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					                                                    Field document
                                                        UR/RNE/2




               Umbrella Programme
                  for training on
   Uruguay Round Follow-up and Multilateral Trade
            Negotiations on Agriculture




                       Report

Workshop on Uruguay Round Follow-up and
Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture


    Muscat - Oman, 16-20 September 2000


                 Saad E. Ahmed
              Senior Policy Officer
            Policy Assistance Branch
        FAO Regional Office for the Near East




         FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
               OF THE UNITED NATIONS


             Web Site: http://www.fao.org/ur
                                                   CONTENTS


                                                                              Page

 I.                 I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION                                     1
            1.1 Objectives                                                      1
            1.2 Training Programme                                              1
            1.3 Organization and Participants                                   2
            1.4 Inauguration                                                    3

II.            II. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP                                  5
       2.   2.1 Trade issues in the sub-region                                  5
       3.   2.2 Main Issues Discussed by Working Groups                         5
       4.   2.2.1 Parallel seminar on AoA                                       5
       5.   2.2.2 Parallel seminar on SPS and TBT                               6
       6.   2.2.3 Parallel seminar on TRIPS                                     7

          2.3 Recommendations and Technical Assistance                           7
       7. 2.3.1 Parallel seminar on AoA                                          7
       8. 2.3.2 Parallel seminar on SPS and TBT                                  9
       9. 2.3.3 Parallel seminar on TRIPS                                       10

            Recommendations in Arabic                                           12


III.        III. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE WORKSHOP                        18
            3.1 Methodology                                                     18
            3.2 Objectives                                                      18
            3.3 Coverage of the topics                                          18
            3.4 Time allotment                                                  18
            3.5 Clarity of presentations and effectiveness of teaching aids     18
            3.6 Training kit (Resource Manual)                                  19
            3.7 Logistic arrangements and facilities                            19

            IV. CLOSING SESSION                                                 19

            V. ANNEXES                                                          20
            ANNEX 1.1 Workshop programme                                        20
            ANNEX 1.2 Workshop evaluation                                       28
            ANNEX 1.3 List of participants (including lecturers)                32
I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objectives:

1. This report contains the proceedings and recommendations of the Sub-Regional Training
Workshop on the Umbrella Programme for “Uruguay Round Follow-up and Multilateral
Trade Negotiations on Agriculture” for the Arab States of the Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC). The workshop was held in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman from 16 to 20 September
2000. It was organized in accordance to the mandate of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) laid down by the 1996 World Food Summit and
its other governing bodies to continue assisting developing countries on agricultural trade
issues and, in particular, “in preparing for future multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture,
fisheries and forestry inter-alia through studies, analysis and training”. The workshop
constitutes one of a worldwide programme launched by FAO in 1999 and continuing through
2001 at the sub-regional level in Africa, Asia, the Near East, Europe and Latin America.

2. The objective of the workshop is to assist member countries to better understand the
existing WTO agreements affecting agriculture, fisheries and forestry and the issues likely to
arise in the negotiations, and ensure that they are well informed and equal partners in the
(negotiating) process. In particular, the workshop aims to assist the GCC countries to:

   understand fully the existing WTO Agreements, the rights and obligations of countries
    under those Agreements, the workings in practice of those Agreements, and particular
    problems that have arisen in their implementation that may require further negotiations;
   analyse new issues that are likely to arise in the negotiating process and the implications
    of the various proposals for international agreements on their national economies; and
   take up and debate special issues of regional or sub- regional concern.


1.2 Training Programme:

3. The training content of the workshop included the following:

The existing WTO Agreements, countries’ rights and obligations and main issues in trade 
                                                                   and agricultural policies.
                         Agriculture trade issues of regional and sub- regional importance. 
                Issues likely to arise in the forthcoming negotiating process in relation to: 
 The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) and its implications for agricultural trade and
   sector policies;
 The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS) as well as the Agreement on Technical
   Barriers to Trade (TBT);
 The Agreement on Trade – Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
   including its regulatory and legal aspects.
 Information and guidance on electronic access to sources of information (including the
   FAO web-site) covering interpretation, impact analysis, transition measures, the debate
   on UR implementation issues and on negotiating proposals in the forthcoming
   multilateral trade negotiations.

4. The topics covered by the workshop were arranged in a detailed training programme
spread over five working days (Annex 1.1). The programme was organized in plenary
sessions (days 1 and 5) and three-day parallel seminars (days 2 –4 inclusive). The first day
inroduced the general topics to enable all the participants to gain a good understanding of
the various agreements concerning agriculture and on the way they impact on agricultural
trade. The parallel seminars dealt with the Agreement on Agriculture –AoA- (Seminar 1), the
Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures -SPS- and the
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade –TBT- (Seminar 2) and the Agreement on Trade-
Related Aspects of Intellecual Property Rights –TRIPS- (Seminar 3), and henceforth ensured
a fairly in-depth technical discussion amongst the specialists concerned with these
agreements. The final session in plenary considered crosscutting issues among the various
Agreements concerning agriculture, finalisation of recommendations and evaluation of the
workshop and award of certificates of attendance.


1.3   Organization and Participants:

5. The workshop was organized in consistency with fourteen Sub-regional Workshop to be
held in different regions of the world: four in Africa; three in Asia, two in the Near East; two
in Europe; and three in Latin America. The advance arrangements made for the workshop
proved extremely helpful in getting the right nominations and in informing countries.
Communication was first established with the Secretariat of the GCC, which was requested to
inform concerned Governments and contact the Sultanate of Oman to host the meeting.
Invitations were then extended to Governments of the GCC countries to participate in the
Workshop. This was followed by travel by the Regional Workshop Coordinator to GCC
member states to brief senior officials about the workshop and its organizational
arrangements, assist member states in the identification of suitable participants and explain to
them the Issues and Problems Questionnaires. During this travel adequate arrangements were
also made, in Oman, for the workshop. These included arrangements for hosting the meeting
in suitable conference halls, accommodation for the participants and training staff,
arrangements for simultaneous interpretation, as well as other required logistic and
administrative support.

6. The workshop was hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in Muscat –
Sultanate of Oman and organized in collaboration with the Statistical, Economic and Social
Research and Training Centre for the Islamic Countries (SESRTCIC) of the Organization of
the Islamic Conference (OIC) and support of the Secretariat of the GCC. The workshop was
attended by 85 participants (including 7 females) from the 6 GCC member states (Bahrain,
Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates).                 In order to build a
minimum advisory “critical mass” countries were invited to send ten participants each to the
workshop. They were also requested that the participants should be either members of the
country team participating in the multilateral trade negotiations or of any team (including
private sector and academic institutions) providing technical advice to the government on
issues related to the agricultural negotiations and their implementation. It was also indicated
that ideally, country representatives should comprise three to four specialists in agricultural
policy and trade; four to five specialists in sanitary/ phytosanitary issues, plant protection and
animal health protection; and two to three specialist in international legislation concerning
intellectual property rights. Countries of the region covered the living and accommodation
expenses of their participants.

7. Most of the participants were senior government officials from various units within
agriculture-related ministries. More than 50% of the participants were Directors General,
Experts, Directors and Heads/Chiefs of major departments. Some government officials from
ministries of trade and commerce, planning, foreign affairs, municipalities and from
academic and research institutions also participated in the workshop. The group of
participants included managers of private and public enterprises, directors of investment
organizations, private members of the chambers of commerce, experts in international trade
and researchers (Annex 1.3).

8. The plenary sessions of the workshop were held at Sheraton Hotel. The parallel sessions
were held at Oman Chamber of Commerce and Industry (AoA Seminar), Sheraton Hotel
(SPS & TBT Seminar) and Holiday Inn (TRIPS Seminar). International interpreters to all
seminars and plenary sessions provided simultaneous interpretation (Arabic and English).
The workshop benefited from the Resource Manual, which was provided for the first time
both in Arabic (draft form) and English (final form).

1.4 Inauguration:

9. The workshop was inaugurated by H.E. Ahmed bin Abdulnabi Mekki, Minister for
National Economy and Deputy Chairman of the Financial Affairs and Energy Resources
Council. The opening ceremony was attended by a number of ministers, undersecretaries of
the concerned ministries, ambassadors and other members of the diplomatic corps, and
Directors General of Departments in the concerned ministries as well as people from the
private sector. Speeches were given by H.E. Dr. Ahmed bin Khalfan Al Rawahi, Minister for
Agriculture and Fisheries, Ambassador Erdnuc Erdin, Director General of SESRTCIC and
Dr. Bukhari, ADG/Regional Representative, RNE.

