Research Study on Employee Motivation by ilt17354


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Why employees do what
they do when they do it
What is motivation?

   What motivates you?

   An Internal State
    – Causes a person to do something
    – Varies in direction, intensity and
Theories of motivation

 Motivation is very important in I/O
 Behavior is over-determined
 Many theories of motivation
    – Explanations of why we “behave”
    – Proximal vs. Distal Motivation
Need Theories
   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    – Physiological
    – Safety
    – Social Esteem
    – Self-Actualization
   ERG Theory
    – Existence
    – Relatedness
    – Growth
McClelland’s Achievement

   Need for Achievement (nAch)
    – Like Responsibility
    – Calculated risks/Moderate Goals
    – Need more feedback on performance
 Need for Power
 Need for Affiliation
How to Measure nAch

   Thematic Appreciation Tests (TAT)
    – Stories of ambiguous pictures
    – Interpretations tell of person’s motivational
    – Validity!!
 Self-report tests
 Research generally supportive
Behavior Based Models

   Looking employees’ behavioral
Reinforcement Theory
   Positive Reinforces
    – Rewards: Get something you like!
    – Increase motivation
   Negative reinforcement
    – Avoid something you dislike
    – Increase motivation
   Punishment
    – Get something you don’t like
    – Decrease motivation
Reinforcement Schedules

   Fixed Interval
   Variable Interval
   Fixed Ratio
   Variable Ratio
   Extinction

   QG: What rewards do you get at your job?
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

   Do the rewards come from outside or
    inside the individual?

   QC: Examples of intrinsic and extrinsic
Goal Theory

   Theory that people need are rewarded
    by achieving goals in behavior at work.
Locke’s Model
             Goal is
Motivation   Goal is       Competition
             Challenging   from other goals
             Employee      How goal
             Commitment    Is Set

             Feedback      Rewards
                           Of Success
Job Design Models

   These theories focus on what the
    organization can do to make jobs
    themselves more motivating.
Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs

   Hygiene Needs
    – Supervision, policies, coworkers, working
      conditions and salary
    – Related to dissatisfaction
   Motivator Needs
    – Responsibility, achievement, recognition,
      advancement, “work”, and growth on the
    – Related to motivation
Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs

   Lack of Hygiene Needs
    – Work to achieve a certain level
 Continual motivation comes from
  Motivator Needs
 Not a lot of research support
    – Still, has lead to job enrichment
Job Characteristics Model

 Core Characteristics lead to
 Psychological states lead to
 Outcomes (motivation and satisfaction)

   Growth Needs Strength is an important
    – Individual’s needs to grow and be
      challenged at work
Job Characteristics Model

   Model Research
    – Some support and some problems
    – Correlational research
       • Why a problem?
   Again, focuses on job enrichment
    – Hard to measure success
Cognitive Theories of Motivation

 How employees’ think about their jobs
  affects how motivated they are about it.
 Interesting because the jobs could be
  objectively the same, but employees’
  thoughts may be quite different!
Equity Theory
   Comparing Inputs to Outputs
    – NOT just rewards, but effort person put into
 I=O: inputs equal outputs
 I>O: Inputs greater than outputs
 I<O: Inputs less than outputs
Equity Theory
   Social comparison
    – Equity:
      • We’re all in the same boat
      • Ratios the same
    – Underpayment
      • Employee is getting LESS than coworkers
      • Ratios favor coworker
    – Overpayment
      • Employee is getting more than coworkers
      • Ratios favor employee
QG Examples

 Employee I>O, Co-worker I>O
 Employee I>O, Co-worker I=O
 Employee I<O, Coworker I>O
Equity Theory

   Individual Differences:
    – Benevolents
    – Entitleds
    – Equity Sensitives

 Research Support
 Monkeys!
Vroom’s Expectancy theory

   Expectancy
    – Effort leads to performance
   Instrumentality
    – Performance leads to outcome
   Valence
    – Outcome is valued
   QG: Examples in your life
Motivation and Performance

 Surprisingly, motivation may not be
  related to performance!
 Technology problems
 Individual differences
    – E.g., Conscientiousness
 Group dynamics
 Organizational issues
Case Study

   Get in small groups to answer the

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