Status of Peace Education in West Africa by SeRyan

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									The Status of Peace Education in West
                Africa



              Research Report

                    by

             Assouan Gbesso
            M.A. Peace Education




              December 2006
                                                                Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................- 1 -
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................- 2 -
1. RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES..............................................................................................- 4 -
    1.1. AIM .................................................................................................................................................. - 4 -
    1.2. OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................... - 4 -
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................- 4 -
    2.1. LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................................................... - 5 -
    2.2. SURVEY ........................................................................................................................................... - 5 -
    2.3. DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................. - 5 -
3. OVERVIEW OF EDUCATION IN AFRICA....................................................................................- 6 -
4. EDUCATION, CONFLICT AND PEACE IN AFRICA..................................................................- 8 -
5. WHAT IS PEACE EDUCATION? ...................................................................................................- 11 -
6. STATUS OF PEACE EDUCATION IN WEST AFRICA ..............................................................- 13 -
    6.1. BACKGROUND TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN WEST AFRICA.................................................. - 13 -
       6.1.1. From Colonial Education to Popular Education ...............................................................- 13 -
       6.1.2. Emerging issues in West African Education .....................................................................- 17 -
    6.2. PEACE EDUCATION IN FORMAL EDUCATION ............................................................................. - 19 -
       6.2.1. Case Study: The Moral and Civic Education Initiative in Togo.......................................- 21 -
    6.3. PEACE EDUCATION IN NON-FORMAL EDUCATION: INITIATIVES BY NON-GOVERNMENTAL
    ACTORS ................................................................................................................................................ - 24 -
    6.4. ISSUES FACING PEACE EDUCATION INITIATIVES IN WEST AFRICA ............................................ - 25 -
    6.5. TRAINING NEEDS FOR PEACE EDUCATION ................................................................................ - 28 -
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................- 29 -
REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................- 31 -
ANNEXES ..............................................................................................................................................- 34 -
    ANNEX 1: CONTACT INFORMATION OF INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED ......................................................... - 34 -
    ANNEX 2: QUESTIONNAIRE ENGLISH VERSION.................................................................................... - 36 -
    ANNEX 3: QUESTIONNAIRE FRENCH VERSION...................................................................................... - 39 -
    ANNEX 4: COVER LETTER FRENCH VERSION ........................................................................................ - 42 -
    ANNEX 5: COVER LETTER ENGLISH VERSION ....................................................................................... - 44 -
    ANNEX 6: TEMPLATE ............................................................................................................................ - 46 -




                                                                              -1-
INTRODUCTION


At the International Conference on “Strategies for Peace with Development in Africa: The
Role of Education, Training and Research” held in Addis-Ababa, 12-14 June 2006 under the
auspices of the African Union and the University for Peace – Africa Programme, the
following general recommendations were made:


        It is necessary to develop and maintain capacity for peace and development at all
        levels through training, education and research
        There is need to allocate and invest adequate resources to education for peace and
        development at the national, regional and continental levels
        There is need to strengthen African institutional capacity (AU, African regional
        economic communities, civil society, government institutions, community groups,
        etc.) to undertake peace research and development
        Women should be supported to play more roles in peacebuilding and development;
        the positive and crucial roles women play should be highlighted and shared and
        taught across the continent as best practices
        It is necessary to build the capacities of future African leaders from the ranks of the
        youths through capacity building and research
        Teacher education, especially the one relating to peace and development, should be
        decentralised and brought closer to the local communities for maximum
        functionality
        Peace and development educators, researchers and practitioners should pay equal
        attention to internal as well as external actors in Africa’s conflicts


In addition to these general recommendations, few specific recommendations were made in
the form of a call to action. These included that:


        A broad-based curriculum on Peace Education and development should be
        produced by UPEACE and partners, for African institutions at all levels, taking into
        consideration national peculiarities and contexts



                                               -2-
       UPEACE should facilitate the creation of a network of African peace and
       development researchers, educators, practitioners and policy makers to share
       experiences and best practices from the African region and from other parts of the
       world. Sub-regional hubs should also be set up within the regional network for ease
       of operations
       The Conference, noting the importance of culture and African endogenous methods
       of conflict prevention and management based on African values, recommends to
       UPEACE and its partners that these methods be documented and developed for
       teaching, research and education throughout the African continent
       UPEACE and the AU should consider holding annual working meetings to discuss
       and review the development of the issues of education and peace
       Regional civil society organizations should spearhead the drafting of a Code of
       Conduct to assist civil society groups and the private sector, working with peace and
       development in Africa
       UPEACE’s work with the media was noted as the role of the media is vital in Peace
       Education and public enlightenment for peace and development. This role should be
       strengthened with particular emphasis on community radios, national and continental
       media houses capable of disseminating and exchanging peace and development
       initiatives across the continent
       UPEACE and the AU Commission should work to create linkages with the African
       Diaspora towards coordinating and utilising their resources positively for peace
       research and development in Africa.1


Given the emphasis that has been put on the need for introduction of Peace Education in
educational systems in Africa and the subsequent demand for training from the part of
governmental and non-governmental institutions on Peace Education, the University for
Peace – Africa Programme has commissioned a stock taking exercise on the status of Peace
Education within the African continent.




1These recommendations are contained in the Conference Report available on UPEACE website at
http://www.africa.upeace.org


                                            -3-
The present report provides account of the exercise in the West African region. The
countries covered by report include: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte-d’Ivoire,
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and
Togo2.


1. RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES


         1.1. Aim


The aim of the survey is to collect relevant information on Peace Education in Africa. The
results of the survey are due to be presented during a follow-up meeting in mid December
2006.


         1.2. Objectives


The objectives of the survey are to:
         take stock of the existing undertakings and initiatives in Africa
         analyze the findings
         analyze the education system in each country
         and, draw lessons and practices that may help in the development of a Peace
         Education strategy in Africa


2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The methodology of the research consisted of a literature review, a survey, and data analysis.
More qualitative research techniques were used due to time constraints and lack of
resources. Quantitative data has been drawn from existing reports from different educational
organizations.




2These are the fifteen (15) countries composing ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West
African States


                                               -4-
         2.1. Literature Review


A range of policy documents, educational data and reports were gathered. National reports
on the development of education, legal educational documents, educational plans and
independent research reports were collected and analyzed. The documents are listed in full in
the references.


         2.2. Survey


A questionnaire was designed to collect data from few institutions in the region. The
questionnaire was available both in English and French, and was sent to the interviewees
according to their language of proficiency. In total, 19 institutions in 10 West African
countries were contacted. It was not possible to get data from 5 countries as no contact
details were available. Some contact details not up-to-date and survey questionnaire were not
delivered. It is worth mentioning that the survey was conducted online; questionnaire were
sent by e-mail and the respondents had to complete the questionnaire electronically and send
it back by e-mail as well. Though there was an option to send back the completed
questionnaire by fax, ALL respondents have opted for the e-mail option.


In Togo, the findings are based on a previous research that has been conducted in
December 2005 for a local NGO3. During that research surveys were conducted with
primary school teachers, primary students, and school administration structures.


         2.3. Data Analysis


Data from the survey was analyzed against recommendations and policies adopted in the
official documents and reports. This has been helpful in defining the gap between the
policies and the reality on the ground. This analysis also informed about future steps and
strategies to be taken and perspectives to be adopted.


3See Gbesso, A. (2005). Basic Education in Togo: Educating for Violence, Conflict or Peace? – The Quality of
Education in Question. Report from a Research Analysis. Plan Togo: Lome and Plan Togo (2006).
Suffering to Succeed? Violence and Abuse in Schools in Togo. Plan Togo: Lome


                                                    -5-
3. OVERVIEW OF EDUCATION IN AFRICA


One of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals is that of primary universal
education for all by the year 20154. This goal aims at having children all over the world, boys
and girls alike, achieve a full cycle of primary education5. Education is very critical to the
development of stability of a country. By achieving the educational objective of the MDGs,
African countries will also assure the achievement of the other goals, because education is
important for opening up opportunities for all.


Education in Africa is characterized by its rigidity, by a low access and enrolment rate, by a
low quality of the teaching, a high rate of drop-outs, and, the inadaptability of curricula to
the learners’ environment and to new technologies imposed by globalization.


Aglo6 in his analysis of the problems of educational systems in Africa writes that there are
problems related to the context, problems of qualitative order, and structural and
infrastructural problems. He noted that in too many African countries:


         school is selective, and not relevant to the concerns, realities and needs of the
         populations
         school is oriented towards the formation of execution agents at the service of an
         administration with external-oriented interests
         school gives few room to creativity, imagination, and to development of autonomy
         of reflection
         education is characterized by the weakness of internal and external achievements
         education lacks learning materials with insufficient and under-qualified teachers and
         administration personnel


Consequently, school drop-outs are increasing on the continent and every year, several
young men and women leave school without having any primary qualification.

