; Peace Corps Volunteer – October 1967
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Peace Corps Volunteer – October 1967


  • pg 1
									                          The seven-yearitch
                                                 By BRENT         K. ASHABRANNER

,.     ytdmytp            th.,.  h.v, bee,,     ,,eloped.   The Peace Corps \vill meet              il,g at least one professor or dean
     scnttere re 0 ts in nexvsp~pers ancl       .~cadenjin  half \\,.~y al~d more.                  or acadelnic vice president say to
journals \\,hich ha\,e fed rltmors that             1 am s~tre ,s.e ,vill see in the next           ,ne, “YotI jnust remember that the
there might he a rift bet\\,een the             fe,t. years a sharp decrease i,, the old            Peace Corps is only one of a grest
Peace Corps and the acnclelnic coLlI-           patter,) of one-shot, ad hoc training               lnnny gover,llnent nativities colnpeting
mu,)ity,                                        progra”>s sprinkled ,villy-nilly around             for ot!r time, atld the Peace Corps is
     Yott may ha\,e read, for exnmple,          the IIatio”’s campuses,                             rather Inarginal to o[,r instittttion’s
that \\,e disagreed ~t,ith a leading ut)i-          lVe are goi,lg to set t,p x fe\v                basic iz,terests.”
versity abottt trainit)g operxtiol>s on its     tnore Peoce CO~s-rtl,l trai,ling centers                This little speech co)nes forth \vith
calnplls. You lnzy have read also that          –our so-called “in-house” centers–                  such regtdarity and \vith stlch a!)
,ve vlan a,] i,~creased elnphasis o]>           ,,,hich ts,ill concet>trate 011 preparing           nmwzing same,less of \vording that
training Peace Corps Volunteers irl             vol”,,teers    for specific areas of the            ill my bleaker Inoods I suspect its
ne>v centers \vhich \ve \t,ill o\vn and         ,vorld. \Ve \,,ill certainly contintle to           text ,vas agreed l]pol> at so]ne I>n-
OPe r~te.                                       ,leed ol!r tlniversity frie,>ds i!> these           tion,vide secret co,lvel>tiol, cnllecl by
     Some ma\, thi[)k that for a relative]),    centers,                                            academicians for the sole p~lrpose of
youI1g it>sti(utio]), \\,hich relied hea\,i~,      \Vitb     a small   ,~llmber   of \,,liversi-    putting the Peace Corps in its place.
on academia i,> the begi,>,~ing, \~re           ties I thit]k    \ve \viIl   also develoD      a“       There are of course notable ex-
have gro,vn nlighty inclepc]lde.t.              i,]-depth relationship.       Our ctl~rent          ceptions: 1 cotdd compile a distitl -
     1 aln inclined to agree tbnt tbc           plan ,vith the University of Ha\,,aii               g.ished list. But it \.ould still be a
hotleymoon is over.                             may \t,ell sen.e as a model. It] the                list of exceptions.
     Bllt 1 helie\,e that ~s,e nre in ]nany     coming year, the Utlit.ersity of Ha\s,aii               1 am s~,re there are se~.eral reasot,s
 bvays closer becaltse of our differences.      ,,,ill train over 1,000 VOluz>teers for             for this lack of friendliness on ollr
 The Pence Corps is e,,teri,>g its sev-         programs in East Asi~ and the Pacific               cnmpt!ses.      Some professors do(lbt-
 enth year. \Ve are suffering, 1 think,         on an l,nusual co,ltract basis \\,hich               Iess feel a threat in the Peace COTS’
 ,vhat lnarriage coltnselors nlight call a      pro\.ides for a core professional staff.            demand for a ]>e\v kind of action-
 ‘<protracted relatio)lship      syndrome”;     The u,>iversity \vill be preparing and               oriented edt]cation for its Volut>teers.
 i~>short, we hnve a czse of the se~.e,~        backstopping       o~lr Volunteers \vho are          They have their course o“tli,les, their
 year itch.                                     to \vork in Lfalaysia, the Philippines,              lectures, their research projects all
      As >ve begi,~ the se\,el>th year of       Thailand atld parts of Polynesia. Ha-                orga1>i2ed and they dol>’t \.nx>t any
 our relationship       \vith colleges nlld     ,,,aii ,,, ill participate   in :lcross-the-         inter feretlce or embarrassing questiot>s
 ll)>iversities, \ve have jllst begutl to       board program de\,elopment through                   from a]) upstart outfit that is)l’t satis.
 find \vnys to i,~tegrate preparation> for      training, implementation, overseas sup-              fied \vitb the ans\vers that it has thus
 Peace Corps service \\.ith fomal de-           port, research and e\>aluation.                      far received to the problems of corn.
 gree study.       \Ve are experimentitlg            Such nt> amangement should make                 mu,>icatio!>s a,ld cross-cultuv.d under.
 w,ith five-year degree programs i,>            possible tbe buildt,p a,>d supplication              stat, ditlg, Others o,, ““i,,ersity fscul.
 ~..hicb t,vo years of Peace Corps serv-        of great :Irea expertise. I \vocdd hope              ties still profess to see in the Pence
  ice is creditecl to,vards a college de-       that tbe tlni\,ersities ,vith \t,hich IVe            Corps :,)1 amo~hotls do-goodis,n.
  gree. At the State Uni,,ersity of Ne\v        develop such plans could almost be-                     A healthy skepticism is fine. 1
 York at Brockport, for example, stll-          come or contai,~ Peace Corps acad-                   think Inost Peace Corps staff jnem.
 de,lts \vill e,lter the program after          emies. 1,, these ncademies the proc-                 hers had it ill the begi],ni,~c. I am
 their sophomore year, complete their           esses of i,,ternatiol>al commt,nication,             IIot talking about tb~t~ 1 am- talking
  jl],>ior year and t\vO stlmmers, a,lcl        l!nderstal>dit,g and de~.elopmea~t \\,ould           abotlt ,1 lack of i,lterest or even a
  the,, be assig,led overseas.                  he st~,clied a,,d the results of the                 fai,lt hostility \\,hich springs from n
      T\vetlty Hamnrd-Radcliffe       seniors    studies applied in action.                          fnilure or refusal o“ the part of n>any
  inter,>ed this sttmmer i,, Panama,                 fi”t I have o,>e concer,l that I                faculty advisors to critically exa,nine
  Se,le&?l and Ethiopia.        They retl,r,l    especially \,,ant to share ,\.ith yo,t.             the Peace COTS as a valid option for
  to Catnbridge       for co,>ti,lued stlldy         1 am very mttch afrnid that the                 the gradllati,,g senior or the master’s
  duril>g their se,>ior year. \Ve expect         Peat- Corps has not been gi\.en all                  degree cal, didate.
  to Iearl> a good denl from them abollt         especially friendly receptio,l by ,nany,                Too Inany stttdents have come to
  indepel> dent
         ..         stud}, as a traitling        if IIot most, of the senior facldty mem-             lne to say they \vere interested in the
  tech,>,que.                                    bers on American college and unix,er-                Peace Corps btlt their senior profes-
      These are o,dy begi”ni,lgs.      Other     sity campuses. 1 never expect to go                  sor thollgbt they would be \vasting 4
  moclels, other pntterns mtlst be de-           onto a cnmpus anymore \vithout hav-                  their time or should take the depnrt-
B                              —
                                              BrenI K: Ashabranner, one of the first Peace
                                              Corps stafl members to serve overseas and a
                                              former director of training, has been nomina(ed
                                              by President Lyndon B. Johnson as (he agency’s
                                              deputy director, the No. 2 job ;n the Peace Corps.
                                              Ashabranner,    46, taught Engl;sh af Oklahoma
                                              Stafe University before going to A jrica in 1955
                                              with a forerunner of the AID program; he helped
                                              set up the first Peace Corps program in Nigeria
                                              in 1961 and was later country director in India.
                                              This article was adapted from an address he made
                                              10 the American     Psychological Association con-
                                              vention in Washington,     D. C. as acting deputy.

    mental fellowship being offered or            million    people ill wr own society
    had better get o“ with their study            this year–the Pe*ce COTS is still al-
    program if they expected to be taken          most the only and certainly is the
    seriously by the graduate school.             largest provider of Iong-tem, action-
         In some cases the student surely         oriented educatio,> designed to grap-
    sholdd take the fellowship, but I be-         ple ,vith the problems of tbe worU
    lieve every faculty advisor today has         society in which we live.                      0CT~6ER             19fi7
    a real obligation to have something               But as yet not we, nor the devel-
    more than a superficial understanding         opment exPerts, nor the leaders of the        Volume      V Number         12
    of what personal and career values            developing ,vorld have many of the        Published monthly by the Wfice
    are possible ill the experience of being      ans,vers, We perhaps hai,e ,>ot yet       of Volunteer suppn,    Peace tirps,
    a Peace Corps \rOlunt eer.                    ex,e,, formulated the right questiom.            washin@o., D. C. ~525.
         1 k,]ow that the Peace COWS should           Some of the best brains in our        St”?ti Awb~ey, editofi Pat B~ow., a?-
                                                                                            ~?,ate ed,tor; M1.,res CallstO, eda-
    do more than it has done to foster this       uni\.ersities—not enough, but some—       t.,nalassbstant. Des,gn by Paul Reed.
    understanding.      A university president    are thinking about the questions and
    ,vho is as co,lcerl]ed as I am about          the answers. At the same time thou-
    this matter rece,ltly s~lggested that on      sands of young men and uromen are         Cmrmsoo”dent,: BoTSWANA: RaY Ber-
                                                                                            tram. BRAZlb Tom Grill, Bob Water-
    as many campuses as possible semi-            leaving the campuses to sewe in the       man, BRITISH HONDURAS Elliott
    nars be held thmt would bring to-             Peace COTS, to work in parts of the       Chamizo, Frederick Johnson. CAME-
                                                                                            ROON: Mamhall Mawelll. CHAo: Na-
    gether top-level Peace COVS officers          world \vbere the better ans\vers are      thaniel o“ti..    cOLOMBlb Dean M.
                                                                                            Gottehre,. COSTA RICA: Gaw Kessel.
    and faculty members representing the          needed. Other thousands are retur-        man. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: St..,
    \vhole range of disciplines.         These    ning from the Peace COTS to the           Law,, ”.., John T. T“r”er, ECUADOR:
                                                                                            Dennis Shaw. EL SALVADOR: Mark
    seminars tvould explore the Peace             campuses–and one of the reasons they      Schoe,der.     ETHIOPIA: Mi.h.el        D.
    Corps experience, its validity for the        return to school is that they nobv        Pmwitt, 5.$.” Biaslni, James M.Cat.
                                                                                            few. GuATEMALA: Y.....      Jeilitte, Jim
    graduating college student, and tbe           know how much more there is to            Jaffe.    GUYANA Michael KoePPer.
                                                                                             HONOuRAS: Mike McMnney, Drew
    most meaningful relationship bet~veen         learn,                                              INDIA    GeO~e     McLemOre,
    the tlniversities and the Peace COVS.             There bas never been anything re.     ?;~as     Sennett.   JA AICR Jam,.
                                                                                            Jordan, Cerolyn T!er.ey. KENYA: Les-
    We \vould be delighted to participate         motely comparable to the oppotiunity       lie a“d Sandra Gree.ber8. KOREA
                                                   the Peace Corps has provided for the      Margaret Wheatley. , MAUWI: John A.
    in such dialogues. \Ve would welcome                                                    Osborn J,,, David V,ck. MICRONESIA
    n,)y other suggestions for the exchange       teachers and those they taught (and        Robeti, Ev,,”s, Tom Goltz. MOROCCO:
                                                                                            Joe Knmm!.s, C. Frederick Christie.
    of views and information.                     from whom they can now learn) to           NEPAL M,ckey H“m PhWy. NIGERIA
         It seems to me that if there was         come together       and work together     Geo,~e Ch”zi, John Shaw, PANAMA:
                                                                                             Bea Nyb”r8, PARAGUAY:Wrothy G~a.
    ever a natllral partl,ership it is be-        with the people of Africa, Asia and        ham, JO. McGovern,, Sandra G,Il.
                                                                                             sENEGAb James MOr,scatO.TUNISIA:
    t\veen the universities and the Peace          Latin America to find tbe right ques-    Jerald Posman, !ames Herz.g. TUR-
     Corps.     1 believe that our univer-         tions and to answer them h action. If     KEY Lawrence S,mmons, Jeff Th?mP-
                                                                                            ~~~m~n:NEzuELA: Jon Halter, Monk.
    sities have a fundamental         responsi-    m,e do “ot seize this opportutiity,
    bility in helping to solve the worl$s          another may be too long and too late     ON THE COVER: At “PDe, left, Carl
    pressing problems of communication,            in coming.                                Purcell-s photo of e Brazilian family
                                                                                             in a COmm”nlty development v,*
     tlllderstanding, scarcity of food, over-         And so 1 propose that \ve work at     gram. Below, a. ill.$tr.~On of Fred
     population and disease.        If \ve are     o,,r partnership and spend the com-      Englander,s obsewatio” (PaEe 9] that
                                                                                            wo,d$ .,, firmly imPlanted in a .“!.
     honest, we must admit that the battle         ing year drawing up the questions        t“ral ..”text. The fisure at right is a
                                                   and beginning      our search for the    preliternte t,lbal man, interacting with
     against these prOblem$ has barely                                                      a m...,.   patter,. of i“formatlon glvln~
     started.                                      answers.                                 him instant .4s1.. of a ComPlex Pro..
         Tbe time has come to question why             I am told that people who \vork at   .s$ [Pages 4-8). Below, .,ntage scene
                                                                                            from Puerto Rico training (Page 181.
    —i” spite of the wealth and resources          it almost always suwive that most
    of a nation \vhich will educate 60             dangerous seventh year.
                                                 ‘aTheyare the native citizens of the electronicenvironment;, Here tninees study Iang(

