Making Mountains

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					                                     The Smilodon
                                     The Princeton Geosciences Newsletter—Spring 2008 Vol. 49 No. 1

                                                 Making Mountains
                                                                                   the	world	as	well	as	host	a	large	percentage	of	the	world’s	oil	and	
                                                                                   gas	reserves.	The	ultimate	goal	is	to	understand	the	geometry	and	
                                                                                   kinematics	of	the	faults	that	produce	the	telescoping,	estimate	the	
                                                                                   rates	at	which	faults	move	and	document	how	the	magnitude,	
                                                                                   geometry	 and	 rate	 of	 deformation	 change	 as	 plate	 boundary	
                                                                                   conditions	or	environmental	(climatic)	conditions	change.
                                                                                   	 Research	 projects	 start	 with	 structurally-based	 field	 studies,	
                                                                                   the	goal	of	which	is	to	produce	new	geologic	maps	at	finer	scales	
                                                                                   and	higher	resolutions	than	previously	available,	(Figures	1A	and	
                                                                                   1B).	New	geologic	mapping	is	essential	because	the	intersection	
                                                                                   of	 three-dimensional	 topography	 and	 geologic	 structures	 on	 a	
                                                                                   two-dimensional	geologic	map	provides	one	of	the	few	ways	we	
                                                                                   can	 understand	 the	 geometry	 of	 structures	 at	 depth.	 Using	 the	
                                                                                   geological	mapping	as	a	foundation,	the	projects	expand	to	include	
                                                                                   the	creation	and	sequential	restoration	of	geologic	cross	sections	
                                                                                   (Figure	2)	as	well	as	the	acquisition	of	new	mineral	cooling	ages	to	
                                                                                   determine	the	distribution,	magnitude	and	rate	of	deformation.
                                                                                   Structural Architecture and Kinematics of the Himalayan
                                                                                   Orogen in Bhutan
                                                                                     The	Tibetan-Himalayan	 orogenic	 system	 is	 the	 archetype	 of	
The Kuru Chu Crew in Bhutan, from left to right, graduate students, Tobgay,        continent-continent	 collision,	 and	 tectonic	 models	 born	 in	 the	
Sean Long, and Catherine Rose, and Nadine McQuarrie, faculty.                      Himalaya	are	invoked	to	explain	orogenesis	all	around	the	world.	
	 The	plate	tectonic	revolution	in	the	late	1960’s	and	early	1970’s	               Yet,	 encompassing	 a	 region	 greater	 than	 2.5x106	 km2,	 and	 only	
divided	the	outer	shell	of	the	Earth	into	a	mosaic	of	15	irregular	                accessible	 to	 geologic	 field	 research	 in	 the	 last	 20-30	 years,	 the	
sections	 or	 plates.	 Initial	 tenants	 of	 plate	 tectonics	 assume	 that	       Tibetan-Himalayan	orogen	may	be	one	of	the	more	incompletely	
these	plates	were	rigid	and	deformed	along	narrow	zones	at	plate	                  mapped	and	thus	least	understood	orogens.	The	Bhutan	Himalaya	
boundaries.	In	the	40	years	following,	we	have	learned	that	when	                  has	traditionally	been	an	area	of	limited	access.	To	determine	the	first	
the	boundary	of	a	plate	is	a	continent,	the	resulting	deformation,	                order	framework	of	the	eastern	Himalaya	in	Bhutan,	and	to	constrain	
or	“orogen,”	can	be	very	broad	and	diffuse.	The	major	mountain	                    the	kinematic	history	of	deformation,	Nadine McQuarrie,	faculty,	
ranges	of	the	world,	Canadian	Rockies,	Andes,	Himalaya,	Zagros,	                   and	her	group	plans	on:	1)	mapping	the	frontal,	unexplored	portion	
and	Alps,	are	the	direct	expression	of	a	diffuse	continental	plate	                of	the	Bhutan	Himalaya;	2)	integrating	new	mapping	with	existing	
boundary.	Common	to	all	of	these	moun-
tain	ranges	is	an	original	sedimentary	basin,	
spanning	 a	 500-1000	 km	 distance	 from	
the	plate	boundary	towards	the	plate	inte-
rior	that	has	been	telescoped	by	numerous	
thrust	faults	and	folds.	The	mountain	range	
formed	 through	 this	 telescoping	 is	 called	
a	 fold	 and	 thrust	 belt.	 Fold-thrust	 belt	
systems	produce	the	largest	mountains	in	

The High Himalaya as viewed from Pele La Pass,

The Smilodon                                                                                                                                 Spring 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30                                                                         52                                                                                                                        14


                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36                                                                               25 50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           31                                                                                                           35                              15
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                              50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     33
                                                                                                                                                                           Figure 1A: Simplified geologic map of Bhutan showing the location0 of the country
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lingmethang               25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2,0                                          25

                                                                                                                                                                           with respect to India, China and large scale lithotectonic boundaries of the Hima-
                                                                                                                                                                                                         45      Gyalpozhing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12                                                                                                        21
                                                                                                                 3,000                                                     laya. STD is the South Tibetan Detachment, MCT is the Main Central Thrust,

                                                  Bumthang Chhu                                                                                                            MBT is the Main Boundary Thrust, and MFT is the Main Frontal Thrust.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        48                                     pCs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               42                  00

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41                          20

                                                                                                                                                                                25                                                                                                                                                         56               20
          2,00                     30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   12
              0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 20

                                                                                                                                        T                                                                                            ST                                                                              45



                                                                                                                                                                                                    pCs                                                                                                                                          24

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            47        34                                                  pZb
                                                                                                       40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ST 43           40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pCs            46

                       maps	of	the	hinterland	regions;	3)	creating	balanced	crustal-scale	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     26 48

                       structural	cross-sections	along	several	transects;	and	4)	restoring	                 45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     62 50

                       these	sections	 sequentially	using	 new	 40Ar/39Ar	ages	 to	elucidate	

                       regional	cooling	patterns	and	ages	of	synkinematic	mineral	growth	                                                                                                                            1,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                50                                        40

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80                                                                                              hu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        me Ch

                       to	date	fault	motion.	                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               47        28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                50                         10            Drang
                       	 To	 do	 this,	 it	 is	 necessary	 to	 gain	 access	 to	 previously	 re-                                                                                                                                                                                           74

                       stricted	 areas	 through	 formal	 collaboration	 with	 the	 Depart-                                                                                                                                                                 pCd                            77
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ST                                                                            1,00
                       ment	 of	 Geology	 and	 Mines	 of	 the	 Kingdom	 of	 Bhutan.	            	                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pCd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             25                                                                                                                         25

                       Fortunately,	a	graduate	student	at	Princeton,	Tobgay,	is	a	geologist	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   26                                                                                                                                                                    32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           26 35
                                                                                                                                                                           35                                                 55

                       with	the	Bhutan	Department	of	Geology	and	Mines.	He	joined	                                                                                                                                                                         55

                       other	 graduate	 students,	 Sean Long	 and	 Catherine Rose,	 and	
                                            pCs                         1,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        48 15

                       McQuarrie,	 in	 conducting	 field	 work	 in	 Bhutan	 in	 April	 and	                                                                                                                                                                              75

                       May,	2007.	The	figures	here	are	the	result	of	a	three-week	portion	                                                                                                           55


                       of	the	fieldwork	on	a	trek	down	the	Kuru	Chu	Valley	(Fig.	3).	The	
          1,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   22                              30
                                                                                                                                                                                                    60                                                                                                                                                                               13          25           24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20                                   41 8

                       crew	created	more	detailed	geologic	maps	of	the	region,	measured	
                                                                                                                                                      30                                                                                                                                                                                       13                                                             21
                                                                                                                         30                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8                                                                                   13
                                                                                                                                                                                                          50                                                                                                                                    10                                                                                        55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          30       10                                                                                       31 36
                       stratigraphic	sections,	mapped	and	collected	samples	to	determining	                                        50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21
                                                                                                                 40                                                                                                                                                                                            ?                             15 22
                                                                                                                                                                                     pZb                                                                        pZd                                                       40              46 56
                       U-Pb	ages	of	zircons	(an	estimate	of	the	maximum	depositional	age)	
                          ST                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                70                                                              10 13

                       as	well	as	thermo-chronological	cooling	ages	of	minerals.	Figure	2	                                                                                10                                                  25                     70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           80 34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 18                                                     27                60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   24                      ?
                       illustrates	their	best	estimate	of	how	the	Indian	margin	has	been	
                                                                                                                                                 60                                                                                                                  20                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18               36
                       telescoped	to	produce	the	Bhutan	Himalayas.	                                                                                                             10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ?                          28
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     26 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       40  14

