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					Livestock watering systems:
    a profitable solution!




 Presented by Roberto Toffoli,
         agronomist
     Set-up: Julie Marcoux, dta
 Overview of presentation, part 1

Good reasons to act…
  • Current situation
  • Expected outcomes
  • Profitability and financial aid
  • Environmental benefits for the farm and the
  community
  Presentation overview, part 2
Simple methods…

• Watering systems:
      – supplied from the barn
      – supplied from a water source in the pasture
• Setting up a watering system
    Presentation overview, part 2

Simple methods…
• Controlling access to streams:
  – Crossings
  – Fences
   Presentation overview, part 3

• Costs of a watering system

• Available financial aid
          Current situation, part 1

Is the water:
 • Easily accessible?

 • Of a good quality?

 • Available in sufficient
   quantity?

 • Accessible in each
   pasture ?
Easily accessible ?
Easily accessible?
Of good quality?
Of good quality?
A sufficient supply?
Available in each paddock?
           Expected outcomes
• Improved weight gains
• Increased milk production
• Better use of pastures by a more even grazing
• Herd health
• Profitability
• Environmental benefits
           Improved weight gain

• 5 to 30% increase in calves
  and steers younger than 1 yr
  (Lethbridge, Alberta (1992)).

• ¼ lb to ½ lb more / day: for
  growing animals
  (Oregon, Idaho, USA).
           Improved weight gain

Results from the Townships

  ADG of 10% higher per
        weaned calf
     (PATBQ, one farm)
      Improved milk production

Townships results:
    Increase milk
production from 1% to
  9% during pasture
       season
  (PATLQ, 2 farms)
          Better use of pastures

• More uniform grazing
• Prolongs the grazing
  season
• 2 to 9 min. spent at
  through vs 15 min. to
  3 hours at the pond
  (Montana, USA).
                Herd health

• Injuries- fractures
• Foot rot
• Diarrhea
• Mastitis
        Profitability
           • Average net investment
2500$        (after aid)
              • Dairy and beef production

            • Recoup time is short:
              • Dairy: less than a year
              • Beef: 1 to 2 years
Environmental benefits

           • Protection of banks and
             beds of streams
           • Improved water quality
           • Good relations with
             neighbours
           • Image of farmers as
             stewards of the land in the
             community
       Watering systems, part 2

• Supplied from the barn

• Supplied from a water source:
  – creek, spring, pond or underground water
        Barn supplied: advantages
• Same water quality as at
  the barn
• Reliable
• Pressurized system, so
  slope and elevations are
  not an issue
• Supply is known and
  demand often high
• Cheap
                Barn supplied:
               Inconveniences
• May reduce the
  amount of water
  avaiable for other
  uses: barn, home,
  pool, etc.
• May require a more
  powerful pump.
               Pasture supplied

         Ground level


                           Water head

Water intake                  Tank / through


         Stream bed
                                        Water level



                      Gravity fed
           From a water source
              Advantages

• Able to supply cattle
  with water far from
  barn
• Cheap
              From a water source
                 Disadvantages
• Flow is difficult to evaluate
• Water quality must be
  verified
• Insuffisance slope to
  waterer
• If low pressure pay
  attention to choice of float
  valve
Set-up of a surface well




       Spring - fed
Set-up of a surface well
       Stream - fed
                                        SURFACE WELL


                                                                                       Fence to protect the
                                                                                       well

                                               Cover



                                                         1 m ou +


                                                                       30 cm minimum



                                                                       30 cm soil
                                                   Niveau de l ’eau



                                          30 cm
                                                                           Pierres
                                         minimum



                                                               20 cm




                                                         30 cm
                                                                                                Conception :

A 4" drain must be installed to control the water table at the well and evacuate excess         Roland Marchand
                                                                                                Roberto Toffoli
water. A fence protects the well and maintains the quality of the water. An overflow pipe       Pauline Samson
                                                                                                MAPAQ-Estrie
may be required to evacuate excess water.                                                       Octobre 2002
  Controlled access to streams

Controling does not mean setting up 200 km of
fences…!

Short sections to:

   – Direct animals to stream crossing

   – Modify drinking habits
                      Fences
• As little as possible
  (maintenance)
• Only where needed
• Temporary?
• To change habits
Fences

    • At least 1m from top
      of bank




     • After only one
       season
                 Stream crossing

• Reduce slope of banks.
  Slope ±1:8

• Avoid drainage ditches
Crossing

     • 12 to 24 feet wide
     • Fenced on each side
     • Ramps with gravel /
       rock
Culvert

    • Small ditches
    • Streams
       Watering stations




On concrete pad     With fences
(approx 8’X10’)
     Watering stations




On limestone    Without a slab
 screenings
Type of waterer
     Plastic
         • Light, durable, cheap
         • Entrance and exit
           holes are ready
         • Compartment to
           protect float valve
Type of waterer
 Galvanized steel

        • No pre-drilled holes
        • No protection for
          float
Type of waterer
 Tubs, tanks, etc

        • Ecological (recuperation)
        • OK but watch for capacity
          (at least 100 gal)
        • No protection for float
Type of waterer
 Insulated waterer
      •Ideal for late in the fall
      grazing
      •One per farm is suffisant
     Protecting waterers




Wood carver      Jack-of-all-trades
      Protecting waterers




Welding 101 style   Type: G string
Burying water pipes
         • Between 18-24" deep
         • Reduces maintenance and
           increase pipe lifespan
         • Protects agains early
           freezing
         • Keeps water cool
Types of float valves
     Dare-O-Matic
Types of float valves
      Rubbermaid
Types of float valves
       Gallagher
Types of float valves
        Keric
Types of float valves
       Hudson
Hydraulic ram
Nose pump
Sling pump
Solar powered pump
                           Maintenance
                                      • Drain pipes in the fall
Waterer intake Insulated sleeve
                                      • Store waterer and
                              Cover
                                        valves
                             ground   • Protect valves and
                                        pipes from freezing

                   Valve



Water
supply
           Estimated costs, part 3
Case 1: Barn supplied.
                 Estimated costs
Case 2: Supplied from surface well
               Financial aid
         Prime-Vert program

• Non-point source section
   –Withdraw cattle from brooks
   –Repair stream banks
   –Conservation mesures
   –Wind-breaks
   –Conservation practices
         Prime-Vert program
•70% of admissibles costs

•Max of 20 000$ / farm.

•New version of program for 2004.

•Check with local MAPAQ office
     In conclusion




Before               After
                   Thanks

• Alain Gagnon, ing. MAPAQ Rock Forest
• Richard Laroche, ing. MAPAQ Québec
• Martin Paré, agr. MAPAQ Coaticook
• Roberto Toffoli, agr. MAPAQ Rock Forest
                     Thanks
            Eastern townships farms
• Ferme Gilles Provencher Inc, Barnston-Ouest
• Ferme A & M Leblond, Barnston-Ouest
• Ferme Jacques et Lucie Côté, Johnville
• Ferme JG & L Lefebvre, Stanstead-Est
• Ferme Vimo, Ayer’s Cliff
• Ferme Daniel & Maryse, Stanstead
• Ferme La Villandroise, Cookshire
Questions?