the electric  ge,leration,     Most   of its
                                                 But just over the literary horizon,
                                               beyond tbe mountains of memos and
                                                books a“d circulars and brochures a“d               By STUART AWBREY                    4
members    are still doun    there, in front    magazines, lies the next generation 01
of the TV tubes.                                                                                      and PAUL REED
                       But ,,ery shortly        Volunteers, \vho will be post-literate,
they \vill be ,veaned from the tubes            Their emergence is heralded by Mar.
and they will be up here. Tbe Peace                                                                                                     a
                                                shall McLuban,        Though socio-c”l.
COTS isn’t ready for them.                      tllral theorist h3cLuhan has not di.
   A glance around the halls finds the          rectly cataloged       the Peace Corps        the “hot” cultllre of the past and the
Peace Corps stti lined up for Xerox             i“ his delineations of the “ew age, tis       “COOYculture of tbe future.
machi,> es, reading case histories in an        message is easily and appropriately              h$cLuban contends that societies
expa]lding library, \vriti”g memoran.           applicable to tbe volunteer movement.         have been shaped more by tbe nature
dums, repairi,,g typeivriters, compos.          He IS full of words like Participation,       of the media by fvbich men communi.
ing thesis-length eval”atio”s, shuffling        Roles, l“volvement,      Discove~–char.       cate than by the content of the corn.
cables, dummying a proposed Pe@ce               ter members of the Peace Corps lexi-          munication, and that tbe media them.
Corps Journal and answering letters.            con, Insofar as it is possible to read        selves are extensions of some human
A ce”s”s of Peace Corps headquarters            McLuha”’s philosophy in context, an           faculty, psychic or physical.       The
reveals only t,vo television sets in the       important     mwsage develops.       It is     wheel, for example, is an extensior> of
house, neither in operation.                    that the generation nutiured on elcc.         the foot; tbe book of the eye; clothing
   All this is “hot” activity and every.       tronic media ~vill force the Peace             of the skin; electiic circuitry, of the
thing in, on a“d around it indicates           Corps to accelerate its motions toward         cent ral “ ewous system,
that the Peace COTS staff is still very        mass cultire and the global village
turned o“ and super sincere about the          i,lspired by electronic circuitry,        A                    Peace COVS
                                                                                                       A lCOO1’
depression babies, who p“t the show            corollary message is that the Peace               Until today, the dominant medium
on the road, ar,d the \var babies, who         COTS has bee” “COOYin tbe past and             has been print, logical and linear–a
are currently making it run,                   to stay that way it is going to have to        “hot” c“lt”re of movable type. B“t a
                                               bemme cooler to accommodate              its   “COOYworld of mass communication
                                                                                              has challenged modern man and the
                                               future Iegio”s.
                                                                                              resulting conflict, says McLuha”, has
                                                    This speculation that Marshall Mc-        produced tbe “Age of Anxiety,” alien.
                                               Luhan has chronicled          the Second       ation, apathy.
                                               Coming of the Peam COWS Act is                    The antidote lies i“ awareness that
                                               predicated on t~vo suspicions. One is          electronic media are constantly alter.
                                               that McLuha”         is right about tbe        ing man’s perceptual      se,>ses. The
                                               f“tire.    The other is that +e Peace          serial logic of print is giving way to
                                               Corps is perched precariously beween           the i“tiitive    “mosaic” patterns  of
videotape   at Da fimouth,   In the global viIlage, they will be ‘,agentsof communication;’

       instant, enveloping,      communication.     then, the Peace Corps is a cool             for the cause and permissions from the
                                                    medium.                                     mothers of America to let those re-
B      Books “contain,” telex,ision “involves.”
       The ne,v vision is mythic, tribal, de-          Yet the dilemma of the Peace COTS        cruits go ox,erseas, the Peace Corps
                                                                                                required a definition. The people \vho
       ce,ltralized. Man lives in”a global vil-     is that it has al~vays ken on the fence
       lage and is returned to the values and       bet\veen the old, print-oriented    cul-    put it together did such an effective
B      per=ptions of a preliterate cldture.         ture, the hot one, and the new, elec-
                                                    tronic-saturated culture, the cool one.
                                                                                                job that tbe Peace Corps developed
                                                                                                what an annual report later referred
           Media are hot or cool. Movies, for
                                                    One of the more obvious illustrations       to as “an engaging folklore of attrac-
       example, are hot, television is COO1;
                                                    of this dilemma is seen in the peren-       tive yourig Americans piping the way-
       radio is hot, the telephone is cool.
                                                    nial “image” problem faced by Volun-        \vard masses of the underdeveloped
       \Vhy? A hot medium is one that ex-
                                                    teers.                                      \vorld to the paths of progress and
       tends one single sense in “high defini-
                                                             Shriver’s high definition          enlightenment.”
       tion,>,”that is, the state of being \vell
       filled with data. Both the television                                                        In rest.respect, the print-entering
                                                       In its early years the Peace Corps       founders (assisted by m willing pub-
       and the telephone are low definition,        demonstrated     huge inclinations    to-   lic) put out a hot message abollt a
       because so little information is given       \vard print. Sargent Shriver stacked
        and so m,lch has to be filled in by the                                                 cool program. Theu Peace Corps was
                                                    the agency with nebvspapermen, la}v-        high defi”itio”,       Yet, even as they
       listener, whereas the movie and tbe          yers and social scientists, \vho in turn
       radio project images and messages that                                                   \vrote, the Volunteers were establish-
                                                    applied their not inconsiderable     tal-    ing something completely remote from
        do not leave so much to be filled in        ents \vith prose to a mountain of de-
        or completed by the audience.                                                            definition, intensely personal and self-
                                                    scriptive material about what the            discovering,     individually    filling in
           The Peace Corps under these cri-         Peace Corps was and what it was              their o~vn definitions of that ultimately
        teria is essentially mol. Some might        doing, (It is interesting that agency        cool term consisting of “Peace” and
        challenge the old saw about it being        radio and television dkect.ors have al-      “Corps.”     Inevitably,    their personal
        a “24-hour-a-day”     job but few, will     \+.ays been writers; tbe educational         definitions clashed with tbe definitions
        deny its continued evidence of high         television director is a la\vyer. ) To       which showed up in the hometown
        participation (Volunteers demand it),       win appropriations      from Congress,       newspapers, the letters from mother
        or its continued defiance of definition,    halos from editorial writers, recruits       and the latest recruiting brochures.
        especially on the part of individual                                                     The staff, in effect, \vas heating up the
        Volunteers,    Even the Peace COTS                                                       Peace Corps. The Volunteers             were
        Act defies explicit definition      (“big                                               cooling   it off.
        enough to drive a tmck through,”                                                           The Peace COTS has learned some

L       chief programmer Sol Chafkin used to
        say) and this has left Volunteers, ad-
        ministrators and programmers plenty
                                                                                                lessons in this area, but the tensions
                                                                                                of definition persist. David Elliott’s
                                                                                                search for the “reaY Peace Corps
        of operating room. On these terms,                                                      touched off the latest series of high
definition    responses \vhich for the
most part w,ere rd”ced,        character.
istically, to paper and print. This wras
another sign that the high literacy
Peace COVS has a latent tendency to.
.vard hot media,
    We must note that no value judg-
ment can be rendered on the relative
merits of hot or cool culture, or media.
The jttdgments come into play over
their applications. McLuhan suggests
that it makes n great deal of differe]lce
u.hether a hot or cool medium is used
in a hot or cool cldture. Sample: “The
hot radio medium used in cool or non-
liternte cultures has a violent effect,
quite unlike its effect, say in England
or America, \vhere radio is felt as en-
tert:iinment.     A CW1 or lo\v literacy
culture cannot accept hot media like
mo~.ies or radio as entertainment.
They are, at least, as radically up-
settil>g for them as the cool TV
meditlm has proved to be for our high              100K
literacy world.”

       Agenb of communication
                                                       “.. . and then when I finally did talk my tribe into learning
   More b~sic than these relative ap-                              to read, they read Marskall       McLuhan     V
plications of hot and cool media is the
fact that the U,,ited States has paved
the way in the de~,elopment of elec-
tronic medin and the Peace Corps               men \vherever it has been received.
                                               h~en are involved \vith one another.
                                                                                               that “backward countries that have
                                                                                               experienced little pemeation with our
Voh!nteer, ,vho is comir,g of age \vitb
the ne\v technology, is able in \,arying       Electronic circuitiy provides a mosaic          o\!m mechanical and specialist culture
degrees to understand and inte~ret it.         pattern of information \\.hich gives in-        are m“cb better able to confront and
As n lnedium itself the Peace Corps            stant \,ision of a complex process. This        to llnderstand    electric techno]06y.”
is a,, extension of tbe America” ego           returns man to the tribal emotions              The Peace Corps has to keep that in
idenl, or at lesst of its political expres.    from ,t,hich he has been divorced               mind in preliterate societies where it
siot> i!> the Kennedy era.                     by a fe\v centuries of literacy, to             Operates.
    The Peace Corps is very much on            the preliterate ability to have myth-              This is but one of many contradic-
the front lines of the electronic n6e.         ical instant \,isiOn of complex prOc-           tiot)s that keeps the Peace COTS sensi-
volunteers ha,,e speeded up the ex-            esses. The result is the electronic             tive to variable applications overseas.
cha,>ge of information and they have           global .\,illage, a “simultaneous bappen-       Inter]lally, ho\vever, the most crucial
expanded the global \.illage. We can           i,,g,” non-national and interdependent.         contradiction lies in the fact that the
a,lticipate   a“ acceleration      of their        In this process, the Peace Corps            Peace COTS remains a print+ riented
cOllecti\,e communicative          influence   \Iolt,”teer as an agent of communica-           society \vhile its dra~t,s increasing sus-
o,,ce the electric television ge”eratio”       tion> has often been a first resident ill       tenance from an electronic a6e. The
comes to dominate the Peace Corps.             the global village, He renders s{lch            senior staff belongs to the lost-in-the-
Where the Vol”l>teer hns in the ~~st           phrlses as “cross-cultural experience”          library generatio,l, The 1961-67 Vol-
been referred tO aS an “agent Of               or “transculturation”     obsolete, for the     unteers mamred under print-riented,
change,” it may & more accurate to             global village transcends           culture.    hot rote teachit>g in high de finitio!l
call him an “agent of commun ication, ”        Everyboiky is in the sflme tribe, the           surroundings.     They leamd       bw to
He is a carrier of the new media, a            same culture.                                   read and write and reproduce           (the
media missio,>ary,                                 Of couse there are variations on            Xerox machine users in headquarters
   By the McLuha”        text, i“sta”t,        this theme. A most stiiking one is in           are hardly confined to the over-30 -
\vorldwide i“formatio,> has tribalized         preliternte Africa, \vhere many people          year-old group).      This Peace Co s
                                               are leapfrogging earlier Western media          has always been more attuned to t e      T
                                               into the electronic age, To the degree          Congressional Record than to ABC,
                                               that they are still tribal, they have an        CBS, NBC and ETV put together.
                                               advantage over the Westerner, who is                But by 1970 or thereabouts nobody
                                               only begin>,~ing to detribalize.         This   but nobody at the A.B. generalist level
                                               shortcut has proven somebvhat confus-           will even know that the Congrestinal
                                               ing to Volunteers and propammers                Record exists (exbeme            pessimists
                                               who are just emerging             from the      even wonder if the electromagnetic
                                               linear, print cycle.       McLtlhan notes       babies will be reading at all), Listen
B   to McLuhan: “The young people who
    have experienced      a decnde of TV
    have naturally imbibed zn urge to-
                                                                                                 love to fill in the huge gaps of informs-
                                                                                                 tion. The same rubbing of informa-
                                                                                                 tion against information operates simi-
    ward involvement in depth that makes                                                         larly in senior staff meetings, in the
6   nll the remote visualized goals of usual
    culture seem not only unreal but irrele-
                                                                                                 Peace Corps Forum, in training pro-
                                                                                                 grams–something        is usually created
    vant, and not only irrelevant but                                                            out of the friction. It never happens
    anemic.” Total sound, total vision–                                                          in a lectire, but lectures (bet) are
    participation, dialogue and depth. Is                                                        alien to the Peace Corps. Vohlnteers
    the Peace Corps ready?        “The TV                                                        and staff have always been at their
    child expects involvement and doesn’t          capable of storing memories for im-           worst lecturing or listening to lectures.
    want n specialist iob in the future. He        mediate and total recall. In an in-           Peace Corps people demand high par-
    does want a role and a deep commit-            stant, it will tell how many 23-year-old      ticipation, fill-in,. “COOYseminars, dis-
    ment to his society.”                          men with degrees in agriculture are           cussion groups, sensitivity training.
                                                   a~,ailable for Uttar Pradesh. Again,          Even Harris Wofford, the most print-
             Information   robbing                                                               conscious character in Peace Corps
                                                   \ve have instant vision of a complex
       They will be the first Peace Cor s          process, a myth, or mode of simul-            history, thollght of the agency in
    generation to have grownup with te fe-         taneous awareness of a complex group          terms of a “Socratic seminar.”
    vision. As John S, Culkin, S.J., direc-        of causes nnd effects, Tbe patterns               As an agent of communication)>, Vol-
    tor of the Fordham University Center           are not detached.                             unteer information carries t\vO \vays—
    for Communications, has noted: “The               Cables will be getting a similar           one message about the ne\v mass CUI.
    TV set -s      waiting for them \vhen          treatment, The Peace Corps generates          ture goes to the ~vorld in \vhicb be
    they got home from tbe hospital and            a fraction of the 15 million \vords that      Operates, the other message about
    they liked it enough to clock 15,000           flow in and out of the Department of          what he sees and feels and lives gets
    hours of vie,ving by high school grad.         Sttte each month. A new electronic            back to the United St~tes. Hence,
    uation,    Their psychological    intake       system Of cOmputers and high speed            there is feedback from the communi-
    ~ystem,,is programmed for the moving           printers will absorb messages at n            cator at the frontiers of the global vil-
    Image.     Then he adds: “They are             rate of 1,200 lines a minute, 12 times        lage. Tho~lgh t>ot alone in his poten-
    plugged into tbe ‘now’ a“d they want           faster than teletype.                         ti~l for such feedback (every citizen
    to experience it and be i“volvd with              Every\vhere in the global village,         of the oge is feeding back something),
    it, They are the only people who are           Peace Corps people are picking up in-         the Volunteer’s unique contribution to
B   the native citizens of the “e,v elec.
    trollic environment,”
                                                   formation, When they get together–
                                                   at conferences, forums, cOuncils–in-
                                                                                                 this process is in his geographical locn-
                                                                                                 tion, \vbich few Americans can match.
       There are sig,ls that the Peace             formation is bmsbed against informa-              Predictably,    one popular form of
    Corps sees the electric futire and             tion, and the results are occasionally        feedback among Volunteers is .Iec.
    \vants a slice of it, It has bought a          startling and often effective.       This     tronic tripe, recorded on site \vith a
    compllter,    for example,    which is         process is involving the participants         portable recorder and for\varded to