                                                                                                                                                       35                                                                                                                                                            ?
                       Integrating rates of deformation across an orogen
                  48                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 24               25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pZd                              15



                       	 With	 the	 advent	 of	 global	 positioning	 systems	 (GPS),	 precise	                                                                                                                                                                  40           57 20              52

65                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     70                         14

                       displacement	 fields	 of	 continental	 deformation	 are	 becoming	

                              25                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               45 9
                                                                                                  45                                                                                                                                                                                                             20
                                   pZb                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1,000


                       increasingly	 more	 exact	 and	 available	 across	 continents.	These	
                       displacement	 fields	 provide	 an	 unprecedented	 view	 of	 modern	                                                                                                                                                     pZd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50                          20                                                 16

                       (the	last	10	years)	deformation	occurring	at	plate	boundaries,	but	
                                                                                  11                                                                                                                                                                                                                               52         43
                                                                                       20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40

                       provide	only	a	geologically	instantaneous	snapshot	of	plate	behavior.	
                                                                         Manas C
                                                                             30                                                                                                                                                                                                            pZg
                       Displacement	histories	over	much	longer	scales	(10 -107	years)	are	
                        40                        Panbang
                                                                               5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40

                       required	for	addressing	questions	of	how	the	lithosphere	responds	to	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     40                                                                                   20

                       major	changes	in	plate	geometry	and	kinematics	or	to	understand-
                         66                                                                                                                                                               50

                       ing	what	portion	of	the	modern	strain	recorded	by	GPS	networks	
                       will	result	in	permanent	deformation.	For	many	regions	on	Earth,	                                                                                                                                                                                                       Nganglam
                       the	detailed	geologic	history	necessary	for	long-term	displacement	                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ts
                       fields	is	just	not	available.	In	the	last	few	years,	McQuarrrie	has	

                       focused	on	acquiring	and	compiling	displacement	information	in	
                                        55                                                  50

                                                                                                                                                                           Figure 1B: Geologic map along the Kuru Chu valley of Bhutan mapped by the
                       Bolivia	and	western	North	America.	 India
                                                                                                                                                                           McQuarrie group. Different colors represent the different geologic units of the
                       	 In	Bolivia,	McQuarrie	and	her	collaborators	have	determined	                                                                                      Lesser Himalaya. Because the relief of the country is extreme (2+ km), they were
      Qs               cooling	ages	on	minerals	and	collected	structural	data	that	have	                                                                                              Qs                                                                   MFT
                                                                                                                                                                           able to recognize a thrust sheet carrying lower Lesser Himalayan rocks (blue colors)
                       been	combined	in	a	preliminary	kinematic	model	depicting	how	the	                                                                                   exposed on the ridge tops, that are structurally over a duplex (a package of rocks
                       fold-thrust	belt	has	developed	through	time.	They	have	used	new	                                                                                    that is bounded, and repeated by a series of faults) of upper Lesser Himalayan rocks
                       mapping	to	construct	a	balanced	cross	section	across	the	Andean	                                                                                    (orange, grey and green). A cross section though this region is shown in Figure 2.

                       The Smilodon                                                                                                                                  2                                                                                                                                                                                                 Spring 2008
Figure 2: Cross section along the Kuru Chu valley in Bhutan. Lighter shading represents rocks and structures projected above the topographic surface, that have been
removed by erosion.

plateau	from	the	volcanic	arc	to	the	undeformed	foreland.	The	re-
stored	cross	section	was	imported	into	2D	MOVE	(a	cross-section	                        Does anyone know about this
restoration	program)	and	the	displacement	along	folds	and	faults	
was	forward	modeled	providing	a	quantitative	description	of	the	                                  photo?
kinematics	(displacement,	velocity,	velocity	change)	of	fold-thrust	
belt	deformation.	Cooling	ages	of	minerals	sampled	throughout	
the	region	provide	age	constraints	for	long-term	rates	of	defor-
mation	and	erosion.	Take	a	look	at	McQuarrie’s	web	movie	that	
shows	this	deformation	on	the	internet:	(http://geoweb.princeton.
  This article was contributed by Nadine McQuarrie, faculty.
Read more about her work on her website:

                                                                                       This	photo	of	Harry Hess *32,	faculty,	1934	-1969,	is	on	the	
                                                                                       PBS	website	listed	below,	under:	“A	Science	Odyssey,	People	
                                                                                       and	Discoveries.”	The	Archives	does	not	have	a	copy	of	this	
                                                                                       historic	photo	and	would	like	to	locate	one,	so	that	a	higher	
                                                                                       resolution	scan	can	be	made.	This	one	from	that	website	is	
                                                                                       too	low	in	resolution	for	many	uses.	If	you	have	any	ideas,	
                                                                                       contact	The Smilodon.	

                                                                                         Check	the	Departmental	Website	every	now	and	then	
                                                                                       –interesting	things	you’ll	find.	There’s	the	monthly	Faculty
Figure 3: Photo along the Kuru Chu trek. White lines highlight lower Lesser
Himalayan thrust sheet (Shumar Thrust) carrying the Shumar Formation.
                                                                                      Spotlight,	back	issues	of	The Smilodon,	and	a	wealth	of	infor-
The rocks repeated and folded beneath the thrust sheet are upper Lesser                        mation	on	what	is	going	on	in	Guyot	Hall.
Himalayan rocks (Baxa Formation).                                                            

The Smilodon                                                                                                                                     Spring 2008
                                        The Rise and Fall of the Himalayas:
                                              The View from Bhutan
                                                                                            were	delightfully	mature,	including	departmental	alums,	Jamie
                                                                                            Robertson ’70, Robin McKinney Martin ’75,	and	Mary Yang
                                                                                            	 Bhutan	is	about	the	size	and	shape	of	Switzerland,	but	with	
                                                                                            one-tenth	the	population.	Its	elevation	rises	from	near	sea	level	
                                                                                            to	over	7,500m	(24,600	feet)	on	the	Tibet	border.	Sometimes	
                                                                                            the	bus	rides	seemed	endless,	and	downright	frightening,	but	
                                                                                            there	was	always	a	rock	or	a	panorama	to	divert	attention	while	
                                                                                            traveling.	The	group	did	have	a	rare	view	of	the	highest	unclimbed	
                                                                                            peak	in	the	world,	Gangkhar	Puensum	(24,836	feet).	
                                                                                            	 Hollister	gave	several	formal	talks	to	the	group,	and	geologic	
                                                                                            discussions	included	the	various	theories	about	why	the	Hima-
                                                                                            layas	exist,	how	rock	melts,	the	effects	of	global	warming	on	the	
                                                                                            frequency	of	glacial	lake	outbursts	and	catastrophic	floods,	what	
                                                                                            is	necessary	to	make	a	glacier,	and	the	importance	of	giant	debris	
                                                                                            flows	in	creating	arable	land.	His	geologic	discussions	provided	
                                                                                            relief	between	visits	to	monasteries	and	dzongs.	A	common	phrase	
   The Departmental alums in Bhutan. Left to right: Yang, Robertson,
                                                                                            heard	in	the	group	was	being	“dzonged	out.”	
   Hollister, and Martin. The building in the background is Punakha dzong,                  		 Geological	 research	 in	 Bhutan	 by	 Hollister	 was	 initiated	
   the fortress that was the ancient winter capital of Bhutan and is still the winter       through	his	study	of	rock	samples	collected	during	a	six-week	trek	
   residence of the country’s chief monk. The dzong sits at the confluence of the Pho       in	1987	and	continued	with	several	later	expeditions.	In	2000,	
   River (right) and the Mo River. The group is obscuring the actual confluence,            he	helped	set	up	a	seismic	network	for	earthquake	hazard	assess-
   which was quite visible as the Pho is milky white from glacial flour and the             ment.	In	recent	years,	Hollister	arranged	for	several	Bhutanese	
   Mo is clear. Photo courtesy of Jamie Robertson.                                          students	to	come	to	the	USA	to	study	geology.	They	are	now	
                                                                                            working	with	the	Department	of	Geology	and	Mines	of	Bhutan.	
    Lincoln Hollister,	faculty,	was	the	study	leader	for	a	10-day	                          One	of	these	is	grad	student,	Tobgay,	who	joined	the	Princeton	
  Princeton Journey	to	Bhutan	last	fall	for	23	participants.	This	trip	                     Journey	group	for	several	social	occasions.	As	a	co-adviser	with	
  was	very	much	like	the	“linc-trips”	he	leads	as	part	of	the	classes	                      Nadine McQuarrie,	faculty,	Hollister	remained	in	Bhutan	for	
  he	teaches.	This	time	no	chaperoning	was	needed	–	the	students	                           a	week	to	field	check	Tobgay’s	mapping.

