise awareness Enforcement Tough but doable for hand held cell use, the rest?? Unintended consequences Actions intended to avoid detection when things like texting are viewed as primary tasks 12 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 4 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Collision Rates After DD Laws 4 States: Before and After DD law comparisons Before and After Cell Phone Law Rate reduced in 1 state and stayed the same in 3 others Before and After Texting Law Rate stayed the same in 1 state and increased in 3 states 13 So What About Distraction Laws? Enforcement will be an issue Police discretion will also be an issue Commercial/Fleet response will be an issue Awareness campaign and public response will be a very important issue Public awareness and image (Opra and Cell phone cameras) The new MADD 14 Beyond Legislated Solutions What does this mean for you?? Focus on Driver/Operator Attention Focus on Driver/Operator Performance 15 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 5 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Driver Attention and Driver Performance Driver Attention plays a number of essential roles in Driver Performance 1. Human Information Processing 2. Novice to Expert Status New to driving or new to vehicle or task 3. Habits and Automaticity 4. Attention Management/Situation Awareness Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention 16 1. Human Information Processing We are limited in how we process information We can only pay full attention to one thing at a time (multi-tasking?) We need to pay attention to something to make sense out of it and to decide what to do We deal with this limitation by switching our attention from thing to thing This is often a good thing (over-focus is maladaptive) BUT it also means we can be (and will be) distracted Managing attention is a core part of the driving task! 17 2. Novice to Expert Status (Troy Infometrics) 18 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 6 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 2. Novice to Expert Status What do novice drivers lack? Knowledge Experience (what matters, when where and how much?) Automaticity – Habit Formation What about novice fleet or re-noviced drivers? Specific or new knowledge (of routes and vehicles) Reflection on habits acquired through experience Experience/automaticity with new events 19 2. Novice to Expert Status Expertise requires experience Everything is new and everything requires attention Operational requirements (vehicle controls) Hazard detection/anticipation (what to look for?) Manoeuvring (turning, stopping etc) Attention Management Automaticity or Habits GDL restrictions: Expertise (Master Driver Performance) emerges over time 20 3. Habits and Automaticity Experience Automatic Behaviours Experience Habits Learning to Driving and driving in general are activities perfectly designed for creating bad habits. Many repetitions without negative consequences. Gaps open between optimal behaviour and actual behaviour – these are bad habits 21 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 7 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 3.Habits and Automaticity Knowing what you should do and habitually or consistently doing it are different things When do drivers bring their “A-Game”? When they are challenged (old school) When they are motivated (after a close call) When they are being assessed Why not ALL THE TIME? How good is your habitual day-to-day driving performance? 22 4. Attention Management Self-Management and Situation Awareness Knowing when and how to bring your A- Game Situation Awareness = The degree to which your current perception of your environment reflects reality 23 4. Situation Awareness Charley Shimanski -- Mountain Rescue Association What Reduces Situation Awareness? Poor information or communication Fatigue or Stress Distraction Inappropriate Habits Task Overload Task Underload “Press On Regardless” mentality Degrading Operating Conditions Overconfidence Based on Experience 24 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 8 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving performance is determined by: Their skill/experience level and their automatic behaviour or driving habits And How much of their attention they have committed to the driving task 25 Driver Attention and Driver Performance Study 300 fleet drivers Range of Vehicles Cars, trucks, vans Typical preventable rate constructed a driver profile for each driver conducted a 2 phase on-road driver performance assessment 26 Driver Profiles Attention Capacity and Management (RT and Blinks) Driver Psychology/Attitudes Aggressiveness, Driver Risk (social focus), Stress, Self Confidence Knowledge Hazard Detection (video based) Search, Identify, Predict, Decide, Execute Driver History 27 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 9 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 On-Road Assessment of Driver Performance 2-Phase Assessment Phase 1 = standard assessment (parking lot, light residential, truck road, down town) Phase 2 = Attention Load Assessment Repeats Phase 1 but with light to moderate in vehicle attention loads added Both Drives scored and scaled 28 29 Drop in Performance from D1 to D2 % Drop in Driving Performance D1 to D2 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Percentage Drop in Performance 30 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 10 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Effects of Experience 31 Key Results Average drop in performance when attention loaded was 15% 80 to 90% of fleet drivers look fine on a standard assessment 50% of experienced fleet drivers and 75% of inexperienced fleet drivers do NOT perform at a satisfactory level when attentionally loaded 32 Key Results 15% of fleet drivers are “Master Drivers” whose performance does not drop or remains satisfactory under attention load Driver Habits = behaviour drivers fall back on when slightly distracted that determines their level of risk 33 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 11 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention Drivers’ moment-to-moment driving performance is determined by: Their skill/experience level and their automatic behaviour or driving habits And How much of their attention they have committed to the driving task 34 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 1. Train all novice drivers (young or re-tasked) Basic Training – individual driver profiles Not just abstracts but attitude and behavior profiles that form the basis of training, mentoring, self- management and performance review. GDE (Graduated Driver Experience) Its not just for teenagers! Ongoing behavioral driver self-focus Self reflection on driving performance should be built in from the start and be part of basic climate/practice 35 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 2. Help drivers identify and correct their own problematic driving habits What driving behaviors (habits) do they fall back on when they are distracted/attentionally loaded Guided first then self-directed 2-phase assessments and/or self assessments (over time and ongoing) 36 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 12 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 3. Train/Coach Drivers to be aware of and to manage their attention resources Operational Issues Dispatch issues, attentional load awareness, in-vehicle demands, self-reflection Strategic Issues Train and support attention management, route planning/adjustment, hazard anticipation Tactical issues Ongoing review of attention related decision making Mindfulness 37 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 4. Re-think assessment strategies Standard versus Attention Management Approaches (coaching) Coaching not catching 38 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 5. Steer or Target your training resources (hiring and training) Drivers get only what they need (and come to know what they need)– supports safety climate/culture 39 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 13 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 6. Increase driver involvement and performance levels (Behaviour-Based Risk Reduction) Reduce bad performance habits by BOTH increasing driver/operator competence AND training driver/operator attention management 40 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 7. Train Supervisors' as Coaches Not Assessors Coaching modules to support peer-to-peer approach 8. Involve Master Drivers (top 15% of your Drivers) in this process (Behavioral Performance Training -- Peer-to-Peer Approach 41 Optimize Your Drivers’ Performances 9. Add attention modules to all driving courses 10. Provide a Driver Attention and Driver Performance Course 11. Personalize courses and draw them out over the Graduated Driver Experience 42 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 14 Mike Boyes, Driver Performance Group March 21, 2011 Bottom Line A simple formula Driver Performance = Skill/Experience + Attention Holds the keys to significantly reducing fleet risk and costs by: optimizing driver/operator performance and driver/operator attention management 43 Thank You Please contact me if I and DPG can be of assistance to you in your Driver Performance and Driver Risk Management efforts. Mike Boyes, PhD. 403 560 9171, Mike.Boyes@DriverPerformanceGroup.com 44 www.DriverPerformanceGroup.com 15
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