        ,,                           Peace bros
                                                   oeoDle hate lectures, Drefer high Datiicipation discussion group+
                                     information ‘b;ushing a’@inst in foliation, as ~n the Tutis ia council meetin”g below...
        kl                                                                                                                             ;1
                                              never make it through letters to The
                                                 The five-year limitation on staff
                                              ~ppointments will probably preserve
                                              a good segment of the “COOY Peace
                                              COTS untfi the television generation
                                              gets its hands on it. In anticipating
                                              that day, the Peace COTS \vill have to
                                              keep in mind that its gre~test threat is           Someday there will be a tele-
parents nnd friends. It is still one-\vay     ahobgoblin called experience, namely            vision set in eve~ booklocker and
commltnication, heard instead of read.        its o\vn experience.       The tendency         the agency will communicate        liv-
But, like the cool telephone, it nllo~vs      nmong the older types eveywhere         is      ing memorandums        via its own
a different kind of fill-in.                  to march back~vards into the future,            communlcatkons      =telllte.
    As Bill Boast of the India staff has      to look at that fuhre through the renr-         will put’ THE VOLUNTEER, {~~

said, Peace Corps people are non-             vie\v mkror. As McLuhan notes, oE-              Handbook,     Staff  Minutes,     The
                                              cial cultire isstriving to force thene\v        Journal,    PECTO     and     TOPEC
national. This means that they are in-
                                                                                              (agency cable codes) and letters
volved in the centralized village \vhich      media todothe      ~vorkof the old, That
                                                                                              to The Times out of business    ,..
cuts through archaic wncepts of cul-          is telling a Pea= Corps Volunteer to
                                                                                                 Before that happens, and while
ture and ]>ational states. Volunteer          ltse a specialized job to teach people
                                                                                              we are still lingering in the twi-
articld ation of thzt involb,ement,           to read, by rote, so they can exercise          light of a logical, linear and lit-
though      occasionally  inhibited    and    individual \vill on the nation-state.           erate print-oriented  Peace Corps,
some\vhat uncertain to date, may be           Alns, the Volunteer knows better. The           THE VOLUNTEER would welcome
\vhat the third goal of tbe Peace Corps       n>ew en\.irOnment requires new tOOls—           futiher thoughts on the coming of
Act \vas all about. The retllrt]ed Vol-       involvement,      discovery,  roles (not        the electronic age and the Peace
unteers seem to be trying to say sOme-        goals) andpatiicipation.     Keeping the       ‘Corps role init. Theakveafiicle
                                              shop tooled for the television cro~vd           represents    but seveml applica-
thi”g abotlt the global village, most
                                                                                              tions of the visiona~ concepts of
recently in political expression. One          and its global village is now the most
                                                                                              Marshall    McLuhan.     There  are
reason they have ,>ot bee” too effective       challenging    task before tbe post-
                                                                                              many more.
 may be because they ha~,e chosen to           Shriver, pre-McLuhan Peace Corps.
                                                                                                 A hsic primeron     McL”hanism
camy their message in the arena of                                                             is now bcoming available free of
 print, by position papers, petitions and                                                     charge to Peace Corps membe~.
 letters to The New York Times. Mc-                                                            Understanding Media, one of Mc-          9
 Luhan says nationalism as an image                                                           Luhan’s more popular books, is
 still depends upon the press, hut the                                                        conkind     in the new Moklockers
 electrol>ic media is against nationalism
 as an image. Non-nationalists,        bar.
                                                                                               being   distributed
                                                                                               Peace Corps village.
                                                                                                                     around   the
 bi,]gers of the globml village, \vill

                                “Therea resiQnst hatthe  Peace CorDssees theelectric        future and
                                wants a slit; of it:’ Below, Volunteers in ColomMa         ETV studiO.
        s   the big jet flying direct from           like “fulfillment     of responsibility;   bet~veen social classes \vhich is corn.
    A      Lagos to Ne\v York transported
    me from one \vorld to another in a
                                                     That phrase and others like it had
                                                     passed through my mhd o“ many
                                                                                                mon in America but lacking i“ the
                                                                                                traditional society I recently had left,
    s~~n Of fifteen hOurs, I cOntempl~ ted           occasions in the preceding months, I       I realized that an “inside view” of
    how hvo years abroad \vould alter my             had termed actions of my colleagues        English allowed me to grasp meanings
    reactions to my nntive environment.              as “irresponsible, lazy, and waste ful,”   ,vhich might be lost i“ translation,
    Settli,lg onto the Kennedy Airport ru,~-         But 1 had used these words to charac.          The cab roared off and 1 endeav-
    \vay, I observed my first clue through           terize bebavior i“ another c“lt”re as      ored to cross the street through an
    theplal>ebvindow.     Conitrtlction,vork.        though it \vere behavior in my own.        area I vaguely remembered as a pe-
    ers proceeding       with manual labor           I had ,Iot taken cultural context into     destrian cross,valk. With anxiety, I
    seemed otlt of place to me. In Africa,           cor)sideration, and made judgments I       tvondered if oncoming cars \vould
    the roles of all Westerners and EtIro.           wns ,>ot yet qu~lified to make.            acknowledge my right of \vny. They
    peans rarely ia~volved getting their                 In consideration of how words take     did and a signal of my environment
    ha,]ds dirty.                                    on meaning, I \vondered how one can        %s thus reinforced.
B       Seeil>g these workers led me to
    reflect    llpon the reactions      of tbe
                                                     co,nmunicate accurately when he has
                                                     not lived i“ the cultire of the lan-
                                                                                                    The next day, I \vas overwhelmed
                                                                                                \vhen I considered the mastery of com-
    Nigeria” sttldents while they observed           guage he speaks for an extended            munications accomplished by modem
    me doing ma,,”al \vork on the school             period of time. A speaker is often         society, At 6 a.m. I collected milk nt
    compound,       I can no\v better t,nder-        guessing n.hen he has not experienced      the door a“d ~ ne,vspaper \vith the
    stalld u,hy they regarded me with                nll the en~.ironments in which the         spOrts ne~rsOf~baseb~ll       game pl~yed
    suspicion rnther than ,vith tbe open-            ,vord he utters ca” appear.                only six hours earlier.        The phone
    ness I expected, They bad rarely seen                ‘These obstacles confronted me as I    brought news of a shuttle flying hourly
    .I ,vhite ma” dirty his hands before,            &ied to learn Yoruba, the language         from New York to Washington.                I
    This    fact   of their   environment   influ-   spoken at my station, But little by        mshed to the airport wondering if
    enced their co,,cept of social status.           little, 1 was able to pursue the mean-     I could get a flight that day. At the
    As a foreigner insensitive to their               ings of words as I heard them used in      ticket desk, I was instructed to tske
    patterns   of social mobility, I \vas            their ctdt”ral context, On the other       a yellOw ticket frOm a machine. board
    myself responsible for arousing their            ha,,d, the African learning English in     a plane through gate five in ten min-
    suspicion.                                       Africa ,vas limited to texts and dic-      tttes, and to fill out the ticket on the
       As 1 co,lsidered my o,vn surprise             tionaries. Noappropriate culturalc on-     plane, In a state of disbelief I fol-
    at witnessing \vhite men engaged in               text \vas provided for him. Conse-         lo~ved instructions, h{y suspicion van- ~
    manual ,vork in Ne\v York I came to               quently, I felt obliged to learn his       ished ns the stewardess collected my
    realize that 1, too, could have a similar         language, rather than to expect him to     travelers’ checks in flight.
    reaction after living in the African              cotnmunicate with me in mine.                  Ironically, these conveniences trou-
    en\,ironment.     I regretted my hasty               Back in New York, after leaving the     bld me, They impressed upon me
    misjudgments of the students.                     airport I was again distracted by the      the great power ,vhich the American
       AS I walked through the ai~ort                 corltent of a dialog, this time behveen    industrial society bas created. With
    terminal, Iwasdistinctly     aware of the         a taxi driver and a passenger, I over-     the tools and abilities to organize that
    so””d of the English la”g”age,          A         heard the driver interrogate tbe dis-      which \ve have produced, we have a
    waitress shouted: “Thro,von abt,rger              tinguished looking gentleman, “Where       great control over tbe material world
    with a side of french, a“d a coke to              ya goin’, mists?     Here the language     i“comparko”       tocitize”s of “o”-indus-
    go,” These \vords,, though perhaps                was a cue to the vertical interchange      trialized. nations,
    lacking in elegance, nevertheless re-                                                            Unfortunately,     making these tools
    minded me of a universal fact of lan-                                                        ,vork else~vhere is a complex process,
    guage: namely, that words are firmly                                                         as many Peace Corps Volunteers have
    implanted in a cultural context—a con-                 BY tiED     ENGLANDER                 learned.      There is no straight line
    text tremendously important for inter-                                                       between the realm of the comfort of
    preting their meaning. Take a phrase                                                         the shuttle flight bet~veen W~shington
                                              During my two years overseas,            the social customs,    economic struc-
                                           man’s dependency upon na~re \vns            tures, political systems and a~Om-
                                           ahvays in vie\v. Most members of            panyi,lg probletns of a new subcul-
                                           a non-industrialized   society devote a     ture, In> detecting, analyzing and ad-         J
                                           great part of their energies to obtain-     justing to new ways he can gain a
                                           ing food and shelter. Back home, na-        facility to recognize   and cope with          e
                                           mre is disguised h “synthetics” of all      structirallv ,, similar situations existine
                                           sorts. The average daily task in tbe        in the United States. It k this ne~
                                           city is far removed from the agricul-       facility, applied in one’s own environ-
                                           tural toil upon \vhich our life is based.   ment, which can be the greatest asset
                                           The goals of the developing society         to a Volunteer nnd to the United
                                           Ire generally relatd to fulfilling basic    Shtes; it insures that the benefits of
                                           needs. In America, however, leisure         the Peace Corps experience extend
                                           time created through our industrial         beyond two years.
                                           po\ver frees our energies for other             Even if a Volunteer shies away
                                           tasks. At the same time, as I recall        from the best culture, and tries to bide
                                           using an electronic device to change        in a conclave of his o\vn, he cannot
                                           the channel of the television set with-     escape all the inthletlces of the host
                                           out getting lnp, and then using a set of    envirot,ment.       The Volunteer      may
                                           weights to obtain more exercise, 1 rec-     claim he came to do a job :tnd that
                                            Ogl~ized that technO1Ogical advances        as such he does not have time to delve
                                            ,vere”’t easily directed toward their      into the culture. B,,t be too \vill ex-
                                            most conskuctive use.                      perience “cult”re shoc~ tvhen retur-
and Netv York, and th3t of the ull-            I sought to examine how two years        ning to the United States. This is the
skilled farlner, for example, standing      in a Nigerian school would affect my        greatest dividend offered by the Peace
beside.     tractor brought to a halt be-   view of a New York school, 1 \vas           COVS, The tension created through
catlseit \vasn’t provided \vi&oil. TXVO keenly aware of the diversity of the
                                                                                        an immersion in a ne\v culture is not
years i,, the Pence Corps reinforced        student body including Puerto Ricnns,       only a measure of the color, depth
my rc:dti<ntion that n tractor it, the      Jews, Italio”s, Negroes n“d Orientals.      and fascination of another way of life
hal)ds of an tlnskilled farmer is no        This e“viro”me”t recalled a memory          but also a source from which Volun-
more fu,>ctional than a jet \vould h        of the difficulties I had encountered       teers dra\v the energy to improve
\vith an tlntrnined pilot.                  in making the “cross cultural scene”        their own society.
    Ir,cidents like the above awaken in     ill Nigeria, where I was also con-                                                            9
the rettlrning Volc,tlteerane\v    llnder-  fronted ,vith stide”ts     of different
sta,lding of his ou.nl cultire, He gains    tiibes and cultural backgrounds. No\v         Fred Englander         taught in Nigeria.
ax) a\voreness of the comforts of his
socicty and u,>derstnnldingof thediffi-
                                            I sensed an abflity ,vhicb Peace COWS
                                            Volunteers cultivate at their overseas
                                                                                               lti       ~ring, and detielq]ed o
                                                                                                     intsreti in the Yoruba lan-
culties inherent iII introducing tech-      stations. A Volunteer who spends two       gu~e, Flctinow working on a grad-
nological innovations to a non-indus-       ye:trs in a foreign environment       is   uate degree in lingu~ics at Michigan
trializecl society. At the same time,        forced as a means of suwival to smdy      State University.
the mar\,el of an electiic stove stimu-
lates his concert) for untold nllmbers
of ,vomen ancl children who daily
stiaill l,llder hesvy loads of firewood
necessary for cooking. Thus the Peace
 Cor]?s Volunteer who ,vel>t overseas
 ns on “agent of change” returt]s in the
very sa,ne role. lIe may fil]d himself
 taking a more active part in his own
 society dtte to \vhat he has learned
     At home 1 was distinctly aware of
 man’s imprint ltpo]~ nature, u,hereas
 in Nigeria it seemed that nature
 placed its imprint on man, I was
 overly conscious of neady shouldered
 highw~ys, paved stieets, trill out-
 growths of cement and parking lots.
 Ani,nals bvere rnrely visible. In Ni-
 geriathey roamed freely, \VhiIe pass-
 i,,g a grocery store, I recognized that
 I had gone six months without eating
 chicken in Nigerin,       h my remote
 to\v” lneversa\vchickenh        the cello-
 phane packages I had taken for their
 placenta at home,                                                                                                          .

                                              Costa Ricans work on road linking their towns. “A crucial part of
                                              CD skill is. . . how to understand oneself in relation to a group?

