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Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet Protocol Network Recovery

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					                                                              (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                              Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011




     Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet
              Protocol Network Recovery
                        1
                            S. Rajan, 2 Althaf Hussain H.B., 3 K. Jagannath, 4 G. Surendar Reddy, 5 K.N.Dharanidhar
                 1
                     Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of CSE, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam, Chittoor(Dt.), A.P.
                       2
                          Associate Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
                          3
                            Associate Professor, Dept .of IT, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
                        4
                          Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.
                        5
                          Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P.

                                                                             special purpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a wide
Abstract:
                                                                             range of everyday communication services. The demands on
As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our                    Internet reliability and availability have increased accordingly.
communications infrastructure, the slow            convergence o
routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing                  A disruption of a link in central parts of a network has the
problem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IP          potential to affect hundreds of thousands of phone conversations
networks, we present a new recovery scheme called                            or TCP connections, with obvious adverse effects. The ability to
numerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed scheme
guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single          recover from failures has always been a central design goal in
mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing         the Internet [3]. IP networks are intrinsically robust, since IGP
the root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, and           routing protocols like OSPF are designed to update the
assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is
based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and          forwarding information based on the changed topology after a
allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link           failure. This re-convergence assumes full distribution of the new
immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented          link state to all routers in the network domain. When the new
with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we
presenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability,         state information is distributed, each router individually
endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after a                      calculates new valid routing tables.
failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the
network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered
                                                                             This network-wide IP re-convergence is a time consuming
traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRC
is used.                                                                     process, and a link or node failure is typically followed by a
                                                                             period of routing instability. During this period, packets may be
I.INTRODUCTION                                                               dropped due to invalid routes. This phenomenon has been
I recent years the Internet has been transformed from a special              studied in both IGP [2] and BGP context [3], and has an adverse
purpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a wide range of                effect on real-time applications [4]. Events leading to a re-
everyday communication services. The demands on Internet                     convergence have been shown to occur frequently [5]. Much
reliability and availability have increased accordingly. A                   effort has been devoted to optimizing the different steps of the
disruption of a link in central parts of a network has the                   convergence of IP routing, i.e., detection, dissemination of
potential to affect hundreds of thousands of phone                           information and shortest path calculation, but the convergence
conversations or TCP connections, with obvious adverse                       time is still too large for applications with real time demands
effects. The ability to recover from failures has always been a
central design goal in the Internet [1], IP networks are                      ANTICIPATED SYSTEM
intrinsically robust, since IGP routing protocols like OSPF are              Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure
designed to update the forwarding information based on the                   scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and
changed topology after a failure. This re-convergence assumes                node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure.
full distribution of the new link state to all routers in the                NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination
network domain. When the new state information is distributed,               based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping
each router individually calculates new valid routing tables.                additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet
VACANT SYSTEM                                                                forwarding to continue on an alternative output link
                                                                             immediately after the detection of a failure.
In   recent years the Internet has been transformed       from    a



                                                                       129                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                         ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                           Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011


II. NRC OVERVIEW
NRC is based on building a small set of endorsement routing
configurations, that are used to route recovered traffic on
alternate paths after a failure Our NRC approach is threefold.
First, we create a set of endorsement configurations, so that
every network component is excluded from packet forwarding
in one the network topology as a graph , with a set of and the
associated link weight function configuration. Second, for each
configuration, a standard routing algorithm like OSPF issued to
calculate configuration specific shortest paths and create
forwarding tables in each router, based on the configurations.