     Alumni Weekly Lists Most                                                               important	advances	in	geological	sciences)	by	theorizing	that	the	
                                                                                            Earth’s	crust	moved	laterally	from	long,	volcanically	active	oceanic	
    Influential Princeton Alumni                                                            ridges.	“Sea-floor	spreading,”	as	the	process	was	later	named,	helped	
                                                                                            establish	the	concept	of	continental	drift	as	scientifically	respectable	
	 The Princeton Alumni Weekly	on	PAW	Online,	January	23,	2008,	                             and	triggered	a	revolution	in	Earth	sciences.	
featured	influential	Princeton	alumni.	Although	no	departmental	                               W. Jason Morgan *64	–	The	first	to	propose	that	the	Earth’s	
alumni	made	the	list	of	the	25	most	influential	alumni	of	all	time,	                        surface	was	formed	of	plates;	co-winner,	2000	Vetlesen	Prize	for	
the	supplemental	list	contained	250	alumni	considered	by	its	panel.	                        Earth	Science	Achievement;	current	Princeton	professor.	
Under	Science	&	Mathematics,	50	were	named;	here	are	the	five	                              	 Tullis Onstott *80	 –	 Princeton	 geology	 professor	 known	 for	
geoscientists,with	PAW	citations,	who	made	the	list:	                                       his	research	into	endolithic	life	beneath	the	Earth’s	surface,	named	
	 William B. Scott 1877	 –	 Vertebrate	 paleontologist;	 leader	                            one	of	Time	magazine’s	100	most	influential	people	in	the	world	
of	 Princeton	 Patagonian	 expeditions;	 brought	 one	 of	 the	 most	                       (2007)	because	his	work	has	shown	that	life	can	exist	in	extreme	
prominent	paleontological	collections	in	the	world	to	the	Princeton	                        conditions	on	Earth	and	hence	possibly	in	outer	space.	
museum	of	geology	and	archaeology.
  Henry Fairfield Osborn 1877	–	Eminent	paleontologist	and	the	                                                    Change of Address?
driving	force	behind	the	establishment	of	the	American	Museum	
of	Natural	History	as	a	preeminent	scientific	institution.	Promoted	                         It’s	silly,	but	The Smilodon	has	to	maintain	its	own	mailing	ad-
eugenics.                                                                                    dress	list.	So	when	you	change	your	address,	send	your	new	one	
	 Harry Hammond Hess *32	–	In	1960	Hess	made	his	single	                                     to	the	Department	to	make	sure	you	don’t	miss	an	issue!	
most	important	contribution	(regarded	as	one	of	the	century’s	most	

The Smilodon                                                                                                                                       Spring 2008
      Monsoon Expedition to the                                               	 Nitrogen	is	a	key	element	in	biological	processes	and	is	a	limiting	
                                                                              factor	for	primary	productivity	in	many	parts	of	the	world	oceans.	
            Arabian Sea                                                       The	input	of	this	element	to	natural	ecosystems	is	mainly	through	
                                                                              nitrogen	fixation,	while	removal	is	possible	through	both	denitrifica-
	 The	focus	of	research	for	a	group	of	scientists,	led	by	Bess Ward,	         tion	and	the	recently	discovered	anammox	process.	Denitrification	
faculty,	who	set	out	to	sea	on	an	unfriendly	monsoonal	expedition	            is	a	respiratory	process	that	is	carried	out	by	facultative	heterotropic	
to	the	Arabian	Sea,	was	to	determine	the	dominant	mechanism	for	              bacteria	when	dissolved	oxygen	becomes	limiting.	Anammox	is	an	
the	removal	of	fixed	Nitrogen	in	the	Oxygen	Minimum	Zones	of	                 autotrophic	(self-nourishing)	process,	where	ammonium	is	oxidized	
the	oceans.	This	is	a	question	that	has	been	troubling	biogeochem-            to	N2	through	the	reduction	of	nitrate,	again	when	dissolved	oxygen	
ists	for	the	past	decade.	Is	it	denitrification	or	anammox?	                  is	limiting.	Thus,	the	question,	what	is	the	dominant	mechanism	
                                                                              for	the	removal	of	fixed	Nitrogen	in	the	Oxygen	Minimum	Zones	
                                                                              (OMZ)	of	the	oceans?	Is	it	denitrification	or	anammox?	This	is	a	
                                                                              key	component	of	the	research	being	done	in	the	Ward	lab.	
                                                                              	 The	ship	had	very	good	facilities	and	the	planned	work	went	
                                                                              very	smoothly.	The	cruise	sailed	during	the	SW	monsoon	season,	
                                                                              so	as	to	sample	during	the	period	when	the	biological	productiv-
                                                                              ity	is	highest	and	when	there	is	an	intense	chemical	turnover.	The	
                                                                              trip	was	lucky	not	only	in	terms	of	unexpectedly	good	weather,	
                                                                              but	also	for	the	hoped	for	extreme	oxygen	minimum	conditions.	
                                                                              The	environmental	conditions	were	one	of	the	most	intense	that	
                                                                              researchers	have	come	across	for	decades.	Detailed	surveys	focused	
                                                                              on	three	locations,	which	included	several	onboard	experiments.	
                                                                              Incubations	were	carried	out	onboard	to	understand	and	tease	out	
                                                                              the	processes	involved	in	microbial	nitrogen	cycling.	In	addition,	
                                                                              several	biological	samples	were	collected	to	study	the	distribution,	
                                                                              diversity,	and	activity	of	microbes	that	catalyze	these	processes.
                                                                                                                           	 Why	 was	 this	 study	
                                                                                                                           in	 a	 far	 away	 place	 so	
Bess Ward and Amal Jayakumar collecting samples for RNA analysis on the                                                    important	 to	 the	 Princ-
deck of the ship.                                                                                                          eton	scientists?	First,	the	
                                                                                                                           Arabian	 Sea	 has	 one	 of	
	 Team	leader,	Bess Ward,	and	other	Princeton	participants,	Amal                                                           the	 largest	 and	 most	 in-
Jayakumar,	senior	research	scholar, Silvia Bulow, gradstudent,	and                                                         tense	Oxygen	Minimum	
Karen Casciotti *02, now	at Woods	Hole	Oceanographic	Institu-                                                              Zones	of	the	world	oceans	
tion,	were	accompanied	by	ten	other	scientists	from	Woods	Hole,	                                                           and,	 hence,	 this	 would	
the	University	of	Washington,	Seattle,	and	collaborators	from	the	                                                         be	 the	 perfect	 place	 to	
National	Institute	of	Oceanography,	Goa,	India.	In	mid–September,	                                                         study	and	understand	this	
2007,	they	sailed	from	Goa	for	a	month	of	sampling	aboard	the	                                                             global	 process.	 Second,	
oceanographic	research	vessel,	R/V	Roger	Revelle,	run	by	Scripps	                                                          anammox	 is	 an	 auto-
Institution	of	Oceanography.	                                                                                              trophic	 process,	 where	
                                                                                                                           the	 source	 of	 carbon	 is	
                                                                                                                           carbon	 dioxide,	 but	 in	
                                                                                                                           denitrification,	 organic	
                                                                                                                           carbon	 is	 oxidized	 and	
                                                                                                                           carbon	dioxide	is	released.	
                                                                                                                           So	if	denitrification	is	the	
                                                                              Top, Karen Casciotti *02 and grad student
                                                                              Silvia Bulow collecting samples for nitrogen dominant	processes,	it	not	
                                                                              isotopes analyses.                           only	produces	carbon	di-
                                                                                                                           oxide	as	a	by	product,	but	
                                                                              also	nitrous	oxide	-	a	potent	greenhouse	gas.	Hence,	these	studies	
                                                                              are	important	not	only	in	terms	of	understanding	global	nitrogen	
                                                                              cycling,	but	is	also	related	to	global	warming.	The	samples	from	
                                                                              this	NSF-funded	research	are	currently	being	analyzed,	and	all	are	
                                                                              anxiously	awaiting	the	results	of	this	research.
                                                                                 The text and pictures were provided by senior research scholar Dr.
                                                                              Amal Jayakuma, who came to Princeton in 2000 from the National
R/V Roger Revelle
                                                                              Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. <>