4 United Nations (2005). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2005. UN: New York
5 UNDP (2003). Les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement: Progrès, Revers et Défis. UNDP : Geneva
6 Aglo, John (2001) (ed.). Réformes des Systèmes Educatifs et Réformes Curriculaires: Situation dans les Etats

Africains au Sud du Sahara. IBE-UNESCO : Geneva


                                                     -6-
After the adoption in the year 2000 of the EFA Dakar Framework for Action7, remarkable
progress has been made for the improvement of school enrolment and retention, although
disparities still exist between countries and in the schooling of girls and boys.


Africa is one of the world regions where literacy rates are very low. Between the years 2000
and 2004, only 60% of adults of more than 15 years old were literate, according to a
UNESCO report8. However, there has been substantial improvement, as the literacy was of
only 49% in 1990.


As concerns access to primary education, encouraging progress has been made on the
African continent. Indeed, 90% of children at schooling age have been enrolled in 200-2003
for 70% in 1990-1991. Despite this, about 40% of the enrolled children have not achieved
their primary studies in 2002-2003. The enrolment rate was estimated at 35.4% during the
same academic year of 2002-20039. In African countries with low revenue, vocational
education seems to be inadequate as compared to economic need.


In order to achieve the objectives of the universal primary education in the few coming years
in Africa, there is a need to reduce the number of drop-outs and to fight against inequalities
within the educational systems in Africa. Indeed, the main inequalities in Africa are gender
disparities in the school system10. It is actually estimated that for 100 boys achieving primary
school, only 87 girls do the same. Other inequalities include disparities between rural and
urban areas, between riches and poors. These latter disparities are seemingly more important
that all the others.




7  UNESCO (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action – Education for All: Meeting our Collective
Commitments. Adopted by the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000
8 UNESCO (2005). Education For All in Africa: Paving the Way for Action. UNESCO Regional Office in

Dakar, BREDA: Senegal
9 ibid
10 Gbesso, A. (2005). Youth, Development and Conflict Prevention in Africa: Approaches, Challenges and

Lessons. Paper presented at the Peace Research Capacity Building Workshop in Dakar, Senegal, 23-26
October 2005: Unpublished


                                                -7-
Access to school only can not sole the problem of education in Africa. Quality of education
is equally important. Goal 6 of the EFA framework emphasizes the importance to improve
all aspects of quality in education and to guarantee its excellence in order to ensure that
recognized and measurable results are achieved by all, especially in the domains of literature,
mathematics and essential life skills11.


It is obvious that education in Africa is still facing quality and relevance needs. Indeed, there
is a scale between what is taught at school and the interests and needs of the learners; Siri12,
in a personal analysis, notes that this difference is especially noticeable with young people
that go back to school after some time of drop-out.


If access to education is more than a right for the children, the lack of quality education is a
denial of this right, says a UNICEF report13. Indeed, quality education contributes greatly to
human learning and development. Quality education is influenced by happens in the
classroom and outside the classroom as well.


Peace Education is part of quality education. In regard to its aims and objectives, to the
methodology its uses, to knowledge, skills, attitudes and values it aims at developing, Peace
Education, if applied holistically is the best way of achieving quality education. Peace
Education provides answers to population’s needs for poverty reduction, development and
peace building. These are actually the goals every African country wishes to achieve through
its educational system. But why is Peace Education so important?


4. EDUCATION, CONFLICT AND PEACE IN AFRICA


A quality and relevant education should be able to prepare future generations to improve
everyone’s conditions of living and to teach to each individual to have a critical vision on
major problems of his/her country’s current problems: poverty, diseases, war, environmental
destruction, etc.

11 UNESCO (2000). UNESCO – Mainstreaming The Culture of Peace. Paris: France
12 Siri, Carmen (2004). Education for All Youth. Academy for Educational Development: Global
Education Center
13 UNICEF (2002). Une Education de Qualité pour Tous: Du Point de Vue d’une Fille. UNICEF: New York




                                               -8-
A number of research results have demonstrated that there is a clear link between education
and conflict, and that education should not be only considered as the victim of war and
political violence, but can also itself contribute to the warfare situation.


Indeed, in their analysis of the role of education in “ethnic conflict”, Bush & Saltarelli14
explore and identify a positive face and a negative face of education. They argue that formal
education can become destructive when it is unequally distributed, when it is used by
politicians as a weapon of cultural repression, when a group of people are denied access to it,
when the curricula, especially history textbooks, are manipulated for political aims, and
finally when education is segregated in order to ensure “inequality, lowered esteem and
stereotyping”. In this case, education can easily fuel suspicion, hostility, ethnic intolerance
and violence. This is the negative side of education. This situation can be exacerbated when
combined economic tensions and poor governance.


On the other hand, education can be used to elaborate and implement peace programmes, to
cultivate inclusive citizenship, to ‘disarm history’, ‘de-segregate the mind’, and build a culture
of tolerance. In short, education can be a tool to respond to state oppression and nurture
and sustain a peaceful climate.


In the same way, one of the U.K. Department for International Development (DfID)’s
issues paper, Education, Conflict and International Development15 states that education is not only
part of the problem but is part of the solution as well. The authors of the issues paper, Alan
Smith and Tony Vaux suggest that education is a potential source of conflict and
recommend policies and practice at all levels within any educational system to be analyzed in
terms their potential to aggravate or ameliorate conflict and violence. As such they insist that
education is “a right that should be maintained at all times”, and that education is a
Millennium Development Goal (MDG) because of its importance for human development
and poverty reduction.

14 Bush, Kenneth D. & Saltarelli, Diana (eds) (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict:
Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre: Florence, Italy
15 Smith, Alan & Vaux, Tony (eds) (2003). Education, Conflict and International Development. DFID Issues

Paper: London


                                                 -9-
Jamil Salmi16, in a World Bank Paper Series distinguishes education as a place or a
determinant of violence, and education as an instrument to reduce societal violence. Salmi
notes that schools are not always the peaceful and harmonious places we would want them
to be. Through a proposed analytical framework, Salmi analyzes direct as well as indirect,
repressive, and alienating violence within the school system and concludes that education
can also be an effective tool to reduce violence.


Within the framework of Education for All goals, the World Education Forum held in
Dakar in April 2000 recognized the need for a special education for population in particular
situations such as those affected by natural disasters (earthquakes, eruption of volcanoes,
floods, drought, hurricanes), by civil or international conflict or minority and at-risk groups.


In this response, UNESCO sets out five (5) practical justifications for an educational
response in emergencies and reconstruction. These include:


         Education helps meet the psychosocial needs of children and adolescents affected by
         conflict or disasters that have disrupted their lives, studies and social networks
         Education is a tool for protecting children in emergencies
         Education provides a channel for conveying health and survival messages and for
         teaching new skills and values, such as peace, tolerance, conflict resolution,
         democracy, human rights, environmental conservation…
         Education for All is a tool for social cohesion, whereas educational discrepancies
         lead to poverty for the uneducated and fuel civil conflict
         Education is vital to reconstruction of the economic basis of family, local and
         national life and for sustainable development and peace building17




16 Salmi, Jamil (2000). Violence, Democracy and Education: An Analytical Framework. Human Development
Department, LCSHD Paper Series No. 56, World Bank: Washington
17 Bensalah, Kacem (ed) (2002). Guidelines for Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: EFA Strategic

Planning. UNESCO Division of Policies and Strategies of Education: France


                                                   - 10 -
The General Conference of UNESCO18, in redefining the foundations of the educational
mission, raised in an Integrated Framework of Action, essential issues that need to be
addressed in order to achieve a truly global citizenship. The foundations are:


        cultivating the values on which the practical implementation of peace, human rights
        and democracy depend;
        no longer only emphasizing cognitive learning, but also affective and behavioral
        learning;
        learning citizenship, based on universal values and knowledge to be applied in
        practice.


Economic and social development is linked with peace and cannot be achieved in a country
where there is violence and social instability. Peace Education is thus urgently needed as a
way of finding new solutions and improving the living conditions of millions of people.


According to UNESCO, Peace Education aims at creating conditions for building peace,
resolving conflict in its different forms by looking at its root causes and consequences, and
dealing with ethical, religious and philosophical ethics of human rights19.