     A new
    for the                        A ueteran    staff ntentber
                                   mtmity deuelopntent—Peace
                                   all (lspects of the sublect
                                                               takes a comprelwnsiue    look at com-
                                                                   Corps style. Her candid views on
                                                               appear on the follotoing  pages,

, generalist                       T      F        Co:ps commits the tasks
                                               mmu,]lty de~.elopment pri-
                                                                                 lnunities.   They have received spe-
                                                                                 cialized tiaining, and are usually paid
                                   marily to you,,g liberal arts grad~,ates      gover]>ment employ es.        The Peace
                                   ,vith little experie,lce, and \vith only      Corps places foreigners as field work-
                                   three lnonths of training cro,vded            ers, Volunteers \vho are free to leave
                                   \vith mi,]utiae. These generalists are        if they \vish, and \vho represent the
                                   expected to perform it, a foreign coun-       \\.orlCs richest and most po}verful nA-
                                   try ancl in a foreign language ~\.ith         tion. This fact alone necessitates a
                                   very little support or direction from         special definition,
                                   either Peace Corps staff or host coun-            The Peace Corps should establish
                                   try ,lationals. It is little wonder that      a task force which would have the
                                   at best o,dy 50 per ce,>t of the Volun.       time and freedom from other responsi-
                                   teers i,>~,ol,,ecl i,, sltch programs have    bilities to analyze various definitions,
                                   any significa],t success. The average         philosophies and experiences in order
                                   vol”,,tee,   si,nply does not lla\,e the      to develop a satisfactory definition and
                                   experie,>ce, training an! background          apprOach      ‘The task fOrce shOuld in-
                                   to carry out as diffictdt x task as corn.     clude national and i“ter”atio”al      e~.
                                   Inllnity  development     \vith the se,lsi.   perts, and retllrned staff and Volun-
                                   ti\,ity and org.lnizational    ability that   teers \vith demonstrated successful. ex-
                                   tbe job reqt, ires.                           perience i,> community development.
                                      This cloes riot mean that the Peace        The task force 31s0 should develop
                                   Corps ~l,>l,ot succeed ill community          g~lideli,nes for training, programming,
                                   development.      B~,t the ,vay x,,e go       s“perv,s,o”     a“d quantification,    all
                                   about it requires modificatio,l if \ve        stemmiz,g from a com”on de fi”itio”.
                                   are going to ha,,e a sign fica”t impact                    Prq-mhg
                                   \vorthy of the effort and money ptlt
                                                                                    Programming involves the difficult
                                   into it.
                                                                                 process of pln,>ning the job to be done
                                      The Peace Corps should ,vork o“t           by Volunteers i]~ cooperation \vith the
                                   its o>vn definition of community de-          host country agency, The Peace COWS

b   By BE~      ~TC~NMN
       San Salo&or.   El Salu&or
                                   velopment, 1,, most national commu-
                                   nity development programs the field
                                   workers are citizens of the :>ation,
                                   and many times come from local cOm-
                                                                                 sholdd develop CD programs only
                                                                                 in countries where there is a national
                                                                                 CD agency or ministries utilizing or
                                                                                 planning to utilize CD as an integral
                                             part of their obvn programs,        Many          l?ol”,,teer than the top officials. It
                                             countries i,] Latil> Alnericn bnve tom.           is on the local firing line \vhere the
                                             munity devcloplnent agencies, These               problems are n]ost opt to come up
                                             agencies vary in their effectiveness              and more apt to be ]Ieglected.       Vol-
The tasks of                                 and interest. Any agency \vhich be-               tlnteers frequently represent n threat
                                             lieves i“ community         det,elopment          to local officials and both need to
community                                    and, as nearly as can be determined,              tlndersta,ld each other st>d their roles.
                                             has a gent!ine interest i,, usi,lg and                Also, the host country        agency
development                                  \vorki,]g \,,ith Volunteers sho{dd be
                                             investigated for the possible develop-
                                                                                               sholdd have one person at the national
                                                                                               level who has a genuine interest in the
~ TO study his community    and              met>t of projects \vith mldlnally ac-
                                             ceptable goals.
                                                                                               Volunteers and \vith ,,,hom the Peace
its people so that he under-                                                                   Corps cal> \\.ork. There should be one
stands   its interests  and is                  One conference to set up a pro.                Peace Corps individual the agency call
ye;f   of its stage of develop-              gram is IIot enough.     Good program-            maintain contact \vith so the ngency
                                             mir>g reqLtires   constant   discllssion,   re-   can be assured of attention in \vork-
s To identify the felt needs of              \,ie\ving  and \vorking out of problems;          i,, g ottt problems.  Peace Corps staff
the people      as well      as other        it requires titne and patience to clnrify         shotdcl bear in mind that it is a Peace
needs.                                       \,,hat the Voh,!lteer’s joh is to be and          Corps responsibility to trike the initia-
s To, establish  and maintain                to help the host country officials ac-            tib.e a,ld meet ,,,ith the host cottntry
cordial and constructive rela-               quire a rtidistic conception of \vho a            ,>ationals,
tionships with government of.                Voh),>teer is nnd \\,hat he can do.
ficials and other members of                     It is i,nportant to let host country                 Volunteer job =iWment
the power structure.
                                             officials kno\v that most Vol[lnteers                A specific job that CO]Ibe defined
W To promote the paticipa-               i   are not technicians,        l\7e only crente      a,>d t,,lderstood by Vohtr>teers, host
tion of all in the problem                   ill \vill a,)cl disilhlsion by raising false      country nationals and Selection and
analysis and decision making                 expecktitiot>s and make a difficult job           Trnini)lg is essential.  \Vbat are the
process   through  democratic
                                             e\.en hsrder for the Volunteer.                   expectations    of the Peace COTS?
                                                 It is \,ital in the planning stage to         \Vhat kind of remonable goals can be
~ To help the people consider
                                             clarify ,~,hat the actual job of the Vol-         set? Hotv \vill the Volunteer       \vork
all aspects of a question, to
plan and to implement a proj.
                                             ttnteer \,,ill be \vith both top nnd local        \vith the host country agency? }Vhat
ect and to evaluate the con-                 officials. 1,1 the plnfining process with         is the stlpewisory relntiotlship? \Vhnt
sequences   of the decisions                 the host cotllltry agencies, the lo\v             is the host counky agency’s responsi.
and actions they undertake.                  tna,l o,> the tote”l pole, in the long            hility to\vard him? \Vhat is the Peace
s To maintain     neutrality and             run, may be more ilnportant for the               Corps’ responsibility to the agency?
objectivity in the face of pres.             effectiveness nl>d satisfaction of the            These responsibilities       should    be
sures and factions       and yet
remain accessible to all,
s To stay in the background
and yet be available for advice
and reinforcement    of positive
and constructive     ideas and
W To help the people take the
lead but recognize    the mo-
ment when it becomes neces-
sary   to   assume  tempora~
s To be familiar    both with
government and private sector
resources and sewices.
s To seek and help the people
use available    technical     advice.
s To help technicians   relate
to the people of the commu-
nity so that their technical
advice is dispensed in an ac-
ceptable and usable manner.
s To stimulate  and train lead-
ers; to encourage responsibil-
ity and planning, use of local
abilities and talents    to en-
courage and spur on; to warn
and advise,
 worked out in advance and at all            function also gives the Volunteer a          language    (a number one priority)
levels, A“ understanding        of the re-   task on \vhich to focus, Not know.           and a thorough ~ounding         in the
sponsibilities in \vriting is valuable       ing \vbat to do is one of the most in-       principles a“d methods of community
for future reference i“ view of fre-         tolerable aspects of the Volunteer’s         development.
 quent changes of personnel and as-          early months on his assignment.                 A crucinl part of CD skill is how
si~ment      of new Volunteers, It also                                                   to study a community; how to locate
is tlseful for the Volunteer in descrih-                     Tmhing
                                                                                          and use technical and material re-
i“g n“d explaining his function,                 Training, in’ many instances, has        sources, hobv to work ,vith groups,
   It is my belief that Peace Corps          been a hodgepodge        of subjects and    how to motivate people, how to de-
CD progams will be more successful           materials which in the long m“ bas          velop leadership, ho~v to understand
if Volunteers are trained in a specfic       not added up to anything specfic,           “oneself in relation to x ~oup:     This
skill i,>stead of “generil community         Community development tiaining pro.         kind of le~rni”g trikes, place through
development.”        If the .Volunteer is    grams have been designed to cram too        theoretical   principles  plus the op.
,vorki”g i,] agriculture it helps if he      nluch theory i“ to the VOIunteer, In        portunity to put these principles tito
call say he is going to sho\v the use        many ,vays the field is guilty of con,      practice under supervision in a field
of fertilizers.    If he is placed \vith     tributing to this hedge-podge with its      situation, Many Volunteers \vorking
. health agency it might help if be          shopping list requesting that Volun-        in communities       carry out isolated
can say: “My job is to teach better          teers get tiaining and experience in        projects \vith no discipline or con.
nutrition,”     To he nble to say in a       eve~ kind of skill and situation. Ter-      sciousness of \vhere they are going,
fe\v words \vhat he is going to do is        minating Volunteers add to this \vben       atld ho,v the proj~t relates to. the
reassuring to the people in his site         they say: “\Ve should ,bave had train-      overall de~.elopme”t of the commu-
and to the Volunteer, The Volunteer          ing in this,” etc. Such advice comes        nity, The use of audiovisual aids as
has a specific ftl”ction a“d forestalls      out of their individual situations and      learning devices and a kno\vledge. of
the s,lspicion aroused by a gringo ,vho      tbe inadequacies they have felt. Their      group dynamics are tools of the trade
moves i,ato town \vith 1>0visible occu-      general comments, given repeatedly,         of the community developer,
pntiol> or ,vay of earning a living.         of more language, fewer lectures and            Field \vork is an essential part af
?rague phrases such as ‘-1 ha},e come        more practical     training should be       trai”i,>g. It makes theoretical     con-
to help you” or “1 have come to work         heeded.      Apafi   from that,     three   cepts come nlive and it gives the
in mmmu”ity        development”    do, not   months of training can only accom-          trninee a chance to test himself
help the people in the site understand       plish a fe,v things ,vell,                  against a reality that may be similar
the Volunteer, and the Volunteer gen.           This training     should encompass       to the one he \vill encounter.   It alsb
erally cannot make an adequate ex-
planation in Spanish of the ho,v, xvhy          In Salvado{, Brazil, Rose Ma~ Hooper (left) obsewes worker in
or what of comm,lnity, development,             a locally f!nanced costume jewelv       factov  which she helped
at least in the beg’nning. A specific           start; Jeff Boyer (below) walks with neighbor.      “The Volunteer
                                                      must learn to analyze a situation, set reasonable goals and
                                                priorities and follow a conscious plan toward their achievement:’
    gi\!es Traini,,g and Assess,nent per.
    sonnel a chance to see I1o,v a“ ir,-
    dividt~~l reacts to the pressures he
    will encounter        Many trainees select
    themselves out after having had the
    experience of li,.i”g i“ at, area simi.
    lar to that in which they \vill \vork.
    Field experie,>ces i“ h4exico, Spanish-
    spenkitlg city slums and Il>dia!> reser.
    \,ations are extremely vah,ab]e and
    should be i[lch,ded i,> all training
    programs. Disctlssion a“d case study
    n>ethods, role playing and other dy-
    I>atnic Iear,]i,lg techniques should be
   c]nphasked rather than lectt~re lneth.
   ods ,,,hich pcrpet”ate the strtlctttred
   college experience of lnost of the
       Prxctical skill training is also a pri.       Combined effotis of villagers, Iocat government, Peace Corps and AID led to reconstruct.
   ority. The skill should be related to             tion of “Bridge of the Cr,cket’,   north of TegarI, Afghanistan,   ‘,The VOlunteer    WhO takeS
   the agetlcy t“ ~~,hich the Volunteer
   ,,,ill be attached or to the focus of          achic~,ement, The Volunteer ]nust ac-         develop and carry out a plan of action.
   the commtl,lity de\,elopment program:          quire the understanding          of comm”-    The recent college graduate, if be has
   ogric”ltural skills for an ag program          nity de,.elopment         as a“ integrated    not ,vorked or nsstlmed initiative nl>d
   or ngrictdt~,ral extensio,> service prO-       process and not x,) accumulation of           respo,}sibility in some kind of activity,
   gr>~m; heulth skills for health agency         isolated projects.                            is not going to be able to do this,
   \roh,,lteers: co-ops for co-op fOrma-              Training for CD in 12 to 13 \veeks           People \vith the follo\\,ing back-
   tion a,ld edt~catio”,                          is a Herc”lea”         task. If \ve are to    groltr>ds lend themselves more readily
       If the program is generalized com-        co!>ti~ue and perfect commlln>ity de-          to community        development   \vork:
   mtl,lity devclopme”t        ,vith ,>0 par.     ,,elopme”t the training cannot stop           Iozyers (they h~ve to get informs.
   lictllar foct,s arid “I>dcr the auspices
  of a co,nmtlr>ity clevelopmer>t mi”istiy
  or go\,er”nlental agency, the,, a deci-
                                                 ,vl>e” the Vol”,lteers arrive overseas.
                                                 be provided
                                                                 in-service traini,lg should
                                                                      through readi[,g nnd
                                                                                                tie,),  atlxlyze   it,
                                                                                                etc. ); arlthropologists
                                                                                                                                   are in-
                                                                                                 terested i,, culture, curious, a“d have
  sion should be made by the field               small-group        discussions    led by a      often done field ,vork in remote
  staff and the age,lcy as to \vhat skill        k,,owledgeable        staff person or corn.     areas ); social workers (they are used
  shotdd be tal,ght to the Volt],>teers to       ,nunity development          expert. Croup      to gatherit>g facts n“d trying to “unde-
  serve as a,> el?trbe to the co,nmunity.        cor)fere,lces shotdd be devoted to              rstand why people bebave the \vay
  Sir>ce lnany of the VOht,>teers will not       further seminar-type          lear”i”g, pos-    they do and trying toinfluence people
  be able to proceed beyond this start,          sib!y led by a CD expert or by the              to help themselves–the        best social
  a fairly thoro~,gh grounding ill o!le          tra]ni,>g institution.      The Peace Corps     ,vorkers are group ,vorkers or mm.
  skill sholnhl be gi,,e” so that they ca”       shotdd employ CD experts o“ a co”.             munity organizers); recreation workers
  do it ,vell :It>d ,vith a c“”fide,>ce          st)lta,>t basis, both to provide consults.      (they ore used to working with pee.
  ,vhich \vill give them ;, rolo i“ their        tie,> for staff and Volunteers and to          ple it, grollps a“d promoting coopers.
 communities.         It> a general CD prO-      lead seminars in the co””try for both,         tion and team ,vork); exte”sio” work.
 Rram, perhaps the traitlees can be                                                             crs ( they are clsed to promoting ne,v
 divicled into small gcotips, each to                            Selection                      ideas o,,d methods); politicians ‘(they
 lcar” n specific skill i“ keeping ,vith                                                        are t~sed to ,vorking ,vitb people,
                                                      It used to be, and still is to n
  its past experie,lce .I>d interest.                                                           organ+~it,g them a,)d i“fl”enci”g them
                                                 certai,> extent, that if one ~O”IcI “Ot        –they ,~eed not be high ranking poli.
      The Volt,,ltcer Int,st Iearr> that he      fit i,, any,vbere else be could do CD,
 cat,a>ot do c~ecti,,c CD if he does                                                            ticians bttt may have \vorked i“ cam.
                                                 The applicants        ,,,ith tbe strongest     psigns ); teachers (they have experi-
 not k,,ow his comm,, nity. He mt,st go          record of group \{,ork, organ k~atio”al
 throt~gh the co,>scio,ls and disciplined                                                       ence i“ dealing \vith people a“d know
                                                 a)]d leadership abilities sho,,ld bc as-       ho,,, to get across ideas effectively);
 process of gettit,g the facts x,,d xnn-         signed to general CD. Volt] nteers             health od”cators (they are a,vnre of
 lyzitlg them,                                   \,,ith less dri,,e a“d orga~>izi,,g ability    the effects of c“ltt,re and attittldes
      Of eqt,al importa,,ce to the Volu,,.       ore acceptable       for assig,, metlts to     nnd have a community-wide approach
 tcer is knowi,>g I>o,v to proceed once          more specific jobs !,,ithi” the co,n-          to their \vork).
 he has finished his study of the co,n-          ml,tlity develop,ne,>t program.                   Trainees should be co””selled o“t
mt, ”ity, or ,\,hile he contint~es his               For comm””ity        development   pro-    of a training program if it becomes
study, as Iear,>ing abollt a community                                                          obvious that they are not going to he
                                                 g~ams the pe~c~ Corps needs aggres-
co,lt;nt!es throughout the process of            s,vc, dynamic, i“tl,itive, self starters       able to do the CD job, Anyone who                      ,
Iivil>g in a“d. ,vorking ,vith it. He            \vho are not reluctant to take the ini.        does riot demonstrate  initiative, who
mllst learn to analyze a sittlntion, set         tiative, to seek o“t people, to start          needs support to get along, who is
reasonable goals a“d priorities and              talkit>g a“d relati,>g, and \vho are mble      immatttre, or makes “o progress in tbe
follo,v a conscious plan to\t,ard their          to use the information they gather to          Iang”age   is doomed     to failure or at
                                                                                                 cialists   such   as engineers,   architects,
                                                                                                 co+p and agricultural experts to back.
                                                                                                 stop the Volunteer when such mid is
                                                                                                 not available from the host agency.
                                                                                                 It is an excellent way to help A.B.
                                                                                                 generalists work more effectively and
                                                                                                 with greater confidence.
                                                                                                     The ability .of a staff member to
                                                                                                 stimulate initiati\,e, develop individual
                                                                                                 ability and to inspire a Vohlnteer to
                                                                                                 give his best is of far greater value
                                                                                                 than having a series of practicol skills.
                                                                                                 Traini,~g in techniqtles of supervision
                                                                                                 and personnel development is essen-
                                                                                                  tial for staff members. Staff, too, needs
                                                                                                  to learn and develop through seminars
                                                                                                  or short courses \vith CD experts \vho
                                                                                                  can focus on the stlpewisory nspect
                                                                                                  of sltccessful programs. Staff members
                                                                                                  cannot give to Volunteers oltt of a
                                                                                                  vacullm. They mltist first hsve knou,l-
    best to sitting out tlvo years as n            and explaining that the Volunteer IS           edge and skill and confidence to be
    “drone,” Some of these people might            free to go home if he is dissatisfied          fible to pfiss these qualities on to
    \vork out in other types of more strllc-       may help the agency put the Volun-             Volunteers,
    tured al]d specific assignments and            teer in versvmtive     and help him \vork                Use of matetil   rwOurc-
    should be put into them. All Volun-            satisf~cioril~.
    teers classified as “high risk-high                                                               Staff needs to help the Volu,>teer
                                                        The Peace Corps st~ff person has to
    gain” sholdd he given a chance to                                                             mail>tain a balanced point of view
                                                   get the” stuck ,Volunteer started, help
    go overseas.                                                                                  to\vard the use of material resources.
                                                   the Volunteer think of and use re-
                                                   sources. help the Voluntwr see \vhen           h{ost national commllnity           develop-
                   SupewkiOn                                                                      ment programs         eventltially provide
                                                   he is runn~ng the shobv instead of