The use of a standard routing algorithm guarantees loop-free
forwarding within one configuration. Finally, we design a                 Fig. 1. Left: node 5 is isolated (shaded color) by setting a high
forwarding process that takes advantage of the endorsement                weight on all its connected links (stapled). Only traffic to and
configurations to provide rapid recovery from a component                 from the isolated node will use these restricted links. Right: a
failure.                                                                  configuration where nodes 1, 4 and 5, and the links 1.2, 3.5 and
                                                                          4.5 are isolated (dotted).
Using a standard shortest path calculation, each router creates a
set of configuration-specific forwarding tables. For simplicity,          an isolated node to a non-isolated node, or it connects two
we say that a packet is forwarded according to a configuration,           isolated nodes. Importantly, this means that a link is always
meaning that it is forwarded using the forwarding table                   isolated in the same configuration as at least one of its attached
calculated based on that configuration. In this paper we talk             nodes. These two rules are required by the NRC forwarding
about building a separate forwarding table for each                       process described in Section IV in order to give correct
configuration, but we believe that more efficient solutions can           forwarding without knowing the root cause of failure. When we
be found in a practical implementation.                                   talk of a endorsement configuration
                                                                          B. ALGORITHM
III. GENERATING ENDORSEMENT
                                                                          The number and internal structure of endorsement
CONFIGURATIONS
                                                                          configurations in a complete set for a given topology may vary
A. CONFIGURATIONS STRUCTURE                                               depending on the construction model. If more configurations are
NRC configurations are defined by the network topology,                   created, fewer links and nodes need to be isolated per
which is the same in all configurations, and the associated link          configuration, giving a richer (more connected) backbone in
weights, which differ among configurations.                               each configuration. On the other hand, if fewer configurations
                                                                          are constructed, the state requirement for the endorsement
                                                                          routing information storages reduced.

                                                                           However, calculating the minimum number of configurations
                                                                           for a given topology graph is computationally demanding. One
                                                                           solution would be to find all valid configurations for the input
                                                                           consisting of the topology graph and its associated normal link
                                                                           weights , and then find the complete set of configurations with
                                                                           lowest cardinality. Finding this set would involve solving the
                                                                           Set Cover problem, which is known to be-complete [13].




This means that a restricted link always connects an isolated
node to a non-isolated node. An isolated link either
connects



                                                                    130                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                              (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                              Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011




The algorithm can be implemented either in a network
management system, or in the routers. As long as all routers
have the same view of the network topology, they will compute
the same set of endorsement configurations. Description:
Algorithm 1 loops through all nodes in the topology, and tries to
isolate them one at a time, link is isolated in the same iteration as
one of its attached nodes. The algorithm terminates when either
all nodes and links in the network are isolated in exactly one                         Fig. 2. Packet forwarding state diagram.
configuration, or a node that cannot be




                                                                        131                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                         ISSN 1947-5500
                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                            Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011


                                                                            the foiled component. We use its performances a reference
                                                                            point and evaluate how closely NRC can approach it. It must be
                                                                            noted that NRC yields the shown performance immediately
                                                                            after a failure, while IP re-convergence can take seconds to
                                                                            complete.


                                                                           FEATURES :
                                                                           NRC: STRENTH AND WEAKNESSESSTRENTH

                                                                            100% coverage
                                                                            Better control over recovery paths
                                                                            Recovered traffic routed independently
                                                                           WEAKNESSES

                                                                           Needs a topology identifier
                                                                           Packet marking or tunneling
                                                                           Potentially large number of topologies required
                                                                           No-END-to-END recovery
                                                                           Only one switching
                                                                           MULTIPULE ROUTING CONFIGARATION

IV. LOCAL FORWARDING PROCESS                                                Relies on numerous logic topologies
                                                                            Builds endorsement configuration so that all components are
When a packet reaches a point of failure, the node adjacent tithe           protected
failure, called the detecting node, is responsible for finding              Recovered traffic is routed the endorsement configuration
endorsement configuration where the failed component is                     Detecting and recovery is local Path protection to egress node
isolated. The detecting node marks the packet as belonging to
this configuration, and forwards the packet. From the packet               REFERENCES
marking, all transit routers identify the packet with the selected              1) Atlas and A. Zinin, "Basic specification for ip rapid-
endorsement configuration, and forward it to the egress node                       reroute: Loop-free alternates," IETF Internet Draft
avoiding the failed component                                                      (work in progress), mar 2007, draft-ietfrtgwg- ipfrr-
                                                                                   spec-base-06.
Consider a situation where a packet arrives at node , and cannot                2) Basu and J. G. Riecke, "Stability issues in OSPF
be forwarded to its normal next-hop because of a component                         routing," in Proceedings of SIGCOMM, San Diego,
failure. The detecting node must find the correct endorsement                      California, USA, Aug. 2001,pp. 225-236.
configuration without knowing the root cause of failure, i.e.,                  3) S. Bryant, M. Shand, and S. Previdi,"IP rapid reroute
whether the next-hop node or link has failed, since this                           using not-viaaddresses," Internet Draft (work in
information is generally unavailable.                                              progress), June 2007, draft-ietfrtgwg-ipfrr-notvia-
                                                                                   addresses-01.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
                                                                                4) Boutremans, G. lannaccone, and C. Diot, "Impact of
NRC requires the routers to store additional routing                               link failureson VoIP performance," in Proceedings of
configurations. The amount of state required in the routers is                     International Workshop on Network and Operating
related to the number of such endorsement configurations. Since                    System Support for Digital Audio and Video,2002, pp.
routing in endorsement configuration is restricted, NRC will                       63-71.
potentially give endorsement paths that are longer than the                     5) D. Clark, "The design philosophy of the DARPA
optimal paths. Longer endorsement paths will affect the total                      internet       protocols,"SIGCOMM,          Computer
network load and also the end-to-end delay. Full, global IGP re-                   Communications Review, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 106-114,
convergence determines shortest paths in the network without                       Aug. 1988.