It is obvious that Peace Education deals with social problems and helps find sustainable
solutions. Thus, Peace Education is mandatory if Africa wants to achieve the Millennium
Development Goals.


5. WHAT IS PEACE EDUCATION?


It would be a difficult task to try to give one and generally accepted definition of Peace
Education, as it is difficult to give one definition of peace. Peace Education is defined much
as regards its contents and methodologies.

18 UNESCO (1995). Integrated Framework of Action. Adopted at UNESCO’s 28th Session. November
1995
19 UNESCO (1995). Declaration of the 44th Session of the International Conference on Education, November

1995. UNESCO: Paris



                                                  - 11 -
Peace Education can therefore be defined as an incitation to consciousness and to action for
the elimination of all forms of violence: direct, indirect and structural. Peace Education is
based on a multidisciplinary content with skills and values universally acknowledged and
shared. Peace Education adopts a holistic approach in its methodology and process. its
approach is well summarized in the following diagram.




                                                 Disarmament
                                                Education/ Ed.
                                                   for Non-
                                                violent Conflict
                                                Transformation
                          Personal &                                        Global
                          Inner Peace                                     Education/
                              Ed./                                       Education for
                          Religion Ed.                                   Social Justice




                                                 Peace
                     Democracy,
                     Governance
                                                Education                       Human Rights
                     & Citizenship                                              Education/ Ed.
                                                                                 For Human
                      Education/
                                                                                   Dignity
                       Civic Ed.


                                     Environment               Intercultural/
                                         al &                   Inter-racial/
                                      Sustainable                  Anti-
                                     Development                 Prejudice
                                      Education                  Education




              Figure 1: A Holistic and Integrated Approach to Peace Education20


This diagram is not exhaustive, and new topics can be added according to the situation and
to the objectives of the educational reform.

20This diagram was initially designed in Gbesso, A. (2006). Education, Développement et Paix en Afrique:
L’Education à la Paix, Une Opportunité. A Paper presented at the International Conference on
“Strategies for Peace with Development: The Role of Education, Training and Research”, held 12-14
June 2006 at the African Union Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The diagram here has
known few modifications.


                                                    - 12 -
Finally, we can reasonably conclude that the study of Peace Education can be professionally
justified and rationalized from four different perspectives:


        The need to give a wholesome quality education
        The need to respond to the nature of childhood and socialisation processes
        The need for political education to respond to the democratization of the social and
        political structures
        The need to be in step with sound education ideologies


6. STATUS OF PEACE EDUCATION IN WEST AFRICA


        6.1. Background to the education systems in West Africa


        6.1.1. From Colonial Education to Popular Education


The majority of education systems in West Africa derive from educational reforms
introduced during post-independence periods. Educational reforms occurred in a context of
decolonization and intended to shift from the colonial education system which was seen as a
colonial heritage perpetuated by agents of imperialism and considered irrelevant to West
African realities. Indeed, the colonial education system was designed in a way to prepare the
youth for white-collar jobs and serve political and economic interests of the colony21. Thus,
it was it was irrelevant to career aspirations of the people.


Colonial education was very selective and did not respond to the concerns, realities and
needs of the populations. For example, as writes Aglo22, the education system in Togo was a
“copie conforme” (carbon copy) of the French education system.




21 Nyame, Jean Adama & Nuakey, Yao (2001). Rapport National sur la Refondation Curriculaire et le
Processus de Développement Curriculaire. In Aglo, John (2001) (ed.). Réformes des Systèmes Educatifs et
Réformes Curriculaires: Situation dans les Etats Africains au Sud du Sahara. IBE-UNESCO : Geneva
22 Aglo, John (2001). Op. cit, p.13




                                                - 13 -
Colonial education was mainly oriented towards the formation of execution officers who
would serve as intermediaries between the administration and the population. These officers
were to serve the interests of the elite. As such, the teaching was not appropriate to their
needs and to socio-economic and cultural realities23.


Lastly, colonial education did not give room to creativity, imagination and autonomy of
reflection. As such, there was a big gap between school and the reality, between school and
life.


In response to the criticism made against the colonial education systems, West African
countries introduced new educational policies reflective of the new independence and new
school curricula were designed.


The following table shows the dates and types of education reforms introduced in West
African countries after independence:


Table 1: Post-independence Education Reform in West Africa


Country            Date      of Current Education Document of Legal document/Decree
                   First          Reference

                   Reform
Benin              January        Document Cadre de Politique
                   1991           Educative/ Education Policy
                                  Framework Document
Burkina Faso       1979           Plan Décennal de Développement de   Law No. 13/96/ADP of May
                                  l’Education de Base (2000-2009)/    9th, 1996 : Loi d’Orientation
                                  Decennal Plan on the Development    de l’Education (Law on
                                  of Basic Education (2000-2009)      Education Orientation)
Cote-d’Ivoire      **24           **                                  **
Cape Verde         1978                                               Loi d’Orientation du Système



23   ibid
24   The sign (**) means that there is no data available


                                                   - 14 -
                                                                   Educatif/Law on Orientation
                                                                   of Education System
Gambia        1976         National Education Policy 1988-2003
                           Master Plan 1988-2006
Ghana         1970         * Education Reform
                           * Free Compulsory Universal Basic
                           Education (FCUBE) programme
Guinea        December     *Declaration de Politique Educative/
              1989         Declaration on Education Policy
                           *Programme d’Ajustement du
                           Secteur de l’Education(PASE)/
                           Programme of Adjustment of the
                           Education Sector
Guinea-       **           **                                      **
Bissau
Liberia       **           **                                      **
Mali          1962         Programme Décennal de                   Law No. 99-046 of December
                           Développement de l’Education            28th, 1999 : Loi d’Orientation
                           (PRODEC)/ Decennal Programme            sur l’Education (Law on
                           of Education Development                Education Orientation)
Niger         June 1998    Politique Educative Nigérienne/         Law 98-12 of June 1st, 1998
                           Education Policy of Niger
Nigeria       1977         National Policy on Education (NPE)
Senegal       February     Plan Décennal de l’Education et de la   Law No. 91-22 of February
              1991         Formation/ Decennal Plan of             16th, 1991: Loi d’Orientation
                           Education and Training                  de l’Education Nationale
                                                                   (Law on National Education
                                                                   Orientation)
Togo          May 1975     La Réforme de l’Enseignement au         Ordonnance No. 16 of May
                           Togo/ Reform of Education in Togo       6th, 1975


The objectives of post-independence education reforms in West Africa are as varied as the
political and socio-economic situations in each country. But generally, the new education




                                           - 15 -
policies tended to make a shift from producing “bureaucrats” to the concept of popular
education25.


In Ghana, the 1987 educational reform changed from seventeen years pre-university
education (6-4-5-2) to twelve years (6-3-3), and aimed at increasing access to education,
improving the quality, efficiency and relevance of education, and increasing cost
effectiveness, cost sharing and cost recovery education26.


In Togo, the 1975 educational reform aimed at transforming the education system into a
democratic system, and was intended to “train citizens at critical thinking, capable to adapt
easily to every new situation, full of initiatives and apt to act on the environment in order to
transform it”27.


The programmes issued from the education reform in Mali were based on key principles
such as:
             o linking school to life
             o centering education on learners’ abilities and their socio-cultural realities
             o provide equity in education for all
             o and, link theory to practice28


In most countries, the teaching programmes were re-structured and new subjects were
introduced in the school system. This was done on the demand of international
organizations. New disciplines introduced in the system include the following: population
education, environmental education, family life education, health education, civic education,
human rights education, arts education and ICT education.




25 This entails that education will no more be reserved for an elite class but should be accessible to

everyone
26 Attar, M. Ghana Country Report. In Pillai, Sharmilla (ed.) (2003). Strategies for Introducing New

Curricula in West Africa. Final Report of the Seminar/Workshop held in Lagos, Nigeria, 12-16
Novembre 2001. UNESCO-IBE: Geneva
27 Nyame, J. A. & Nuakey, Y. Op. cit, p. 71
28 Diarra, Abou. Rapport National du Mali. In Pillai, S., Op. cit.




                                                 - 16 -
Some countries decided to infuse some discipline into the curricula not as self standing
disciplines but are integrated in other disciplines. This is the case with Burkina Faso for its
population education subject.


Another characteristic of new education systems in West Africa was the introduction of
national or maternal languages into school programmes. In fact, UNESCO29 suggests to
“promote the use of the mother tongue in the early childhood education, early years of
primary education and adult education” as a principle of quality education.