10. In his speech, the Minister for Agriculture welcomed the participants and commended
FAO for holding such an important workshop in Muscat, in the wake of the forthcoming
WTO negotiations. He reflected on the paramount importance of UR Agreements and the
WTO disciplines on agricultural development in Oman and all GCC countries, as these
countries are primarily food importers. Their local production will also be subject to severe
competition following agreements for market access, tariffication and tariff reduction. The
Minister indicated that Oman shall finalise all arrangements for accession to the WTO by
October 2000. Oman agreed to remove non-tariff barriers to trade in agricultural
commodities, as stipulated by the agreements. It also managed, in its negotiations, to obtain
satisfactory privileges reflected in high tariff ceilings, and its accession as a developing
country, which would still enable public support to the agricultural sector. The ministry will
continue, as far as its resources permit, to subsidize the farmers through its support to
agricultural research, extension, training, crop protection and provision of infrastructure
including modern irrigation techniques.

11. Mr. Bukhari, Assistant Director General and Regional Representative for the FAO
Regional Office for the Near East stressed the relevance of the Workshop for agricultural
development in the region and the opportunities as well as challenges that the WTO
agreements present to all members, particularly developing countries. He indicated that FAO,
as part of its mandate to provide assistance to member countries in the context of the follow-
up to the Uruguay Round and multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture, has been
implementing a wide range of activities. The objective is to enhance the capacity of
developing countries to analyse the implications for the agricultural sector of the World
Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements, to adjust to the new trading environment and thus
take full advantage of trading opportunities, and to participate effectively in further
multilateral trade negotiations. In connection with the new negotiations on agriculture, FAO
is intensifying its assistance to member countries to enable them to be better informed and
well prepared for these trade talks. Several activities have been initiated, including regional
workshops, which benefited from FAO’s unique expertise in such areas as the assessment of
the global food supply and demand situation; the analysis of the impact of the WTO
Agreements on agricultural commodity markets, and on food security at the world, regional
and national levels; the harmonization of international scientifically based and risk-assessed
standards for food quality and safety through the Codex Alimentarius Commission (jointly
with WHO); phytosanitary standards through the International Plant Protection Convention
(IPPC); and the conservation and utilization of genetic resources for food and agriculture
through the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), the only
UN intergovernmental forum dealing with this subject matter. Mr. Bukhari expressed FAO
readiness to support member countries promote building their development capacities and
enhance their negotiation position.

12. H.E. Ambassador Erdnic Erdun, Director General of SESRTCIC briefed the meeting
about SESRTCIC activities and its collaboration with related international and regional
agencies in organizing joint activities to enhance awareness about certain important policy
issues and in promoting building development capacities of member states. In addition,
SESRTCIC prepares technical reports and working papers on economic issues and technical
cooperation for the annual Organization of Islamic Conference meetings.


II.    PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP

2.1     Trade issues in the sub-region

13. The countries of the GCC region enjoy comparable economic environments, which pave
the way for regional economic integration. The high import dependence of the GCC
countries has prompted widespread concern among them about the UR agreements, because
of the expected increase in import prices in the short- and medium- term as well as the
reduction of subsidized food imports. In addition, the price instability, which will continue to
be a feature of world agricultural markets, will make the GCC countries more vulnerable to
fluctuations in world market. The GCC countries are therefore considering UR-compatible
policies to stabilize prices or to offset their effects. The changes in the international
economic environment brought about by the UR agrements have further encouraged taking
steps towards establishing a customs union among GCC countries by 2005.

2.2 Main Issues Discussed by the Working groups

2.2.1 Parallel Seminar on AoA

14. The parallel seminar on the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) was attended by 23
participants representing all the countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC). As
planned, the programme of this seminar continued for three days (17-19 September 2000).
The specialised sessions covered many issues relating to the AoA, most important of which
are:

 a)     the major areas of commitments in the AoA: market access, domestic support and
        export subsidies;
b)      the special and differential treatment for developing countries;
c)      the Marrakech Decision on the least-developed countries (LDCs) and net-food
        importing developing countries (NFIDCs);
d)      regional trade agreements (RTAs) and the WTO; and
e)      country experiences with the implementation of the AoA.

15. Presentations and discussions were organised along four major lines:

a)     basic rules and disciplines of the agreement;
b)     the experience with implementation of commitments;
c)     issues arising from proposals in the context of the new negotiations in agriculture; and
d)     issues of concern to the GCC countries in the new negotiations.

16. Adequate time was devoted to the explanation of the basic rules and disciplines. In
addition to the general topics discussed at the meeting, some issues received special attention.
High dependence of countries in the region on food imports in view of the limited resource
potential for agricultural production was raised as a major concern for the GCC countries.
The seminar exchanged views on ways and means for the GCC countries to address this issue
at the WTO. The interplay between the upcoming GCC customs union and the WTO rules
and their implications for future agricultural policy making was another issue that was seen as
crucial in shaping the future agricultural development and food security of these countries. In
addition, the seminar emphasised the crucial need for sufficient flexibility in supporting
domestic agricultural production in many of the countries of the region. Creation of enabling
trade environment and harmonisation of policies and standards were also emphasised as
having equal importance in reducing tariff barriers among countries in promoting regional
trade. A united and harmonised position among all GCC countries should be strengthened in
preparation for trade negotiations. Other issues of concern to the GCC countries include
scarcity of water sources; treatment of fishery products in the various WTO Agreements;
environmental and non-trade concerns in the context of the AoA; foreign labour in
agriculture and the export prospects of products such as dates, fisheries and some vegetable
products.

2.2.2 Parallel Seminar on SPS AND TBT
17. The seminar was attended by 44 participants from all countries of the region.
Presentations during the opening Plenary Session were confined to a brief introduction
to the SPS and TBT Agreements, an explanation of the basic rights of the member
countries and an illustration of the similarities and differences between the two
agreements. The introduction also covered some specific issues related to fisheries since
fish are an especially important commodity in this region.

18. The first day of the seminar discussed the history of development of the SPS Agreement
and basic rights and obligations of both the SPS and TBT Agreements. It then dealt in more
detail with the specific aspects of Codex Alimentarius, OIE and IPPC, identified in the SPS
Agreement as the international standard setting organizations which deal with food safety and
human health, animal health and plant health, respectively. The structure, functions,
procedures and accomplishments of the Codex Alimentarius, OIE and IPPC were reviewed.
The discussion also dealt with the importance of their work in establishing quality and safety
standards and codes of practice to harmonize regulations and facilitate international trade for
foods and livestock and livestock products. The ways and means to develop national and
regional capacity in food safety and quality were further elaborated and particular reference
 was made to fisheries. Particular concern was expressed by the participants over countries’
 rights to put into place more stringent measures than those provided for in some standards.

 19. The second day introduced the principles and practice of risk analysis and explained the
 basic concepts and processes, which comprise risk analysis, including risk assessment, risk
 management and risk communication. Similarities and differences between Codex, OIE and
 IPPC were highlighted, with particular reference to differences in terminology. Several
 examples dealing with human, animal or plant health were presented to the participants in
 order to foster a better understanding of the importance and applicability of risk analysis. In
 particular, participants were reminded that measures, which are not based on international
 standards, must be based on risk analysis. Further specific examples of the importance of
 risk analysis in food safety were also provided.

 20. The third day of the parallel seminar was used to address the issues of technical
 assistance, dispute settlement, national and regional capacities and to develop a set of
 recommendations based on the information exchanged during the previous sessions. The last
 day was also used to address some particular questions presented by the participants.

 2.2.3 Parallel seminar on TRIPS

 21. The seminar on TRIPS was attended by 14 participants from all GCC Countries and
 continued for three days from 17 to 19 September 2000. The main issues discussed during the
 seminar include the following:

a)   National legislation in force (or in preparation) in the various GCC’s Member States, and
     future GCC’s agreements.
b)   Module IV (TRIPS Agreement) and other related instruments such as UPOV
     Convention, CBD, Agenda 21, and FAO Global System for PGR. Their implementation
     and inter-relations, their objectives, out-puts and respective consequences as regard the
     establishment of a sound IPR system in countries and at regional and international levels.
c)   Further discussions on GCC customs union, in relation with WTO’s principles and
     requirements.
d)   General observations/suggestions

 22. The training activities were organized and conducted in good manner. Nevertheless, in
 view of the difficulties and specificity of the subject, it is advisable that two or three resource
 persons be in charge of conducting the workshop. The sessions would thus be less tense and
 may benefit from additional inputs from various facilitators.

 2.3 Recommendations and Technical Assistance

 2.3.1 Parallel Seminar on AoA
 23. The meeting recommended that FAO and other regional organizations, within their
 available human and financial resources:

 1. Organize further capacity building/training workshops both at the national and regional
    levels, including:
    - Special training workshops for negotiators, policy analysts and concerned private sector
        to enhance their preparation for negotiations and strengthen their negotiating capacity
        in the new negotiations on agriculture.
    - Training on policy analysis for supporting groups in order to be able to systematically
        assess impacts of changes in world trade environment.