                                                                     132                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                       ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011


    6) P. Francois, C. Filsfils, J. Evans, and 0. Bonaventure,                           3. Mr. K. JAGANNATH, did his
        "Achievingsub-second IGP convergence in large IP                                 B.Tech (Information Technology) from
        networks,"      ACM         SIGCOMM          Computer                            J.N.T.U Hyderabad and M.Tech
                                                                                         (computer science) in Dr.M.G.R.
        Communication Review, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 35 - 44,                               University, Chennai. My research
        July2005.                                                                        interests in areas of Wireless Networks
    7) P. Francois, O. Bonaventure, and M. Shand,                                        and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. he have
        "Disruption free topology reconfiguration in OSPF                                more than 5 years of teaching
        networks,"      in       Proceedings       INFOCOM,                              experience he attended so many
        Anchorage,AK, USA, may 2007.                                   workshops. Presently working in Kuppam Engineering
                                                                       College, Kuppam. as a Associate Professor in Information
    8) Fortz and M. Thorup, "Internet traffic engineering by
                                                                       Technology Dept.
        optimizing OSPF weights." in Proceedings
        INFOCOM, 2000, pp. 519-528.[24] D. S. Johnson,                                     4.Mr. G.Surendra Reddy did his
        "Approximation algorithms for combinatorial                                        B.Sc(computer       science)      from
        problems, "in Proc. of the 5. annual ACM symp. on                                  S.V.University, M.Sc        (computer
        Theory of computing, 1973,pp. 38-49.                                               science) from Dravidian University
                                                                                           and     M.E      from     Sathyabama
    9) M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and
                                                                                           University. My interest areas are Data
        Intractability: A Guideto the Theory of NP-                                        warehousing and Mining. I have 2
        Completeness. W. H. Freeman & Co., 1979.                                           years of industry experience and 4
    10) S. Iyer, S. Bhattacharyya, N. Taft, and C. Diot, "An           years of teaching experience.Presently he is working in
        approach to alleviate link overload as observed on an          kuppam engineering college as a Asst.Prof CSE
                                                                       Department.
        IP backbone," in.
                                                                                          5. Mr.K.N.Dharanidhar          did his
AUTHORS PROFILES                                                                          B.Tech (Information Technology)
                                                                                          from JNTU Anantapur, M.Tech
                        1. Mr. S. RAJAN, did his B. Tech                                  (computer science) from JNTU
                        from JNTU Hyderabad, M. Tech                                      Anantapur. My interest areas are Data
                        from Dr. M.G.R. University,                                       warehousing and Mining & Mobile
                        Chennai and currently pursuing                                    Computing.he attended so many
                        Ph. D from Rayalaseema University,                                workshops       and    National     and
                        Kurnool. I have more than 7 years of                              International conferences. Presently he
                        teaching    experience.   Presently            is working in kuppam engineering college as a Asst. Prof
                        working as Associate Professor &               CSE Department.
                        Head in the Department of
                        Computer Science & Engineering in
Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam. My research
interests are in the areas of Wireless Networks and Object
Oriented Programming.

                       2. Mr.ALTHAF HUSSAIN H B,
                       did his B.Sc (computer science) in
                       S.V.University and M.Sc (computer
                       science) in Dravidian University and
                       received M.E (computer science
                       and engineering) in Sathyabama
                       University, Chennai. My research
                       interests in areas of Computer
                       Networks, Wireless Networks and
                       Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. I attended
so many workshops and National and International
conferences. I have 7 years experience of teaching in
various colleges. Presently working in Kuppam Engineering
College, Kuppam. As a Associate Professor in Computer
Science and Engineering dept.




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                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500

				
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