The Smilodon                                                                                                                          Spring 2008
                                News                                               in	areas	not	the	territory	of	any	nation,	the	history	and	purposes	of	
                                                                                   the	International	Polar	Year,	etc.	It	is	not	a	tourist	trip.	Roots	and	
  Fred Roots *49 has	just	returned	from	Antarctica.	For	the	past	                  the	team	work	the	kids	pretty	hard	–	two	compulsory	lectures	a	day,	
eight	years	he	has	been	part	of	a	team	of	oceanographers,	biologists,	             small	workshops,	and	a	fair	amount	of	hiking	over	rocks,	observing	
glaciologists,	etc.,	who	take	high	school	students	to	the	Arctic	in	               penguin	rookeries,	cruising	among	icebergs,	and	using	up	camera	
the	northern	summer	and	to	the	Antarctic	in	the	southern	summer.	                  batteries	trying	to	catch	whales	as	they	breach	the	surface.		This	
They	introduce	them	to	a	completely	new	environment	and	give	                      is	organized	by	a	non-profit	enterprise	known	as	Students	On	Ice	
them	a	chance	to	appreciate	global	change	and	its	environmental	                   (SOI).			Going	south	for	ten	days	this	year,	they	had	64	students	
consequences,	effects	of	resource	exploitation,	international	politics	            ages	 15	 to	 18	 from	 ten	 countries.		Check	 the	 web	 site:	 www.
                                                                         	Roots’	partner	on	the	SOI	education	team	is	
                                                                                   from	Princeton,	of	course,	Eric Galbraith,	AOS	postdoc	research	
     Fourth GeoGrads Reunion -                                                     associate.	<>
        Northern California                                                        	 Jerry McHugh ’51 called	our	attention	to	the	photo	credit	for	
                                                                                   the	excellent	picture	of	Mt.	Guyot,	CO,	which	was	taken	by	his	
       September 15-22, 2008                                                       son.	Photo	credit	should	go	to	Burke	McHugh.
                                                                                      Dave Okaya ’78	 is	 on	 the	 Earth	 Sciences	 research	 faculty	 at	
                                                                                   the	University	of	Southern	California	and	has	edited	a	new	book	
                                                                                   (see	BOOKS).	Besides	New	Zealand,	other	things	he	is	working	
                                                                                   on	 involve	 shallow	 slab	 subduction	 under	 Japan,	 lithospheric	
                                                                                   deformation	 and	 seismic	 imaging	 (field	 experiments)	 of	Taiwan	
                                                                                   and	northern	Italy,	and	seismic	anisotropy,	particularly	associated	
                                                                                   with	crustal	tectonic	deformation.	In	addition,	he	is	working	on	
                                                                                   advanced	cyber-infrastructure	with	the	Southern	California	Earth-
                                                                                   quake	Center.	He	often	runs	into	Jeffrey Park ’78,	Kate Miller
                                                                                   ’82,	Anne Trehu ’75,	and	Art Lerner-Lam ’75,	because	they	are	
                                                                                   all	 involved	 with	 IRIS	 (Incorporated	 Research	 Institutions	 for	
                                                                                   Seismology).	 He	 also	 notes	 that	 Peter Malin *78	 is	 now	 at	 the	
                                                                                   University	of	Auckland,	establishing	a	research	center.

  Snowy Lassen Peak, a 27,000-year-old composite dacite dome. The 19-22
  May 1915 eruptions at the summit produced pyroclastic flows and debris
  avalanches that swept down this north slope, denuding the area now covered
  with young trees. Photo by Muffler.

  	 All	Geology	PhDs	and	Masters	folk	from	1950–1971,	former	
  faculty	from	those	years,	and	spouses/partners	are	invited	to	the	
  Fourth	Princeton	GeoGrads	Reunion.	The	preliminary	planned	
  highlights	of	the	Reunion	include	an	overview	of	how	California	
  was	 geologically	 assembled	 given	 by	 Eldridge Moores *63,	
  and	the	intricacies	of	the	geology	of	the	southernmost	Cascade	
  volcanoes	presented	by	Patrick Muffler*62.
  	 The	first	part	of	the	itinerary	includes	excursions	to	the	San	
  Andreas	Fault	for	geology	and	scenery,	Napa	Valley	for	geol-
  ogy	and	a	winery,	and	to	the	Foothills	of	the	Sierra	Nevada	
  for	geology	and	history	or	to	Old	Sacramento	for	museums	
  and	shopping.	Then	they	will	travel	through	the	spectacular	
  Feather	River	Canyon	and	tour	Lassen	Volcanic	National	Park.	                    	 He	contributes	the	above	picture,	taken	in	2004,	with	Okaya
  The	Reunion	group	will	spend	four	nights	in	Davis	and	two	                       at	top	left,	next	to	Park,	with	Dalia Bach ’04,	lower	left,	next	to	
  in	Chester,	before	returning	to	Davis.	                                          Lerner-Lam.	They	were	attending	a	joint	workshop	for	the	NSF-
  	 They	have	a	full	list	of	folks	who	have	pre-registered,	but	                   Continental	Dynamics	projects	RETREAT	and	CAT/SCAN	held	
  anyone	interested	in	being	an	alternate	in	case	of	cancellations	                in	Camigliatello	Sila	(Calabria),	Italy.	<>
  may	email	Eldridge	and	Judy	Moores	at	                          	 Malcolm Pringle ’79	is	now	in	the	Boston	area.	For	the	last	25	
  or	call	them	at	530-756-4639.	Hope	to	see	you	in	2008!	                          years,	he’s	been	a	research	geologist	specializing	in	Ar/Ar	geochro-
  	 The GeoGrads Reunion Organizing Committee: Eldridge and                        nology.	He	earned	his	PhD	in	1992	from	the	University	of	Hawaii	
  Judy Moores, Patrick and Pat Muffler, Walter Alvarez *67,                        at	Manoa	after	10-plus	years	of	commuting	between	Honolulu	and	
  Bob Garrison *65, and Ian McGregor *64.                                          the	USGS	Geochronology	Lab	at	Menlo	Park,	CA.	In	1993,	Pringle	
                                                                                   moved	to	the	Free	University	Amsterdam	for	an	NSF	International	