2. Provide policy advice and assist in conducting regional and country studies on the
   following:

    - Assessment of the domestic production and export potential of promising products such
       as palm dates, fishery products and some vegetables and their prospects under the
       new multilateral trading system.
    - Analysis of policy options available to countries in designing their domestic support,
       especially as related to water use, as a major constraint for enhancing aggregate
       supply response to improved world market situation, in a way that optimises use of
       their resources and serves their food security and development strategies as well as
       the efficient management and maintenance of the scarce natural resources.
    - The implications of the upcoming customs union of the GCC for current country
       commitments, its compatibility with the WTO rules and the need and implications of
       its notification to the WTO.
    - The implications of the recent policy reforms in some of the GCC countries (e.g.
       increase in applied tariffs in some countries) trade liberalisation in general and its
       impact on agricultural development.
    - Major issues related to the environment and non-trade concerns in the GCC countries in
       the context of the WTO Agreements.

3. Make available the FAO web-site in Arabic and consider publishing a regular newsletter
   summarising new developments relating to the agriculture-related agreements.

4. Assist countries in strengthening the technical and institutional capabilities of the policy
   analysis units within the ministries of agriculture with emphasis on trade-related issues.

24. The meeting recommended, for consideration, that Governments of the region and the
GCC Secretariat:

1. Examine the options and effective means for the GCC countries to present, at the WTO,
   their concerns on the high-dependence on food imports and the constraints of natural
   resources they are facing.
2. Strengthen information exchange capacity and access to relevant information by
   establishing a market intelligence and information network with the purpose of
   strengthening and promoting export competitiveness of the major export products of the
   region.
3. Establish and strengthen technical and institutional capacities as related to policy
   analysis units within the ministries of agriculture.
4. Strengthen the involvement of ministries concerned with agriculture in the
   implementation and follow-up of agreements relevant to agriculture and in preparation for
   the new negotiations.
5. Create a national mechanism for collating and analysing, on a continuous basis, all basic
   information needed for negotiations and implementation of WTO agreements.
6. Enact and strengthen implementation of the necessary national rules, legislation and
    institutional set-up on subsidies, anti-dumping and safeguards.
7. Take advantage of technical assistance on agriculture-related trade issues provided by
    international organizations, such as WTO, UNCTAD, World Bank, UNDP, FAO etc.
8. Raise public awareness about major issues relating to the WTO agreements and
    encourage private sector, farmers, traders and the civil society at large to participate
    effectively in the formulation of the country’s position at various stages of its multilateral
    trade negotiations, through, for example, participation in local training, preparatory
    meetings for negotiating and if possible also in actual participation in negotiations.
9. Make use and support exchange of information and experiences among the countries and
    sub-regions of the Near East region using existing FAO regional network such as Near
    East and North Africa Regional Network for Agricultural Policies (NENARNAP), the
    Agricultural Food Marketing Association for the Near East and North Africa
    (AFMANINA), the Near East and North Africa Regional Agricultural Credit Association
    (NENARACA) and any other relevant regional networks such as SESRTCIC.
10. Seek allies among other countries inside and outside the Near East region sharing similar
    interests, and concerns to strengthen their position in the negotiation process.
11. Improve agricultural marketing systems including produce handling and provision of
    needed supporting services, agricultural finance and export promotion of the major
    agricultural products taking into considerations the various exemptions in the AoA.
12. Request the concerned international and regional organizations (e.g. UNCTAD, WTO,
    FAO, the Islamic Conference, the Arab League) to conduct a study on the multinational
    companies and their effects on the implementation of the WTO Agreements as related to
    liberalisation, investment and services impacting on agricultural development.
13. Seek the support of the concerned regional and international organizations to assist
    member countries in implementing these recommendations and any other relevant
    activities in this respect
14. Call upon the GCC Secretariat for continuing its support to the member countries in
    assessing the impact of joining the WTO and exchange information and experiences as
    well as continuing close co-operation with the concerned international organizations in
    that regard.

2.3.2 Parallel Seminar on SPS and TBT
25. The meeting recommended that FAO and other regional organizations, within their
available human and financial resources:

1. Organize more training seminars on SPS and TBT (preferably in Arabic) involving other
   concerned agencies such as WHO in order to ensure that there is a consistent message
   delivered by the international organizations. Future training workshops should also
   address the issues surrounding genetically modified organisms in SPS and TBT
   Agreements and emphasise fisheries.
2. Use additional resources so that a larger number of technical papers can be translated into
   Arabic.
3. Enhance availability of publications of the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery
   Products and provide proceedings of the workshop on the Internet (in English and
   Arabic).
4. Provide GCC countries with more specific guidance on ways and means to implement
   SPS and TBT and promote capacity building specially in the areas of:
      - inspection and sampling
      - risk assessment particularly in food safety issues
      -   development of monitoring programs both for chemical pollutants and biological
          agents with particular emphasis on fish and fishery products
      - preparation of international standards.
5. Assist GCC countries in the establishment of National Codex Committees and strengthen
   the participation of all stakeholders (private sector, consumers, trade organizations,
   universities) in the preparations and activities related to SPS and TBT.
6. Identify obstacles that could face GCC countries upon entry into WTO and assist in
   preparing countries to overcome these obstacles.
7. Assist GCC countries by preparing them to negotiate on issues related to fisheries.

26. The meeting recommended, for consideration, that Governments of the region and the
GCC Secretariat:

1. Countries who are yet members of the agreements should apply for membership and
   those who are already members should encourage their concerned national departments to
   accept the recent amendments to the Agreements. They should establish official contact
   points and inform the concerned Secretariats accordingly.
2. Provide the Agricultural Services Departments (veterinary and plant sectors) with their
   required human and material resource and capacities of laboratories to carry out tests and
   comply with the SPS standards regarding safety of animals, plants and foodstuffs and
   quality assurance.
3. Provide required quarantine facilities and furnish them with pertinent documentation
   related to international trade of agricultural products, especially OIE and Codex
   Alimentarius standards and elaborate, where it does not exist, a national code for
   quarantine measures and food safety with the necessary enforcement legislation. as well
   as foster disease control and eradication programmes to promote capability to export
   disease free commodities.
4. Establish National Codex Committees and promote national capacity to perform
   appropriate testing methods and analytical procedures, including regional proficiency
   testing mechanisms, and risk analyses for food safety.
5. Since GCC countries are net food importers, they should strengthen preventive safety
   approaches and import procedures and verify equivalence mechanisms, as well as develop
   and strengthen activities in pesticide analysis and GLP. They should also designate and
   implement the SPS and TBT enquiry points and national notification authorities.
6. Countries in the region are encouraged to address issues related to Fish and fishery
   products in meetings of the WTO.
7. GCC countries should follow in their external trade the agreed upon relevant international
   standards (OIE, Codex or IPPC). And should harmonize their local standards with these
   international standards
8. Increase awareness of stakeholders including producers, businessmen and consumers
   about WTO agreements.
9. Make known their cultural and economic situation upon entry into the WTO so that
   trading partners are aware of their concerns. Likewise, trading partners should be made
   aware that food imported into the region should be culturally acceptable, possibly through
   labeling.

2.3.3 Parallel Seminar on TRIPS

27. The meeting recommended that FAO and other regional organizations, within their
available human and financial resources assist in:
1. Further technical (including legal elements) guidance for the elaboration of elements of
   sui generis system to be incorporated in a larger system;
2. Comparative legal study on the various legislation in force in view of clarifying their
   positions towards IPR’s recognition and degree of protection, farmers’ rights and
   indigenous knowledge;
3. Making available for FAO Member Countries the experience and results obtained when
   assisting other Governments in this field.
4. Quicker response to be given to request for technical assistance in related IPR’s field
   such as plant quarantine and plant protection.

28. The meeting recommended, for consideration, that Governments of the region and the
GCC Secretariat:

1. Establishment of a systematic documentation on GCC’s genetic diversity on animal,
   fishery and plant (data base);
2. Strengthening national programme(s) on conservation and sustainable use of bio-
   diversity (in situ and ex situ conservation, training on management of bio-diversity), and
   establishment of specific fund to sustain required activities;
3. Elaboration and enactment of required national legislations harmonised among GCC’s
   Member States in view of the adoption of a system for balanced protection of intellectual
   property rights in the field of agricultural resources and in particular plant breeder’s
   rights, farmers’ rights, rights deriving from indigenous community knowledge (in this
   respect, the UPOV model should be complemented by elements stressed on by Agenda
   21, the CBD and/or implemented under the FAO Global system for PGR);
4. Formulation of a harmonised GCC’s countries’ position to be taken and expressed at the
   occasion of the next coming review of WTO’s functions and further negotiations on
   trade.


III. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE WORKSHOP

3.1 Methodology

29. The questionnaire for the evaluation of the workshop covered the following main areas:
achievement of objectives, topics coverage, time allotment, clarity of presentations, teaching
aids, training kit and logistic arrangements and facilities, in addition to general comments on
most of these questions. A five-point scale (1 for minimum rating and 5 for maximum rating)
has been used to evaluate most of the questions; with the exception of questions on duration
of the sessions where grade 3 indicates optimum timing. The average response for each
question has been computed.

30. The evaluation was carried out in the last session of the workshop and involved all
trainees. Generally, the workshop has been well rated by almost all the participants. The role
of FAO in organizing the workshop has also been highly appreciated. A summary of the
results is given below and indicated for each individual question in Annex 1.2.
3.2 Objectives

31. Most of the participants (3.6 out of a maximum of 5) felt better qualified, informed and
prepared for the upcoming multilateral trade negotiations as a result of participating in the
workshop.

32. The workshop satisfactorily achieved its stated objectives with an average response of 3.6
out of a maximum of 5 and with reasonable variability.

3.3 Coverage of the topics

33. The coverage of the topics received high rating for the introduction and general topics as
well as for all parallel seminars. The average rating for the seminars exceeded 3.5 out of 5
for the introduction and general topics and approached 4 out of 5 for the AoA, SPS & TBT
as well as for TRIPS.

3.4 Time allotment

34. The timing of all sessions and for the entire workshop is almost optimal with the average
grade revolving around 3.

3.5 Clarity of presentations and effectiveness of teaching aids

35. Satisfaction with the presentations is remarkably high for all the seminars as well as for
the introduction and general topics. This has been due to the adequate preparations and
eloquent presentations made by the skillful and highly qualified instructors. The presentations
were also facilitated by the effective teaching aids and simultaneous interpretation into
Arabic and English languages.

3.6 Training kit (Resource Manual)

36. The participants found all parts of the training kit very useful, well structured and easy to
comprehend. Its availability in Arabic and English has particularly been appreciated and a
strong recommendation for its final printing and dissemination was made to facilitate its
dissemination and wider use.

3.7 Logistic arrangements and facilities

37. Nearly 3 out each 4 participants received sufficient information about the workshop
before coming to Muscat because of the wide circulation, at the country level, of the
workshop brochure and information note, thanks also to the effort of the GCC Secretariat and
UNDP offices in this regards. Arrangements made by the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries in the Sultanate of Oman were superb and the quality of accommodation, transport
and training facilities are highly rated by almost all the participants.


IV. CLOSING SESSION

The closing session was attended by H.E. Dr. Ahmed bin Khalfan Al Rawahi, Minister for
Agriculture and Fisheries who awarded Certificates of Attendance to the participants. Dr. Dr.
Sabah Almomin from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and Dr. D. K. Abdou, Chief,
Policy Assistance Branch (RNEP) respectively addressed the closing ceremony on behalf of
the participants and the training staff. Dr. Sabah expressed appreciation and satisfaction of
the workshop by the participants and thanked the organizers and the resource persons for the
great effort exerted. Dr. Abdou also expressed his appreciation of the resource persons and
with the organizational arrangements made for the workshop and facilities provided. He
thanked member states for nominating participants with the required profile and for covering
most of their participation cost and thanked the Secretariat for the great effort exerted. Dr.
Abdou also reassured the participating countries of FAO commitment to provide the required
assistance in the context of the follow-up to the Uruguay Round and multilateral trade
negotiations on agriculture and its readiness to support member countries promote building
their development capacities and enhance their negotiation position.
                                                                                ANNEX 1.1
                UMBRELLA PROGRAMME FOR TRAINING ON
              URUGUAY ROUND FOLLOW-UP AND MULTILATERAL
                 TRADE NEGOTIATIONS ON AGRICULTURE



                          WORKSHOP PROGRAMME
                          Muscat, 16-20 September 2000

Saturday, 16 September: PLENARY

A.     Introduction and General Topics

     Time                                Topics                              Resource Persons

08:00-9:00    Registration

09.00-10:00   Opening session

              Coffee Break

10:00-10:30   Introduction to the Workshop (objectives, scope, expected      S. Ahmed
              results)
10:30-11:00   Global and regional (Gulf) trends in agricultural trade and    L. Esslimi
              emerging issues

11:00-11:30   Introduction to the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)         N. Elamin

11:30-12:00   Introduction to SPS and TBT Agreements                         C. Dagher

12:00–12:30   Coffee Break

12:30-13:00   Introduction to the TRIPS Agreement                            J-P. Chiaradia
                                                                             Bousquet

13:00-13:30   International rules for fisheries: Market access and subsidies, L.Ababouch
              implication of TBT and SPS agreements
13:30-14:30   Country presentations                                           Participants

14:30-15:00   Overview of the preparations underway for the new WTO          M. Helal
              negotiations on agriculture
                      17, 18, and 19 September: PARALLEL SEMINARS

                               Seminar 1: Agreement on Agriculture

    Resource Persons: N. Elamin / D. Abdou/ Z. Abdalla/ M. Helal/ J. Cezard / L. Esslimi

    Time                                  Topics                              Resource Persons
                                      Sunday, 17 September

08:00 – 09:30   Introduction to the Theory and Concepts of Agricultural J. Cezard
                Trade
9:30-10:00
                Coffee break

10:00 – 11:30   Negotiating Proposals and Issues on Market Access
                Brief introduction to market access elements
                Negotiating proposals (approaches or formulae) for reducing
                bound tariffs
                Their possible consequences for:
                    agricultural exports
                    own protection/market stabilization
                    Common External Tariffs
                Tariff Rate Quotas
                Contingency protection
                Discussion                                                    L. Esslimi

11:30 – 12:00   Coffee Break

12:00 – 13:00   Negotiating Proposal and Issues on Export Subsidies
                 negotiating proposals
                 possible consequences
                 the issue of incentive schemes (in Subsidies Agreement)
                Discussion                                                    J. Cezard

13:00 – 14:30   Negotiating proposals and Issues on Domestic Support
                Measures
                Possible consequences for:
                 policies of countries of the region
                 reducing distortions and imbalances at the global level
                Discussion                                                    N. Elamin

                                     Monday, 18 September

08:00 – 09:30   Special and Differential Treatment
                 negotiating proposals
                 experience so far - useful SDTs and not-useful SDTs
                Discussion                                                    M. Helal
       Time                                          Topics                                 Resource Persons

09:30 – 10:00       Coffee Break

10:00-11:00         Regional Trade Agreement and WTO Rules                                  Z.Abdalla/
                                                                                            J.Cezard
11:00-12:30         Towards Preparing for Accession and Negotiations
                     formulating negotiating proposals and alternatives
                       (including rationale) - analytical needs – information and
                       research
                     evaluating technical capacities
                     recommendations                                                       N. Elamin

12:30               Break

                                              Tuesday, 19 September
                                                                                        -
08:00-09:30         Review of Country Experiences to Date – Policies and
                    Agricultural Trade1

                        experience of the past six years with adapting policies
                         to the AoA provisions and country commitments?
                        what may happen if the reform process deepens (refer
                         to negotiating proposals)
                        experience with agricultural trade (exports and
                         imports) and contributing factors
                        relationship with negotiating proposals (including                 N. Elamin +
                         Marrakesh Decision on food imports)                                Participants
                -
09:30-10:00         Coffee Break

10:00-11:30         Review of Country Experiences to Date – Policies and                    N. Elamin +
                    Agricultural Trade (continued)                                          Participants

11:30-12:00         Coffee Break

12:00-14:30         Review of Country Experiences to Date (continued)                       N. Elamin +
                                                                                            Participants




   1
       Participants to make substantive contributions following the FAO presentations
                          Seminar 2: SPS and TBT Agreements


 Resource Persons: L. Ababouch / M. Saif / C. Devorshak / M. Mestom / C. Dagher

    Time                           Topics                                Resource Persons
                                   Sunday, 17 September

08:00 – 09:30   Session 1: Overview of the SPS and TBT Agreement

                Review of the SPS Agreement
                 History of development                                 C. Devorshak
                 Provisions, basic rights and obligations               C. Dagher
                Review of the TBT Agreement                              C. Dagher


09:30 – 10:00   Coffee Break

10:00 – 11:30   Session 2: Harmonization with international standards,
                guidelines and recommendations

                Introduction to the Codex Alimentarius Commission        C. Dagher/
                (CAC)                                                    L. Ababouch
                Introduction to the International Plant Protection
                Convention (IPPC)                                        C. Devorshak
                Introduction to the International Office of Epizootics
                (OIE)                                                    M. Mestom

11:30 – 12:00   Coffee Break

12:00 –14:30    Session 3: Necessary Components at the National Level

                Appropriate legislation                                  L. Ababouch
                Necessary control capacities
                 Inspection
                 Administrative
                 Analytical
                Import/export inspection and certification               C. Devorshak/
                (presentations on food quality and safety, plant         M. Mestom
                protection, and animal health)
    Time                          Topics                               Resource Persons
                                  Monday, 18 September