                    Language of instruction: Case study from Togo

     Language is very important in education. Given the multiplicity of languages in
     Togo, and with the aim to keep “national unity”, two (2) national languages, Ewe
     and Kabye, have been chosen to be taught as languages of communication and
     culture. French as a second language remains a language of communication,
     culture and access to science and technology.

     As such, Ewe is taught in the south of Togo and Kabye in the north. Either French
     and Ewe, or French and Kabye are simultaneously taught from the first grade of
     primary school. However, between 3 and 12 months are required to transfer from
     oral expression to written expression for all three languages.




         6.1.2. Emerging issues in West African Education


Following years of decolonization, when most countries in West African have sought to
make a move from colonial education, new issues have emerged in these countries that had
to be included in education. A number of countries have fallen under the scourge of war,
and as part of a post-conflict have found it necessary to include peace studies in their
curricula. Liberia is a good example of this. After the long years of war in the country, new
education programmes in Liberia aim at including the following issues which are much



29 UNESCO (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action – Education for All: Meeting our Collective
Commitments. Adopted by the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000. UNESCO:
France; p. 28



                                            - 17 -
relevant to Peace Education. The issues and how they are addressed in education are
summarized in the table below30.


Table 2: Emerging issues in the Liberian Education


Issues                   Subject         Traditional       Recommended          Methodology       Mode          of
                                         curriculum        areas/materials                        evaluation
Student discipline       Child’s         Social            Child                Role-play         Continuous
Corporal                 right           Studies           development          Book research assessment
punishment                               Language          psychology           Case studies      and      other
Intolerance                              arts              Convention        on Group             traditional
between            and                   Life-skills       the rights of the projects             evaluation
among students                                             child                Focus group techniques
Child abuse                                                Socio-ethics         discussions
                                                           Gender parity        Internet
Terrorism                Peace     and Math                Conflict             search
Discrimination           global          Science           resolution           Distance
Poor           conflict intercultural    Social            strategies           education
resolution practices     education       studies           Religious            Non-formal
                                         Language          tolerance            teaching styles
                                         arts              Civic education      Formal      and
                                         Life-skills                            non-formal
Rebel activities         Basic           Math              Literacy             teaching styles
Street peddling          Education       Science           Numeracy
Street children          for All         Social            Life-skills
Teenage pregnancy                        studies
Unwanted                                 Language
pregnancy                                arts


The Liberian experience is very interesting. Though clear objectives were not set up for each
of the subject introduced (or to be introduced) in the school curricula, it is interesting that
children’s rights, peace and cultural issues be addressed in the curricula. The methodology
adopted to implement the new curricula is also participatory and learner-centered.

30   Adapted from Tarlowoh, J. A. L. (2001). Liberia Country Report. In Pillai, S., op. cit.


                                                       - 18 -
           6.2. Peace Education in Formal Education


There are very few formal Peace Education initiatives undertaken at central level in West
African countries. Emerging initiatives are taken by countries in post-conflict reconstruction
phases that intend to re-build social cohesion and set foundations for lasting peace. But the
lack of resources undermines these initiatives. Most initiatives are taken at the level of higher
education, by universities and colleges. The Anglophone countries, with Nigeria in lead, are
much in advance than their francophone counterparts.


The table below shows peace education initiatives undertaken in higher education in West
Africa31:


Table 3: Formal Peace Education initiatives in West Africa


Higher Degree Institutions                                Peace related undertaking
University College of Education of Wineba, Modules                     on     Citizenship      (rights     and
Ghana                                                     obligations),     Government        and      Politics
                                                          (democracy),         gender         issues       for
                                                          undergraduates
Centre for Inter-Disciplinary Research(CIR) Ethnicity, regionalism and political stability
at the University for Development Studies, as part of the course Governance and
Tamale, Ghana                                             Political Science; tribe and ethnicity, social
                                                          equity    and     political    conflict,     military
                                                          instability and political violence
Réseau International d’Etudes Stratégiques Negotiation in a conflict situation, conflict
sur         les      Conflits        en       Afrique prevention and management courses
(RIESCA)/International              Network         of


31   Data in the table is taken from University for Peace (2004). Directory of Peace Studies in Africa 2004.
UPEACE Africa Programme & ACCORD



                                                     - 19 -
Strategic Studies on Conflicts in Africa, at
the University Abdou Moumouni of Niamey,
Niger
Federal     Polytechnic,       Kaura-Namoda, Citizenship Education Unit: nationalism
Nigeria                                          International Relations: conflict resolution,
                                                 world
                                                 Social Philosophy: social justice, equal
                                                 humanity, rational consistency
                                                 Psychology: human relations
Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Postgraduate training in conflict awareness
Garki Abuja, Nigeria                             and conflict management, internal conflict
                                                 prevention and resolution, external conflict
                                                 prevention and resolution, democracy and
                                                 development
Institute   for   Peace       and   Sustainable Professional     Diploma       in        Peace   and
Development Studies (IPSDS) at the Niger Sustainable Development: Introduction to
State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria       peace and conflict studies, African conflict,
                                                 peace and development, issues in African
                                                 development, African politics, human rights
                                                 and responsibilities, drugs, violence and
                                                 conflict, introduction to peace missions,
                                                 issues of disarmament
Department of Political Studies at the Undergraduate and postgraduate modules on
University of Calabar, Nigeria                   conflict analysis, peace and security in a
                                                 global     context,       peace-building        and
                                                 humanitarian       intervention,          industrial
                                                 arbitration, perception and misperception,
                                                 early warning system
Centre for Conflict Management and Peace Undergraduate             modules          on     collective
Studies (CECOMPS) at the University of bargaining, third party intervention and
Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria                      arbitration,   conflict     management          and



                                             - 20 -
                                                  peacebuilding      programme;        courses   on
                                                  conflict     awareness,        preventing      and
                                                  management; peace education
Institut National des Sciences de l’Education, Course module on Education, Violence et Paix
INSE (National Institute of Education (Educaton, violence and peace), Problématique
Science) at the University of Lome, Togo          des conflits armés en Afrique (Problematique of
                                                  armed conflicts in Africa, and Société et Sécurité
                                                  collective (Society and collective security)


At primary and secondary school levels, there are very few initiatives and the few existing
ones are not documented and as such, it has been difficult to find relevant and up-to-date
information on those initiatives. Below is a case study from Togo outlining an evolving
initiative that still needs to be improved.


        6.2.1. Case Study: The Moral and Civic Education Initiative in Togo


The Educational Reform and the curriculum guidelines introduce moral and civic
education32 into teaching subjects. This is a good entry point for Peace Education to be
introduced into the educational system. Below comes an analysis of moral and civic
education curricula in the primary schools of Togo.


        6.2.1.1. Aims and Objectives


        * Aims


The Moral and Civic Education curriculum main goal is to prepare the learner to become a
good citizen. It aims at developing observation and critical thinking within the learner. It is
also a contribution to the moral, civic and patriotic training of the individual.




32 DEPD (1984). Programmes de l’Enseignement du Premier Degré : Réforme de l’Enseignement au Togo.
Division de la Réforme, des Programmes et des Méthodes. Ministère de l’Enseignement des Premier
et Deuxieme Degrés : Direction de l’Enseignement du Premier Degré, Lomé


                                              - 21 -
       * Objectives
The objectives of the Moral and Civic Education Programme are:
       to stimulate the learner’s moral consciousness
       to develop auto-reflection, auto-judgment and auto-action
       to help learners be aware that there is mutuality between him/her and the immediate
       environment


   6.2.1.2. Values and Attitudes


   •   Politeness                                       •   Tolerance
   •   Honesty                                          •   Universal solidarity
   •   Courage                                          •   Sensitivity
   •   Modesty                                          •   Consciousness
   •   Saving spirit                                    •   Respect of human dignity
   •   Respect for elders                               •   Team spirit
   •   Comprehension among                              •   Love for one’s country
       individuals


   6.2.1.3. Knowledge and Skills


   •   Rights and duties of parents                     •   Togo national institutions: the
   •   Rights and duties of children                        executive branch (the president,
   •   Basic elements of family code                        political parties, the government),

   •   Sexual life                                          the legislative branch (the national
                                                            assembly) and judiciary branch
   •   Administrative       and    political
                                                            (the Supreme Court)
       structures
                                                        •   Togo and international institutions
   •   Duties and rights of the citizen
                                                        •   Patriotism
   •   The Universal Declaration of
       Human Rights                                     •   Pragmatism
                                                        •   Mutual respect
                                                        •   Responsibility


                                               - 22 -
    •   Team work                                       •   Social life at school


    6.2.1.4. Methodology and Principles


The proposed methodology for the implementation of the Moral and Civic Education
programme and the guiding principles underlying it are summarized in the following table:


Table 4: Methodology and Principles of the Moral and Civic Education in Togo


                   Principles                                    Methodology


        Teachers should be models through               Group           discussions   (“petites
        their    character,     behaviors,   and        causeries”)
        language                                        Story telling
        Sensitivity and emotional reactions             Case studies
        should     constantly     be   cultivated       School activities with constructive
        within the learners                             criticism
        Children’s human personality should             Reading
        be always respected
        Authoritative relationships should be
        substituted to an atmosphere of trust
        and permanent dialogue




    6.2.1.5. Evaluation


The curriculum does not give guidelines for the mode of evaluation to be adopted in order
to assess student’s abilities at the end of the class or programme. Very general outcome
guidelines have been suggested in the form of exit profile, but these are more relevant for
final year evaluation than for subject evaluation.