P      All Voh]nteers are caught in the
    difficult situation of trying to please
    two sets of hsses–the     ones ~,.ith their
                                                   helpit]g the community run the sho~v,
                                                   ,vhe,> he is harming host country :e-
                                                   Iations and kno\v \\,hen be needs to be
                                                                                                  so,ne sottrces of ftt,>ds for specinl proj-
                                                                                                  ects. It is unrealistic to nssll)ne thnt
                                                                                                  impo\,erished communities are going
    host country agency snd the ones                left alone and \vhen he needs help.           to be able to raise all the funds neces-
    \vith their Peace Corps staff.            In    The stnff member mltst hive pntience          sary to meet project needs.               The
    theory, it is the host country agency                                                         \loI~,”teer ,Vho takes ~“ exaggerated
                                                    and time for prolonged and thought-
    supervisor who is responsible for the           ful discussion.     This means a reason-      attitllde    agai,lst   outside    assistance
    Volunteer’s daily \vork. In actual fact,        able rntio of Volunteers–30     to 40–to       may be a detriment to a commu]>ity
    the Volunteer is subject to pressures           each staffer, He has to help the VoI-         that, \vithout the Volunteer’s interfer-
    to perform according to ~vhat may be            unteer see \vhere pro~ess       has been       ence, might be able to get badly
    two opposite points of \,ieu,. In some          made and understand the value of the           IIecded help. OJI the other h~nd, the
    commtnnity       development     situations     SIOXV, rustrating approach.
                                                              f                       He has       Voh,nteer \vho by his o~vn efforts
    the Volll,>teer may have relati~,e free-        to help smooth the \vay bet,.een the           gets material goods besto\ved o,, the
    dom from both staff and host country            Volunteer and host count~ nationals.           community       perpetuates     the notion
    nationals,     Bttt he is apt to have a          He has to be able to spot tbe Volun-          that it takes a,> influential outsider to
     much closer daily cot>txct \vith host          teer who really doesn’t have it to do          do things for the community.
     country natio,>nls than> with peat?             CD, btlt \vho muld make out in a                  Generally,     CARE and Emb*ssy
     Corps stfiff, and the effectiveness of          str,,ctured and more spectic assign-          special project help is available to
     his \vork, in the long run, \vill be            ment, a,ld get him moved.       It is not     communities at>d has been long b-
     more dependent on his getting along             enough to tell a Volunteer \vho can-          fore the Peace Corps appeared on the
     \vith host country nationals than ivith         not get started to “get moving” he            horkon, It \vill continue to be nvail-
     his associate director.                         also has to be able to tell the Vohln-         able should the Pence Corps be \vitb-
        The \vhole matter of supewision              teer hobv to move, \vhat to try, and           drawn from a country. The important
     and control of the Volunteer requires           ,vhere to try.                                factors to stress are: ho~v to help the
     a sensitive balance of interest, status             One of the staff member’s impor-           community learn about resour~s, and
     and authority.     While the country di-        tant responsibilities is that of obtain-       to meet the requirements for them and
     rector cx”not guide the day to day              ing special skilled help for tbe Volun-        how to apply for assistance.             The
     work, neither cxn he abdicate his               teer from host country or Peace COVS           Volunteer \vho helps a community
     responsibility for the \vell being of           sources. The staff member cannot be            learn these facts has opened a chan-
     the Vohinteer.      This requires under-        an expert in everything, but he should         nel of wmmunication          to sources of
     standing,     constant   discussion     and     know where the Volunteer can get the           help \vhich can continue long after he
     working out problems case by case.              expert in forestry, in rabbit raising, in      has left the scene. hleeded resources
     Helping the host countiy agency un-             construction, in irrigation, etc. Many         ,vhich fit into an integrated plan in-
     derstand the natire       of voluntarism        current projwts include plans for spe-         volving the people do not destroy in-
dependence      any more than federal         \vork out a strategy of action. Tbe            Volunteers i“ community development
grants to states and communities in           more sophisticated the urban area the          in urban areas.
the U.S. for roads, \vater supplies,          greater the ability and drive require-
se}vcge systems and poverty programs.         ments of the Volunteer.                                       Evduatfon
The tailoring of nvailable resources to          Urban CD has proved to be more                 One of the most difficult tasks is
comlnunity    needs fulfills the U,N,         difficult than mral CD in the ,Peace           td evaluate the results of community
definition of community developmel>t          Corps experience.         Therefore, it re.    development activities and to measure
by uniting the efforts of the people          quires greater care in programming,            their effects, At present tve do not
~vith those of government      and the        selwtion,    training and supervision.         have n“y precise nays of quantifying
privnte sector,                               Only strong Volunteers from nmong              results. One can count miles of roads
                                              CD types should he placed i“ such a            built, schools built, etc,; they are the
         Urban vs.mral CD                     program.      Each      Volunteer     should   easiest to see and both staff and Vol-
  1,1 ~ny opi”ior> the basic process          have a specific, practical skill besides       unteers fall into tbe trap of judghg
of CD is the sa,ne ,vhether i,> rt,rnl        his CD skill. The ratio of staff to            CD \vork in terms of hotv much of this
or tlrbat~ areas. The same skill in           Volunteers should be lo\ver–1 staffer          kind of work bas been accomplished.
,vorki,,g ,vith people is ,,eeded. There      to 20 or 25 Volunteers.                        But community           de~.elopment    has
~I>oy be a difference i]l emphnsis in            The “atltre of the urban CD process         taken place if people are p~rticipat-
the city, certxi”ly greater difficldty it]    \~,ill he complicated by the fact that         i“g, if more children attend school
defi[litlg n comlnclnity, greater clivi-      it is harder to detemi”e         felt needs.   and more people use the heolth center,
sive,less :]lld confusion on the part of      There may be too many co” flitti”g             if people have been able to go to a
the people, a different          pace and     needs,     People are abvay from the           go,,ernment o~ce to discl,ss a prob-
tinling.    It is harder for the Volun.       community nt \vork and it is harder            lem or ask for a service, if literacy
tecr ill the city to be accepted, a“d         to get them together in group meet.            teachirlg is under ,\,ay.
for him to find \vbere to take hold.          ings. There may be a great need of                Some means of evahlating the re-
Ele,nental needs are not .Itvays e,,i-        establishing     a commu,xity iderltity        sults of CD \vill have to be devised
del>t. There :dreacly is some organ.          a]no]lg sl[spiciolls people \vho do IIot       that does not plnce ~.alues on ma-
kation.      It takes gre,ter drive, skill    kno\s. each other. This may require            terial accomplishments oxdy. A tom.
and persistence for the urban CD vol.         de fini,]g sex,eral communities \,,ithi” a     bination of statistics, such as tbe ]Ium.
ut>teer to sltccecd,     It is i“ this area   large t)rba” area. The job may i“.             ber of meetings held and gro,vth of
\t.here a specific skill can he most use-     volve coordit>ating already existing           atte”dnnce at them, school attendance,
ftd to the Vohtllteer in establishing         organizations      rather   than, creating     number of visits by governme]>t tech-
credibility a,ld gii,ing him something        ne,v org~,>izxtions. In any case it re.        nical officials, amount and volue of ma-
collst ructi~,e to do \vhile he gnthers       quires m~>ch more thought a“d prac.            terial resources coming into the corn.
it~fornlatio”, sorts it o“t and is able to    tice to decide the best \vays to “se           munity,     participation     in elections,
    agricultural    production   figures, real
    value of construction projects in terms
    of materials a[ld donated labor at the
    go,ng rate of wages, use of health sew-
    Ices and morbidity statistics, etc., will
    e,ve an overall nicture.
                                    Such facts
    must be judged’ periodically to de.
    termil>e how the community rated at
    the time the Volunteer arrived and
    ho~v it rates St the time of his depar-
    ture.     Finally,   is the community
    affwted by two or three generations
    of Volunteers?
        How to measure results in CD k
    something that both staff and Volun-
    teers \vill have to learn and experi-
    ment with. Prodllcing results in order
    to get appropriations      is increasingly
    more necessary.          The task force
    should make recommendations           as to
     how this might be accomplished           in
     fl]ture CD programs,        For the time
     being we should make an nttempt to
     measure what is happening no~v.

       Betty H!ttchimon k the Pewe
     Corps diretior in El Salvador. She
     hol~ a B.A. in wciology and an
     M.A, in wcial          Her preoiom
     Peace Corps e~erience  includes sero-
     ing m msociote director in Gobmbia
     and deputy director ill El Salotior. ‘
         She * one of the first two women to
     seroe as coti ntry directors.

