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					                          Shea butter:
Quality and Requirements for Successful US Market entry

                      Consultative Regional Workshop on
         “Shea Butter Quality and Product Certification System Design”
                       Palair de Congrés, Bamako, Mali
                               6-8 October, 2004.

   Hisham Moharram, James Simon, Rodolfo Juliani and Pierre Tannous

         New Use Agriculture & Natural Plant Products Program,
                          Plant Biology Department,
                 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,

             NUANPP Mission
To develop the full range of
potential uses of any plant
beyond simple food or feed
uses. Using an applied
research approach, we
investigate the natural
product profile of plants and
develop them into
commercial commodities for
receiving industries. High
quality, science-based
agribusiness in less
developed producer
countries is the final aim.
                    How this is Accomplished?
   NUANPP uses a Science Driven Approach:
        Aims for a comprehensive investigation of metabolic potential of species
        Probe potential commercial uses of specific natural product content;
        Research techniques to increase production efficiency and economics;

   Examine export impediments;
        Quality issues
        Capacity Building
        Technology Transfer

   Provide technical assistance in;
        QA / QC
        GAP, GMP, GLP
        Sanitary and Phytosanitary requirements (WTO-SPS agreement)
        Certifications (Organic, HACCP and other)
        Processing Technologies
        Value-Addition Strategies

   Example of the ASNAPP project (US AID)
  Our NUANPP Program‟s Role within ASNAPP
1. To develop QC programs for ASNAPP products and as
   needed analytical protocols for natural plant products
2. To develop the QA programs linking the „bush‟ through
   final product‟ as part of the GAP/GCP and GMP
3. To develop models for introduction and
   commercialization of new crops and new products
   (including organic production)
4. To identify new compounds in plants with unique
   biological activity
5. To assist in plant improvement as applicable
6. Assessment of in-country labs, facilities and staff
7. To provide trainings for capacity building
8. Implementation of technology transfer
        Shea butter Quality
 US-AID funding to Technoserve for
 improving shea butter quality.

 NUANPP   to examine effects of processing
 modifications on physical & chemical
 properties of shea butter.
        Shea butter Quality (contd.)
   Treatments:

                Fresh          vs.        Heaped
                Raw            vs.        Boiled
                Fried          vs.        Not Fried
        Sun dried open-air     vs.        Sun dried in clear containers

   The overall best quality shea butter came from:

       fresh fruit,
       raw nuts,
       non fried,
       sun dried in open-air courtyard.

   Maintenance of shea butter tissues against degradation
       oxidation factors, disease organisms and insect infestation
        Shea butter Quality (contd.)
   Improving shea butter quality requires technological
    inputs and some level of mechanization of

   Continuing village level production in current manner
    will not sustain, nor satisfy, the international demand
    for high quality shea butter. Must consider organized
    cultivation along side wild-crafting or collection.

   We must recognize that different end-user
    industries will require different quality minimums
    and parameters.

   Need for a regional African Shea Butter Association ?!
                Shea butter Quality (contd.)
   Need for a regional African Shea Butter Association.

       Trade negotiations,
       Enforcement and adoption of quality focused technologies,
       Establishment of community owned businesses,
       QC lab network for harmonized quality certification,
       Regular capacity building and tech transfer,
       Facilitated regional coordination,
       Effective investigation and use of genetic variation, environmental
        variation and GxE interactions,
       Facilitated product development,
       International acceptance of grades and standards,
       Accumulation of accurate data base for trade and traceability,
       Organized crop improvement strategies
       Low cost effective technology adoption: alternative scenarios—
           Shea butter Quality (contd.)
 What      is certification?
     Certification = a guarantee of… a ‘better’ product!
       •   Organic;
       •   Fair Trade
       •   Ecological/Environmental Stewardship
       •   Socio-economic and gender equity
       •   Appellation,
       •   Etc. etc.!
     Product Quality; first and foremost!
    Product Specification for Ginger Internal Laboratory Analysis Rept
    (=Certificate of Analysis or a CofA). We have 34 Product Spec‟s.
    Description Naturally Grown Ginger           Lot No: WA-0006 (Ginger-2)
    Supercedes: Oct. 11/01       Spec #: 2
    Plant part used: Rhizomes                  Page:   1/1
    Commercial name          Ginger
    Botanical name           Zingiber officinale
    Origin         Ghana, West Africa
    Grade          First grade
    Sterilization Direct sun dried, and Irradiated (accord. Dan), fresh
    Additives      None: no sterilizing agents, colorants or preservatives added.
    Organoleptic properties
         Color      Light green / pale green
         Aroma      Characteristic
         Taste      Characteristic
    Physicochemical properties
         Moisture content      67 % max
         pH                    6.5
         Total ash content     11 % max
         Essential oil content 0.97 % (fresh)
         Total water/alcohol extractables 40 %
Developing in Madagascar a New National Set of Grades
and Standards established by the Private Sector
(PRONABIO) in partnership with LDI, US industry,
Madagascar government and Rutgers University