08:00-09:30   Risk Analysis
                Introduction                                           C. Devorshak
               Risk Analysis and the IPPC                              C. Devorshak
               Risk Analysis and OIE                                   M. Mestom
               Risk Analysis and Codex                                 C. Dagher/
                                                                       L. Ababouch

09:30-10:00    Coffee Break

10:00-11:00    Risk Analysis (Continued)

11:00-12:30    Regional Issues Related to the SPS/TBT Agreements +
               Discussion
               Overview of problems
               Food control
               - Plant protection                                      Instructors and
               - Animal health                                         participants

12:30          Break

                                  Tuesday, 19 September

08:00-09:30   Session 1: FAO Technical Assistance Related to the SPS   L. Ababouch
              and TBT Agreements

09:30-10:00   Coffee Break

10:00-11:30   Session 2: Evaluating technical capacities               Instructors and
                                                                       Participants
11:30-12:00   Coffee Break

12:00-14:30   Session 3: Development of recommendations and            Instructors and
              strategies to meet existing obligations of the SPS/TBT   Participants
              Agreements and to prepare for future negotiations
                    17, 18, 19 September: PARALLEL SEMINARS

                               Seminar 3: TRIPS Agreement

 Resource Person: J-P. Chiaradia Bousquet

     Time                          Topics                                    Resource Persons
                                  Sunday, 17 September

08:00 – 09:30   Introduction

                Basic concepts of intellectual property rights               J-P. Chiaradia
                Intellectual property rights and their relation with trade   Bousquet
                Intellectual property rights and their relation with the
                conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity

09:30 – 10:00 C Coffee Break

10:00 – 11:30   Introduction to the TRIPS Agreement

                Annex 1C of the Marrakesh Agreement
                Basic principles, objectives, transitional and final
                provisions
                Standards concerning the availability, scope and use of
                intellectual property rights: copyright, trademarks,
                industrial designs, layout-designs of integrated circuits,
                undisclosed information, control of anti-competitive
                practices in contractual licences

11:30 – 12:00   Coffee Break

12:00-13:15      Provisions of the TRIPS Agreement relevant to
                 agriculture (I Part)

                 Geographical indications (Arts.22-24)
                 Patent protection for agricultural chemical products
                 (Art.70.8 and 70.9)

                 Provisions of the TRIPS Agreement relevant to
                 agriculture (II Part)

                 Patents (Arts.27-34)

                Implementation of Art.27.3(b) of the Agreement (I Part)
                Recognition of “formal” and “informal” innovation
                Farmer’s Rights
     Time                         Topics                                   Resource Persons
                                 Monday, 18 September

08.00-09.30     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) of the Agreement (II Part:
                Related international agreements
                FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic
                Resources and the Commission on Genetic Resources
                for Food and Agriculture

09:30-10:00     Coffee Break

10.00-11:30     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) of the Agreement (II Part:
                Related international agreements
                International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm
                Collecting and Transfer
                Leipzig Declaration and Global Plan of Action for the
                Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic
                Resources for Food and Agriculture
                Convention on Biological Diversity

11:30-12:30     Implementation of Art 27.3(b) of the Agreement (II Part:
                Related international agreements)
                UPOV Conventions

12:30 - 11:00   Agenda 21

                                 Tuesday, 19 September

08:00-09:30     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) of the Agreement (III
                Part) Drafting and enacting national legislation (“sui
                generis” systems). Organising the relevant institutional
                aspects

09:30-10:00     Coffee Break

10.00-11.30     Recommendations and strategies to meet existing
                obligations and to prepare for future negotiations (I
                Part)
                Regional problems, needs and priorities in the
                implementation of the TRIPS Agreement. Evaluating
                technical capacities

11:30-12:00     Coffee Break
     Time                          Topics                                Resource Persons

12.00-14:30     Recommendations and strategies to meet existing
                obligations and to prepare for future negotiations (II
                Part: TRIPS review negotiations)

                1999 review of the provisions of Art.27.3(b)
                2000 review of the TRIPS Agreement
                Development of a regional position

                        Wednesday, 20 September: PLENARY

11:00-13:00       Conclusions and recommendation of parallel             Spokepersons:
                  Sessions                                               N. Elamin
                                                                         C. Devorshak
                                                                         J-P.Chiaradia
                                                                         Bousquet


13:00 – 14:00     Award of Certificates                                  H.E. Minister for
                                                                         Agriculture and
                                                                         Fisheries

14:00 – 15:00     Summing up
                                                                         Moderators

15:00 – 15:30     Evaluation                                             S.E.Ahmed/
                                                                         J. Cezard
                                                                                                         ANNEX 1.2

                      Umbrella Programme for Training on
 Uruguay Round Follow-up and Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture for the
               Arab States of the Gulf Cooperation council (GCC)
                                Muscat, Sultanate of Oman 16 – 20 September 2000

                                                       Evaluation Form

This Workshop is part of a world-wide programme of FAO to assist countries for the multilateral trade
negotiations in agriculture, fisheries and forestry.

                                                                                         1: Slightly           5: Fully
                                                                                                       Average

1    Do you feel better qualified, informed or prepared for the                                          3.6
     upcoming multilateral trade negotiations as a result of
     participating in this Workshop ?


2.   The objectives set for this Workshop were:                                             To which extent were these
                                                                                              objectives achieved ?

                                                                                         1: Unsatisfactorily        5: Fully
                                                                                                      Average

           to provide an overview of international trade issues with                                    3.7
            specific reference to agriculture, fisheries and forestry and
            their implications for food security at national and sub-
            regional level;

           to explain and discuss the existing WTO Agreements, the                                      3.7
            rights and obligations of countries under those agreements,
            the workings in practice of those Agreements and particular
            problems that have arisen in their implementation that may
            require further negotiations;

           to analyse new issues at national and sub-regional level that                                3.7
            are likely to arise in the negotiating process and the
            implications of the various proposals for international
            agreements on countries'economies

           to take up and debate special issues of regional or sub-                                     3.7
            regional concern



3.   Coverage, time allotment and presentation

I.   Introduction and General Topics
                                                                                         1: Inadequate      5: Adequate
      Was each subject covered in sufficient depth ?                                     1            Average
     Trends and issues on Global and Regional Agricultural Trade ...                                    3.5
     Introduction to existing Agreements .............................................                  3.6
     Proposals for the Millenium Round Negotiations ..........................                          3.1
       The time allotted to each topic was:                                                          1: Too short         5: Too long
       Trends and issues on Global and Regional Agricultural Trade ....                                             3.3
       Introduction to existing Agreements .............................................                            3.3
       Proposals for the Millenium Round Negotiations .........................                                     3.1

       The presentation of the sessions were:                                                        1: Not clear         5: Very clear
       Trends and issues on Global and Regional Agricultural Trade ....                                             3.5
       Introduction to existing Agreements .............................................                            3.6
       Proposals for the Millenium Round Negotiations ..........................                                    3.3


                                       Parallel workshops

II.    Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)
                                                                                                     1: Inadequate       5: Adequate
       Was each subject covered in sufficient depth ?                                                2           Average
       Key Concepts on Agricultural Trade and the AoA ........................                                     3.8
       Domestic support measures ........................................................                          3.7
       Market access .............................................................................                  4
       Export subsidies and dumping .....................................................                          4.1
       Review of Country Experience to date                                                                        3.4
       WTO rules, regional agreements and state trading enterprises ...                                            3.5
       Position Game on WTO Negotiations ..........................................                                3.1

       The time allotted to each topic was:                                                          1: Too short         5: Too long
       Key Concepts on Agricultural Trade and the AoA ........................                                      3.4
       Domestic support measures ........................................................                           3.1
       Market access .............................................................................                  3.6
       Export subsidies and dumping .....................................................                           3.6
       Review of Country Experience to date                                                                         3.3
       WTO rules, regional agreements and state trading enterprises ...                                             3.4
       Position Game on WTO Negotiations ..........................................                                 3.1

       Presentation: were the sessions presented clearly ?                                           1: Not clear         5: Clear
       Key Concepts on Agricultural Trade and the AoA ........................                                      3.8
       Domestic support measures ........................................................                           3.6
       Market access .............................................................................                  3.9
       Export subsidies and dumping .....................................................                           3.7
       Review of Country Experience to date                                                                         3.3
       WTO rules, regional agreements and state trading enterprises ...                                             3.7
       Position Game on WTO Negotiations ..........................................                                 3.4

      Please elaborate further


III. Agreement on the application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) and Agreement on
      Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
                                                                                                     1: Inadequate      5: Adequate
       Was each subject covered in sufficient depth ?                                                3           Average
       Introductory Topics and Necessary Components at National Level                                              3.9
       Risk Analysis ...............................................................................               3.9
       Regional Issues ...........................................................................                 3.8
       Technical Assistance ...................................................................                    3.8