From the Dominican Republic: Rick Kauff-
man (left) vaccinates child against TB. Be-
low and at right, Dominican citizens. “Some
means of evaluating the results of CD will
have to be devised that does not place val-
ues on material     accomplishments    only~’

             Photosb, Job” TcrenceTurner
                    of guiding
 ~      .I,st;.ted       trpgpr.gam          is      dent in field tiai”ing.   Like the entire    sa~v that trainees were give,, e“o”gh
       not t e same t lng as an unad.                program, the f“zzify-defined goal was        rope to hang themselves.       They did
 mi,listered training program, That is               good and the execution was shabby.           not realke that they %vere supposed
 the b~sic lesson the Peace Corps                   Erich trainee spent tbe~ ~veeks \vith         to suggest bo,v one could escape be.
 should learn from its experience ,vith             a rural family teaching himself about         fore the noose became too tight,
 “unstrtlct”red     training in Puerto Rico.        community de\,elopme”t         by making          Trai,>ees should he allo\ved to ex.
    The failure to replace leadership               surveys a“d examining local prob-            plore blind alleys, This is relevant 9
,vith guidance p“t the Peace Corps                  lems. Those ivho started off on the           to \vhat they will experience as Vol.
in the positio,> of the father ,vho ,vas            right foot grew with the experience.         unteers.      On the other hand, they
so disnppoi”ted \vith the preparation
for life his first dat]ghter obtained i],
                                                    Those \vho made a desultory start
                                                    never caught up,
                                                                                                 should not be allo\ved to stay in u“.
                                                                                                 ,.. .-=..
                                                                                                 nrnfll,otive ruts i“defi”itely.            q
conx,ent schools th~t he told her                      One tiainee spent a very relaxed              The trainee approach ;O coops is
younger sister to make her o\\,n way                time until his first “reg”lar staff visit”   indicative of the problem,        Seeing
i,, the \vorld as SOO,> she \vas toilet             finally occurred at the end of the           themselves as comprising a comm””i.
trxi,,ed.       All i,,-bet,veen   approach,       second \veek. By this time he had             ty comparable to the rural sites they
,vhere trai,,ees recei,,e guidance as              \vosted t,vo-thkds of the experience.         would be assigned to, the trainees
they make their o,vn decisions, ,vould             The staff member, apparently an ad-           attempted      to organize one another
see]n to be called for,                            mirer of Calvin Coolidge, said nothing        in co-ops. The tvbole concept was
    Bl,t the message the trainees got              about the debacle.        “The business of    riddled \vith fuzzy thinking,      Their
\vos: trail] yet, rself as you \vish. There        training is tbe trainee’s,” he seemed         effort was wasted, A commtl”ity de.
\.as   no   curriculum.     Staff   members        to believe. B“t all was not lost, Two         veloper ca””ot expect to fom a cO-
could he used as resources as the                  days before the end of field training         Op as an opener, for it is a lengthY
trainees created their own program.                there was another visit, this time by a       process.   \Vhat   tbe   “ew   Volunteer
Bt~t whet, trainees asked to share in             more o“tspoke” staff ma”. The &ain-            needs is a fe~v opening gimmicks (like
the stzffs kno>vledge of co-ops they              ee performed well for the remai”i”g            how to improve local crops quickly
were rebllffed.      In an unstructured            hVO   days.                                   and cheaply) to wi” comm”r,ity con-
program, they were told, one looked                    He had been ignorant.         It is the   fidence and make later, larger proj-
s“cb things ttp in books, Ohvio”sly               duty of the staff to mold such tiain-          ects, like co-ops, feasible.  Behvee”
the progr;lm \vas as ““defined as it              ees into Volunteers, not by \vaiting           the time initial interest is indicated
W’IS unstructllred.     Tbe essential part        ““til there is hardly any time left to         and a co+p is created, the Volunteer
of the q“estio”—informal        b“t tom.          practice \vhat is preached,                    has enough time to take a co-op cram
petetlt gtlida”ce–\,,as   missing. Thus                The primary prerequisite for a suc-       course,
trainees \vere given a chance to find             cessful training program is a staff that          The trainee effort was invalid on
themselves.     But if they became lost,          understands a“d appreciates what is            other grounds.    Each member of the
some staff members ,vere willing to               being done, In Puerto Rico, as tbe             group \vas tqing to be a non-directive
>vait indefinitely to see if they would           co-op example shows, the staff did “ot
get back on the right track.       If they        understand the program,         Not under.
didn’t, their erratic course \vould “Iti.         standing it, staffers were as “nmm.
mately be terminated,                             fortable as the trainees a“d made no            By M      JAFFE SOW,      Cuutemala
   This ,vait-and.see attitude ~a~ ~vi.                                                                                                     4
                                                  secret of their dissatisfaction.       They                                                   I

                                                                                               Volunteers leave                      .
                                                                                               Midwest Nigeria
                                                                                                   Peace Corps operations in the Mid-
                                                                                               western State of Nigeria were sus-
                                              A scene from Puerto Rico (1965}                  pended in mid-August.      Tbe evacua-
                                              The trainee needs to t~ his wings
                                                                                               tion of 127 Volunteers and 11 staff
                                              but   he must    be helped     to
                                                                                               members followed by three \veeks the
                                              avoid repetitive  crash landings.
                                                                                               Peace Corps withdrawal        from the
                                                                                               breakaway Republic of Biafra, which
                                                                                               borders tbe Mid\vest.
                                                                                                   Peace Corps officials in Lagos or-
                                                                                               dered the withdrawal from tbe Mid-
                                                                                               west because the “uncertainty of the
                                                                                               situation put the safety of the Vol.
                                                                                               unteers in jeopardy.”     This decision
                                                                                               follo~,ed the closing of schools and.
                                                                                               gro\ving     problems.  in maintaining
                                                                                               other projects, which left most of the
                                                                                               Volunteers without jobs. Country di-
                                                                                               rector John ~McConnell said he re-
                                                                                               garded tbe ,vithdrawal of the Vol-
                                                                                               unteers with regret but expressed
    leader. There was a SUWIUSof lesd-            ,vith guidance from the staff was            hope that the Peace Corps \vould be
    ers. Further, these college-educated          someho\v out of the question.         Per-   able to return to the Mid\vestern
    people could not hope to respond to           haps the staff did not want to put           State.
    the suggestion of a co-op like illiterate     their proposals on the line and risk             After they were evacuated to Lagos,
    campesinos do. They could nOt react           trainee rejection.                           most of the Volunteers accepted as-
                                                      Trainees shared this all-or-nothing      signments in other African nations.
~  ~,~j~~     F a Volunteer who Peop,e
                        ‘r~inees =3 is in         vie}v. Some became enraged when              A total of 329 Volunteers continued
   outsider in their communities and has          they were told to 611 out peer rating         sert,ing in the Western and Northern
   difficulty with their language.           If   forms just a few weeks after learning         States of Nigeria..
   the Vo tlnteers could have accurately          that they could conskuct their o\vn              Meantime, two groups which bad
B,          1
   simulated     campesino     reaction,   the    program.      They thought they bad           trained for service in Nigeria during
   trai]>ing would have been unneces-             been conned.       At best, the policy of     the summer were posted in other
   sary, And what Volunteer has ever              painting    a black-and-\vhite    picmre      nations, and two fall programs slated
   failed in his attempts to form a co-op         had left them misinformed.      The pro-      for Nigeria \vere cancelled
   because all the potential members              gram should have been better defined
   \vere already so involved in other             from the start. The definition should
   co-ops that they bad no time for the           have included a precise statement of
                                                  ,vhere raponsibil ities lay,     Without
   ,,e~v effort?
       Granted    that the trainees were          such a definition, the program w,as
                                                                                               Bomb injures three
   learning by doing.       This would also       doomed,
                                                      Community developers are left to            Ruy Ribeiro, 40, a Brazilian em-
   be true if they had tried to assemble
                                                  their otin devices \vitbiri general          ployed by the Peace Corps, lost bis
   computer memory cores and such an
                                                  guidelines defined by country staffs.        right hand and suffered abdominal
   experience     would have been only
                                                  A Volunteer who seems to be founder-         injuries \vhen a bomb exploded ok tbe
   slightly less relevant.
                                                   ing is iven guidance rather than            entrance to the agency’s office in Rio
       The newous staff committed tbe
                                                   being al fowed to meander for months        de Janeiro on August 1. Two Volun-
   same sin as the eccentric parent did
                                                   and then suddenly receiving an au-          teers were slightly injured by the blast.
   —it was not consistent.       While some
   follies were allowed to run their              line ticket to Washington.                      An unidenti6ed passerby deposited
   course, others were guillotined.       This        In a realistic tiaining program, the     the bomb ti an innocent-looking pack-
    happend     when the women \vere told          trainee should be put in the same           age ‘Outside headqua~ers    and Ribefio
    to create their own domestic skflls            position,   He needs tbe opportunity        was hurt as he picked it up. It was
    train>ing program.       Their schedule        to by his wings, but be must be             presumed to be a politically inspired
    was receivd      without comment, but          helped to avoid repetitive crash land-      act dkected against the Peace Corps,
    was suddenly revised two weeks later           ings.                                       but authorities were unable to find the
    when the staff made its displeasure                                                        pe~etiators.
    known by issuing. a new schedule.                Jim Ja%e, a VOLUNTEERcorre~ond-              Helen Kelm, a Volunteer in Brazil,
       Moderation was seen as a quality           ent, and hti wife, Vicki, are “dumn~         and Patricia Yander, a former VoIun-
h to be avoided.      Either the staff or the     of the utimctured training program           teer from El Salvador who was tra-
    trainees would mn things.         But Kav-    in Fuetio fl~o. They have been in            veling tkough the count~ at the time,
    ing trainees create their ow pro~am           Gu&emda for dmti a year.                     were hospitalized with minor in Itlries.
~                 VoVME
             LEVVERS WOLMNVEER                                                                     sessed \vith such words as “’image”
                                                                                                   and “role,” suggesting of course that 9
                                                                                                   there k no one ima6e, no one role.
                                                                                                   And I don’t think we need apologize ~.
                                                                                                   for this lack of definition, for w,e are
Be yourself                                         Peace COTS society–the         offices, tbe    dealing \t,ith many mu.tries and com-
                                                    hierarchy of officials, the conferences        ]nunities, all with unique problems
                                                    and in a fe\v \vords, that \vhich k            that require distinct approaches.
To THE VOLUNTEER:                                   symbolic of the Peace Corps establish-
                                                                                                      Your publication wotdd be of great-
    I’d   like   to express   agreement    \f,ith   ment abroad. You realize the need to
                                                                                                   er i,lterest if it concenled itself more
David Fraley (hiay) that the Volun-                 be silent about \vhat you \vould like
                                                                                                   u,ith accou!>b of specific prolects
teer is an i“di,,id~lal and should be               to be pri\,ate. “JVbisper,” as x grand.
                                                                                                   aro”,ld the \vorld than ,vith these
treated as ol>e. I think the persol]                lnother ltsed to say, “the neighbors
                                                                                                   innoctlolls Ineanderillgs, these intan-
\+,ho is permitted to be hi,nself \vill be          ,t,ill hear, ”
                                                                                                   gible definitions \vhich inappropriately
a great aid to the people arolt”d him.                  I thil]k better conditions for it]divid.   represent the mentality of the class-
At this point the question arises, can              uality \\,ould come \,,ith a reduction         rooln.
the Vol.]lteer be himself? If he ,,,a”ts            of this gross aspect of the Volunteer’s                                   JOSEPH LUI!IE
to try a project that has l>e\,er bee,l             life.     h> short, 6i\.e the Volltnteer       Kerugoya, Kenya
considered, he realizes that he’s un-               more freedom.
con\.etltiol>al it> the eyes of the Peace                                  JESSEROS,XBLW>%
Corps society; be becomes consciolls                LIadras, h,dia                                 On femininity
thnt the spotlight is on him. The pos-
sibilities of faih]re, pl,blic ridicule,                                                           To THE VOLUNTEER:
ancl perhaps      being terminated    early         Who needs definition?                             There are a few thin6s I \vould like
occt,r to him. lVhy should he feel                                                                 to say about femininity ill female Vol-
this \vay?                                          To TSIE 170LnTEER:                             unteers.
   I do,l’t thitlk you cat] poi,lt to .any-            The Peace Corps is endlessly being             1 find that my enjoyment of and
o,le in particldar, bllt to the \~,hole             de fi,led, n,>d \vriters ha\,e become ob-      tendency to \vait for the man to open

                                                    ~        ~      paying Americar, public            For example, the Peace Corps has

   Try an                                                  os ,11the Peace COTS coutltries,
                                                    Peace Corps staff and Volunteers mn-
                                                    tinlte to seek a credible expression of
                                                    \,,hat the Peace Corps is. The attempts
                                                    to provide this expression have been
                                                                                                   de fil,ed itself as a vehicle to further
                                                                                                   the understanding      by Americans of
                                                                                                   other people and them of us. Also,
                                                                                                   it is said that a pu~ose of the Peace
                                                                                                   Corps is to contribute to the social

existential                                         tlnstlccessful,   primarily   because most
                                                    definitions of the Peace Corps are
                                                    personal ones.
                                                        The problem does not lie in the
                                                                                                   and economic development of nations
                                                                                                   which have chosen to Inunch such on
                                                                                                   attempt for themselves.       In addition,
                                                                                                   the Peace Corps has been described