The Smilodon                                                                                                                            Spring 2008
Research	Fellowship.	Jumping	across	the	North	Sea,	he	spent	10	
years	at	the	Universities	of	Glasgow	and	Edinburgh	running	the	
                                                                                  YBRA Field Camp Bridge Over
UK’s	Ar/Ar	dating	laboratory	near	Glasgow.	He	then	moved	back	                    Rock Creek Must Be Replaced
across	 the	 Atlantic	 to	 Boston	 in	 2004	 to	 help	 upgrade	 and	 run	
the	Ar/Ar	lab	at	MIT.	Today,	Pringle	splits	his	time	between	the	
MIT	lab	and	teaching	7th	and	8th	grade	in	urban	Boston.	For	the	
next	25	years,	he	hopes	to	use	middle-school	math	and	science	as	
a	gateway	to	an	all-encompassing	education	for	urban	adolescents.	
   Sam Bull ’82	 wrote	 that	 he	 started	 an	 alternative	 education	
business	in	1994,	and	for	the	past	seven	years	he	and	his	wife	have	
been	running	a	fully-accredited	alternative	first-year	of	college	called	
LEAPYEAR.	Students	earn	a	full	year	of	academic	credit	spending	
the	fall	semester	living,	working,	and	studying	in	either	India	or	
South	America,	and	the	spring	semester	doing	a	three-month	solo	
internship	 in	 one	 of	 126	 countries.	 “We	 have	 our	 own	 campus	
north	 of	 San	 Francisco,	 and	 our	 students	 spend	 eight	 weeks	 in	
residence	there	learning	practical	life	skills.	The	idea	is	for	them	
to	learn	about	themselves	and	the	world,	so	that	they	can	have	a	
broader	and	deeper	context	for	the	remaining	years	of	their	college	
education.”	You	can	read	about	this	at:	<>.	He	
started	this	because	many	young	people	come	out	of	high	school	
and	go	straight	on	to	college	without	having	real	life	experiences	to	          The bridge over Rock Creek today
inform	their	choice	of	majors	or	to	guide	their	decisions.	Students	
today	 are	 information	 rich	 and	 experience	 poor.	The	 aim	 is	 to	         	 When	 the	 YBRA	 field	 camp	 was	 constructed	 in	 1935-36,	 a	
redress	that	inbalance.	<>                                   bridge	over	Rock	Creek	was	needed	to	give	convenient	access	up	
	 Thumbing	through	the	SCIENCE	journal,	your	editor	found	                      Howell	Gulch	to	the	newly-constructed	field	camp.	That bridge	
the	name	Fiske under	the	ScienceCAREERS	section.	Going	to	the	                  was	completed	in	December	1938,	and	since	then,	at	least	three	
internet	at	to	Careers,	then	Career Develop-             generations	of	Princeton	students	and	faculty	have	crossed	over	it.	
ment,	and	under	From Our Columnists	to	Opportunities	up	pops	                   The	structure	was	partly	overhauled	or	rebuilt	in	the	1960’s,	but	
Fiske’s	picture	and	the	Opportunities: Series Index. This	has	a	listing	        if	there	ever	was	a	“Rube	Goldberg	solution”	to	the	wear-and-tear	
of	columns	written	by	none	other	than	Peter Fiske ’88.	He	writes	               of	 countless	 field	 vehicles	 and	 the	 pounding	 on	 the	 foundation	
an	advice	column	about	once	a	month	for	young	scientists	and	                   supports	by	the	rush	of	the	spring	runoff,	you	can	see	it	there.
has	done	so	since	September,	2006. Fiske	is	the	author	of	several	              	 Marv Kauffman *60,	chair	of	the	YBRA	Bridge	Committee,	
books	on	career	development,	and	continues	his	advice	through	                  says,	“the	bridge	is	in	desperate	need	of	immediate	replacement;	it	
the	ScienceCareers	operation.	Check	it	out!	                                    is	no	longer	safe;	this	is	not	an	option,	but	a	necessity.”	Further,	he
	 Kristina Rodrigues Czuchlewski ’98	 writes	 that	 she	 is	 now	               notes	that	“current	estimates	to	remove	the	old	bridge,	purchase,	
living	in	Albuquerque	with	husband	David	(P	’98)	and	their	two	                 install	 a	 new	 bridge,	 and	 get	 the	 necessary	 permits,	 range	 from	
girls.	She	completed	her	PhD	in	Earth	and	Environmental	Sciences	               $125,000	to	$140,000,	depending	on	site	and	construction	issues.”	
from	Columbia	in	2005	and	took	a	two-year	postdoc	at	Columbia’s	                The	new	owner	of	the	large	land	holdings	below	camp,	formerly	
Earth	Institute.	She	is	now	looking	for	a	faculty	position	in	Earth	            known	as	Sundance,	pledged	a	significant	amount,	and	the	YBRA	
science	or	physical	geography.	<>
Dalia Bach Kirschbaum ’04	is currently	working	on	her	Ph.D.	
with	advisor,	Art Lerner-Lam ’75,	at	Colombia	University,	in	the	
Department	of	Earth	and	Environmental	Sciences.	Currently	living	
in	Washington,	DC,	she	is	working	in	landslide	research	–	specifi-
cally	trying	to	evaluate	and	improve	a	global	algorithm	that	people	
at	NASA	have	developed.	At	NASA	Goddard	since	last	June,	she	
plans	to	stay	until	this	June,	hoping	to	finish	her	Ph.D.	by	May,	
2009.	Then,	she	will	look	for	a	postdoc	for	a	year	before	trying	her	
hand	at	some	hazards	policy	work.	<>
   Allie Stone ’06	is	working	in	New	York	City	for	Morgan	Stanley	
in	the	Public	Finance	Higher	Education	Group.	She	helps	colleges	
and	universities	fund	capital	projects	by	issuing	bonds.	She	says	
that	every	day	she	uses	many	quantitative	and	analytical	skills	she	
learned	while	studying	geosciences	at	Princeton!	<allison.stone@>                                                              Southeast foundation of the Rock Creek Bridge

The Smilodon                                                                                                                            Spring 2008
                                                                              	 The	YBRA	course	at	Red	Lodge	was	begun	officially	in	1955,	
                                                                              when	 John Maxwell *46,	 faculty	 1946-1970,	 and	 Pete	 Foose,	
                                                                              Franklin	&	Marshall	College	faculty	member,	organized	the	first	
                                                                              formal	 cooperative	 geology	 field	 course	 under	 the	 Field	 Course	
                                                                              Committee.	The	next	year	the	course	incorporated	the	geological	
                                                                              engineering	courses.	Soon	thereafter,	it	was	decided	that	a	university	
                                                                              sponsor	was	needed,	so	it	became	a	Princeton	University	course,	the	
                                                                              Princeton-YBRA	Summer	Field	Course.	As	a	cooperative	course,	
                                                                              faculty	members	and	students	were	drawn	from	Princeton	and	a	
                                                                              number	of	other	colleges	and	universities.	
                                                                              	 Initially,	 the	 course	 was	 directed	 by	 Maxwell	 and	 Foose.	 But	
Fred Burr Creek Bridge near Deer Lodge, Montana. A type of bridge being       from	1957	through	1991,	direction	under	the	Field	Course	Com-
                                                                              mittee	was	taken	over	by	Bill Bonini ’48,	faculty	1953-1996,	later	
has	pledged	$50,000	toward	the	cost.	In	addition,	several	other	              alternating	direction	with	Marv Kauffman *60,	then	of	Franklin	&	
landowners	have	agreed	to	participate.	                                       Marshall	College.	From	1992	until	2007,	Bob	Giegengack,	Univer-
	 So	if	you	are	one	of	the	hundreds	of	Princetonians,	who	shared	             sity	of	Pennsylvania	faculty	member,	directed	the	course	on	behalf	
the	Red	Lodge	experience,	consider	making	a	contribution	to	help	             of	Penn,	and	the	course	became	the	Penn-YBRA	Field	Course.	
replace	the	old	bridge.	If	you	have	any	questions,	you	may	reach	             	 Everyone	 welcomes	 Sisson	 and	 the	 University	 of	 Houston	 in	
Kauffman	by	phone	(406-425-1890	or	512-639-0337)	or	send	an	                  beginning	a	new	phase	in	the	operation	of	this	widely-acclaimed	
e-mail	to	his	address	below.	Checks	may	be	made	payable	to	YBRA               field-course	activity	based	at	the	Red	Lodge	field	camp.	
Capital Improvement Fund. The	address	is:	YBRA,	PO	Box	20598,	
Billings,	MT	59104.	<>
   Photo credits: M. Kauffman, Linda Dutcher, and Betsy Campen
                                                                              On Site with Maurice Haycock *31
                                                                                      Artist of the Arctic
          The Red Lodge Summer
               Field Course
	 This	coming	summer	the	YBRA	Geology	Field	Course,	based	at	
the	camp	at	Red	Lodge,	Montana,	will	be	directed	by	Jinny Sisson
*85,	University	of	Houston.	The	course	will	be	administered	as	the	
University	of	Houston-YBRA	Summer	Geology	Field	Course.	Sis-
son	has	been	a	frequent	teacher	in	the	field	course	over	the	years.	
	 In	1936	W. Taylor Thom, Jr.,	faculty	1927–1956,	was	instru-
mental	in	founding	the	Yellowstone–Bighorn	Research	Association	
and	its	camp	on	Mt.	Maurice	outside	Red	Lodge.	Earlier,	the	camp	
was	used	as	a	base	for	graduate	student	thesis	work.	Starting	in	
1946,	Thom used	the	camp	as	a	base	for	the	Princeton	Geological	
Engineering	summer	courses	in	field	geology.	In	those	early	days,	 Roots, left, sent this photo with Haycock at the North Pole in 1969.
much	effort	went	into	plane-table	mapping	in	the	Elk	Basin	anti-
cline,	an	operating	oil	field	in	the	Bighorn	Basin.                     Maurice Haycock *31	 studied	 in	 Guyot	 Hall	 under	 William
                                                                     Berryman Scott,	 faculty	 1880–1930,	 and	 A.H. Phillips,	 faculty	
                                                                     1888–1934,	and	it	was	under	Phillips	that	he	learned	the	meticulous	
                                                                     principles	of	mineral	chemical	analysis	that	shaped	his	professional	
                                                                     career.	He	eventually	became	senior	mineral	analyst	of	the	Geological	
                                                                     Survey	of	Canada	and	then	Head	of	the	Mineral	Identification	Section	
                                                                     of	the	Mines	Branch	(the	name	changed	under	him	several	times)	of	
                                                                     the	Canadian	federal	government,	and	was	well	known	in	international	
                                                                     mineralogical	circles.	Along	the	way,	he	identified	the	copper-iron	
                                                                     sulphide,	now	known	formally	as	Haycockite, Cu4Fe5S8.1
                                                                     	 At	the	same	time,	Haycock	was	a	dedicated	and	enthusiastic	field	
                                                                     man.	 As	 an	 undergraduate,	 he	 spent	 an	 entire	 year,	 1926–1927,	
                                                                     on	a	Geological	Survey	party	in	the	Canadian	Arctic.	In	those	pre-
                                                                     aeroplane	days	to	do	a	full	summer’s	field	work	in	the	Arctic,	it	was	
                                                                               Haycockite	is	named	for	Dr.	M.	H.	Haycock	...	who	wrote	a	report	(unpublished)	
                                                                              describing	this	mineral	when	he	was	a	graduate	student	of	Professor	E.	Sampson	at	
                                                                              Princeton	in	1931...identified	in	a	specimen	originally	collected	the	
The YBRA Geology Field Camp at Red Lodge in 1992                              Transvaal,	during	an	International	Geological	Congress	field	trip	in	1929.	From:	L.	J.	
                                                                              Cabri	&	S.	R.	Hall,	American	Mineralogist,	v.	57,	pp.	689-708,	1972.