                                               - 23 -
   6.2.1.6. Critical discussion


The Moral and Civic Education in Togo could have been a good entry point for the
introduction of Peace Education into the curricula. It has the merit of introducing some key
elements of Peace Education and has tried to adopt a progressive methodology.


There is a need to revise if not reform the programme in order to have it cover some
emerging issues in the country such as democracy education, non-violence, conflict
resolution and transformation, sustainable development education, etc.


There is a need to train teachers on new methods of teaching and help them design a clear
curriculum for the programme. Teachers also need to be equipped with the necessary
resources such as teaching materials, activity books, etc. Distance education could also be
available for them in order to adapt their knowledge and skills. For this purpose, they also
need to be trained in ICTs and schools should have access to Internet.


        6.3. Peace Education in Non-formal Education: Initiatives by Non-
        Governmental Actors


The bulk of Peace Education initiatives in West Africa are undertaken by Non-
Governmental Organizations. Most initiatives have started as human rights groups, have
included human rights education in their activities and have felt as time went on to include
other themes such as democracy and citizenship education. Few documented NGO
initiatives are summarized in the table below.


Table 5: Non-formal Peace Education initiatives in West Africa


NGO                                              Peace Education initiative
Union    Interafricaine    des    Droits   de Seminars on human rights issues (module on
l’Homme/Interafrican Union of Human conflict management in a programme on the
Rights, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso                protection of human rights)




                                            - 24 -
                                                Maintain a documentation and information
                                                technology centre
West African Network for Peacebuilding West               African      Peacebuilding          Institute
(WANEP), Accra, Ghana                           (WAPI):      courses      on    introduction        to
                                                peacebuilding        paradigms,          population
                                                movement, conflict and development, active
                                                non-violence and peace education, women in
                                                peacebuilding,      proventive     peacebuilding:
                                                early     warning      and      early     response
                                                development, justice-building and conflict
                                                resolution
                                                Publications: WANEP Links, Her Stories,
                                                From the Field Reports
Pan-African Reconciliation Centre, Lagos Training of trainers in peace education, and
City, Nigeria                                   in conflict transformation
Fondation Togolaise pour la Paix, FTP Training for teachers, youth groups, and civil
(Togolese Foundation for Peace), Sokode, society           on     peace      education,       conflict
Togo                                            resolution/transformation, citizenship and
                                                governance
Contruire Ensemble (To Build Together), Training             on      citizenship        and      good
Sokode, Togo                                    governance, child’s rights and gender issues


       6.4. Issues facing Peace Education initiatives in West Africa


It should be noted that West African Peace Education initiatives vary enormously in their
history, structure and aims. Very few are government initiatives. Some originate in religious
organizations and may be able to draw upon the resources and structure of a church. Some
are membership organizations, although many are not. Some have a specific and closely
defined mandate, such as working on issues affecting post-conflict reconstruction, while
most have mandates that are much broader and more vaguely defined. Below are some of
the issues faced by Peace Education initiatives in the West African region:



                                            - 25 -
         6.4.1. Lack of coordination and collaboration


The lack of contact and exchange of experience and materials among institutions, groups in
different West African countries is clearly recognized by most of the institutions surveyed.
This lack of articulation between Peace Education initiatives can even be observed within
the same country. Organizations often fail to consult with each other and coordinate their
activities.


A particularly acute example of this lack of contact and coordination lays in the split between
francophone and anglophone Peace Education institutions. As for the institutions in
Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, two lusophone countries in the region, they tend to fall
under the francophone bloc.


In many countries, there is a tendency towards duplication and overlap among groups and a
significant lack of coordination in their activities. This is rather relevant for NGOs and
CBOs, While there is an obvious need for greater communication, sharing of information
and collaboration, there is often, in reality, competition and a desire to dominate rather than
cooperate.


         6.4.2. Unclear goals and objectives


For many of the initiatives, further development is impeded by the lack of defined goals and
objectives. The methodology and content of many such programs are ill-defined and
inappropriately targeted. A clear need exists for formal and non-formal Peace Education
initiatives to better conceptualize and execute such educational programs, not only to ensure
their relevance to the community addressed, but in order to carry them out in a sustainable
fashion.


         6.4.3. Undemocratic organizational structures


Democratic participation is very important in program and project implementation,
especially in Peace Education. However, another identifiable problem across the region is


                                            - 26 -
the lack of internal staff processes to include program level staff. In a number of groups,
decisions are made by the head of the institution with no consultation with anyone at all.
There is a need for groups to think about ways to strengthen and democratize their internal
decision-making structures. While this is not a problem specific to West Africa, it does
impair the ability of an institution to grow and sustain itself because there is no investment
in training a competent professional staff.


       6.4.4. Gender imbalance


There is a noticeable dearth of women in professional positions in West African Peace
Education institutions, except for those specifically dedicated to women's issues. However, it
has been proved that women are in better position to education for peace and to build
peace. The institutions need to think about genuine ways in which they can bring women
into leadership roles in the movement.


       6.4.5. Lack of financial resources


Another serious issue is lack of money for day-to-day operations. Every initiative has
funding problems, with the partial exception of those which have church affiliations. Many
institutions are functioning without basic office equipment.


There is very little of a local philanthropic community to fall back upon in these countries.
All groups, regardless of stature or length of operation, face the same problem of donor-
dependency, which, even if not overtly, has a significant and growing impact on the nature,
character and programs of West African Peace Education initiatives. Most importantly, of
course, there institutions need to develop programs that take as their starting point the needs
of the community they are serving. At the same time they need to be able to design and
execute the programs they want, rather than those dictated by donor agencies.


Many initiatives remain unaware of the various donor organizations from which they could
solicit funding. Equally importantly, groups need to learn how to write funding proposals.
Although institutions are likely to continue to be dependent on foreign funding, they need to


                                              - 27 -
develop ways to facilitate this funding at the same time that they define and prioritize Peace
Education agenda for themselves.


        6.5. Training Needs for Peace Education


Since Peace Education is an emerging subject, it is clear that there are many areas where
training is required. The following section is an attempt to identify some broad categories of
training needs for Peace Education initiatives. The precise need varies from organization to
organization.


        6.5.1. Organizational management, administration and development


This heading covers a number of areas where West African Peace Education initiatives have
serious training needs. The needs include the formulation of a mandate and a realizable
strategy for developing the initiative; the development of democratic and accountable forms
of management and decision-making; the development of gender sensitivity, both in internal
functioning and in mandate and strategy; fund-raising, both domestically and internationally,
and financial accounting and reporting; the development of low-cost communications, for
example, by electronic mail; learning basic administrative procedures; learning computer
skills. This list is not exhaustive, yet the acquisition of these basic skills and methods of
operation is in many cases crucial to the success of the initiatives.


        6.5.2. Documentation


Documentation, in one form or another, is a need for all initiatives, whether it is to
document the group's own investigations or to create a resource centre serving the
community. Training would have to consider both documentation techniques and the uses
of documentation.




                                              - 28 -
       6.5.3. Non-formal education


This is perhaps the area in which most initiatives are interested. There is a continuing need
for non-formal education in peace and development. Most of initiatives are in need of a
curriculum to implement their programs, but also need to be trained in active and
participatory methods of teaching/learning. Sharing of information among West African
initiatives regarding strategies and techniques, as well as actual training materials, would be
most useful.


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Any Peace Education strategy in West Africa should imply dialogue, cooperative thinking,
and interaction. Consensus would need to be sought and sometimes it would be necessary to
clarify different opinions and to impulse a common goal.