                                                    absence of definitions, for compre-            as an or6anized and functional expres-
                                                    hensive and well informed ideas about          sio,l of human love, And some of us
                                                    ,,,hnt tbe Peace Corps is exist in the         feel that our efforts will result in the
                                                    minds of many persons.          Instead, tbe   establishment of a peaceful interna-
                                                    problem arises from the lack of a              tional community.
                                                    common statement,           or perhaps the          These expressions      are inclusive
                                                    lack of an expression that is seman-           statements of the long-run results ex.
                                                    tically shared.        At present,      most   petted from the e50rts of many in-
                                                    attempti at definitions or statements          dividuals \vorking in di5ering projects
                                                     of goals are drawn from indii,iduals’         in \,arious muntiies       of the world.
                                                     experiences.       If we consider       the   Those efforts precede the realization
                                                     myriad Of alternative definitions, it is      of the goals, The stated goals are
                                                     no xvonder that little agreement can          statements of the expected cumulative
                                                     be reached on these statements.               effect of the efforti of many individual
                                                        On another plane, general and              Volunteers who pursue a more spe-
                                                     comprehensive definitions of the Peace         cific set of objectives or sub-goals
                                                     Corps, such as those offered by David          which over time will lead to the re-
                                                     Elliott, ha\,e amomplished littfe in the       al ization of the 6enerally stated goals.
                                                     attempt to accumulate our ivide ex-                Therefore, any tenable and tem-
                                                     perience into clearly defined expr=-           poral de6nition of the Peaw COTS
                                                     sions which hold relevance for the             will have to be phased        in a set of 4
                                                     Volunteer and for the tax paying               objectives and sub-goals which indi-
                         By LEN~          tiTA       public.                                        vidual Volunteers pursue and which
    c,oors,hailcabs,  b”ythe tickets carry         Ros~lie Le Count (July issue) \vas            she’s a \\,oman and, may I add, the
    the heavy things, etc., is on the in-          that of living alone and having to            fello,vs seem to be acculturating pretty
    cre.lse the longer I nm here. I was             matlage the daily routine. k{any girls       ,,,ell, too,
    pcrbaps a little 011 the independent            do not feel this is n problem when                                   DIANA WILSON
    ~,de ,vhen I arrived, due tlndoubtedly          they keep in mind that there are             Gllayaqt,il, Ecllador
    to the training syl>clrome of “Dutch            us{lally one or more caballeros in the
    trent.” No\tr, I expect the Volunteer           cro\\,d \t,ho \vill notice ho\v suavely      An oldster’s experience
    or situation to definitely indicate that        they are managing even though they
    it’s a p~yyour-\\,ny    movie or \vhat.         appear to be so helpless.                    TO T1<E VOLUXnER:
    ever.     With the host count~       na-             When I first arrived I \vas annoyed         The July article, “AI> oldster speaks
    tio,lals, this procedttre doesn’t exist         by the men who spoke to me in the            out,” has e~,oked a response from me
    atld I think th.nt lmost of the m.qle           streets.     I didn’t nppreciite    being    as at> oldster. When n,> Indianapolis
    Voh!nteers    are   slo\vly   getting   the     told 1 \vas be~utiftd \vhen I’m not.         t>e\s,sp~per came oltt \vith the an-
    point.                                          No\v, \\.hen ~m \valking along ab-           ,Io,t”ccme,>t of the “elderly” hfrs.
        Por example, stlppose you’re \\,ith a       sorbed by the busy rolltine of the d?y,      A$atthe,,.s \,olurltcering      for Peace
    yol,llg man ~t,bo speaks terrible Span.         it gi,es me n man.elous feeling of           Corps ser\, ice, some of my frie,lds
    ish. \Vho ,,eeds the experience i,,             heit>g ali\,e to I>a\,e a man take a         \\,rOte me ill protest.      “YO1l nre not
    speaking more? He does, of course.              seconcl look, and ~vith admiration in        elderly. We resent that \vord,” they
    WI1O,vill take the most pride ill being        his eyes, tell me hoiv ~ve impressed          said.     But   \\,he!l  i,]   training   at
    the one to do the tolki,,g?–,>o ques.           hi!n.     We kno\,, ,vhe” he speaks that     Bra,,deis Ul]i\,ersity last summer \ve
    tion, really, After,varcls yo~t ca” co,n.       I“m tlot really beautiful, but something     \,,ere asked to give otlrsch,es x nick.
    I]>e,lt o“ his man,elo~ls handling of           ill ,ny appearance, my \valk, the dress      “xme, I, as n joke, \\,rote Ab[fclita
    the situation and his pride shoulcl             I’m \,.earing, is being appreciated.          (gral,dma).    No otle hmd e\,er cnlled
    nlnke up for any ,ni,>or i“corl,,eniences       This alone is enough to encourage            Ine that b~,t surely, I thollght, 1 am an
    ,,,hich ,night have res{llted. After all,       nr>y girl to look femi,>ine, \vear attrnc-   abttelifa amo]lg these 113 yotlt>g peo-
    sit>ce \,,hen does a x,,o,nar, ,,,ant to be      ti,.e clothing and to ,valk gracefully.     ple. 1 thought they \\,otdd SISOIearal
    the Inodel of a~lthority?                            1 think that in Latit~ American cul-    to recognize the S~n,lish \vord. Bllt
        A,,other   problem    lnentiol>ed by        ttlre n woman ca)>’t help .kno,vitlg         o,]e trail>ee thollght this \\,as ncttlally

    remail) common throughout the many              ans\\,ering of those l~eeds, i.e., the ac-   the statue is bllilt.

q   host commtjnities irl \\.hich Vohlnteers
    ,Vok.       Such ~ .omtno” denomi”at?r
    ,vo,dcl provide n mode of expression
                                                    co]nplishme,>t of an objective, \vill
                                                    colltrib~lte over ti,ne in the realization
                                                    of goals \,.hich Pence Corps and some
                                                                                                     In both cases the resolution of a
                                                                                                 need or ,vant \vill contribute to the
                                                                                                 realization of goals \\,hich a host com-
    that all Peace Corps members could              )latio,~s ha~,e adopted.                     lnllnity has set for itself and is
    share. This denomi,>ator \t,ould also               I propose that the present inability     attemptil>g to secllre along \vith the
    place the agency’s long-rl,tl goals in          to define the Peace Corps except in          particip~tion of the Volunteer
    a perspecti~,e of rele\,ance to the im-         \,ery general tertns can be compen-              Although o myrimd of possibilities
    !nediate and persox>al experience of            sated for. hy defining ourselves in          exists for mtltribcltit>g to the realiza-
    the Voh,,, tecr.                                tertns of the ivay \be pursue our goals.     tion of Iong-mn goals of the Pence
         I“ order to formulate such an ex-          1 \vill demonstrate the possibilities of     Corps and its hosts, the pursuit of
     pression, 1 sllggcst that \ve examine          this lnethod by citi,>g the similarity of     it>dividual Volllt]teers has the temporal
     the circL, n>stances t!,bicll lead to a re-    the approach of Volunteers toward            similarity of helping people accom-
     qllest for \Tohlnteers and the n>an”er         the accomplishment of theu objecti~,es       plish objectives that they have selected
     in \,,hich Volunteers accomplish the           tinder apparently      dissimilar circum-    for themselves.      The cumulative effect
     objecti~,es ol,tlinecl in x host nation’s      stances:                                     of accomplishing those objectives, i.e.,
     reqltiest.                                          1“ one itlstance, a Volunteer is in-    the resol~,ing of IIeeds and \vants, will
          A reqtlest for Voh,nteers implies         ,,ited   to India    to de~.elop a small     contribute to the realization of the
     that the inviti,lg govcrtil,nent is in         poultry     industry    in a commuriity      long-run goals of the Peace Corps and
     sy!npnthy ,\.itl~ the loa~g-rl,l, goals of     \vhicb \,,ants or needs small poultry         its hosts,    Finally, this process will
     the Peace Corps ;l,,d has Iatl,>ched           projects. The community responds to           allow the Peace Corps to define itself
     progra,ns of self-help i“ ,vhich VoI-           his efforts by raising successful units.     in the ,vay that it \vorks in the pur-
     t~t>teers coldd participate it~ a col>trib-    The conseque,>ce of his efforb is that        stlit of the long-inn gosls.
     ltting and substnnti\,e manner.        The      a ,,eed or a \vant is filled.
     f~ct that the Peace Corps is in\,ited to            In another case, a Volunteer is in-        Lenny Kata, fornlerly a tiaff mem-
     help people help themsel~,es suggests           vited to Latin America to work in            ber in Bombay, India, and Wmhing-
     thnt its assistance to host communi-            community development. Upon estab-          ton, is a rrogram     oficer  at the
     ties cotdd answer needs or fulfill wants        lishing himself in the community, he        new Peace Corps training center at
     which they have defined for them-               becomes attnched to a community             Escond{do, Calif. He wm rreoiouh
     selves.      The Pexce Corps seeks to           organization which requests his help        a Volunteer in Indti, and ho hol d
     help in the attainment of the objec-            in the mnstmction of a statue of the        degrees in psychology and btuiness
      ti\,es of satisfying host count~ needs         community founder,         The Volunteer    admintiration  from the Unioer#ty of
     or fulfilling wants.       The successftd       is able to organize their resources and     Connectkut.
my I]ame and asked if I’d mind if she           \vhich are similar to those that he or        agency worker may ‘have better re-
called me Abby.                                 she \vill encounter once h the coun~.         SUIS by detaching          bim or herself
    So began my contacts \vith yollng              The Peace Corps need not continue          from the stuaents or business asso-
people in the Peace Corps, tvhicb has           its senrcb for a stmcturea       type of      ciates, a rural community develop-
proved to be o“e of the most enjoy-             enx>ironment \\.hen eh.ery country in         ment Volunteer, for example, most
able and reiv~rding periods of my               the \,,orla has alreaay pro~,iaetf us         likely v,ill “et. All Volunteers shouhf
life, For those ,vho love adventure             ,vith one. It’s not callea a mile e           t)ot be lumpea into the same category
and have a]] intense ct,riosity and             or u,liversity—it’s callea a slum, an t ]t    because one social worker ill Mr.
10VC people, there is nothing that              doesn’t have much of any “sbuc.               Engelberg’s group maae frienas for
gives greater satisfaction       ATOyOung       turea programming.”                           two years ana nothing else. That
persot, has ever made me feel that I                      RONALD CEiAsE IVEEU       GOFF      soun,as like her problem. \Vhile some
belol>g to another generation, or t\\,o         Lima, Peru                                    “professional resewe” has its merits
back       They seem to respect the                                                           for all Volunteers, it is dangerous to
spirit and overlook the obvious bodily                                                        generalize      that all Volunteers      are
                                                The teaching         challenge
changes \\,hich the years are bound to                                                        jeopardizing their job status by being
make,       1 have since bee,l called           TO TIIE VOLn-TEER:                            “the man of the people.” Often they
Abuolifu by the governor of Tolima                  Co,>gratulatiotls on your Jldy issue,     are enhancing it.
arid heads of departments bllt all say          particldady      the    article “\Vantea!          Thira, his group feels that after
it ,,,ith a smile, I take it as an hon-         Peace Corps Teaching in Africa,” by           ,vi”ni”g “strictly professional relation-
or that they have accepted me as one            Job” Coyne, Teachers in Ghana have            ships, the frienas w,ill follo\v naturally,
of the family.         iVo\vhere along the      often cog,>  plainea that THE VOL>Y,      -   for what is a more solid basis for
line have I beetl refused participation,        TEELt tenas to hai.e a O“e.~iaea              friendship thal> mutual resuect? True,
et,etl ill sports, \\,hich have tlever beer>    emphasis in fa~,or of community ae-           some for~igners respona ;avorsbly to
my forte.       Btlt I can out-m,alk any        ,,elopme,>t, to the aetriment of teach-       this approach but others ao not.
of ~ny yot,ng companions or keep tlp            ing. Thus it is refreshing to see an          \Vhereas “blufing” competence nna
,vith them i“ exercise,                         article \vbich, ,vhile recognizing the         restrai.i,,g   friendships are profitable
    Si,lce the langtlage ~t,as ]Io barrier,     difficulties inherent in teaching, ac-         \\,ithin certaitl social and cultural set-
havi,lg taught it for some 30 years,            cepts these difficulties as a challenge        tings, these tactics employea         else-
1 cotdd soon ide,ltify \vith the people         rather than dismissing teachers as             \vhere mieht be tantamount to pro fes-
here u.hom I love and appreciate.               secona-class VOhnl)teers~                      sional sui;iae.
The Lati,,s are warm and friendly a,ld
one SOO]l ideiltifies \t,ith the existing
culture if he hns Iearnea through the
                                                Accra, Ghana
                                                                     TI~COTH> \v. CRAINE           Thus, let us take another look St the
                                                                                               A.B. generalist, \vhere he goes, what
                                                                                               he aoes ana mhont he \vorks \vith will,

