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The Connected Vehicle and Continuous Safety

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					The Connected Vehicle
and Continuous Safety


                                 H. Krishnan
                                 Hariharan.Krishnan@gm.com

                                 GM R & D Center
      WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
     WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
          V2X Applications
V2X applications can be classified as
  Safety Applications
  Convenience Applications
  Commercial Applications
Safety-oriented applications are of special
interest because they are expected to
significantly reduce the fatalities and
economic losses caused by traffic accidents

           WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2X Safety Applications
   Communications Between Vehicle
   Communications Between Vehicle
        and Infrastructure
        and Infrastructure                                 Communications Between Vehicles
                                                           Communications Between Vehicles
   Blind Merge Warning
    Blind Merge Warning                                          Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
                                                                 Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
   Curve Speed Warning
    Curve Speed Warning                                          Blind Spot Warning
                                                                 Blind Spot Warning
   Emergency Vehicle Signal Preemption
    Emergency Vehicle Signal Preemption                          Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
                                                                 Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
   Highway/Rail Collision Warning
    Highway/Rail Collision Warning                               Cooperative Collision Warning
                                                                 Cooperative Collision Warning
   Intersection Collision Warning
    Intersection Collision Warning                               Cooperative Forward Collision Warning
                                                                 Cooperative Forward Collision Warning
   In Vehicle Amber Alert
    In Vehicle Amber Alert                                       Cooperative Vehicle-Highway
                                                                 Cooperative Vehicle-Highway
   In-Vehicle Signage
    In-Vehicle Signage                                           Automation System
                                                                 Automation System
   Just-In-Time Repair Notification
    Just-In-Time Repair Notification                             Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
                                                                 Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
   Left Turn Assistant
    Left Turn Assistant                                          Highway Merge Assistant
                                                                 Highway Merge Assistant
   Low Bridge Warning
    Low Bridge Warning                                           Lane Change Warning
                                                                 Lane Change Warning
   Low Parking Structure Warning
    Low Parking Structure Warning                                Post-Crash Warning
                                                                 Post-Crash Warning
   Pedestrian Crossing Information at
    Pedestrian Crossing Information at                           Pre-Crash Sensing
                                                                 Pre-Crash Sensing
   Intersection
    Intersection                                                 Vehicle-Based Road Condition Warning
                                                                 Vehicle-Based Road Condition Warning
   Road Condition Warning
    Road Condition Warning                                       Vehicle-to-Vehicle Road Feature Notification
                                                                 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Road Feature Notification
   Safety Recall Notice
    Safety Recall Notice                                         Visibility Enhancer
                                                                 Visibility Enhancer
   SOS Services
    SOS Services                                                 Wrong Way Driver Warning
                                                                 Wrong Way Driver Warning
   Stop Sign Movement Assistance
    Stop Sign Movement Assistance
   Stop Sign Violation Warning
    Stop Sign Violation Warning
   Traffic Signal Violation Warning
    Traffic Signal Violation Warning
   Work Zone Warning
    Work Zone Warning
NOTE: Highest ranking applications based on safety benefit estimates are highlighted in yellow

                        WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
“360 Degree” Wireless Collision Warning System

  WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V)
System
 Informs driver of developing collision threat
  – Wireless data exchange of information
  – GPS-based
  – 360°collision warning system

 Driver maintains responsibility
 for control of vehicle




           WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
          WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
GM V2V Applications
  Slow/Stopped Vehicle Ahead
  Emergency Electronic Brake Lamp
  Forward Collision Warning/Rear-end CHMSL
  Blind Spot/Lane Change
  Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
  Work zone warning from infrastructure/trailer
  Intersection Collision Warning/Avoidance
  – Straight Crossing Path (SCP)
  – Straight Crossing Path (SCP)




           WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
  V2V Engineering:
  Slow/Stopped Vehicle Advisor




Stopped Vehicle                       + “Slow Vehicle Ahead”




                  WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
  V2V Engineering:
  Emergency Electronic Brake Light