       All actors and stakeholders should be involved in designing, monitoring,
       implementing and evaluating their own innovations
       Strategies should encourage the solving of concrete social, educational issues, using
       “know-how” and practical experiences
       It would be important to give great autonomy to institutions so that they can work
       out specific forms of action and linkage with the local community, civil society and
       social partners.
       It would be necessary to ensure interplay between community and school learning,
       each re-enforcing one another and so, creating a development cycle
       The Peace Education strategy will promote a lifelong learning perspective based on
       the idea that Peace Education is attained throughout lifespan, under all
       circumstances and in all learning environments
       Effective participation of all actors would be encouraged in all decision making for
       any change
       A particular focus should be put on long lasting competencies and changes not only
       immediate learning outcomes



                                            - 29 -
Peace Education should be included in initial and continuing training programmes of
all staff categories in schools, NGOs, and community-based organizations
Membership, active participation and sense of belonging should be encouraged and
partnerships, active participation, networks and cooperation should be stimulated at
local, regional, national and international levels.
School system, institutions and the community would be used as “learning places” in
which different people come to know each other and not just a place to learn
something particular: “an issue” or a “a theme”
Multilevel approaches to Peace Education would be promoted to include the ‘SELF’
(self-directed learning), the COMMUNITY (learning to live together) and the
POLICY (learning to make decisions)
Grass-root initiatives should be recognized and included in school system reforms,
and partnership should be ensured between school system and the civil society,
economic sectors, the media, the private sector and other public services.
Finally, non-formal initiatives, voluntary work, community actions, social practices
and citizenship training in social development should be recognized as Peace
Education praxis




                                      - 30 -
REFERENCES


Aglo, John (2001) (ed.). Réformes des Systèmes Educatifs et Réformes Curriculaires: Situation dans les
Etats Africains au Sud du Sahara. IBE-UNESCO : Geneva


Attar, M. Ghana Country Report. In Pillai, Sharmilla (ed.) (2003). Strategies for Introducing New
Curricula in West Africa. Final Report of the Seminar/Workshop held in Lagos, Nigeria, 12-16
Novembre 2001. UNESCO-IBE: Geneva


Bensalah, Kacem (ed) (2002). Guidelines for Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: EFA
Strategic Planning. UNESCO Division of Policies and Strategies of Education: France


Bush, Kenneth D. & Saltarelli, Diana (eds) (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict:
Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre: Florence,
Italy


DEPD (1984). Programmes de l’Enseignement du Premier Degré : Réforme de l’Enseignement au Togo.
Division de la Réforme, des Programmes et des Méthodes. Ministère de l’Enseignement des
Premier et Deuxieme Degrés : Direction de l’Enseignement du Premier Degré, Lomé


Gbesso, A. (2005). Youth, Development and Conflict Prevention in Africa: Approaches, Challenges and
Lessons. Paper presented at the Peace Research Capacity Building Workshop in Dakar,
Senegal, 23-26 October 2005: Unpublished


Gbesso, A. (2005). Basic Education in Togo: Educating for Violence, Conflict or Peace? – The Quality
of Education in Question. Report from a Research Analysis. Plan Togo: Lome


Gbesso, A. (2006). Education, Développement et Paix en Afrique: L’Education à la Paix, Une
Opportunité. A Paper presented at the International Conference on “Strategies for Peace with
Development: The Role of Education, Training and Research”, held 12-14 June 2006 at the
African Union Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.




                                                - 31 -
Nyame, Jean Adama & Nuakey, Yao (2001). Rapport National sur la Refondation
Curriculaire et le Processus de Développement Curriculaire. In Aglo, John (2001) (ed.).
Réformes des Systèmes Educatifs et Réformes Curriculaires: Situation dans les Etats Africains au Sud du
Sahara. IBE-UNESCO: Geneva


Plan Togo (2006). Suffering to Succeed? Violence and Abuse in Schools in Togo. Plan Togo: Lome


Salmi, Jamil (2000). Violence, Democracy and Education: An Analytical Framework. Human
Development Department, LCSHD Paper Series No. 56, World Bank: Washington


Siri, Carmen (2004). Education for All Youth. Academy for Educational Development: Global
Education Center


Smith, Alan & Vaux, Tony (eds) (2003). Education, Conflict and International Development. DFID
Issues Paper: London


UNDP (2003). Les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement: Progrès, Revers et Défis. UNDP:
Geneva


UNICEF (2002). Une Education de Qualité pour Tous: Du Point de Vue d’une Fille. UNICEF:
New York


UNESCO (2000). UNESCO – Mainstreaming The Culture of Peace. Paris: France


UNESCO (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action – Education for All: Meeting our Collective
Commitments. Adopted by the World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000.
UNESCO: France; p. 28


UNESCO (1995). Declaration of the 44th Session of the International Conference on Education,
November 1995. UNESCO: Paris




                                                - 32 -
UNESCO (1995). Integrated Framework of Action. Adopted at UNESCO’s 28th Session.
November 1995


UNESCO (2005). Education For All in Africa: Paving the Way for Action. UNESCO Regional
Office in Dakar, BREDA: Senegal


United Nations (2005). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2005. UN: New York


University for Peace (2004). Directory of Peace Studies in Africa 2004. UPEACE - Africa
Programme & ACCORD




                                             - 33 -
Annexes


Annex 1: Contact information of institutions surveyed


               Peace Education in West Africa: List of contacts by country


1. Benin                                           4. Côte-d’Ivoire


INSAE                                              Chaire UNESCO pour la Culture de la
Mrs. Elise C. Ahovey-Houegounou                    Paix
01 B.P. 323                                        Prof. Gerard Dago Lezou, Professeur
Cotonou                                            titulaire
Tel. +229 21 30 82 45                              B.P. V 34 Abidjan
Tel. +229 95 40 17 12                              Tel. +225 05 49 06 80
E-mail : eliseahovey@yahoo.fr,                     Fax. +225 22 44 98 60
eliseahovey@hotmail.com                            E-mail: cucpaix@africaonline.co.ci


2. Burkina Faso                                    Femmes Cote-d’Ivoire Experience
                                                   Ms. Pauline Affoue Yao, President
Union Interafricaine des Droits de                 Founder
l’Homme                                            23 B.P. 4200
Hahdai Ouedraogo, President                        Abidjan 23
01 B.P. 1346                                       Tel. +225 05 88 10 35/ 23 51 39 06
Ouagadougou                                        Fax. +225 23 45 71 70
Tel. +226 31 61 45                                 E-mail: fciex_apd@yahoo.fr,
Fax. +226 31 61 44                                 paulineyao1@yahoo.com
E-mail : uidh@fasonet.bf
                                                   5. Gambia
3. Cape Verde
                                                   No contact available
No contact available




                                          - 34 -
6. Ghana                                            B.P. 418
                                                    Niamey
WANEP Ghana                                         Tel. 227 737 895
Ms. Oury Traore, Programme Manager                  Fax. +227 733 862
P.O.Box CT 4434, cantonments, Accra                 E-mail: caro@refer.ne
E-mail: otraore@wanep.org,
ourytraore@yahoo.com                                12. Nigeria


7. Guinea                                           Centre for Conflict Management and
                                                    Peace Studies
No contact available                                University of Jos
                                                    Dr. Sedrack Gaya Best, Director
8. Guinea-Bissau                                    Tel: + 234 803 715 2879
                                                    E-mail: shedrackbest@yahoo.com
No contact available
                                                    Educational Research Network for West
9. Liberia                                          and Central Africa (ERNWACA) Nigeria
                                                    Chapter
No contact available                                Dr. Dayo Odukoya, Secretary-General
                                                    P.O. Box 1167, Ikorodu
10. Mali                                            Lagos State
                                                    Tel. +234 803 473 0219
No contact available                                E-mail: dayo_odukoya@yahoo.com


11. Niger                                           13. Senegal


Réseau International d’Etudes                       Foundation for Africa’s Future Leadership
Stratégiques sur les Conflits en Afrique            Mrs. Olubanke King-Akerele,
(RIESCA)                                            Programme Coordinator
Université Abdou Moumouni de Niamey                 12 Av. Leopold S. Senghor
Dr. Daouda Boubacar Diallo,                         Box 3311
Coordinator                                         Dakar