                                                                                                     1: Too short         5: Too long
     The time allotted to each topic was:                                                            4              Average
     Introductory Topics and Necessary Components at National Level                                                   3.4
     Risk Analysis ...............................................................................                    3.2
     Regional Issues ...........................................................................                      3.1
     Technical Assistance ...................................................................                         3.3

                                                                                                   1: Too short       5: Too long
     Presentation: were the sessions presented clearly ?                                           5            Average
     Introductory Topics and Necessary Components at National Level                                               3.9
     Risk Analysis ...............................................................................                 4
     Regional Issues ...........................................................................                  3.8
     Technical Assistance ...................................................................                     3.8

IV. Agreement on Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

                                                                                                     1: Inadequate      5: Adequate
      Was each subject covered in sufficient depth ?                                                 6            Average
     Introduction to the TRIPS Agreement ..........................................                                 3.6
     Provision of the TRIPS Agreement for Agriculture .......................                                       3.3
     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) ......................................................                           3.2
     Recommendations and Strategies ...............................................                                  3

                                                                                                     1: Too short       5: Too long
     The time allotted to each topic was:                                                            7            Average
     Introduction to the TRIPS Agreement ..........................................                                   3.3
     Provision of the TRIPS Agreement for Agriculture .......................                                         3.4
     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) ......................................................                              3
     Recommendations and Strategies ...............................................                                   2.9

                                                                                                     1: Not clear       5: Clear
     Presentation: were the sessions presented clearly ?                                             8            Average
     Introduction to the TRIPS Agreement ..........................................                                 3.6
     Provision of the TRIPS Agreement for Agriculture .......................                                       3.6
     Implementation of Art.27.3(b) ......................................................                           3.6
     Recommendations and Strategies ...............................................                                 3.6

     Please elaborate further




V. Cross-Cutting Issues

     In addition to the discussions held in the last day, to you have further comments on:

     a) common issues and positions identified

     b) the preparations at national/regional levels

     c) technical assistance needs identified

4.   Workshop duration
                                                                                                     1: Too short           5: Too long
     The entire duration of the Workshop was ....................                                                     3.2
     5.
Training Training Kit

           How well structured and easy to comprehend are the different parts of the training kit?

                                                                                                              1: Unstructured &  5: Well
                                                                                                              difficult          structured &
                                                                                                                                 easy
                                                                                                              9           Average
     I. Introduction and General Topics ..................................................                                  3.8
     II. Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) ...................................................                                 3.8
     III. Agreement on the application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary                                                         4
          measures (SPS) and Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
          (TBT) ...........................................................................................
     IV Agreement on Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property                                                          3.6
          Rights (TRIPS) .......................................................................


     Further comments:




    6.
LogisticLogistical arrangements and facilities

     6.1 Did you have sufficient information about the Workshop                                               1. Yes               2. No
         before coming?
                                                                                                                             1.4




                                                                                                              1: Very poor         5: Very good
                                                                                                              10           Average

     6.2 Quality of accommodation and transport .................................                                            4.7

     6.3 Training rooms and facilities ....................................................                                  4.2


Addit7.    Additional comments
                                                                                    ANNEX 1.3
                                 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

                   Name and Position                                 Address
                                             Instructors
1       Mr. Nasredin Hag Elamin                   Commodity Policy and Projections Service,
        Economist                                 ESCP, FAO, Rome – Italy
                                                  Tel: 0039 06 57056251
                                                  E-Mail: Nasredin Hag.Elamin@FAO.ORG
2       Mr Ababouch, Lahsen (FIIU)                Fish Utilization and Marketing Service, FIIU
        Service Chief                             FAO – Rome
                                                  Ext: 54157
                                                  e.mail : Lahsen.Ababouch@fao.org
3       Mr. Lahsen Esslimi                        UTFN/SAU/002/SAU
        Agricultural Trade Expert                 Riyadh – Saudi Arabia
                                                  esslimi@agrwat.gov.sa
4       Mr. Dyaa K. Abdou                         FAO Regional Office for the Near East, RNE,
        Chief, Policy Assistance Branch           Cairo – Egypt
                                                  Tel: 00202-3316100
                                                  Fax: 00202-7495981
                                                  E-Mail: Dyaa.Abdou@FAO.ORG
        Devorshak, Christina (AGPP)              Plant protection Service (AGPP)
        Plant protection                         FAO – Rome
5                                                Christina. Devorshak@fao.org
6       Mr. J-P Chiaradia-Bousquet               FAO, Legal Officer,
        Legal Officer                              Room A - 442, via delle Terme
                                                   Caracalla – 00100 Rome
                                                  Tel: (+39) 0657053956/0657054434
                                                  Fax: (+39) 0657054408
                                                  Email:
                                                  Jeanpierre.chiaradiabousquet@FAO.org
7       Mr. Saad El Medani Ahmed                  FAO Regional Office for the Near East, RNE
        Senior Policy Officer                     P.O. Box 2223, Cairo
                                                  Tel - 3316091, 3306000
                                                  3364212 (res.)
                                                  fax. (202) 7495981
                                                  email. Saad.ahmed@FAO.org
    8   Mr. Selim Ilkin                           SESRTCIC
        Director, Technical Cooperation           Attar Sokak No. 4
                                                  G.O.P 06700 Ankara – Turkey
                                                  Tel: (90-312) 468 61 72
                                                  Fax: (90-312) 467 34 58
                                                  E-mail: centre@sesrtcic.org
    9   Mr. Zohair Mubarak Abdalla                FAO/UN – Cairo – Egypt            Tel. 00202 –
        Senior FAO Marketing and Rural Finance    3316000
        Officer                                   Email: zohair.abdalla@fao.org
10      Mr. Mohammed Saif                         FAO – UN
        Senior Fisheries Officer                  11 Al Eslah Al 2 Erace Street, Dokki,
                                                  Egypt
                                                  Tel. 3316000
                                                  Email: mohammad.saif@fao.org

11      Mr. Helal Mohsen                          Economic and Social Commission for West Asia
        Senior Advisor                            (ESCWA)
                                                  Beirut – Lebanon
                                                  Tel: 00961 4 531060 (Beirut – Lebanon)
                                                  Tel: 00202 244 2875 (Cairo – Egypt)
12      Mr. Shawky Dagher                         Lebanon
        Consultant
13   Mr. Mestom, Mustafa                        Lebanon
     Consultant
14   Mr. Cezard, Jean                           Agricultural Policy Support Service (TCAS)
     Economist                                  FAO-Rome
15   Mrs. Samah William Iskandar                6B – Elmakabaty St., Heliopolis, Cairo,
     Interpreter                                Egypt.
                                                Tel. 202 – 241 7579
                                                Tel. 2012 – 218 0165
                                                Samdan2@hotmail.com
16   Mr. Omar Sherif S. Hammad                  4 Al Adel Abou Bakr
     Interpreter                                7 Zamalek, Cairo – Egypt
                                                Tel: 00202 332 03 57
                                                e.mail: hammadeus61@hotmail.com
17   Mrs. Fatma Al Hindawi                      14 Sherbini Street
     Interpreter                                From: Suliman Gawhar st.
                                                Floor 1 Flat 3
                                                Dokki, Cairo – Egypt
                                                Tel: 0123269690
                                                Tel: 00202 337 8205
18   Ms. Duaa Darwish                           Cairo – Egypt
     Interpreter                                Tel: 00202 2676735
19   Mr. Salwa Meccawi Suleiman Akrat           Friendship Hall, Nile Avenue, Khartoum
     Interpreter                                Sudan
                                                Tel. 771018/555253
                                                Fax. 771112
                                                Email: salwa_akrat@yahoo.com
20   Mr. Hassan Ali Eissa Bushara               University of Khartoum, Faculty of Arts,
     Interpreter                                Translation & Arabicization Unit, P.O. Box 321,
                                                Khartoum, Sudan,
                                                Tel. 784845 (office)
                                                Tel. 229601 (res.)