years to bells rather tha,> break o,,
whst cannot be changed.                         A complex        issue                         to a large extent, actermine his be-
                                                                                               havior, but ultimately he has to figure
    My \vork in literacy has been \,ery         To THE VOLUXTE.R:                              it out for hilnself.
chsller>ging. There remains much to                1 LVnSso,ne\t,hat troubled by Mr.                                           D.
                                                                                                                      ANI>I*E\v COHEN
be aotle but for a person \vho has              Engelberg’s article, “Pro  fessio,lalism                                Former Vohltlteer
experienced       the joys ana privileges       vs. imsge,” ,,,hich nppeared ill tbe
of life ana sharea i,, its frt,stratio”s                                                       Stanford, Calif.
                                                July isst,e,    LVy reaction, probably
a“a trageay, a “e,,. aave”t”re           ,Iot
                                                sharea by others, \,,as that bis co,lfer-
imposes b“t sought after is most re.
                                                e,lce group oi,ersimplifiea the isstle.       Legal office       needed
                                                Eve,l if they did come to the con-
                           REm MA~EXVS                                                        To THE $70LUXE..:
                                                clusion he suggests about “profes-
b~ariqllita, Tolilnn                            sionalism,” several variables seem to             As a Peace brps la\vyer, currently
Colombia                                        ha~.e beeu overlooked.                        sewing in the Somali Republic, 1 read
                                                   First, he suggests that all Peace          \vith great interest Mr. Salacuse’s ar-
The ‘unstructured’            slum              COTS assignments are specific in that         ticle e“titlea, “La\vyers have a Vol-
                                                the Volunteer can go right to \s,ork at       ttnteer role” (July).      1 agree ,s<th
To TJIE VOLUXTEEH:                                                                            his co”ch,siot, that Ia\vyers ao belong
                                                one task upon arrival. Acttlally, many
   I j,ist finishes reaai,,g Steve La\v-        jobs are ,Iebulolls. Often tbe primary        i“ tbe Peace COTS. Hotvever, 1 aon’t
re!>ce’s article, “The quiet aeath of n         job is all outgro)vth of a totally differ-    think that the Peace Corps is provid-
trair>itlg concept”    (July),    As an         ent assigt>ment, ana being “the man           it~g thetn \vitb the pro fessiotlal sup-
ahlnlnlls of a similar training program         of the people” helps to get the em-           port necessary to make their contribu-
hehf last year i“ Puekto Rico, I ,vish          ployment.                                     tion to the host country as meaningful
to say that in almost every way the                Seco.a, his group aissticiates “the        alla effective as it colds be.
trai,>ing experie.cea   there is releva,>t      man of the people” from the job-                  1 suggest that the Peace Corps
toaay to the problems that I face i“            orie”ted Volunteer.      This approach        establish a separate office, staffea by
Sooth America.                                  aOes not begin to work in ma,>y situa-        a Ia,vyer, to morainate        the entire
   Tbe end resldt of a training pro-            tions.    Although    n teacher or an         Peace COTS legal program–from         the
granl shouhf not be tbe obtainment                                                            pla,>”ing a“a training stage through
of data,. facts, or information,      but                                                     proviaing in-counby suppofl.       SOme-
should be to gi\,e to the trainee the              Letters on sjbjects of general in-         thing certainly has to be aone about 4
~YI~,e environment which will have
       Of                                       terest to the Peace Corps are welcome.        the planning of legal programs.         It
I“ ]t as many cxperie”ces as possible           Letters are mbiect to condensation.           was so “eglige,ltly ana haphazardly
Ilalldled for lny        OLV,lprogram, that
t\vo of the three         la\vyers sent here
qllit ill frustration
i,>e ye .lr’s sewice:
tot,dly mislcnding
                          after a little unaer
                          having     been
                          a,]d illnccurate
descr,ptiolls     from   the outset.
                                                      To         :   The field                            DATE:     October,   1967
   The really projects that Jfr. Sala-                FROM     :     The editors
cltsc n>entiolls require fina,lcial assist-           SUBJECT:       Signing in, and out
:k,>ce. In l>lost cases, the Peace Corps
kl,vyer has bee,~ sent to the host count-                The complicated      future:    A publisher is co,ning out this fall with
ry precisely because there is a lack                  n 320-page book on Peace Corps Placement Exams. An advertisement
of trainea Iegsl personnel,         accent            for it says “\7aluable ‘ho\,. to study’ sections help the candiaate enter the
cottrtrooms,     j{tdges, la~v teachers,              Peace Corps.”
Iibrlries, la\\, journals ~lla court re-                                                  u 00
,>orts,   Hamperea        by the more        press-
i,,g ,]eeds, the host cott,~try             cnnnot       nieantime,   tbe Peace Grps receit,ed its 200,000th application. And
give the. judiciary the priority             it de-   OBIthe negatix,e side, someboay ill the planning office figures that so]ne-
serves i]> the buihfi,lg  of a I>ation.               time this year the 10,000th person aroppea out of a training program.
The Peace Corps may not be able to
                                                                                       u    00
provide airect financial support ~ll>aer
its existing Ia\v of establishmeilt,  but                 Four score and then so,ne: The Peace Corps has taught about 120
it certainly   cn,l do more then it is                languages to trainees, Vohlnteers, staff ]nembers ana st~ff \!,ives. The
IlO\<. doia>g.    The  creation    of the             Intest aaaition to the list? No,>e other than Etlglisb. Marlene “Betty”
ORCC of Peace Corps Legal Coorain-                    Bott, a l]ative of b4anta, Ecl,aaor, who marriea a Peace Corps Volunteer
:Itor ,X,o”la be a big step i“ the right              \vho st,bsequently became a,> associntc airector in Venezuelx,      studied
airection.     He could persuaae local                English l:nder the agency’s allspices ill \Vashi,lSton \vhile she ana her
bar associations, book publishers, la\v               h{isballa, Tera”ce, preparea to go o,.ersexs sgait>. She co]ltinuea English
Iihxlries and courts to contribt,te la\v              stlldies it>17enezuela.
books. He colds approach i,]ter,la-                                                      u UD
tio]>al la\v ch)bs of vario~,i la,v schools
to a. specifically neeaea Iegll re.                       After con,pleting  ser~ice as a Volunteer     nurse in Turkey, Lynne
search projects for Peace Corps la\\,-                Courtemanche \\,ent off to help refight the Crimean \Var as a kind of
ycrs ser~.i!jg \\.here ln!v library fncili.           latter any Florence Nightingale.   She sigrled up as n nurse \vith a British
ties are i,>adeqllnte. He cotdd orga-                 fihn troupe ,vhich i,>cluaecl To,ly Richaraso”, Sir John Gielgt,d, Trcvor
[Iize conferences bet\vee,l Peace CO~s                Ho\\,ara, D~vid Hemmings and 3,000 Tl]rkish solaiers, tvho \\,ere outsise
ar)d other Alnerican la\vyers ser\,ing                Ankara recreating “The Charge of the Light Brigaae.”
:tbroaa tt,>der Ford Follnaatio,> or                                                   u    00
SAILER al,spices, These conferences
,,,otdd “ot o,>ly aad to the exchange                     Footnotes on married life in the Peace Grps:       Mr. and MIS. Ralph
of legal materials bet\\,een col,ntries               Neil, n retires fsrm couple ~~,ho haa been Vohlr>teers for 10 months,           Q
ht,t also bllild t]p co,>tacts bet\veen               celebrate     their 3Sth \veading anniversary nboara the open river barge
,ne,,]bers of the legal commlln ities of              \\,hich carried Volu]>tcers ana staff me]nbers o“t of Nigeria’s h~idwester,>
the host cot,,ltries.    He coula solicit             Region, “kiost exciting anniversary \ve’ve ex.er had,” saia &frs. Neil. And
fft>al]cial st,pport from Bar Associa-                returnea    Dominican Republic Volunteers Roma and Luther Elmore
tiol]s and pri\, ate sol,rces for \vortb-             report that in 49 years of marriage, the years \vith the most m?[!t?I
,,,bile legal programs to be st,pervisea              sqllabbles \~rere thO$e spent i7~the pence COrps
by the Pence Corps la,vyers in the
fielcl. In ge,>erai the legal office couhf                                             u    00
ser,,e as 8,1 i,>itiator ancl coordinator               Here are some       gems   about   applicants   reportea   hy the Office of
of the mazly actib.ities th~t the A]neri-             Public Affairs:
cat) legal profession \vould be able
a,,d ,villil,g to proviae, to sllpport                   s A kinaly person Iistea as a referetlt by a youth &yi,lg to get into
Peace Coq>s Ia,vyers sewing ~bro~a.                    the Peace COVS reported helpfully that “eve,> police p~trolmen tbnt
                                                      .Irrestea him in past years statea they likes him, ”
                    MARTIN      R.   GANZGLASS
Mogaaish~,, Somali Rep~]blic                            s One hopeful got this glo\vi,lg report; “I have seen her react favor-
                                                      ~bly \vhen her hana \vas smashecl in a car aoor.”
Phase       Ill                                         s Other references:           .
                                                      –“About emotion, he can take it or leave it.”
                                                      —“He can carry on a con,, ersatio” \\,ith anytbi”g that comes up.”
   1 finishecl my t\vo-year tour \vith the
Peace Corps i“ Iran in June. At least                 –“Although he shrikes a little, I feel he is emotionally stable,”
I thollght I hna fil)ishea. But \vhen                   s One reference reported about an ~pplicant: “Recently her folks have
I got ho,ne, I fo”na that my tour haa
                                                      been \\,orking, but before that ber father was a minister.”
merely enterea another phase: that                                                                                         @
of the Rett]mea Volunteer.

           It had al\\,ays beet] lny theory that             A\!,ard for Distinguished             Federal   OL>a stlmmer    \,acation   health   project
       i \~,ell ndjllstcd pcrso]l at ho]ne could             Ser\.ice.                                       il>volvit>g the inoculatio,l of )Iomadic       a
       be \t,ell adjustecl overseas and otl his                  Lucas \\.os cited for leadership con-       Masai herdsmet) against smallpox nnd
       retttr!l still he that \!,oy. I ha\,en’t              tributions to the Peace COTS in Africa          diptheria.     According to companions,
       ch:lngecl nly ll?i,ld. I can oldy add                 x]ld FVashingtoll, ~~,here he is also           he XV.Sstalki~lg n gazelle ,vhen he dis- *
       th~t the cxperiellce gi~,es the flexible              Director Jack VaugWs              Special As.   appeared into the dense bush near tbe
       illdividclal t\\,o points of \,ie\t, for look-        sistant for Eqllal Emplo~ent           Oppor.   Volunteer base camp at Kibay~. The
       itlg :It the \,,orld—fron> the U.S. look-             tlt,>ity. He xvas one of six government         Volunteers \,,ere living off the land
       i,>g ollt, :IT>CI from ouer there looking             officials ~,,bo recei,,ed the 1967 z,vard,      and had orgal~ized daily hunting par-
       back. \Ve hn,,e three phases of ref-                  the highest honor that ca” be con.              ties to obtain meat,
       erence: ( 1 ) trxil]ee cot>siclerir>g the             ferred OZIa federal employe,                        Large groups of Vohlnteers, staff
       ,, fhole tbi[>g, (2) VOht,>teer partici.                  Alexa,>cler Shako\~,, acting director       lnembers, b4asai trackers and Tan-
       patirlz, o[]cI (3) retllrrled Volltrlteer             of traini,>g, has recei~.ed n meritorious       zania police and Same \vardens
       cxa[l>itlinlg the cotnplete pictllre.        1        a,vard for nchie,,eme”t i,, public ad.          combed the rtlsged territory, \vhile
       slq]posc 1 have c[)tered Phase III “I]y               lni,>iitratio,l fro~n the \Villiam A, Jump      helicopters a“d light plal>es sc;lnrled a
       tlo\\,. Atld I thiljk it is, perhaps, lnore           Fot~,>dntiol>. He ,,,as honored for his         450-sqlltre mile area for the missing
       ill>portar]t    tha,l   the   other   tnore   te]n-   Iendership in developing and imple.             Voluz>teer, A retvard of 30 co\vs \vas
       por:lry stages.                                       Illelltil>g ir>-cotllltry training programs,    offered Masai tribesmen for helpful
          Phase 1II is for good.        It’s by far                                                           information. Their \%,ealth is measltred
       the ,nost c)ljoyablc of the three.       It’s                                                          in terms of cattle. After t\vo fmitless
       so effortless.  Btit it has itltricate pat-                                                            \veeks the search \vas abandot>ecl, and
       terrls that rcql! ire deliberate    thol[%bt          Volunteer dies                                   officials indicated that there is \,irtuaRy
       —occasions for recollntinz       acl\,etltl,re                                                         ]1o hope of finding Raymtker.          Ho\\,-
       ar]cl obser\,a,lces.   Ho\v    to tell t!le              Peter hi, Nelso[l, Zj, died Septem.           ever, the tribesmel> continue to look
       ho,ne f[dks ,vhat it’s really like it> the            ber 1 of a brain hemorrhage resulting            as the re,,,ard still stands.
       “rnl,d    IllIt” or mosaic        palace.      h4y    f,-om injuries st,stained in a motor
       IIo,neto,,,)]  has gi,,e,> n>e the cha]>ee,           scooter accident on the Greek island
       sonle sir]ccrc a])d sonle Riling a pro-               of Rhodes \vhere he :I,ld his ,vife,
       Sratll.    Bitt 1 got the cha!,ce.  A,Id 1            Barbara, ,s.ere ,,acatio”ing, 3trs, Nel-        Allowanceaverage dips
       took it. Todtly, I spoke to lny, seco,,d              SOI1i\.as )lot seriollsly it>jured in the
       grOtlP this \,:cck–lny fathers       ~i,,i~           :Iccide,>t.                                         The cstimnted average Volu,lteer
       I1lCI1 grollp. At first I ,,,xs surprised                 The Nelsol,s had been teaching’             monthly living aOo\vance during the            c
       to see I>tnsy nlc,l sta,~d Lq> for the                Etlglish i,] Iran for almost a year.            current fiscal year is $98.33. That’s
       PlcclSe of Allegi;)t,ce–the!, 1 began to                  1,> additio,> to his ,vife, Nelson is       83 cents less than the estimated a\,er-
       feel that ,,,as part of xt,hat hacl sLlp-
       ported    ~>>y trai,>i,>g a,>cl tour–those
                                                             stlr~,it,ed by his father, John R. Nelsol,
                                                             of Har,,,ichport, hfass., xnd brothers.
                                                                                                             age last year (fiscol 1967).
                                                                                                                 Durine fiscal vear 1966. ~vhich ran        q
       ttlx payi,lg   \Vorld    \Var  11 \etera”s,           l?lltlerxl services ,vere held September        from J1l~ 1, 1965 to Jtt,,e 30, 1966,
       ,,,ho sar>s Arrterica atld ,nea”t it. They            6 i,, Har,,ichpo~t.                             tbe average monthly allo~vance \\zas
       ]l?ay t>ot hn\,e made A“,erika perfect                                                                $106. The averages inchlde a one-
     0 by their o\\,t> efforts, bt!t they tried                                                              time settlit>g-in allowatlce.
       ;I]>d they ,Ire still tryir, g.  The ot>ly                                                                As of last Aiarch 31, \vhen the latest
       \\,ay for then> to kI>o\,, the resl,lts is            Raymakerlost                                    statistics \vere compiled, \701unteers
       for us to tell, the”>. I’ll try.                                                                      ill r!lral Korea and Nepql received less
                           P,<XIELA DL,\N      SPENCEn                       N
                                                                vol”,,tee~ 4~rk C. Raymnker is               ill allowances thnn anybody else in
       Bro[l\\,ood,     Texas                                Inissing arid presumed dead in Tan.             the Pesce Corps, Their dollar nRo\t,-
                                                             zat>ia. He vanished AuSust 9 \vhile             ances stood at $45 per month,
                                                             ht,nti”g it, a re,note area het,,ily pop-           Ve”ez”ela ral>ked at the top of the
       Peace Corps honors                                    ulated \!.itb \vild Same. An inte,lsive
                                                             nir and gro~,nd scorch failed to ttlm
                                                                                                             scale, \vith allo~vsnces ranging from
                                                                                                             $156-167. Generally, aRo\vances \vere
          C. P;~yne Lttcas, clepttty director of             ,q] any trace of him or his equip!ne”t.         Io\$.est ill the East Asi~ and Pacific
       Peace Corps operations it> Africa and                    Raymnker, 24, of Green Bay, \Vis.            Begion, a,>d highest in the Africa Re-
       former country director i,> Niger, is                               h
                                                             col>sin, L,ZXSunting game for a group           gion. The subsistence allo\\,ances vary
       a recipie,>t of the 1967 Preside~lt’s                 of 50 Vohlnteers \vho \vere xvorking            \vith local co”cl itions.

       ———________________                                   .—— ——— ————- ——— ——— —— -——————-———-—————-
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                                                                   ‘   PEACE CORPS
                                                                    wASHINGTON, D.C. 20525
                                                                        OFFICIAL    BUSINESS

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