                                           - 34 -
Tel. +221 849 2337/ 572 4122
Fax. +221 823 8393                                Peace and Conflict Studies Secretariat
E-mail: olubanke.king-akerele@undp.org            Milton Margari College of Education
                                                  Mr. Algassim Jah, Coordinator
Femmes Africa Solidarite                          Goderich, Freetown
Mrs. Aminata Dieye, Coordinatrice                 E-mail: algassimjah@yahoo.com
Bureau Regional
Immeuble Rose, Stele Mermoz, Appt 31C             15. Togo
B.P. 45077 Dakar Fann
Tel. +221 860 20 48/ 641 40 63                    United Nations Regional Centre for Peace
Fax. +221 860 20 47                               and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC)
E-mail: amdieye1@yahoo.fr                         Dr. Ivor Richard Fung, Director
                                                  B.P. 2705
CODESRIA                                          Lome
Mr. Abdon Sofonnou, Programme                     Tel. +228 253 50 00
Assistant                                         Tel. +228 250 55 67
Research Department                               Fax. +228 250 43 15
B.P. 3304                                         E-mail : irfung@unrec.org
Dakar
Tel: +221 825 65 97                               WANEP Togo
Fax: +221 824 12 89                               Mr. Hetcheli
E-mail: abdon.sofonnou@codesria.sn                Tel. +228 220 62 79
                                                  E-mail: waneptogo@yahoo.fr
14. Sierra Leone
                                                  Pan African Teachers' Centre
Plan Sierra Leone                                 Dr. Lawrence Kannae, Executive
Ms. Miriam Murray, Resource                       Director
Mobilization and Community                        B.A 13117
Empowerment Advisor                               Tel: +228 222 25 47
E-mail: miriammurray@plan-                        Fax: +228 222 14 11
international.org                                 E-mail: patc@patc-cpae.org ,
E-mail : massahmm@yahoo.com                       lawrencekannane@yaho.co.uk


                                         - 35 -
         Annex 2: Questionnaire English version




                                    International Conference on
                              “Strategies for Peace with Development in
                             Africa: The Role of Education, Training and
                                             Research”
                                         Follow Up Meeting




   SURVEY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PEACE EDUCATION STRATEGY IN
                                       WEST AFRICA


                                     Survey Questionnaire




Institution:


Main contact person & position:


Contact details


Postal address:
Tel.:
Fax:
E-mail
Website (if available):




1. Brief presentation of your institution and its work in the field of peace and development,
countries/regions covered and institution’s field of expertise




                                             - 36 -
2. Peace and development curriculum


2.1. Are Peace Education elements addressed in your country’s formal education curriculum? If yes,
what elements are addressed? If no, what do you think need to be included in the curriculum? Please,
be as precise as possible.


2.2. Does your institution have a curriculum on peace and development or related areas?


YES              NO


2.3. If yes, what is the title of the curriculum? (if you have more than one curriculum, please list all of
them)


2.4. How was the curriculum developed and who are the intended audience?


2.5. Are you willing to share this curriculum with UPEACE, AU and other organizations?


YES         (if yes, please attach a copy to this form)       NO


2.6. What are the objectives of your curriculum/curricula?
2.7. What values and attitudes does your curriculum aim at developing?


2.8. What skills does the curriculum intend to develop?


2.9. What processes and methodologies do you use to implement your curriculum?


2.10. What experience/thoughts do you want do share about the implementation of the above-
mentioned curriculum/curricula?


2.11. What kind of support would you need to improve your programme (in terms of Peace
Education curriculum development)?


3. Network of African peace and development actors




                                                  - 37 -
3.1. Is your institution willing to be a member of the proposed network of African peace and
development actors?


YES              NO


3.2. What kind of support would you want to share with other institutions? (please give details below)


    o   Research expertise: …………………..


    o   Academic teaching expertise (please specify which level): …………………………….


    o   Training (please specify target audience): ……………………………………


    o   Policy making (please specify institutional affiliation): …………………………….




3.3. Any comments or suggestions?




Please insert additional pages if necessary. Kindly return the completed questionnaire by
DECEMBER          1st,   2006    to    the    following    address:   Assouan     Gbesso,     E-mail:
agbesso@alumni.upeace.org or agbesso@francophone.net




                                                - 38 -
         Annex 3: Questionnaire French version




                                    Conférence Internationale sur les
                            “Stratégies pour la Paix et le Développement en
                            Afrique: Le Rôle de l’Education, la Formation et
                                              la Recherche”
                                   Réunion de Suivi des Recommandations




ENQUETE POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT DE STRATEGIE POUR L’EDUCATION A
                            LA PAIX EN AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST


                                     Questionnaire D’Enquête




Institution:


Personne à contacter & position:


Cordonnées


Adresse Postale:
Tél.:
Fax:
Courriel:
Site Internet:




1. Brève présentation de votre institution et de son travail dans le cadre de la [aix et du
développement, pays/régions couverts et domaines d’expertise de l’institution




                                                - 39 -
2. Curriculum sur la paix et le développement


2.1. Les éléments de l’éducation à la paix ont-ils été pris en compte dans les curricula d’éducation
formelle de votre pays? Si oui, quels éléments ont-ils été pris en compte ? Si non, quels éléments
pensez-vous qu’il serait nécessaire d’y introduire ? Prière être le plus précis possible.


2.2. Votre institution possède-t-elle un curriculum sur la paix et le développement ou sur un sujet
connexe?


OUI               NON


2.3. Si oui, quel est le titre du curriculum? (si vous avez plus d’un curriculum, prière les lister tous)


2.4. Comment a été développé ce curriculum et quelle est l’audience visée par ce curriculum?


2.5. Aimeriez-vous partager ce curriculum avec l’Université pour la Paix, l’UA et d’autres
organisations?


OUI         (Si oui, prière joindre une copie)        NON


2.6. Quels sont les objectifs du curriculum?


2.7. Quelles sont les valeurs et les attitudes que le curriculum vise à développer?


2.8. Quelles sont les aptitudes que le curriculum veut développer?


2.9. Quels processus et méthodologies utilisez-vous pour mettre en oeuvre votre curriculum?


2.10. Quelles expériences/idées aimeriez-vous partager sur la mise en oeuvre du curriculum?


2.11. De quelle assistance auriez-vous besoin pour l’amélioration de votre programme (en terme de
développement de curricula pour l’éducation à la paix)?


3. Réseau des institutions pour la paix et le développement en Afrique




                                                   - 40 -
3.1. Votre institution aimerait-elle être member du réseau (en voie de création) des acteurs pour la
paix et le développement en Afrique?


OUI                 NON


3.2. Quel type d’appui seriez-vous en mesure d’apporter aux autres institutions? (prière donner les
détails ci-après)


    o    Expertise en recherche: …………………..


    o    Expertise en enseignement officiel (prière préciser le niveau): …………………………….


    o    Formation (prière préciser l’auditoire): ……………………………………


    o    Elaboration de politiques (prière indiquer les affiliations institutionnelles):
         ……………………




3.3. Avez-vous d’autres commentaires et/ou suggestions ?




Prière ajouter des pages si nécessaire et retourner le questionnaire rempli au plus tard le 1er
DECEMBRE 2006 par courrier électronique à l’adresse suivante: Assouan Gbesso, E-mail:
agbesso@alumni.upeace.org or agbesso@francophone.net




                                                   - 41 -
          Annex 4: Cover Letter French version




                                    Conférence Internationale sur les
                            “Stratégies pour la Paix et le Développement en
                            Afrique: Le Rôle de l’Education, la Formation et
                                             la Recherche”
                                  Réunion de Suivi des Recommandations




                                                                                             B.P. 34
                                                                                     Sokodé – Togo
                                                                                Tél. +228 912 20 97
                                                                                     Fax +550 02 11
                                                               Courriel: agbesso@alumni.upeace.org


                                                                                    Novembre 2006




Ref. : Enquête pour le développement de Stratégie pour l’Education à la Paix en Afrique de
l’Ouest


Cher,


Au cours de la Conférence Internationale sur les “Stratégies pour la Paix et le Développement en
Afrique: Le Rôle de l’Education, la Formation et la Recherche” qui s’est tenue à Addis-Abéba du 12
au 14 Juin 2006 sous les auspices de l’Union Africaine et de l’Université pour la Paix – Programme
Afrique, des recommandations ont été faites en vue de développer un curriculum général sur
l’education à la paix et le développement qui prendrait en considération les contextes et réalités de
chaque pays; que l’Université pour la Paix devrait faciliter la création d’un réseau africain de
chercheurs, d’éducateurs, d’acteurs et de décideurs en faveur de la paix et du développement afin de



                                               - 42 -
partager les expériences et les meilleures pratiques; et enfin que l’éducation à la paix devrait être
introduit dans les systèmes éducatifs des pays avec un accent sur le renforcement des capacités des
enseignants.