Hard Braking Vehicle                     +”Hard Braking Ahead”




                  WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V Engineering:
Forward Collision Avoidance with Auto-
Brake
                       Flash
                       tail and
                       reverse
                       lamps

                                  + Seat Vibration
                                  + “Caution”, “Warning”




    Lead Vehicle
    Lead Vehicle                                           Host Vehicle
                                                           Host Vehicle

            WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V Engineering:
Lane Change & Blind Zone Advisor/Warning




        Blind Zone   Host Vehicle
                     Host Vehicle




                                    Other Vehicle
                                    Other Vehicle

         WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V Engineering:
Intersection Collision Warning System




           + Seat Vibration
           + “Warning”




         WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V Engineering:
Emergency Vehicle Assistant




                                                Police
                                                Police




                              Host vehicle
                              Host vehicle

                     Advisory
                     Advisory




         WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V Engineering:
Work Zone Assistant




                                   Host Vehicle
                                   Host Vehicle

         WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
V2V: Conditions for
Deployment
 Market penetration
 Standards development
 Wireless communication technology
 GPS technology
 Governance structure


       WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
Technology Insertion – Latency Period:
CY2005 U.S. Vehicle Registration & Vehicles Involved in Fatal
CY2005 U.S. Vehicle Registration & Vehicles Involved in Fatal
Crashes
Crashes

                                         100%
                                          100%
                                                        MY 2000
                                                        MY 2000     MY 95
                                                                    MY 95           MY 90
                                                                                    MY 90

                                         90%
                                          90%
         Cumulative Distribution ( % )




                                         80%
                                          80%


                                         70%
                                          70%


                                         60%
                                          60%


                                         50%
                                          50%


                                         40%
                                          40%
                                                                    CY2005 Vehicle Registration (Ref: RL Polk = 280 million vehicles)
                                                                    CY2005 Vehicle Registration (Ref: RL Polk = 280 million vehicles)

                                         30%
                                          30%                       Vehicles involved in Fatal Crashes ((Ref: FARS 2005 =47350 vehicles)
                                                                    Vehicles involved in Fatal Crashes Ref: FARS 2005 =47350 vehicles)


                                         20%
                                          20%


                                         10%
                                          10%


                                          0%
                                           0%
   -5
    -5                                           00        55        10
                                                                      10               15
                                                                                        15              20
                                                                                                         20               25
                                                                                                                           25              30
                                                                                                                                            30
                                                                  Age of vehicles (years)


                                                      WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
  V2V Challenges
Communication Challenges
Communication Challenges
   Based on periodic (100 ms) V2V communications up to communication range of
    Based on periodic (100 ms) V2V communications up to communication range of
   250 m
    250 m
   Large Scale Communications performance, i.e. reliability and capacity will be an
    Large Scale Communications performance, i.e. reliability and capacity will be an
   issue
    issue
   Scalability will require robust, dynamic channel congestion control methods (power
    Scalability will require robust, dynamic channel congestion control methods (power
   and rate control)
    and rate control)
   Security (computation overload) and privacy concerns will be an issue with
    Security (computation overload) and privacy concerns will be an issue with
   periodic communications
    periodic communications
GPS Technology challenges
GPS Technology challenges
    Lane level accuracy at low cost will be an issue
    Lane level accuracy at low cost will be an issue
    Coverage (outages due to obstructions) will be an issue
    Coverage (outages due to obstructions) will be an issue
Market Penetration challenges
Market Penetration challenges
    The lane level cooperative collision warning applications will need significant
    The lane level cooperative collision warning applications will need significant
    market penetration
    market penetration
    No simple way to ramp up market penetration in a short time
    No simple way to ramp up market penetration in a short time


                      WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
   V2V Early Applications
Driver Assistance Features
Driver Assistance Features
     Slow/Stopped Vehicle Ahead Advisor
      Slow/Stopped Vehicle Ahead Advisor
                                                 Road Level
     Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
     Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
     Road Condition Hazard Advisor
     Road Condition Hazard Advisor
     Post Crash Notification
     Post Crash Notification
     …….
     …….

