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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011 Advanced Routing Technology For Fast Internet Protocol Network Recovery 1 S. Rajan, 2 Althaf Hussain H.B., 3 K. Jagannath, 4 G. Surendar Reddy, 5 K.N.Dharanidhar 1 Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of CSE, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam, Chittoor(Dt.), A.P. 2 Associate Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P. 3 Associate Professor, Dept .of IT, Kuppam Engg. College., Kuppam Chittoor (Dt.), A.P. 4 Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P. 5 Assistant Professor, Dept .of CSE, Kuppam Engg College., Kuppam, Chittoor (Dt.), A.P. special purpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a wide Abstract: range of everyday communication services. The demands on As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our Internet reliability and availability have increased accordingly. communications infrastructure, the slow convergence o routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing A disruption of a link in central parts of a network has the problem. To assure RAPID recovery from link and node failures in IP potential to affect hundreds of thousands of phone conversations networks, we present a new recovery scheme called or TCP connections, with obvious adverse effects. The ability to numerous Routing Configurations (NRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single recover from failures has always been a central design goal in mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the Internet . IP networks are intrinsically robust, since IGP the root cause of the failure. NRC is strictly connectionless, and routing protocols like OSPF are designed to update the assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and forwarding information based on the changed topology after a allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link failure. This re-convergence assumes full distribution of the new immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented link state to all routers in the network domain. When the new with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we presenters, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability, state information is distributed, each router individually endorsement path lengths, and load distribution after a calculates new valid routing tables. failure. We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered This network-wide IP re-convergence is a time consuming traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when NRC is used. process, and a link or node failure is typically followed by a period of routing instability. During this period, packets may be I.INTRODUCTION dropped due to invalid routes. This phenomenon has been I recent years the Internet has been transformed from a special studied in both IGP  and BGP context , and has an adverse purpose network to an ubiquitous platform for a wide range of effect on real-time applications . Events leading to a re- everyday communication services. The demands on Internet convergence have been shown to occur frequently . Much reliability and availability have increased accordingly. A effort has been devoted to optimizing the different steps of the disruption of a link in central parts of a network has the convergence of IP routing, i.e., detection, dissemination of potential to affect hundreds of thousands of phone information and shortest path calculation, but the convergence conversations or TCP connections, with obvious adverse time is still too large for applications with real time demands effects. The ability to recover from failures has always been a central design goal in the Internet , IP networks are ANTICIPATED SYSTEM intrinsically robust, since IGP routing protocols like OSPF are Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure designed to update the forwarding information based on the scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and changed topology after a failure. This re-convergence assumes node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. full distribution of the new link state to all routers in the NRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination network domain. When the new state information is distributed, based hop-by-hop forwarding. NRC is based on keeping each router individually calculates new valid routing tables. additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet VACANT SYSTEM forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. In recent years the Internet has been transformed from a 129 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011 II. NRC OVERVIEW NRC is based on building a small set of endorsement routing configurations, that are used to route recovered traffic on alternate paths after a failure Our NRC approach is threefold. First, we create a set of endorsement configurations, so that every network component is excluded from packet forwarding in one the network topology as a graph , with a set of and the associated link weight function configuration. Second, for each configuration, a standard routing algorithm like OSPF issued to calculate configuration specific shortest paths and create forwarding tables in each router, based on the configurations. The use of a standard routing algorithm guarantees loop-free forwarding within one configuration. Finally, we design a Fig. 1. Left: node 5 is isolated (shaded color) by setting a high forwarding process that takes advantage of the endorsement weight on all its connected links (stapled). Only traffic to and configurations to provide rapid recovery from a component from the isolated node will use these restricted links. Right: a failure. configuration where nodes 1, 4 and 5, and the links 1.2, 3.5 and 4.5 are isolated (dotted). Using a standard shortest path calculation, each router creates a set of configuration-specific forwarding tables. For simplicity, an isolated node to a non-isolated node, or it connects two we say that a packet is forwarded according to a configuration, isolated nodes. Importantly, this means that a link is always meaning that it is forwarded using the forwarding table isolated in the same configuration as at least one of its attached calculated based on that configuration. In this paper we talk nodes. These two rules are required by the NRC forwarding about building a separate forwarding table for each process described in Section IV in order to give correct configuration, but we believe that more efficient solutions can forwarding without knowing the root cause of failure. When we be found in a practical implementation. talk of a endorsement configuration B. ALGORITHM III. GENERATING ENDORSEMENT The number and internal structure of endorsement CONFIGURATIONS configurations in a complete set for a given topology may vary A. CONFIGURATIONS STRUCTURE depending on the construction model. If more configurations are NRC configurations are defined by the network topology, created, fewer links and nodes need to be isolated per which is the same in all configurations, and the associated link configuration, giving a richer (more connected) backbone in weights, which differ among configurations. each configuration. On the other hand, if fewer configurations are constructed, the state requirement for the endorsement routing information storages reduced. However, calculating the minimum number of configurations for a given topology graph is computationally demanding. One solution would