          Certified High Quality
         Product from Madagascar

         Par la présente, PRONABIO (Groupement Professionnel des Opérateurs en Agri-
         business des PROduits NAturels et BIOlogiques de Madagascar) certificat que le lot de
         produit décrit ci-après, issu d’un lot-mère de XXX kg/ml, est naturel, c’est-à-dire 100%
         pur, sans additifs, conforme aux normes et ne contient pas de trace de pesticides. De ce
         fait, il peut porter le label NATIORA.

         Type de produits :                                   Plante ou matière d’origine :

         Région(s) d’origine :                                     Pays : Madagascar

         Quantité du lot mère :                    Quantité à expédier :            Lot n :

         Document d’expédition :                                   N:

                                   Le secrétaire                   Le président de PRONABIO
                  Model Two:

   A collective trademark in Madagascar belonging to
   Norms and specifications for each product are
    registered under the trademark
   To ensure origin, quality and characteristics
Innovative, consumer-connected marketing!

   The ultimate judge on quality and certification is
    the consumer!

   Many western consumers are not happy with
    exploitative business practices of the MNC’s
    and industry groups

   They will support less developed country
    producers who display innovatiion in side
    stepping exploitative industries for
    humanitarian and equity reasons.
              A word to the wise!
   Big business is intensely exploring the attributes of
    natural plant products

   Industry research results are NOT in public domain,
    for obvious competitiveness related reasons!

   Medicinal properties being discovered and patented,

   LDC producers will not be able to claim these
    medicinal attributes in the marketing of their NPPs.
              What now ?!
 Much   work needs to be done, and fast!

 Requires   collective brainstorming and
  action resolutions
 Requires initiation of projects to achieve
  chosen objectivs
 Requires money..!
 Identification of donor organizations and
  diligent effort to secure funding.
            Funding Sources?!
 African Development Bank
 World Bank
 UN organizations
 EU
 Industry Partnerships
 Philanthropic Organizations
 Philanthropic Consumers
             Thank you!
New Use Agriculture & Natural Plant Products Program
QA/QC issues and the Wupperthal Tea
Cooperative- R.S.A. An Example with
Quality Assurance pre-planting
  Genetic material
  Soil attributes
  Climatic conditions
  Water quality
Quality Assurance post-planting
  Good Agricultural Practices
  Organic Certification
  Good Manufacturing Practices
  HACCP certification
  QC analyses and testing
South African Teas:
Rooibos and Honeybush w/ Lippia
multiflora from Ghana- together in
Making the Connections
Antioxidant activity/serving
(DPPH method) to green tea.





           Green Tea   Green Dragon   Moroccan    Community       Jakarta
                           Tea          Mint        Green      Ginger Decaf

 ASNAPP: Using GAP and QC:
 Aroma, Color, Taste, Health
 Samp              Sample ID             Absor         Chlorogenic
  le #                                   bance             acid
       3           Organic              0.53693          (mg/ml)

       8          Honeybush              0.441                1.09

   17             Honeybush             0.46088               1.13

 Mean                                    0.4796               1.173
A series of Lip balms and cosmetics based
On African natural products and carriers
                Lessons Learned:
         Strategies for Success in NPP‟s
   Projects benefit from a multi-disciplinary team
   Successful projects associated with a strong „crop champion‟
   Successful projects have strong and proactive technology transfer
    programs with appropriate delivery mechanisms
   Projects are enhanced with real science: From correct chemotypes
    (and genotypes) to strong QA and QC programs
   Successful projects are based upon sound and realistic economics
    and have a strong market-driven approach
   Successful projects address the development of appropriate
    production and processing systems
   Successful agricultural-based projects must have favorable
    financing mechanisms and options available
   Access to markets is key: Timing and Ability to Shift with Market
    Shifts- and this has been challenging.
   High Quality: Meeting International Standards & Requirements
   Communication, Trust, and follow-up critical from the outset
Linking scientific R&D with Marketing
      and Product development

                                               Marketing and
Scientific R&D                              Consumer Preference

                 Action Oriented Feedback

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