Focus on Driver Assistance Systems
Focus on Driver Assistance Systems
    Based on event-driven V2V communications up to communication range of 250 m or more
     Based on event-driven V2V communications up to communication range of 250 m or more
     Communications performance, i.e. reliability and capacity will not be an issue because of the
     Communications performance, i.e. reliability and capacity will not be an issue because of the
     event-based communications
     event-based communications
     Road level GPS accuracy at low cost will not be an issue
     Road level GPS accuracy at low cost will not be an issue
     Coverage (outages due to obstructions) may not have a significant impact except if that
     Coverage (outages due to obstructions) may not have a significant impact except if that
     happens at the hazard event location
     happens at the hazard event location
     Security (computation overload) and privacy concerns will not be an issue with event-driven
     Security (computation overload) and privacy concerns will not be an issue with event-driven
     communications
     communications
     The driver assistance applications may be deployed at low levels of market penetration
     The driver assistance applications may be deployed at low levels of market penetration

                         WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
                        CAMP
     Vehicle Safety Communications 2 Consortium




        Intelligent Transportation Systems

Vehicle Safety Communications –
Applications Project
(VSC-A)
           WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
Project Overview
3 year project - December 2006 to November 2009.


Collaborative effort between 5 OEMs (DCX, Ford, GM, Honda &
Toyota) and US DOT (+ Volpe & Noblis).


Follow-on project to CAMP VSC (2002-2004) project.


Project Costs: $12 Million, USDOT funding: 80 %


Strong emphasis on resolving current communication and vehicle
positioning issues so that interoperable future deployment of
DSRC+Positioning based safety systems will be enabled.



               WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
Main Objectives
Develop scalable, common vehicle safety communication
   architecture, protocols, and messaging framework
   (interfaces) necessary to achieve interoperability and
   cohesiveness among different vehicle manufacturers.
   Standardize this messaging framework and the
   communication protocols (including message sets) to
   facilitate future deployment
Develop accurate and affordable vehicle positioning technology
   needed, in conjunction with the 5.9 GHz DSRC, to support
   most of the safety applications with high potential benefits
Develop and verify (on VSC-A system test bed) a set of
   objective test procedures for the selected vehicle safety
   communications applications



                WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
                      CAMP
     Vehicle Safety Communications 2 Consortium




        Intelligent Transportation Systems

Cooperative Intersection Collision
Avoidance Systems – Violations
Project
(CICAS-V) Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
       WiVEC
Project Overview
CICAS-V is a 4 year project to develop Cooperative Intersection
Collision Avoidance Systems that
    Prevent crashes between vehicles due to violations of traffic
    signals
    Prevent crashes between vehicles due to violations of stop signs


Phase 1: May 2006 – May 2008 & Phase II: May 2008 – May 2010


Project Costs: $36 Million, USDOT funding for Phase 1: 70 %, Phase
2: 80 %




                WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007
Traffic Signal Violation Warning




                                                                                                                                  DSRC radio

                            1   2
                                                          Intersection ID: 23983



                                                                                   Traffic signal information
                                                                                                                                   Processor
No Dedicated turn signals   X                      Left turn and                   Lane 1 Status red 4 sec                                            Road Side
                                                                                                                Warning
                                                   through signals

                                                  X                  3

                                                                                   Lane 2 Status red 4 sec                     GPS     Map storage    Equipment
                                                                     4

          10                                                         5
                                    X

                                                                                   Lane 3 Status green
          9

          8
                        X
      Left turn and
      through signals
                                            X   No Dedicated turn signals
                                                                                                                                                        (RSE)
                                        7   6
                                                      5
                                                           Lane Centerline
                                                           Lane ID
                                                      X Intersection Location      Positioning Correction                      Intersection Traffic
                                                      X Stopping Location




                                                      On Board Equipment (OBE)                                                   Control Device

                                                                                                WiVEC Panel @ Baltimore, Oct 1, 2007

				
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