Au regard de ces recommandations, l’Université pour la Paix – Programme Afrique a commandité
une enquête préliminaire afin de collecter des informations sur l’état de l’éducation à la paix en
Afrique de l’Ouest. La même enquête est conduite dans les autres régions d’Afrique. L’objectif de
l’enquête est de recueillir des données sur les initiatives déjà existantes en Afrique, de les analyzer et
d’en tirer des leçons qui aideraient à la mise en place d’une stratégie pour l’éducation à la paix et le
déveppement en Afrique. Les résultats de l’enquête seront présentés à l’Université pour la Paix vers la
mi-Décembre 2006.


Nous aimerions vous prier de bien vouloir remplir le questionnaire ci-joint ou de le faire remplir par
une autre personne de votre institution et de nous le renvoyer par courrier électronique au plus tard
le 1er décembre 2006.


Nous vous remercions d’avance et anticipons de vous avoir omme un partenaire important pour
notre réseau. N’hésitez pas à nous donner des informations sur d’auttres institutions dont vous auriez
connaissance et qui travaillent pour la paix et le développement en Afrique de l’Ouest.


Meilleurs voeux pour la nouvelle année à venir.


Sincèrement,


Assouan Gbesso


Chargé du Receuil de données pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest




                                                  - 43 -
        Annex 5: Cover Letter English version




                                  International Conference on
                            “Strategies for Peace with Development in
                           Africa: The Role of Education, Training and
                                           Research”
                                       Follow Up Meeting




                                                                                     B.P. 34
                                                                             Sokode – Togo
                                                                         Tel. +228 912 20 97
                                                                             Fax +550 02 11
                                                           E-mail: agbesso@alumni.upeace.org


                                                                             November 2006




Ref. : Survey for the Development of a Peace Education Strategy in West Africa




Dear,


At the International Conference on “Strategies for Peace with Development in Africa: The
Roles of Education, Training and Research” held in Addis-Ababa, 12-14 June 2006 under
the auspices of the African Union and the University for Peace – Africa Programme,
recommendations were made to develop a broad-based curriculum in Peace Education and



                                           - 44 -
development taking into consideration national peculiarities and contexts; that the University
for Peace should facilitate the creation of a network of African peace and development
researchers, educators, practitioners and policy makers to share experiences and best
practices and that Peace Education should be enshrined in national education systems with
a focus on strengthening the capacities of teachers to play a role in Peace Education.


In the regard of the these recommendations, the University for Peace – Africa Programme
and the African Union have convened this preliminary survey in order to collect relevant
information on Peace Education in West Africa. The same survey is being conducted in the
other regions of Africa. The aim is to take stock of the existing undertakings and initiatives
in Africa, analyse them and draw lessons and practices that may help in the development of
Peace Education strategy in Africa. The results of the survey will be presented to the
University for Peace and the African Union in mid December 2006.


We would be happy if you can fill the attached form or have someone from your institution
fill it and send it back to the address mentioned above. It is preferable if you can send the
completed survey by e-mail and by December 1st, 2006.


We thank you very much in advance and look forward to having you as a strong partner for
the network. Please, feel free to provide us information about any other institution you may
know that works for peace and development in West Africa.


Best wishes for the new coming year.


Sincerely,


Assouan Gbesso


Survey Coordinator for West Africa




                                            - 45 -
       Annex 6: Template
Template for taking Stock of the state of Peace Education in School Systems within
the African Continent.


1. BACKGROUND


   A) From 12 to 14 June 2006, the University for Peace and the African Union organized
       an international conference on “Strategies for Peace with development in Africa: The
       Role of Education, Training and Research”.


   B) Recommendations from the Conference included the following:
   •   A broad-based curriculum in Peace Education and development should be produced
       by UPEACE and partners for African institutions at all levels, taking into
       consideration national peculiarities and contexts
   •   UPEACE should facilitate the creation of a network of African peace and
       development researchers, educators, practitioners and policy makers to share
       experiences and best practices from the African region and fro other parts of the
       world. Sub-regional hubs should be set up within the regional network for ease of
       operations.
   •   There should be an assessment of the capacity for peace research in Africa
   •   Peace Education should be enshrined in national education systems with a focus on
       strengthening the capacities of teachers to play a role in Peace Education


   C) In additions to these recommendations, some participants noted that there are
       instances of Peace Education in parts of Africa. There is need to document and
       share the experience.


   D) As a follow up to these recommendations UPEACE will convene a small working
       meeting on the status of Peace Education in Africa.




                                           - 46 -
    E) The purpose of the present assignment is to take stock of the existing undertakings
         and initiatives in Africa, analyse them and draw lessons and practices that may help
         in the development of Peace Education strategy in Africa.


2. Overview


Schools or any Educational Institution for that matter do not exist in isolation. Children
come to school very much aware of the world in which they live. Schooling simply
intervenes in an ongoing educational process; that of childhood socialisation, by which they
learn attitudes, skills and knowledge, which they will require to function as responsible
members of their societies. The disorder of the world is reflected in school in many ways
and incidentally, the very qualities that are needed to address the global crisis are the very
same qualities required to function in school setting...!


These formative institutions can therefore become communities which model how the ideal
world may be. In order to effectively achieve this, it needs a curriculum where the content
and the methodology are equally important and where one takes a holistic view of education
to involve the learning of specific skills, attitudes and knowledge.


The study of Peace Education can therefore be professionally justified and rationalized from
four different perspectives:
    •    The need to give a wholesome education
    •    The need to respond to the nature of childhood and socialisation processes
    •    The need for political education to respond to the democratisation of the social and
         political structures.
    •    The need to be in step with sound education ideologies. .


3. The Task


  a) Given the socio-political realities of your country, how can you justify the need to
        introduce Peace Education within the educational curriculum? How would you rate



                                              - 47 -
          this need among others in order of priority within the education system of your
          country? Kindly explain


b) Using the official operational curriculum approved by the Ministry of Education as a
reference, give a brief summary on any initiatives in Peace Education within the specified
country’s system of Education. It would be useful to highlight the specific features that are
deemed to foster the culture of peace.


Guidelines to consider:


How much and in what forms are these elements manifest within the FOUR different stages
of the curriculum under review? Feel free to add any other elements not mentioned but
which may be relevant for Peace Education
(The four stages of an education system are; Pre-primary education, Primary education, high
school and college/tertiary).


               i) Aims and objectives (are these articulated in any form within the curriculum at any
stage?)
                   •   To understand the nature and origins of violence
                   •   To create frameworks for achieving peaceful, creative societies
                   •   To sharpen the awareness about the unpeaceful existence between
                       people and between nations.
                   •   To investigate causes of conflicts imbedded within perceptions,
                       values,and attitudes of individuals or within social and political structures
                       of the society.
                   •   To Equip children and adults with conflict resolutions skills.


               ii) Values and Attitudes
                   •   Respect for others regardless of race, gender, age, nationality, class,
                       sexuality, appearance, political    or religious belief, physical or mental
                       ability.



                                                 - 48 -
   •   Empathy – a willingness to understand the views of others from thier
       standpoint.
   •   A belief that individuals and groups of people can make for positive
       change.
   •   Appreciation of and respect for diversity
   •   Self esteem – asserting the intrinsic value of oneself
   •   Commitment to education in social justice, equity and nonviolence
   •   Concern for the environment and understanding our place in the eco-
       system.
   •   Commitment to equality and equity


iii) Skills domain
   •   Problem solving
   •   Sensitivity
   •   Cooperation
   •   Respcet
   •   Cheerfulness
   •   Integrity
   •   Concentration
   •   Aspiration
   •   Self Control
   •   Viatlity
   •   Perseverance
   •   Orderliness
   •   Dependability
   •   Self Reliance
   •   Creativity
   •   Practicality
   •   Generosity
   •   Introspection


                                - 49 -
                •   Curiosity
                •   Appreciation


  iv) Methodology and process proposed
    •   Active learning/participatory methodology
    •   Experiential learning
    •   Partnerships
    •   Dialogue
    •   Self expression development
    •   Story telling
    •   Project work – identify questions and find answers
    •   Use of source materials
    •   Exchange visits
    •   Links with wider community for learning
    •   Creative teaching and learning


c) Give a critique of the system under consideration (take each stage of the education system
in turn) and point out the inadequacies (or none) within the curriculum. Give suggestions of
elements you think need to be added to the curriculum, so that it could be ideal for Peace
Education.


d) Apart from the Ministry of Education, are there any other efforts being made by non-
governmental organizations or professional bodies within the country under consideration
or within the sub-region that is worth noting? Give a brief summary of any such effort,
pointing any lessons of success or difficulties experienced at these levels:
    •   The ministry of Education,
    •   Institutional level,
    •   General acceptance by the society
    •   The learning public (students, pupils etc)




                                             - 50 -

								
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