The Smilodon                                                              8                                                                       Spring 2008
                                                                           intensely	curious	and	studious	as	well	as	artistically	talented	and	a	
                                                                           personal	friend	of	many	Inuit,	Haycock	became	a	well-known	phe-
                                                                           nomenon,	an	up-to-date	all-round	arctic	scientist,	artist,	and	historian.	
                                                                           One	example	of	this	was	his	vital	contribution	to	a	pioneering,	multi-
                                                                           discipline	study	at	the	North	Pole	in	1969.	For	four	weeks	Roots,	
                                                                           Haycock,	and	party	took	very	careful	observations	of	polar-orbiting	
                                                                           satellite	tracks	compared	with	celestial	measurements.	This,	combined	
                                                                           with	 gravity,	 magnetic,	 hydrographic	 surveys,	 and	 ocean	 tilt,	 gave	
                                                                           information	on	the	shape	of	the	geoid	and	“polar	wobble.”	During	
                                                                           the	Cold	War,	this	information	was	critical	for	satellite	navigation	and	
                                                                           interception	of	intercontinental	missiles.	After	the	Cold	War,	those	
                                                                           geodetic	calculations	were	incorporated	into	the	equations	that	are	
                                                                           used	in	every	GPS	system	the	world	over.	Incidental	to	this	work,	
                                                                           Haycock	 produced	 some	 memorable	 paintings	 of	 the	 camps	 and	
                                                                           scenery	at	Latitude	90º	North.
                                                                              Haycock	made	hundreds	of	paintings	of	Arctic	landscapes	and	his-
Head of Tanquary Fjord, 1963. West coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada
                                                                           toric	sites.	Back	at	his	home	in	Ottawa,	many	of	these	were	developed	
necessary	to	go	up	one	summer	by	ship,	spend	the	winter	in	the	field,	 into	canvases	which	now	hang	in	boardrooms,	offices	and	galleries	
and	come	back	south	the	next	year.	During	that	winter	he	lived	with	 across	the	country.	In	his	later	years,	concerned	at	the	vandalism	and	
a	native	family	and	developed	life-long	friendships	with	the	Inuit.	
From	boyhood,	he	had	enjoyed	sketching	and	painting.	On	the	ship	
that	brought	him	back	from	his	first	arctic	geological	trip	were	two	
internationally	 famous	 artists	 who	 encouraged	 him	 and	 gave	 him	
pointers	on	landscape	painting.	Thereafter,	wherever	his	mineralogical	
investigations	took	him,	especially	in	the	Arctic,	he	painted	landscapes	
and	geological	formations,	and,	as	his	interest	and	knowledge	of	arc-
tic	history	and	Inuit	pre-history	grew,	he	assembled	a	collection	of	
paintings	of	historic	sites	in	Greenland,	Arctic	Canada,	and	northern	
   In	1965	at	age	65, Haycock	retired	from	his	senior	government	
mineralogical	job.	Still	a	vigorous	field	man,	he	then	could	devote	his	
time	to	arctic	travel	and	painting	while	keeping	his	interests	in	Earth	
sciences.	The	very	year	that	he	“retired”	he	joined	Fred Roots *49	and	
the	geophysical/	hydrographic	party	in	the	central	Canadian	Arctic	
Archipelago	as	a	volunteer,	where	his	interest	in	the	rich	historical	 Dorset Site Kettle Lake, 1969, in the valley at the head of Tanquary Fjord, Ellesmere
sites	in	the	area	fitted	in	well. For	the	next	twenty-two	years	he	was	a	 Island. The Dorset people were the second-latest civilization to move from Siberia
welcome	addition	to	scientific	parties	in	many	parts	of	the	Canadian	 across northern Canada and even on to Greenland. They occupied the area from
Arctic,	 sketchbook	 and	 painting	 materials	 in	 his	 pack	 and	 almost	 about 800 BCE to 1000 CE.
always	lending	a	hand	directly	in	the	scientific	work.	Indefatigable,	 desecration	by	tourists	and	collectors	of	many	of	the	most	valuable	
                                                                                          and	sensitive	historic	sites,	he	developed	the	idea	of	making	a	picture	
                                                                                          book	of	his	paintings	of	the	more	important	sites	to	show	how	they	
                                                                                          were	before	they	were	disturbed	or	destroyed.	Haycock	was	only	well	
                                                                                          started	on	this	–	still	going	to	the	Arctic	in	the	summer	–	when	he	
                                                                                          died	in	1988,	but	his	daughter,	Kathy	Haycock,	published	the	book	
                                                                                          listed	below.	
                                                                                          	 Haycock was	a	distinguished	alumnus,	who	was	an	internation-
                                                                                          ally-acclaimed	 mineralogist	 and	 who	 became	 a	 well-known	 arctic	
                                                                                          artist	and	contributor	to	polar	geology	and	geophysics.	Roots	felt	
                                                                                          that	many	Smilodon	readers	would	be	interested.	And	there	will	be	
                                                                                          a	few,	perhaps,	who	will	remember	the	stern	training	from	Professor	
                                                                                          Phillips that	Haycock	often	spoke	about.
                                                                                              On site with Maurice Haycock, Artist of the Arctic. Paintings
                                                                                          and Drawings of Historical Sites in the Canadian Arctic, by Maurice
                                                                                          Haycock *31, 2007, Edgar Kent Publishers, distributed by University
Firth River, 1970, in the Yukon, Canada, not far East of the Alaska Border. A             of Toronto Press. This article was contributed by Fred Roots *49. He
rich archeological site, where successive waves of people camped, migrating from          continues to work on polar and geoscience issues, and is Science Advisor
Siberia across the land bridge of the Bering Strait. It includes some of the oldest       Emeritus to Environment Canada. Reproduction of paintings courtesy of
dated artefacts in North America,                                                         Kathy Haycock.