be to find all valid configurations for the input consisting of the topology graph and its associated normal link weights , and then find the complete set of configurations with lowest cardinality. Finding this set would involve solving the Set Cover problem, which is known to be-complete . This means that a restricted link always connects an isolated node to a non-isolated node. An isolated link either connects 130 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011 The algorithm can be implemented either in a network management system, or in the routers. As long as all routers have the same view of the network topology, they will compute the same set of endorsement configurations. Description: Algorithm 1 loops through all nodes in the topology, and tries to isolate them one at a time, link is isolated in the same iteration as one of its attached nodes. The algorithm terminates when either all nodes and links in the network are isolated in exactly one Fig. 2. Packet forwarding state diagram. configuration, or a node that cannot be 131 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011 the foiled component. We use its performances a reference point and evaluate how closely NRC can approach it. It must be noted that NRC yields the shown performance immediately after a failure, while IP re-convergence can take seconds to complete. FEATURES : NRC: STRENTH AND WEAKNESSESSTRENTH 100% coverage Better control over recovery paths Recovered traffic routed independently WEAKNESSES Needs a topology identifier Packet marking or tunneling Potentially large number of topologies required No-END-to-END recovery Only one switching MULTIPULE ROUTING CONFIGARATION IV. LOCAL FORWARDING PROCESS Relies on numerous logic topologies Builds endorsement configuration so that all components are When a packet reaches a point of failure, the node adjacent tithe protected failure, called the detecting node, is responsible for finding Recovered traffic is routed the endorsement configuration endorsement configuration where the failed component is Detecting and recovery is local Path protection to egress node isolated. The detecting node marks the packet as belonging to this configuration, and forwards the packet. From the packet REFERENCES marking, all transit routers identify the packet with the selected 1) Atlas and A. Zinin, "Basic specification for ip rapid- endorsement configuration, and forward it to the egress node reroute: Loop-free alternates," IETF Internet Draft avoiding the failed component (work in progress), mar 2007, draft-ietfrtgwg- ipfrr- spec-base-06. Consider a situation where a packet arrives at node , and cannot 2) Basu and J. G. Riecke, "Stability issues in OSPF be forwarded to its normal next-hop because of a component routing," in Proceedings of SIGCOMM, San Diego, failure. The detecting node must find the correct endorsement California, USA, Aug. 2001,pp. 225-236. configuration without knowing the root cause of failure, i.e., 3) S. Bryant, M. Shand, and S. Previdi,"IP rapid reroute whether the next-hop node or link has failed, since this using not-viaaddresses," Internet Draft (work in information is generally unavailable. progress), June 2007, draft-ietfrtgwg-ipfrr-notvia- addresses-01. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 4) Boutremans, G. lannaccone, and C. Diot, "Impact of NRC requires the routers to store additional routing link failureson VoIP performance," in Proceedings of configurations. The amount of state required in the routers is International Workshop on Network and Operating related to the number of such endorsement configurations. Since System Support for Digital Audio and Video,2002, pp. routing in endorsement configuration is restricted, NRC will 63-71. potentially give endorsement paths that are longer than the 5) D. Clark, "The design philosophy of the DARPA optimal paths. Longer endorsement paths will affect the total internet protocols,"SIGCOMM, Computer network load and also the end-to-end delay. Full, global IGP re- Communications Review, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 106-114, convergence determines shortest paths in the network without Aug. 1988. 132 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011 6) P. Francois, C. Filsfils, J. Evans, and 0. Bonaventure, 3. Mr. K. JAGANNATH, did his "Achievingsub-second IGP convergence in large IP B.Tech (Information Technology) from networks," ACM SIGCOMM Computer J.N.T.U Hyderabad and M.Tech (computer science) in Dr.M.G.R. Communication Review, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 35 - 44, University, Chennai. My research July2005. interests in areas of Wireless Networks 7) P. Francois, O. Bonaventure, and M. Shand, and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. he have "Disruption free topology reconfiguration in OSPF more than 5 years of teaching networks," in Proceedings INFOCOM, experience he attended so many Anchorage,AK, USA, may 2007. workshops. Presently working in Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam. as a Associate Professor in Information 8) Fortz and M. Thorup, "Internet traffic engineering by Technology Dept. optimizing OSPF weights." in Proceedings INFOCOM, 2000, pp. 519-528. D. S. Johnson, 4.Mr. G.Surendra Reddy did his "Approximation algorithms for combinatorial B.Sc(computer science) from problems, "in Proc. of the 5. annual ACM symp. on S.V.University, M.Sc (computer Theory of computing, 1973,pp. 38-49. science) from Dravidian University and M.E from Sathyabama 9) M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and University. My interest areas are Data Intractability: A Guideto the Theory of NP- warehousing and Mining. I have 2 Completeness. W. H. Freeman & Co., 1979. years of industry experience and 4 10) S. Iyer, S. Bhattacharyya, N. Taft, and C. Diot, "An years of teaching experience.Presently he is working in approach to alleviate link overload as observed on an kuppam engineering college as a Asst.Prof CSE Department. IP backbone," in. 5. Mr.K.N.Dharanidhar did his AUTHORS PROFILES B.Tech (Information Technology) from JNTU Anantapur, M.Tech 1. Mr. S. RAJAN, did his B. Tech (computer science) from JNTU from JNTU Hyderabad, M. Tech Anantapur. My interest areas are Data from Dr. M.G.R. University, warehousing and Mining & Mobile Chennai and currently pursuing Computing.he attended so many Ph. D from Rayalaseema University, workshops and National and Kurnool. I have more than 7 years of International conferences. Presently he teaching experience. Presently is working in kuppam engineering college as a Asst. Prof working as Associate Professor & CSE Department. Head in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering in Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam. My research interests are in the areas of Wireless Networks and Object Oriented Programming. 2. Mr.ALTHAF HUSSAIN H B, did his B.Sc (computer science) in S.V.University and M.Sc (computer science) in Dravidian University and received M.E (computer science and engineering) in Sathyabama University, Chennai. My research interests in areas of Computer Networks, Wireless Networks and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. I attended so many workshops and National and International conferences. I have 7 years experience of teaching in various colleges. Presently working in Kuppam Engineering College, Kuppam. As a Associate Professor in Computer Science and Engineering dept. 133 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500
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