                                        Participants
                                           Bahrain
21   Dr. Khalid Ahmed Hassan                    Ministry of Works and Agriculture
                                                P.O. Box 251, Manama, Bahrain
     Head of Veterinary Services Section
                                                Tel. 973 691256
                                                Fax. 973 694673
                                                Email: vete@mailcity.com
22   Mr. Khalil Ebrahim Al Derazi               Ministry of Works and Agriculture
     Manager, Agriculture Relation Dept.        P.O. Box 251, Manama, Bahrain
                                                Tel. 973 696711
                                                Tel. 973 696752
                                                Tel. 00973 946969501
                                                Fax. 00973 695527
23   Dr. Abdullah Ahmad Abdulla Ali             Ministry of Health
     Head of Food and Water Control Section     Directorate of Public Health
                                                Tel. 9469735 (mobile)
                                                Tel. 273683 (office)
                                                Fax 279253
24   Mr. Hassan Abdullah Zleikh                 Ministry of Commerce
     Head of Dept.                              Tel. 555633
                                                Fax. 555779
25   Mr. Mustafa Shakhir al Khateeb             Ministry of Commerce
     Expert – International Trading             Tel. 559304 – 725249
                                          Participants
                                             Kuwait
26   Mr. Faisal Yousuf Al Sadeeqi                Public Authority for Agriculture & Fisheries
     Manager of Wafra Dept.                      Resources
                                                 P.O. Box 21422, Safat, Area Code 13075,
                                                 Kuwait
                                                 Tel. (965) 4725169
                                                 Tel. 965 4765131
                                                 Fax. 965 4725137
27   Dr. Sabah Almomin                           KISR - P.O. Box 24885
                                                 Email: smomen@kisr.edu.kw
28   Mr. Yousuf M. Al Tanakma                    Agriculture Affairs & Fisheries Resource
     Head of Plant Protection and Quarantine     Authority,
     Division                                    P.O. Box 21422, Safat, Area Code 13075
                                                 Kuwait
                                                 Tel. 00965 4723894
                                                 Tel. 00965 4765022
                                                 Fax 00965 4743619
29   Dr. Mohsen Al Husaini                       P.O. Box 1638, Salmyiah Area Code 22017
                                                 Tel. 5711296, 9680209
                                                 Fax. 5711293
                                                 Email. Mhusaini@kisr.edu.kw
30   Mr. Bastaki Haroon                          Public Authority for Agriculture & Fisheries
     Economic Researcher                         Resources
                                                 P.O. Box 21422, Safat, Area Code 13075,
                                                 Kuwait
                                                 Tel. (965) 5725251
                                                 Tel. (965) 5725251
31   Mr. Abdulrahman Khaleel Ebraheem Al         P.O. Box 15, Safat, Area Code 13001
     Mansouri                                    Kuwait
     Director of Economics                       Tel. (965) 2430 438, 2425749
                                                 Fax. . (965) 2454964
                                                 Email: aebraheem@mop.gov.kw
32   Mr. Bader A. Al Hasan                       Ministry of Plann. and Economic Dept.
     Researcher                                  Tel. 2454964, 2428200 – ext. 1763
                                                 Fax. 2454964
33   Mr. Waleed E. Aloud                         P.O. Box 13075, area 21422
                                                 Tel. 4710867
                                                 Fax. 4722417
34   Dr. Abdulhameed A. Hussain                  P.O. Box 24885, Safat, Kuwait, 13109
     Asst. Research Scientist                    Tel. (965) 4836100, 6617171
                                                 Fax. (965) 484 - 5162
                                                 Email: xhussain@kisr.edu.kw
35   Mr. Houd Ahmad Al Saleh                     Ministry of Foreign Affairs, WTO Dept.
                                                 Kuwait
                                                 Tel. 965 979 4683
                                                 Houdkuwait@hotmail.com
36   Dr. Tareq A.Y. Al Sabbagh                   FRD/AAD Food Resource Division
     Associate Research Scientist                Aridland Agriculture Dept.
     (Physiology/Toxicology)                     P.O. Box 815, Safat - Kuwait – Area Code
                                                 13009
                                                 Tel. 2551255, 2533300
                                                 Tsabbagh@yahoo.com
37   Dr. Ali Hassan M. Al Guma                   P.O. Box 44053
     Technician – Aquaculture                    Hawally St. 1/44, Bill No. 11144
                                                 Block No. 12, Flat 20
                                                 Tel. 6646727, 2645932, 5651865
                                           Participants
                                              Qatar
38   Mr. Mohmmed Saeed Al Hajri                   Ministry of Finances Trade & Committees
                                                  P.O. Box 22355, Qatar
                                                  Tel. 4419406
                                                  Tel. 4431412
39   Dr. Majed Rashid Al Kuwari                   Ministry of Municipal Health Affairs Agriculture
     Asst. Director for Animal Health             Development Department
     Affairs                                      P.O. Box 1966, Doha, Qatar
                                                  Tel. 0974 4653083
                                                  Tel. 0974 4653990
                                                  Fax. 0974 4663163
40   Mr. Al Missned                               Qatar, Doha,
                                                  Tel. 4334468
                                                  Fax. 4324926
41   Mr. Abdulla Hussain Ashour                   P.O. Box 20658,
                                                  Qatar – Doha Tel. 4696560

                                           Participants
                                              Oman
42   Mr. Bader Saif Bader Al Aufi                     P.O. Box 1400, P.C. 112, Ruwi, Oman
                                                      Oman Chamber of Commerce &
                                                      Industries
                                                      Tel. 788289
                                                      Fax. 792359
                                                      Email: occecon@omantel.net.om
43   Mr. Sulaiman bin Mahfoudh Al Taubi               P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Director of Plant Protection Dept.               Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                      Tel:    696287
                                                      GSM: 9343190
44   Mrs. Aisha Abdullah Al Harthy                    P.O. Box 1400, P.C. 112, Ruwi, Oman
     Director of Economic Research Dept.              Oman Chamber of Commerce &
                                                      Industries
                                                      Tel:    788289
                                                      Fax: 708497
                                                      Email: pubrat@Oman.chamber.com
45   Mr. Jamal R. Al Maimani                          P.O. Box 1400, P.C. 112, Ruwi, Oman
     Economic Researcher                              Oman Chamber of Commerce &
                                                      Industries
                                                      Tel. 788289 Fax. 708497
                                                      Email: pubrat@Oman.chamber.com
46   Mrs. Faiza Hamed Al Musharafy                    P.O. Box 500, P.C. 121, Muscat, Oman
     Director of Industrial Statistics                Oman Chamber of Commerce &
                                                      Industries
                                                      Tel. 7714248
                                                      Fax. 7714298
                                                      Email: fause83@hotmail.com
47   Ms. Nashwa Ali Al Mazrooei                       P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Director In-charge for Fish Quality Control      Ministry of Agric. & Fisheries
     Center                                           Tel:    736449, 740061
                                                      Fax. 740159
                                                      Email: agricorp@omantel.net.om
48   Mr. Aziz Hamed Al Khatri                         P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                                      Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                      Tel:    696300, 740061, 740062
                                                      Fax. 740159
                                                      Email: alkhatri@hotmail.com
49   Mr. Nasser Saif Shames Al Kiyumi         P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                               Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                               Tel:    696374
                                               GSM: 9318048
50   Mahmoud Mohd. Al Nabhani                  P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Agril Quarantine Station                  Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Seeb International Airport                Tel: 510456,
                                               GSM 9357984
                                               Fax.
                                               Email: nabhani21@hotmail.com
51   Mr. Emad Abdul Majeed Al Lawatia          P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     GSV of Agriculture Research               Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                               Tel:    696292
52   Mr. Rashid Mohamed Al Sulaimany           P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Director of Animal Wealth Dept.           Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                               Tel:    696539, 696300 ext. 1512
                                               Fax. 694465
                                               Email: mafvet@omantel.net.om
53   Mr. Rashid Khalfan Al Adawi               P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                               Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                               (Dept. of Agriculture – Sohar)
                                               Tel:    843225, 843224
54   Mr. Abdul Aziz Salem Al Harthy            P.O. Box 513, P.C. 116, Mina Al
     Asst. Director General of Agril. for      Fahal, Oman
     Research and Extension                    Ministry of Agric. & Fisheries
                                               Tel:    893131 Fax. 893097
                                               Email: Omar95@yahoo.com
55   Mr. Abdullah Dawood Al Zadjali            P.O. Box 50, P.C. 121, Muscat, Oman
     Deputy Director of Plant Protection       Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Research                                  Tel: 893560, 893131
                                               Gsm: 9325263
                                               Fax.
                                               Email: abdawood@hotmail.com

56   Mr. Yahya Nasir Seif Al Riyami           P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                              Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                              Agriculture Dept. Oman Dhakil
                                              Tel:   425506
                                              Fax. 425257
57   Mr. Mohamed Hosni Mohamed Ismail         P.O. Box 550, P.C. 113, Muscat,
     Trade Mark Expert                        Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                                              Tel:   774127
                                              Email: mhosni.com
58   Mr. Khalfan Hashil Al Rahbi              P.O. Box 550, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Head of International Organization       Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                                              Tel:   774152
59   Dr. Sultan Issa Al Ismaili               P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Director of Veterinary Research Center   Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                              Tel:   893157, 535086
                                              Fax. 893022
                                              Email: Mafvet@omantel.net.om
60   Mr. Ali Hussein Al Lawati                P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Director of Plant Protection             Ministry of Agric. & Fisheries
                                              Tel:   (00968) 893 915, 893313
                                              Fax. (00968) 893097
                                              Email: ali08112@omantel.net.om
61   Mr. Said Bin Saleh Bin Ali al Jabri      P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                              Ministry of Agric. & Fisheries
                                              Tel:   697960
                                              Fax. 696383
62   Mr. Ismail Mohamed Al Balushi                  Sultan Qaboos University
     Technician                                     P.O. Box 34, P.C. 123, Oman
                                                    Tel. (00968) 515274, 822168
                                                    Gsm 9437590
                                                    Fax. (00968) 513416
                                                    Email: isab@squ.eju.om
63   Mr. Hussain Mohd. Redha              Mohamed   P.O. Box 192, J. Al Shati, P.C. 134, Oman
     Section Head of Fisheries Industrial           Tel. 696300 ex. 1419
     Development                                    Gsm: 9396630
                                                    Fax. 605634
64   Mr. Saleh Zahran Al Hinai
     Director Investment Promotion                  P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
                                                     Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                     Tel:   696536
                                                     Fax. 696388
                                                     Email: hinai@hotmail.com

