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					Physiology                                                                 Name ________________________
CD Textbook Review – Digestion and Respiration
Directions:
    1.   Insert the CD (disk 2) then click on the ESP icon in the common programs folder.
    2. Choose Unit 5- Absorption and Excretion.
    3. Choose Digestion. Complete the following sections (you will need to click on the pages at the bottom to view the
         entire section):
              a. Digestive Overview             c. Esophagus                e. Liver & pancreas         g. Lg. intestine
              b. Mouth and pharynx              d. Stomach                  f. Small Intestine          h. Quiz
    4. Choose Nutrition. Complete the following sections:
              a. Nutrition                      c. Lipids                   e. Vitamins & minerals
              b. Carbohydrates                  d. Proteins                 f. Quiz
    5. Choose Respiration. Complete the following sections:
              a. Respiratory Overview           c. Mechanics of breathing e. Gas exchange               g. Measuring Fun.
              b. Respiratory Organs            d. Control of Respiration   f. Gas transport            h. Quiz


Digestion
Digestive Overview
   1. List the organs that are included in the alimentary canal.




    2. What is peristalsis and what purpose does it serve?




    3. Complete the table below:
       Organ                                    Function

         Teeth

         Lips and Cheeks

         Tongue

         Salivary Glands (in general)

         Pharynx

         Esophagus

         Stomach

         Liver
       Organ                          Function

       Gall Bladder

       Pancreas

       Small Intestine (in general)

       Large Intestine

Mouth and Pharynx:
   1. Where does digestion begin? Describe what is occurring.



   2. What is the job of the epiglottis?

   3. What are the functions of saliva?



Esophagus:
   1. Where is the esophagus located?

Stomach:
   1. What is chyme?

   2. What must is pass through to reach the small intestine?

   3. What is the function of the following cells:
      i. Parietal cells:

       ii. Chief cells:

      iii. Mucus cells:

   4. Does absorption occur in the stomach? Explain.

   5. What one biomolecule is digested in the stomach?

Liver & pancreas:
    1. Where is bile produced? Stored?

   2. What is the function of bile?

   3. Where does the pancreas send its secretions?
Small Intestine:
   1. What the three parts of the small intestine?

   2. What are villi? What is their purpose?

Large Intestine:
   1. What is another name for the large intestine?

   2. What is the cecum?

   3. What is found within feces?



Quiz: You must write the correct answers NOT LETTERS.
 2- Which of the following enzymes can be normally located your mouth?
 3- Which of the following stomach cells secrete pepsin?
 5- Where in the digestive system does protein digestion begin?
 8 – Which of the following is NOT a component of the small intestine?
 10- Chyme is to small intestine as ___________ is/are to large intestine.



Nutrition:
Nutrition:
   1. Outline how and where the following are digested:
        Carbohydrates:



       Proteins:



       Lipids:




Carbohydrates:
   1. How many ATP are produced from one glucose molecule?

   2. What happens in the absence of oxygen?

Lipids:
    1. What is triacylglycerol broken down into?

   2. What is lipogenesis?

Proteins:
    1. What are the building blocks of proteins?
Vitamins & minerals:
    1. List the fat soluble vitamins:




   2. List the water soluble vitamins:



   3. What purpose do vitamins serve?

   4. What functions do minerals serve?



Quiz:   You must write the correct answers NOT LETTERS.
       1- Carbohydrate digestion begins in which of the following locations?
       2- Protein digestion begins in which of the following locations?
       5- In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis is converted into
        ________________.



Respiration
Respiratory Overview:
   1. What is respiration?

   2. Briefly describe the events involved with respiration.




   3. Trace the pathway of air as it enters the mouth…

        Mouth/nose  pharynx 




Respiratory Organs:
   1. What is the function of the alveoli?



Mechanics of breathing:
   1. What occurs during inspiration?



   2. What occurs during expiration?
Control of Respiration:
   1. What part of the brain controls breathing?

   2. What gas is the stimulus?

   3. What are some stimuli that may modify respiration?




Gas Exchange:
   1. Explain the direction of oxygen diffusion during pulmonary circulation and systemic
      circulation.




Gas Transport:
   1. What color is hemoglobin when it is oxygenated?

   2. Briefly describe diffusion for oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs.

   3. What triggers the release of oxygen from the red blood cell?

Measuring Function:
   1. What measures the amount of air inspired and expired?

   2. What is …
      Tidal volume:

       Inspiratory reserve volume:

       Expiratory reserve volume:
Quiz:
 2- Identify this structure found in the respiratory system…_________________
 3- Identify this structure found in the respiratory system…_________________
 4- Identify this structure found in the respiratory system…_________________
 5- Moving air into and out of the lungs is called ____________________
 7- In which of the following structures does gas exchange occur?
 8- Which of the following most specifically locate the position of oxygen while it is being
   transported in the blood?
 9- Which component of the brain helps control breathing by triggering the contraction of the
   diaphragm?
 10 – Which of the following describes the motion of oxygen from the alveolus into the blood?
 12- An increase in carbon dioxide levels in the blood will likely lead to _________________



      Turn this paper in the day of the exam. Completion will count for lab participation.

				
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