The Smilodon                                                                                                                                    Spring 2008
          Around the Department                                              involving	sedimentology,	geochemistry,	and	magnetism	to	reconstruct	
                                                                             Cenozoic	paleoenvironments.	Rachel Stanley	from	Woods	Hole	is	
        This listing covers the period from May 2007 to date.
                                                                             a	new	postdoc	with	Michael Bender,	faculty.	She	is	a	Hess	Fellow,	
   Faculty:	Guust Nolet,	faculty	1991-2008,	retired	at	the	end	of	the	       and	as	well,	has	a	NOAA	Global	Change	Postdoctoral	Fellowship.
Fall	Term	in	January	2008.	He	has	taken	a	position	at	the	University	        	 New AOS postdoc and staff arrivals listed in Fall 2007:	On	sabbati-
of	Nice,	Sophia	Antipolis,	France.	                                          cal	from	the	National	Taiwan	Normal	University, Chau-Ron Wu,	is	
	 Since	January	2007	George Philander,	faculty,	has	been dividing	           collaborating	with	Leo Oey,	AOS	staff,	on	mathematical	modeling	
his	time	between	Princeton	and	the	University	of	Cape	Town,	South	           and	observational	data	syntheses	of	circulation	and	wave	dynamics	on	
Africa.	There	he	is	research	director	of	the	African	Centre	for	Climate	     the	Western	Pacific	oceans;	Anna Pirani	is	working	for	International	
and	Earth	System	Science	(ACCESS),	which	is	supported	jointly	by	            Climate	Variability	and	Predictability	(CLIVAR),	and	is	responsible	
several	universities	and	government	agencies	in	South	Africa.	This	          for	coordinating	the	activities	of	the	CLIVAR	working	groups	on	
center	engages	in	research	and	education	related	to	climate	and	en-          Seasonal	 to	 Interannual	 Prediction,	 on	 Coupled	 Modelling,	 on	
vironmental	issues.	Opportunities	for	research	are	excellent	because	        Ocean	Model	Development,	and	the	PAGES-CLIVAR	Intersection	
southern	Africa	has	an	exceptional	diversity	of	climatic	zones,	and	is	      Panel;	Charlie Stock,	postdoc	from	Berkeley	and	Princeton	having	
surrounded	by	three	oceans	that	are	strikingly	different:		the	waters	       received	his	PhD	from	WHOI,	is	working	with	the	Ocean	Biogeo-
off	the	southwestern	coast	of	Africa	are	cold	and	biologically	highly	       chemical	Model	Development	Team	on	improving	representation	
productive;	those	off	the	southeastern	coast	are	warm	and	contain	           of	zooplankton	and	coastal	phytoplankton	dynamics	in	the	global	
entirely	different	species;	and	the	waters	of	the	essentially	unexplored	    ocean	biogeochemistry	model;	Dilip Ganguly,	postdoc	from	the	
Southern	Ocean	absorb	a	considerable	amount	of	atmospheric	carbon	           Physical	Research	Laboratory	in	Ahmedabad,	India,	is	working	with	
dioxide.	 Philander will	be	there	for	the	2008	Spring	term	along	with	       V. Ramaswamy,	faculty,	running	coupled	model	simulations	with	
nearly	twenty	Princeton	undergraduates	on	a	semester	abroad.                 “real-world”	aerosols	to	understand	the	observed	climate	changes	in	
	 New AOS Program faculty: Isidoro Orlanski	 has	 retired	 from	             China	and	India,	and	on	model	development	to	accommodate	the	
GFDL	and	joins	the	AOS	Program	as	Senior	Scientist.	He	continues	            refinement	in	aerosol	properties;	Laurent White,	postdoc	from	the	
research	on	storms	and	their	consequence	to	climate	variability	and	         Université	Catholique	de	Louvain	in	Belgium,	is	working	on	ocean	
change	as	well	as	to	co-teach	AOS	572.                                       general	circulation	modeling	and	numerical	methods	with	Alistair
	 New staff arrivals:	Since	last	April,	Mary Rose Russo	has	been	the	        Adcroft,	AOS	Staff;	Arnico Panday,	postdoc	from	MIT’s	Center	
new	departmental	Administrative	Assistant.	New	to	the	University,	           for	Global	Change	Science,	will	be	working	with	Larry Horowitz,	
she	has	worked	in	office	administration	for	the	National	Alliance	           GFDL	 staff,	 and	 Hiram Levy,	 faculty,	 on	 the	 effects	 of	 regional	
on	Mental	Illness,	Lenox	China	and	Crystal,	Educational	Testing	             and	global	atmospheric	chemistry	of	the	topographic	venting	by	the	
Service	and	the	Nassau	Inn.	Theresa Autino	joined	the	Department	            Himalaya	of	polluted	boundary	layer	air	from	the	Ganges	Basin.
last	August	as	the	new	finance/grants	manager	after	many	years	in	              New AOS postdoc and staff arrivals listed in Spring 2008: Stephanie
her	own	business.                                                            Henson,	is	working	with	Jorge Sarmiento,	faculty,	on	developing	
	 The new graduate students for 2007-2008 are:	Sarah E. Fawcett,	            empirical	models	for	the	prediction	of	the		biological	response	to	
from	Harvard	University;	Jessica C. Hawthorne,	Rice	University,	             global	warming.	She	is	from	the	National	Oceanography	Centre,	
Houston;	Kuan Huang,	Peking	University,	China;	Jenna L. Losh,	               Southampton,	via	a	postdoc	at	the	University	of	Maine;	Eun Young
University	of	Illinois,	Urbana-Champaign;	Catherine V. Rose,	Uni-            Kwon,	from	University	of	California,	Irvine,	will	be	working	with	
versity	of	Saint	Andrews,	Scotland;	Shannon E. Tronick,	Syracuse	            Sarmiento	 and	 Anand Gnanadesikan,	 GFDL/AOS	 on	 offline	
University;	Dong Wang,	Peking	University,	China;	Enning Wang,	               transport	calculations	for		biogeochemical	processes;	Joining	AOS	
University	Science	&	Technology,	China;	and	Lisha Xie,	Univer-               staff	members,	Geoff Vallis	and	Mike Winton,	is	Torge Martin,	
sity	Science	&	Technology,	China;	and in AOS:	Erica Staehling,	              working	on	coupled	processes	of	atmosphere,	sea	ice	and	ocean,	and	
Bucknell	University,	Pennsylvania;	Andrew Ballinger,	University	of	          related	feedback	mechanisms	and	the	variability	of	the	system.	He	
Oklahoma,	Oklahoma;	and	Peng Xie,	Peking	University,	China.	                 is	from	University	of	Bremen,	Alfred	Wegener	Institute	for	Polar	
   New postdoc arrivals:	 Yajing Liu,	 a	 Hess	 Postdoctoral	 Fellow,	       and	Marine	Research;	Also	working	with	Vallis	is	Joke Lubbecke,	
received	her	Ph.D.	from	Harvard	University	is	working	with	Allan             a	 visiting	 assistant	 professional	 specialist	 from	 University	 of	 Kiel,	
Rubin,	 faculty,	 on	 models	 and	 analysis	 of	 slow	 earthquakes	 and	     IFM-GEOMAR;	Marc	Salzmann,	working	with	Leo Donner,	AOS/
“deep	non-volcanic	tremor”	in	subduction	zones.	Bess Ward,	faculty,	         GFDL	on	cloud	microphysics	and	feedbacks	in	the	GFDL	general	
has	a	new	postdoc,	Jen Bowen,	who	comes	from	the	Marine	Bio-                 circulation	model,	is	from	University	of	Mainz	via	a	postdoc	at	the	
logical	Laboratory	at	Woods	Hole.	She	is	a	Fellow	with	the	Council	          Max	Planck	Institute	for	Chemistry.
for	Science	and	Technology	and	will	work	on	the	response	of	the	             	 Research Staff farewell:	This	May, Pascale Poussart,	associate	re-
microbial	 nitrogen	 cycle	 to	 CO2	 enrichment	 and	 acidification	 of	     search	scholar,	transferred	to	the	other	side	of	the	Globe	in	Guyot	
natural	waters,	as	well	as	teach	ENV	202	with	Ward	in	the	spring.	           Hall,	 to	 be	 the	 assistant	 director	 of	 the	 energy	 initiatives	 of	 the	
Joining	 François Morel,	 faculty,	 is	 Brian Hopkinson,	 research	          Princeton	Environmental	Institute	(PEI).	Pascale	manages	activi-
associate	from	Scripps,	UC	San	Diego.	Bob Kopp,	a	postdoctoral	              ties	related	to	the	carbon	mitigation	initiative	(CMI),	and	will	assist	
science,	technology,	and	environmental	policy	fellow	from	Caltech,	          in	launching	academic	and	research	projects	related	to	climate	and	
is	working	with	two	faculty	members.	With	Michael Oppenheimer,	              energy	as	part	of	the	Energy	Grand	Challenge	Program.
faculty, he	is	undertaking	a	critical	assessment	of	current	knowledge	          Staff farewells: After	 seven	 years	 in	 the	 Department, Stephanie
of	variability	in	sea	level	and	ice-sheet	volume	over	the	course	of	the	     Resko	retired	last	June	as	Administrative	Assistant. Robin Pispecky,	
Cenozoic,	and	with	Adam Maloof,	faculty,	he	is	pursuing	projects	            a	staff	member	for	eight	years,	most	recently	as	grants	manager,	left	

