Motivation Why employees do what they do when they do it What is motivation? What motivates you? An Internal State – Causes a person to do something – Varies in direction, intensity and persistence Theories of motivation Motivation is very important in I/O psychology Behavior is over-determined Many theories of motivation – Explanations of why we “behave” – Proximal vs. Distal Motivation Need Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Physiological – Safety – Social Esteem – Self-Actualization ERG Theory – Existence – Relatedness – Growth McClelland’s Achievement Need for Achievement (nAch) – Like Responsibility – Calculated risks/Moderate Goals – Need more feedback on performance Need for Power Need for Affiliation How to Measure nAch Thematic Appreciation Tests (TAT) – Stories of ambiguous pictures – Interpretations tell of person’s motivational needs – Validity!! Self-report tests Research generally supportive Behavior Based Models Looking employees’ behavioral outcomes Reinforcement Theory Positive Reinforces – Rewards: Get something you like! – Increase motivation Negative reinforcement – Avoid something you dislike – Increase motivation Punishment – Get something you don’t like – Decrease motivation Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Extinction QG: What rewards do you get at your job? Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Do the rewards come from outside or inside the individual? QC: Examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Goal Theory Theory that people need are rewarded by achieving goals in behavior at work. Locke’s Model Goal is Specific Motivation Goal is Competition Challenging from other goals Employee How goal Commitment Is Set Feedback Rewards Expectation Of Success Job Design Models These theories focus on what the organization can do to make jobs themselves more motivating. Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs Hygiene Needs – Supervision, policies, coworkers, working conditions and salary – Related to dissatisfaction Motivator Needs – Responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, “work”, and growth on the job – Related to motivation Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs Lack of Hygiene Needs – Work to achieve a certain level Continual motivation comes from Motivator Needs Not a lot of research support – Still, has lead to job enrichment Job Characteristics Model Core Characteristics lead to Psychological states lead to Outcomes (motivation and satisfaction) Growth Needs Strength is an important moderator – Individual’s needs to grow and be challenged at work Job Characteristics Model Model Research – Some support and some problems – Correlational research • Why a problem? Again, focuses on job enrichment – Hard to measure success Cognitive Theories of Motivation How employees’ think about their jobs affects how motivated they are about it. Interesting because the jobs could be objectively the same, but employees’ thoughts may be quite different! Equity Theory Comparing Inputs to Outputs – NOT just rewards, but effort person put into them I=O: inputs equal outputs I>O: Inputs greater than outputs I<O: Inputs less than outputs Equity Theory Social comparison – Equity: • We’re all in the same boat • Ratios the same – Underpayment • Employee is getting LESS than coworkers • Ratios favor coworker – Overpayment • Employee is getting more than coworkers • Ratios favor employee QG Examples Employee I>O, Co-worker I>O Employee I>O, Co-worker I=O Employee I<O, Coworker I>O Equity Theory Individual Differences: – Benevolents – Entitleds – Equity Sensitives Research Support Monkeys! Vroom’s Expectancy theory Expectancy – Effort leads to performance Instrumentality – Performance leads to outcome Valence – Outcome is valued QG: Examples in your life Motivation and Performance Surprisingly, motivation may not be related to performance! Technology problems Individual differences – E.g., Conscientiousness Group dynamics Organizational issues Case Study Get in small groups to answer the questions!
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