65    Dr. Younis Khalfan Al Akhzami                 P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
      Asst. Director General of Planning and        Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Investment Promotion (for Planning)            Tel: 603242, 696300 ext. 2323
                                                    Fax. 696388
                                                    Email: younisa@hotmail.com
66   Mr. Omar Salim Al Jabri                        P.O. Box 34, P.C. 123,
                                                    Dept. Agriculture Economics and Rural
                                                    Studies, College of Agriculture, S.Q.U.
                                                    Tel. 515247, 515244
                                                    Gsm. 9419155
                                                    Fax. 513418
                                                    Email: omar@squ.edu.com
67   Mr. Naeem Salim Al Musharaffi                  Ministry of Regional Municipality and
     Environmental Planner                          Environment
                                                    Tel: Gsm: 962550
                                                    Email: anaeem99@hotmail.com
68   Mr. Salim Saif Salim Al Abdaly                 P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Agriculture Economist                          Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                    Tel:    697960
                                                    Gsm: 9415585
                                                    Fax. 696388
69   Hassan Ahmed AL Nabhani                        Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Director General of Planning &                 P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113
     Investment Promotion                           Tel. 696383,
                                                    Fax. 696388
                                                    Email: hnabhani@hotmail.com
70   Mrs. Nooria Sulaiman Zaher Al      Kharusi     Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                                                    Directorate General of Specification and
                                                    Measurements
                                                    Tel. 744130
71   Mr. Warith Said Al Sulaimani                   P.O. Box 550, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman
     Engineer/Head of Maintenance Section           Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                                                    Tel. 774888
                                                    Fax. 7745992
                                                    Email: warith@maktoob.com
72   Mrs. Mansoura Mahmoud Said Al Khsaibi          Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                                                    Tel. 774815
73   Mr. Rashid Khamis Al Bareki                    Royal Oman Police
                                                    Tel. 512069, 519098
                                                    Fax. 510136
74   Mr. Sami Sultan Rashid                         Royal Oman Police
                                                    Tel. 540957
75   Mr. Mohammed Yahyai Al Shabibi                     P.O. Box 896, P.C. 113, Muscat
     Director of Economic Organizations                 Tel. 736373 (direct), 744356
     Affairs and Technical cooperation Dept.            Gsm 9454069
                                                        Email:myshabibi@hotmail.com
76   Mr. Ali Abdallah Al Jabri                          Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Director General of Agriculture                    P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 696391
                                                        Fax. 694465
77   Mr. Mohammed Salim Al Musheiki                     Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Head of Range Resource Dept.                       P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 601687
                                                        Gsm: 9492117
78   Mrs. Deena Alasfoor                                Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 393, P.C. 113,
     Director of Nutrition Dept.                        Muscat, Oman
                                                        Tel: 786553, 788764, 705594,
                                                        Fax. 788756
                                                        Email: deena1@omantel.net.om
79   Mr. Yakoob Mansoor Al Rukaishi                     Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Deputy. Director General of Animal Wealth          P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 601820, 696300-1531
                                                        Gsm: 9377929
                                                        Fax. 696271
80   Mr. Abdullah Said Al Shaili                        Ministry of Information - Oman TV
                                                        Gsm: 9314152
81   Mr. Ibrahim Mahmoud                                Journalist
                                                        P.O. Box 200, p.c. 114
                                                        Tel. 704022
82   Mr. Saud Hamoud Al Habsi                           Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
     Asst. Director General of Fisheries                P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 696369, 696300 - 1423
                                                        Email: habsi70@omantel.net.om
83   Mr. Mohammed Abdulrahman Al Mirza                  Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                        P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 893155
                                                        Fax. 893155
84   Mr. Shameem Mohd. Salim Al Balushi                 Ministry of Commerce and Industry
     Chief Chemist                                      P.O. Box 550, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 774804
                                                        Fax. 7715992
85   Mr. Khalifa Said Al Abri                           P.O. Box 896, P.C. 113, Muscat, Oman.
     Director General of Economic          Affairs      Tel. 736215
                                                        Fax. 737028
                                                        Email: alabri@hotmail.com
86   Mr. Ahmed Suleiman Hamad Al           Haddabi      Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
                                                        P.O. Box 467, P.C. 113, Muscat
                                                        Tel. 696300
                                             Participants
                                             Saudi Arabia
87   Mr. Al Quaif Saleh Ibrahim                      P.O. Box 15764, Riyadh 11454
                                                     Tel. 4032791, 4012777
                                                     Fax. 4032791
88   Mr. Fahad Abdulrahman Al                        Ministry of Agriculture and Water
     Mohaimeed                                       Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
     Agriculture Specialist                          Tel. 4012777 ext. 2028
89   Mr. Zaid M. Huwaisklel                          Ministry of Agriculture and Water
     Director of Foreign Relations                   Minister’s Office, Riyadh, U.A.E.
                                                     Tel. 4031722
90
Dr. Saad Al Kh. Esa                              P.O. Box 204, Riyadh 11321, Saudi
       Economist Consultant                       Arabia
                                                  Email: dresa@agrwat.gov.sa
91    Mr. Faisal Al Tayib Bayoumi                 Ministry of Agriculture and Water
      Epidemiologist                              Department of Animal Resources
                                                  Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                                                  Tel. 966 1 -404 4 555
                                                   404 – 4265       403 0030 EXT. 2947
92    Dr. Mohammed Nasser Al Bejad                Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                                                  P.O. Box 86100, 11622 Riyadh
                                                  Tel. 96655415400
                                                  96614625521
93    Mr. Abdullah Abdulrahman Abdulazeez         Ministry of Agriculture and Water
      Bin Shibraen                                Tel. 4012777/2583 – 2082
      Agriculture Research Management
94    Mr. Al Fuhaid Khalid Mohd                   Ministry of Agriculture and Water
                                                  Tel. 055/06037
                                                  Fax. 4031722
95    Mr. Ahmed Sulieman Hamad Al-                Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
      Haddabi                                     Tel: 696300
96    Dr. Omar A. Hashem                          Ministry of Agriculture and Water
      Director of Animal Quarantine               Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                                                  Tel. 4011323
                                                  Fax. 4011323
                                          Participants
                                       United Arab Emirates
97      Mr. Saif Mubarak Mohammed Al               Department of Agriculture
        Namani                                     Al Ain, U.A.E.
        Agriculture Engineer                       Tel. 00971506198792
98      Mr. Saif Mohamed Al smahi                  Dubai, U.A.E
                                                   Tel. 050 6295050
                                                   04 2958161 ext. 602
                                                   04 2957964 (direct)
                                                   Fax. 04 2957766
                                                   Email: matrix99.com.ae
99      Mr. Mohammed Moussa Abdullah               P.O. Box 1509, Dubai, U.A.E.
        Head of Plant Quarantine                   Tel. 04 295 7650
                                                   Fax. 04 2957766
100     Mr. Hamad Saif Al Mazrooi                  P.O. Box 1509, Dubai, U.A.E.
                                                   Tel. 00971 4 2958136
                                                   Fax. 00971 4 2957766
101     Mr. Habib Hussain Nasser Abdoudi           P.O. Box 1509, Dubai, U.A.E.
        Director of Planning and Follow up         Tel. 04 295 8161, 04 202 6710, 050 626 5425
                                                   Fax. 04 2959563
                                                   Email: planning.maf@emirates.net.ae
102     Mr. Saeed Suwaid Al Nasebi                 P.O. Box 901, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.
        Director of WTO Division                   Tel. 02 6131270
                                                   Fax. 02 6276333
                                                   Email: alnaseebi@hotmail.com
103     Mr. Abdulrazzaq Abdullah Ahmad             Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
        Director of Fisheries Department           P.O. Box 1509, Dubai, U.A.E.
                                                   Tel. 00971 4 2958161
                                                   Fax. 246590
104     Mr. Mansour Ibrahim Mansour                Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
        Head of Research Section                   Al Hamria Research Station
                                                   P.O. Box. 60, Ras Al Khaima
                                                   Tel. 0097172436381
                                                   Fax. 0097172436382

				
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