The Smilodon                                                            0                                                                Spring 2008
last	June	to	be	the	new	grants	manager	at	the	University’s	Office	of	       meeting	in	May,	2007.	The	selection	committee	noted	that	Mason	
Population	Research.	                                                       effectively	wove	the	historical	facts	“into	a	broad	narrative	that	in-
   Farewells: Andrew Leier, Hess	Post-doctoral	fellow	working	with          cluded	modern-day	analyses	of	the	quake	that	provide	scientists	with	
Nadine McQuarrie,	faculty, has	finished	a	two-year	position	at	Princ-       new	insights.	Beyond	the	well-known	dangers	to	the	region	that	a	
eton and	is	now	an	assistant	professor	at	the	University	of	Calgary.        repeat	of	the	1906	quake	would	inflict,	Mason	alerted	readers	to	
   Farewells from AOS and their new positions: John Edwards	returned	       a	less-recognized	threat:	analyses	suggest	that	a	strong	earthquake	
to	his	Research	Scientist	position	at	the	MET	Office	in	Exeter,	Eng-        in	northern	California	could	devastate	the	system	of	earthen	levees	
land;	Feng Li,	NASA	Goddard	as	Assistant	Research	Scientist;	James          that	surrounds	and	protects	the	city	of	Sacramento	and	a	significant	
West,	assistant	professor	at	UNC,	Chapel	Hill;	Rongrong Zhang,	             portion	of	the	state’s	water	supply.”
Goldman	Sachs,	New	York;	Qian (Scott) Song,	Deutsche	Bank,	New	
York;	 and	 Cyril Crevoisier,	 CNRS,	 Laboratoire	 de	 Météorologie	
Dynamique	of	IPSL,	France;	Ming Zhao	continues	to	collaborate	                                          Books
with	Isaac Held,	AOS/GFDL	and		Geoff Vallis,	AOS,	with	his	new	
appointment	with	University	Corporation	for	Atmospheric	Research	           Whence the Mountains? Inquiries into the Evolution of Orogenic
(UCAR);	 Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher	 has	 a	 research		 position	 at	 the	      Systems: A volume in Honor of Raymond A. Price, edited	by	J.	W.	
National	 Institute	 for	Water	 and	 Air	 (NIWA),	 Wellington,	 New	        Sears,	T.	A.	Harms,	and	C.	A.	Evenchick,	2007,	Geological	Society	of	
Zealand;	and	Laura Jackson	has	a	research	position	at	the	Hadley	           America,	Special	Paper	433,	Boulder,	CO,	410	p.,	$90.00,	member	
Center	in	England.                                                          price	$63.00.
                                                                            	 Nineteen	original	and	provocative	papers	on	the	tectonic	evolution	
                                                                            of	mountain	systems	to	honor	the	great	Canadian	structural	geologist	
                           Honors                                           Raymond A. Price *58	on	the	occasion	of	the	fiftieth	anniversary	
                                                                            of	his	first	publications	on	the	geological	structure	of	the	Canadian	
	 Three	Department	were	recognized	at	the	2007	Geological	Society	
                                                                            Cordillera.	Topics	range	from	plate	to	outcrop	scale,	from	geometry	
of	America	Annual	Meeting	in	Denver	last	October:
                                                                            based	on	mapping	and	cross-section	construction	to	theoretical	pro-
	 Alan Gilbert Smith *63	 was	 awarded	 the	 2007	 International	
                                                                            cesses	based	on	finite-element	models,	from	metamorphic	processes	to	
Division	Distinguished	Career	Award	for	making	numerous,	dis-
                                                                            syntectonic	deposition.	Study	regions	range	from	the	North	American	
tinguished,	and	significant	contributions	that	have	clearly	advanced	
                                                                            Cordillera	and	Appalachians	to	Siberia,	New	Zealand,	Australia,	and	
the	international	geological	sciences	through	service	and/or	scientific	
                                                                            China,	from	Paleozoic	to	active	systems.	
activities.	The	citationist	was	Eldridge Moores *63.
	 Richard L. Reynolds ’68	received	the	2007	Kirk	Bryan	Award	for	           A Continental Plate Boundary: Tectonics at South Island, New
research	excellence	by	the	Quaternary	Geology	&	Geomorphology	              Zealand,	edited	by David Okaya ’78,	T.	Stern,	and	F.	Davey,	2007,	
Division.	This	award,	shared	with	three	coauthors,	M.	C.	Reheis,	A.	        American	Geophysical	Union,	Geophysical	Monograph	Series,	Vol-
M.	Sarna-Wojcicki,	and	M.	D.	Mifflin,	recognizes	their	contribu-            ume	175,	350	p.,	$120.00,	member	price:	$84.00.
tion	through	the	paper,	“Pliocene	to	middle	Pleistocene	lakes	in	the	       	 This	 volume	 offers	 in	 one	 place	 the	 most	 comprehensive,	 up-
western	 Great	 Basin—Ages	and	connections,”	 which	 appeared	 in	          to-date	knowledge	for	researchers	and	students	to	learn	about	the	
2002	in	the	monograph:	Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Sciences          tectonics	and	plate	dynamics	of	the	Pacific-Australian	continental	
Number 33.	                                                                 plate	boundary	in	South	Island	and	about	the	application	of	modern	
	 Michael A. Arthur *79	has	been	given	the	2007	Laurence	L.	Sloss	          geological	and	geophysical	methods.	This	work	contains	seventeen	
Award	of	the	Sedimentary	Geology	Division	for	lifetime	achieve-             papers	and	should	prove	invaluable	for	seismologists,	tectonophysi-
ments	best	exemplify	those	of	Larry	Sloss	—	i.e.,	achievements	that	        cists,	geodesists	and	potential-field	geophysicists,	geologists,	geody-
contribute	widely	to	the	field	of	sedimentary	geology	and	through	          namicists,	and	students	of	the	deformation	of	tectonic	plates.
service	to	GSA.
	 In	December	2007	George Philander,	faculty,	received	an	honor-
ary	Doctor	of	Science	degree	from	the	University	of	Cape	Town.                                         Deaths
   Isaac Held,	a	senior	research	scientist	at	GFDL	and	lecturer	with	                        Theodore Conrow Merwin ’34
rank	 of	 professor	 in	 the	 AOS	 program,	 received	 the	 Carl-Gustaf	                          October	20,	2001
Rossby	Research	Medal	in	January,	2008,	from	the	American	Meteo-
                                                                                              Darrell Mayne Pinckney *65
rological	Society	(AMS)	“for	fundamental	insights	into	the	dynamics	
                                                                                                     April	23,	2007
of	the	Earth’s	climate	through	studies	of	idealized	dynamical	models	
and	comprehensive	climate	simulations.”	He	was	also	on	the	Inter-                            Frederick Goddard Roberts ’49
governmental	Panel	on	Climate	Change	(IPCC),	which	was	honored	                                      August	13,	1999
with	the	Nobel	Peace	Prize	in	2007.                                                            Edward Franklin Shover ’57
	 Betsy Mason ’93	has	received	the	American	Geophysical	Union’s	                                   October	28,	2007
2007	David	Perlman	Award	for	Excellence	in	Science	Journalism–
News	for	her	series	in	the	Contra Costa Times	on	the	centennial	of	                         Stephen Rodgers Steinhauser ’42
the	San	Francisco	earthquake,	based	on	a	conference	commemorat-                                     August	11,	2007
ing	the	event.	The	Perlman	Award	recognizes	work	published	with	                                  Donald Rea Young ’43
deadline	pressure	of	one	week	or	less.	This	award,	which	includes	a	                                October	13,	2006
plaque	and	a	$2000	stipend,	was	presented	at	the	AGU	Acapulco	

The Smilodon                                                                                                                    Spring 2008
                           From the Archives                                                       In This Issue:
                                                                                                   Making Mountains ....................... 1
                                                                                                   Hess Photo ................................. 3
                                                                                                   The View from Bhutan .................. 4
                                                                                                   Most Influential Princeton Alumni ... 4
                                                                                                   Monsoon Expedition ..................... 5
                                                                                                   News ........................................ 6
                                                                                                   Fourth GeoGrads Reunion ............. 6
                                                                                                   YBRA Field Camp Bridge .............. 7
                                                                                                   Red Lodge Summer Field Course ..... 8
                                                                                                   Artist of the Arctic ....................... 8
                                                                                                   Around the Department ................10
                                                                                                   Honors .....................................11
                                                                                                   Books .......................................11
  Loading the Vans at Guyot Hall: Prof. Sampson’s 1955 Spring Trip to Alabama
  Standing: Col. Otalora *61, Olav Kovvo, Art Fuller *57, Glen Poulter *57, Roy Stuart *56, Paul
                                                                                                              The Smilodon
                                                                                                               Published by the
  Bartholome *56, Ralph Arnold *58, Les Coleman *55, Ed Sampson ’14 *20 faculty 1925-59, Pete
                                                                                                          Department of Geosciences
  Mattson *57, Dr. MacNeil (St. Francis Xavier, visitor), Peter Cunningham-Dunlop *67, Malcolm
  Brown. Front Row: Jose Cadilla *56, George Witter ’55, Gil Hamil ’55, Bill Brown *57, Dick
                                                                                                             with support from the
  Wilmarth *55, Tom Slodowski *56, Diago (visitor, Venezuela), George Garbarini *57. Picture           Association of Princeton Graduate
  donated to the Archives by Don Stott *58.                                                                       Alumnae/i
                                                                                                       Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1003
                                                                                                             Volume 49, Number 1
                                                                                                                  Spring 2008
                    Reunions Alumnae/i Reception                                                             Phone (609) 258-5807
                                                                                                              Fax (609) 258-1274
                Friday,	May	30th,	3:30	-	5:00	PM,	Guyot	Hall
                                                                                                   Our Department is always pleased to hear
          3:30	–	4:00	pm:	Tours	of	the	newly-renovated	laboratory	                                    from our Alumni/ae and Friends.
                   and	research	space	in	the	Department                                             Write us your news or send e-mail to:
                4:00	–	5:00	pm:		Visit	with	faculty	and	students	                              
                              in	the	Great	Hall                                                             Bill Bonini ’48, Editor
                                                                                                        Laurie Wanat, Production Editor

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The Smilodon                                                               2                                                       Spring 2008

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